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Sample records for coal fly ashes

  1. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.; Sharma, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m 3 to 443 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 35.7 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m -2 .h -1 to 314.8 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m 3 to 590 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 21.6 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m -2 h -1 to 380.6 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m 3 to 1810.48 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 to 69.81 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 to 1230.21 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  2. Radioactivity of coals and fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-01-01

    The level and the behavior of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K in coals and fly ashes are described. The activity concentrations of the examined coals and originated from coal mines in Greece ranged from 117 to 435 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 44 to 255 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 59 to 227 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. These levels are comparable to those appeared in coals of different countries worldwide. The activity concentrations of the examined fly ashes and produced in coal-fired power plants in Greece ranged from 263 to 950 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 142 to 605 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 204 to 382 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. The results showed that there is an enrichment of the radionuclides in fly ash relative to the input coal during the combustion process. The enrichment factors (EF) ranged from 0.60 to 0.76 for 238 U, from 0.69 to 1.07 for 226 Ra, from 0.57 to 0.75 for 210 Pb, from 0.86 to 1.11 for 228 Ra and from 0.95 to 1.10 for 40 K. (author)

  3. Micostructural and mechanical properties of geopolymers synthesised from three coal fly ashes from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludlu, MK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, coal fly ashes (CFAs) from three different boiler sites in South Africa, Eskom (E coal fly ash), George Mukhari Academic Hospital (GMH coal fly ash), and KarboChem (KBC coal fly ash), were used to produce geopolymers. The coal fly...

  4. CO2 uptake capacity of coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzella, Alessandro; Errico, Massimiliano; Spiga, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Coal ashes are normally considered as a waste obtained by the coal combustion in thermal power plants. Their utilization inside the site where are produced represents an important example of sustainable process integration. The present study was performed to evaluate the application of a gas......-solid carbonation treatment on coal fly ash in order to assess the potential of the process in terms of sequestration of CO2 as well as its influence on the leaching behavior of metals and soluble salts. Laboratory tests, performed under different pressure and temperature conditions, showed that in the pressure......% corresponding to a maximum carbonation efficiency of 74%, estimated on the basis of the initial CaO content. The high degree of ash carbonation achieved in the present research, which was conducted under mild conditions, without add of water and without stirring, showed the potential use of coal fly ash in CO2...

  5. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  6. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  7. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  8. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  9. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  10. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture

  11. Analysis of radioactivity in coal, cinders, fly ash and discharges from the stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meide, A.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma measurements of coal samples originating from several supplying countries proved that the South African coal has about double U-238 and Ra-226 concentration and about treble Th-232 concentration compared to coal from the other countries. Gamma measurements of coal, cinders and fly ash samples from five coal-fueled plants indicate somewhat higher concentrations of Th-232 in cinders and U-238 and Th-232 in fly ashes than those described in literature. The ratio Po-210/Pb-210 was about 2 for fly ash particulates <35μ. A positive correlation between ash percentage and radioactivity of coal might be assumed. (EG)

  12. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothama, S.; Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare various extraction and quantification techniques for the determination of adsorbed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on coal ash. Aliquots of a 'clean' fly ash from coal combustion doped with four PAHs have been extracted, using three solvents, three methods and three GC/MS programs. Factorial analysis shows solvent to extert the greatest primary effect: CH 2 Cl 2 > toluene much-gt o-xylene. Highest recoveries were obtained using the reflux slurry extraction procedure with CH 2 Cl 2 and a relatively fast (20 degree C/min) temperature ramp to 310 degree C. With both CH 2 Cl 2 and toluene solvents, ultrasonic assisted extraction affords the best repeatability

  13. Direct Quantitative Analysis of Arsenic in Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple method based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is described for the direct determination of arsenic in coal fly ash. Solid samples were directly introduced into the atomizer without preliminary treatment. The direct analysis method was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the stabilization of arsenic by adding palladium nitrate (chemical modifier and the optimization of the parameters in the furnace program (temperature, rate of temperature increase, hold time, and argon gas flow gave good results for the total arsenic determination. The optimal furnace program was determined by analyzing different concentrations of a reference material (NIST1633b, which showed the best linearity for calibration. The optimized parameters for the furnace programs for the ashing and atomization steps were as follows: temperatures of 500–1200 and 2150°C, heating rates of 100 and 500°C s−1, hold times of 90 and 7 s, and medium then maximum and medium argon gas flows, respectively. The calibration plots were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. This method was validated using arsenic-containing raw coal samples in accordance with the requirements of the mass balance calculation; the distribution rate of As in the fly ashes ranged from 101 to 119%.

  14. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshida, E.; Takeyama, H.; Matsunaga, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biotetechnology

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. The viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine microalgae was investigated. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBC 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks.

  15. Study on uranium leaching behavior from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Police, S.; Maity, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Leachability of trace and toxic metals from coal fly ash (FA) poses significant environmental problems especially ground and surface water contamination. In the present study, leachability of U using batch leaching tests (i.e., at various leachate pH values) and using TCLP was studied. Results of pH variation study indicate that, U has higher leachability in acidic medium as compared to slightly alkaline medium. The leachable U concentrations observed in pH variation study are well below the WHO safety limits. In TCLP leachates, the leachable U concentrations are found to be higher than that observed in pH variation study. (author)

  16. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankowski, P.; Zou, L.; Hodges, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60 wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70 wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition

  17. Trace elements of coal, coal ashes and fly ashes by activation analysis with shor-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Sarac, I.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    On irradiation with neutrons, some of the interesting trace elements in coal, coal ash and fly ash produce short-lived nuclides which may be determined - together with some of the matrix elements - by activation analysis. This enables the characterization of samples. To find out the distribution of elements in the gaseous or aerosol exhaust of fossil-fired power plants, the authors simulated the combustion in a quartz apparatus containing a cold trap, using the combustion temperature (780 deg C) employed for the standard ash determination. High Se values were found in the cold trap deposits of black coal from Poland. Halogens were also found in the deposits. (authors)

  18. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  19. Resource recovery from coal fly ash waste: an overview study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Matsuda, M.; Miyake, M. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Science

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a useful byproduct of the combustion of coal. It is composed primarily of almost perfectly spherical aluminosilicate glass particles. This spherical characteristic and other characteristics of CFA should be exploited, rather than simply using CFA as inert filler for construction. Unfortunately, the presence of carbon residues and high levels of heavy metals has so far limited the uses of CFA. Forced leaching methods have been used to improve the technical and environmentally friendly qualities of CFA, but these processes do not seem to be economically viable. Actually, CFA is a major source of Si and Al for the synthesis of industrial minerals. Potential novel uses of CFA, e.g., for the synthesis of ceramic materials, ceramic membrane filters, zeolites, and geopolymers, are reviewed in this article with the intention of exploring new areas that will

  20. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, M.; Vassilev, S.V. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center of Applied Energy Research

    2011-01-15

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture.

  2. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  5. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-07-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO₂. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials' thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  6. Effect of coal blending on the leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium in fly ash from fluidized bed coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, F.; Yamada, N.; Sato, A.; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko [Chubu Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Zhang, L. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capture ability of fly ash to arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) was investigated through the combustion of two single bituminous coals A and B and their mixture (blending ratio of 1:1, wt/wt) in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor. The leaching characteristics of As and Se in corresponding fly ash were also conducted according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Speciation of As and Se during fly ash leaching test were predicted from the perspective of thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that, combustion of coal B, containing abundant calcium, possesses a higher capture ability of As and Se than that of coal A through possible chemical reaction between As/Se with CaO. Leaching behavior of As and Se from fly ash is strongly dependent on the pH of the leachate. Free calcium in fly ash generates an alkaline leachate during leaching test and subsequently reduces As and Se leaching, which cause the leaching ratio of As and Se in fly ash derived from the combustion of coal B was much lower, relative to that in coal A. Combustion of blending coal promotes the overall capture ability of the fly ash to As/Se and reduces their leaching from fly ash through the synergy of free CaO between this two kind of fly ash.

  7. Pb-free Radiation Shielding Glass Using Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharin Rachniyom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pb-free shielding glass samples were prepared by the melt quenching technique using subbituminous fly ash (SFA composed of xBi2O3 : (60-xB2O3 : 10Na2O : 30SFA (where x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by wt%. The samples were investigated for their physical and radiation shielding properties. The density and hardness were measured. The results showed that the density increased with the increase of Bi2O3 content. The highest value of hardness was observed for glass sample with 30 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration. The samples were investigated under 662 keV gamma ray and the results were compared with theoretical calculations. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (μm, the atomic cross section (σe and the effective atomic number (Zeff were found to increase with an increase of the Bi2O3 concentration and were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The best results for the half-value layer (HVL were observed in the sample with 35 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration, better than the values of barite concrete. These results demonstrate the viability of using coal fly ash waste for radiation shielding glass without PbO in the glass matrices.

  8. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  9. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Yoshida, E; Takeyama, H; Matsunaga, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. We have investigated the viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine micro-algae. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. Maximum density of attached cells of 2.0 x 10(8) cells/cm2 was achieved using seawater. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks.

  10. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  11. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  12. Hazards from radioactivity of fly ash of Greek coal power plants (CPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Charalambous, S.

    1980-01-01

    Fly ash and fine dispersion releases from coal combustion in Greek coal power plants were studied. Concentrations in the fly ash up to 20 pCi/g and 10 pCi/g were measured for 238 U and 226 Ra respectively (not in secular equilibrium). Risk from the fly ash derives from its escape in particulate form or fine dispersion and from its use as a substitute for cement in concrete. The new data indicate that coal power plants discharge relatively larger quantities of radioactive material into the atmosphere than nuclear power plants of comparable size, during normal operation. (H.K.)

  13. Phase transformations in synthesis technologies and sorption properties of zeolites from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Котова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were identified of the experiment conditions on physical and chemical properties of the end product. It is demonstrated that synthesizing zeolites from fly ash is the first stage of forming ceramic materials (ceramic membranes, which defines the fundamental character (importance of that area of studies. It was for the first time that sorption and structural characteristics and cation-exchange properties of fly ash from the Pechora basin coals were studied with respect to, Ba2+ and Sr2+.

  14. Adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions onto coal fly ash and zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Terezinha Elizabeth Mendes de

    2010-01-01

    Coal fly ash, a waste generated in coal-fired electric power plant, was used to synthesize zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution. The fly ash (CL-2) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM-2) that was characterized as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dyes indigo carmine (IC), and reactive orange 16 (RO16) from aqueous solutions. Effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent mass, and temperature were evaluated in the adsorption processes. The kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetics and that surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion were involved in the adsorption mechanism. The thermodynamics parameters demonstrated that the adsorption was spontaneous for all adsorption processes. The enthalpy data confirmed the endothermic nature for all adsorption processes except for IC/ZM-2 system which was exothermic. The entropy data showed an increased disorder at the solid/solution interface during the adsorption for all systems except for IC/ZM-2 whose negative entropy value indicated a decreased disorder at the interface. The adsorption isotherms were closely fitted to the Langmuir linear equation. The maximum adsorption capacities were 1.48 mg/g for the IC/CL-2 system; 1.13 mg/g for IC/ZM-2; 0.96 mg/g for RO16/CL-2, and 1.14 mg/g for RO16/ZM-2 at room temperature. The desorption study carried out with water, with acid aqueous solutions, and with an alkali aqueous solution showed to be inefficient both for recovering the dyes and regenerating the adsorbents. (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity of coal and fly ash at the Nikola Tesla B TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Dragica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian thermal power plants (TPPs produce siliceous fly ash from lignite in the quantity of approximately 6 million tons per year. The potential market for the use of fly ash is operational, but for the time being, only used by cement producers. Fly ash radioactivity could be one of the major points of concern when larger use of fly ash is planned, particularly in the Serbian construction industry. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted regularly for decades. This paper presents the results of a ten-year fly ash radioactivity measurements at the Nikola Tesla B TPP located in Obrenovac. In addition, the paper compares the natural radionuclides coal content data combusted by the Nikola Tesla B TPP boilers coming from the Kolubara Basin and ash created during coal combustion. Fly ash created in the Nikola Tesla TPPs boilers is characterised by the increased concentration of the natural radionuclides content compared to coal. This is the so-called technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (Technologically Enhanced Occurring Radioactive Material - TENORM of industrial waste, whereas the average specific activities: 232Th in coal amount to 25.2 Bq/kg, and in fly ash and coal 84.2 Bq/kg and 238U 38.3 Bq/kg, respectively. Following the obtained natural radionuclides content results it may be concluded that the Nikola Tesla B TPP ash may be disposed into the environment. Ash may be used also in the construction industry (civil engineering. In building construction applications, ash share as the additive to other building materials depends from its physical and chemical characteristics, as well as from the radionuclides activity: 266Ra, 232Th and 40K. Unlike the thermal power plants regularly (once a year testing the specific natural radionuclides activity in the combusted coal and boiler fly ash, Electric Power Industry of Serbia has not performed large-scale investigations of the natural radionuclides content in coal within the Kolubara

  16. Application of dry separative methods for decreasing content the residues unburned coal and separation Fe from black coal flies ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kaľavský

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Main obstacle using of fly ashes in building, that is its main consumer, is the residue of unburned coal; it is expressed of loss onignition - LOI. In present, the valid STN and EU standard limits the content of LOI to 3 – 5 %, in national conditions maximum 7 %.Application of processing technologies also has to assure utilization of fly ash that provides a possibility of complex utilizationof individual products obtained by modification.By means of corona separation, based on different conductivity of individual fly ash elements, it is possible to separate unburnedcoal particles. The fly ash sample from black coal burning in melting boiler that was deposited on fly ash deposit, content of LOIof dielectric particle 6,45 % at 61 % weight yield was achieved. In the samples taken from dry taking of fly ash the non-conductingproduct contained 7,72 % of LOI at 73 % of weight yield.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Luo, Qiong; Wang, Guodong; Li, Xianlong; Na, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-based thermal power plant was used to synthesize zeolite in NaOH solution with hydrothermal method in this work. Firstly, the effects of calcination and acid treatment on the removal of impurities in fly ash were studied. Then based on the pretreated FA, the effects of alkali concentration, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio on the synthesis of zeolite were studied in detail. The mineralogy, morphology, thermal behavior, infrared spectrum and specific surface for the synthetic sample were investigated. The results indicated that calcination at 750 °C for 1.5 h can basically remove unburned carbon from FA, and 4 M hydrochloric acid treatment of calcined FA at 90 °C for 2 h will reduce the quality of about 34.3%wt, which are mainly iron, calcium and sulfur elements. The concentration of NaOH, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio have important effect on the synthesis of zeolite. In this study, 0.5 M NaOH cannot obtain any zeolite. High temperature is beneficial to zeolite synthesis from FA, but easily lead to a variety of zeolites. The synthetic sample contains three kinds of zeolites such as zeolite P, sodalite and zeolite X, when the reaction conditions are 2 M NaOH and 120 °C for 24 h. In this research, quartz always exists in the synthetic sample, but will reduce with the increase of temperature. The synthetic zeolite has the specific surface area of about 42 m2 g‑1 and better thermal stability.

  18. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is

  19. Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices

  20. Physical and Chemical Character of Fly Ash of Coal Fired Power Plant in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwulan; Priadana, K. A.; Ekaputri, J. J.; Bayuaji, R.

    2017-11-01

    Quality of fly ash is varying widely in the field, it depends on the combustion process and the quality of the basic ingredients, namely coal. It will affect the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete mixtures used. This study used 12 samples of fly ash. The physical and chemical properties and finesse modulus were analyzed. The fly ash was mixed with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) with the proportion of 20% fly ash and 80% OPC. The specimens were form with mortar dimension of 5cm x 5 cm. The test was affected by the correlation of fly ash fineness modulus to compressive strength, correlation density of fly ash to compressive strength, and correlation of carbon content to the compressive strength.

  1. Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-10-15

    The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. The geochemistry and bioreactivity of fly-ash from coal-burning power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Koshy, L.; Brown, P.; Longyi, S.; BeruBe, K. [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Earth & Ocean Science

    2009-07-01

    Fly-ash is a byproduct of the combustion of coal in power stations for the generation of electricity. The fly-ash forms from the melting of incombustible minerals found naturally in the coal. The very high coal combustion temperatures result in the formation of microscopic glass particles from which minerals such as quartz, haematite and mullite can later recrystallize. In addition to these minerals, the glassy fly-ash contains a number of leachable metals. Mullite is a well-known material in the ceramics industry and a known respiratory hazard. Macroscopically mullite can be found in a large range of morphologies; however microscopic crystals appear to favour a fibrous habit. Fly-ash is a recognized bioreactive material in rat lung, generating hydroxyl radicals, releasing iron, and causing DNA damage. However, the mechanisms of the bioreactivity are still unclear and the relative contributions of the minerals and leachable metals to that toxicity are not well known.

  3. Characterization and environmental evaluation of Atikokan coal fly ash for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeheyis, M.B.; Shang, J.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Coal fly ash from thermal power generating stations has become a valuable byproduct in various commercial and environmental applications due to its cementitious, alkaline, and pozzolanic properties. It is used as a raw material in cement production, and also as a replacement for cement in concrete production. This study provided physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of fresh and landfilled coal fly ash from a thermal generation station in Ontario. Fly ash behaviour under various environmental conditions was examined. Tests were conducted to characterize fly ash acid neutralization capacity and heavy metal sorption capacity. The study showed that fresh and landfilled fly ash samples showed significant variations in morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that weathering of the fly ash caused the formation of secondary minerals. The study also showed that the heavy metals from both fresh and landfilled fly ash samples were below leachate criteria set by the provincial government. It was concluded that both fresh and landfilled fly ash are suitable for various environmental and engineering applications. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Study on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of raw and activated South African coal and coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. B.; Langwenya, S. P.; Mamba, B. B.; Balakrishnan, M.

    South African coal and coal fly ash were selected as the raw materials to be used for study of their morphology and physicochemical properties and their respective activated carbons for adsorption applications. Coal and fly ash were individually steam activated at a temperature range of 550-1000 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace using cylindrical stainless steel containers. Scanning electron micrographs revealed a change in surface morphology with more mineral matter available on the surface of the coal particles due to increased devolatilization. However, in the case of fly ash, the macerals coalesced to form agglomerates and the presence of unburnt carbon constituted pores of diameter between 50 and 100 nm. The BET surface area of coal improved significantly from 5.31 to 52.12 m 2/g whereas in case of fly ash the surface area of the raw sample which was originally 0.59 m 2/g and upon activation increased only up to 2.04 m 2/g. The chemical composition of the fly ash confirmed that silica was the major component which was approximately 60% by weight fraction. The impact of this study was to highlight the importance of using raw materials such as coal and a waste product, in the form of coal ash, in order to produce affordable activated carbon that can be used in drinking water treatment. This would therefore ensure that the quality of water supplied to communities for drinking is not contaminated especially by toxic organic compounds.

  5. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. ► Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. ► Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. ► Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg

  6. Coal fly ash utilization: Low temperature sintering of wall tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G.L.; Voskresenskaya, E.N.; Amritphale, S.S.; Baghel, Narendra S.

    2008-01-01

    We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 deg. C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with ≥40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO 4 phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO 4 crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles

  7. Air oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfide solutions with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, D; Chaudhuri, S K [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1999-02-01

    The paper investigated the potential of coal fly ash as a catalyst in the air oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) solutions in the temperature range of 303-333 K. The rate of oxidation was found to be independent of the initial concentration of Na{sub 2}S in the range of 5.80 x 10{sup -2} - 28.45 x 10{sup -2} kmol/m{sup 3}. The effects of fly ash loading, source of fly ash, speed of agitation, air flow rate, fly ash particle size were also studied. Experimental results suggested a film-diffusion controlled reaction mechanism. The deactivation of the catalytic effect of fly ash was found to be less than 31% even after five repeated uses.

  8. Surface chemical properties of novel high surface area solids synthesized from coal fly ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, PJ

    2003-07-23

    Full Text Available The zeolite, Na-P1, was synthesized from fly ash samples originating from coal-fired power stations in South Africa by hydrothermal treatment of the raw ash with concentrated aqueous NaOH solutions. The zeolite was then further modified by acid...

  9. Influence of the co-firing on the leaching of trace pollutants from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Izquierdo; Natalia Moreno; Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Esther Alvarez; Diano Antenucci; Henk Nugteren; Yolanda Luna; Constantino Fernandez-Pereira [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    The (co)-firing of low-cost alternative fuels is expected to increase in the forthcoming years in the EU because of the economic and environmental benefits provided by this technology. This study deals with the impact of the different coal/waste fuel ratio of the feed blend on the mineralogy, the chemical composition and especially on the leaching properties of fly ash. Different blends of coal, petroleum coke, sewage sludge, wood pellets, coal tailings and other minor biomass fuels were tested in PCC (pulverised coal combustion) and FBC (fluidized bed combustion) power plants. The co-firing of the studied blends did not drastically modify the mineralogy, bulk composition or the overall leaching of the fly ash obtained. This suggests that the co-firing process using the alternative fuels studied does not entail significant limitations in the re-use or management strategies of fly ash. 34 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  11. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  12. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Feasibility of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles as construction materials: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to investigate about the potential use of coal fly ash along with other natural and solid wastes for the production of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study is based on the comprehensive reviews available from the previous experimental data on coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study intendeds to provide the essential technical information and data for the use of fly ash mix with other solid wastes and reveal their suitability as construction materials. It has been found that samples were non-hazardous in nature and vigorously used as an additional construction materials and their compositions are perfectly fit to make the strong composite material for bricks and tiles. The three past studies have been demonstrated that, fly ash based bricks and roof tiles provides a sustainable supplement to the traditional clay bricks and roof tiles, that not only increases the efficiency of traditional bricks and roof tiles but also helps significantly to reduce the environmental issues associated with the disposal of these waste materials. In addition to this study highlights the potential use of fly ash for producing sustainable construction materials.

  14. The use of coal fines fly ash for the improvement of soils in hydrophobic grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M.; Bestebroer, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    New NO x reducing combustion techniques result in a different physical and morphological quality of fly ash, which makes the use of fly ash less attractive for the building and road construction industries. Attention is paid to the possibility of using low-NO x fly ash for the improvement of the properties of hydrophobic agricultural land. Such an application also depends on the environmental impacts of the leaching of elements to the ground water and the accumulation of hazardous compounds in crops. A literature study of hydrophobic grounds was carried out. Also attention is paid to the legal aspects. No juridical constraints could be found in the Dutch legislation concerning the use of fly ash from coal powder, although it seems that the use of such fly ash is not in agreement with the tenor of possibly to be applied legislation. However, a small-scale investigation was carried out to gain insight into the environmental impacts. The uptake in lettuce and the leaching of the elements As, B, Mo and Se was studied by means of lysimeters. Hydrophobic soils with 5%, 10% and 15% coal fines fly ash were used. Also an experiment with the use of coal gasification slags was performed

  15. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  16. Seeding effect on cocomposting wastewater biosolids with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, M.; Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2001-10-01

    The seeding effect on fly ash-amended biosolids composting was evaluated by inoculating a mixture of ash and biosolids with seeding materials before composting. These inocula included thermophilic bacteria (Bacillus. brevis, B. coagulans, and B. licheniformis) isolated from the ash-biosolids compost, a commercial decomposter, and recycled biosolids compost. Although the addition of these microbial additives to the ash-biosolids compost improved the population of thermophilic bacteria at the early stage of composting, the improvement was negligible after 4 days of composting. Inoculation with isolated bacterial culture, milk powder, or the decomposter, only, did not effectively improve the decomposition of organic matter compared with those receiving inoculation of both microbial additives and milk powder together. The isolated Bacillus species was as efficient as the commercial decomposter in accelerating the decomposition rate during ash-amended biosolids composting as indicated by the high amounts of carbon dioxide evolved and cumulative weight loss. Taking into consideration the lower operating cost and acceptable decomposition efficiency, recycled biosolids compost seemed to be a promising additive to ash-amended biosolids compost to improve composting efficiency.

  17. Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Junyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate Univ.; Xu, Wenqing; Zhu, Tingyu; Jing, Pengfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control

    2013-07-01

    The effect of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples has been investigated. The samples were tested for mercury adsorption using a fixed-bed with a simulated gas. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other methods were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is mainly physisorption and chemisorption. Uncompleted burned carbon is an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, especially, the C-M bond may improve the oxidation of mercury, which formed via the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements. The higher specific surface areas and smaller pore diameter are all beneficial for the high mercury removal efficiency. The presence of O{sub 2} plays a positive role on Hg adsorption of modified fly ash, while SO{sub 2} has double role of inhibition because of competitive adsorption and promotion to chemisorption. In addition, sample modified with FeCl{sub 3} has a great performance in Hg removal.

  18. Rheology of fly ashes from coal and biomass co-combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The presence of large amounts of alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in most biomass fuels - compared to coal - can create serious ash-related problems such as deposition, agglomeration and/or corrosion. This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of fly ash from the co-combustion of various...... coal/biomass blends in a pilot scale pf-boiler. The produced data provide information on the melting of the ash and its flow characteristics, as a function of temperature, which may be used to modify the temperature profile of the boiler in order to avoid slagging. Straw co-firing lowers the ash...... viscosity leading to higher stickiness of the ash particles. Wood co-firing has only minor effects, due to the composition of wood ash and the low percentage of wood in the coal/biomass blend....

  19. Medical screening after a coal fly ash spill in Roane County, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory P; Cragle, Donna L; Benitez, John G

    2014-08-01

    To assess the health of community residents following a coal fly ash spill at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant in Harriman, Tennessee, on December 22, 2008. A uniform health assessment was developed by epidemiologists at Oak Ridge Associated Universities and medical toxicologists at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Residents who believed that their health may have been affected by the coal fly ash spill were invited to participate in the medical screening program. Among the 214 individuals who participated in the screening program, the most commonly reported symptoms were related to upper airway irritation. No evidence of heavy metal toxicity was found. This is the first report, to our knowledge, regarding the comprehensive health evaluation of a community after a coal fly ash spill. Because this evaluation was voluntary, the majority of residents screened represented those with a high percentage of symptoms and concerns about the potential for toxic exposure. Based on known toxicity of the constituents present in the coal fly ash, health complaints did not appear to be related to the fly ash. This screening model could be used to assess immediate or baseline toxicity concerns after other disasters.

  20. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  1. Bioextraction of copper and zinc from fly ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczok, T; Cwalina, B; Chrostowska, D

    1986-02-01

    Results are evaluated of investigations carried out by the Institute of Chemistry and Physics of the Silesia Medical Academy in Sosnowiec into feasibility of bacterial leaching for utilization of fly ash from combustion of black coal. Fly ash separated by electrostatic precipitators in the Dolna Odra power plant fired with black coal was used. Copper content in the fly ash on the average was 0.012%, that of zinc was 0.025%. When Thiobacillus ferroxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and bacteria separated from fly ash were used leaching efficiency after 21 days ranged from 69 to 87% in the case of copper and from 48 to 72% in the case of zinc. Origin of bacteria separated from fly ash was unclear. Autochthonous bacteria in the fly ash being leached increased efficiency of bacterial leaching. Effects of autochthonous bacteria were similar to those of the bacterial culture of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Investigation results were shown in a table and 2 diagrams. 19 references.

  2. Mineralogical, Microstructural and Thermal Characterization of Coal Fly Ash Produced from Kazakhstani Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Abylgazina, L.; Spitas, C.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste by-product of coal combustion. Kazakhstan has vast coal deposits and is major consumer of coal and hence produces huge amounts of CFA annually. The government aims to recycle and effectively utilize this waste by-product. Thus, a detailed study of the physical and chemical properties of material is required as the data available in literature is either outdated or not applicable for recently produced CFA samples. The full mineralogical, microstructural and thermal characterization of three types of coal fly ash (CFA) produced in two large Kazakhstani power plants is reported in this work. The properties of CFAs were compared between samples as well as with published values.

  3. Modified coal fly ash as low cost adsorbent for removal reactive dyes from batik industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of reactive dyes on modified coal fly ash has been investigated during a series of batch adsorption experiments. Physical characteristics of modified coal fly ash was characterized by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration (50–200 mg/L, solution pH (4–10 and adsorbent dosage (50–200 mg/L were studied. The adsorption experiments indicated that modified coal fly ash was effective in removing of Remazol Blue. The percentage removal of dyes increased while the modified fly ash dosage increased. The percentage removal of dyes increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with amount of adsorbent used. The optimum of removal of dyes was found to be 94% at initial dye concentration 50 g/mL, modified fly ash dosage 250 g/mL, and pH of 2.0.

  4. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  5. Influence of several experimental parameters on As and Se leaching from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero-Rey, Jose R.; Mato-Fernandez, Maria J.; Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Coal fly ash leaching process for As and Se is studied. Environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, particle size and leaching time are taken into account in order to simulate As and Se leaching process for disposal coal fly ash. Analysis of reference materials was carried out by using of hydride generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Plackett-Burman experimental design is used to know the significative parameters, and Box-Behnken experimental design is used to refine the results obtained for these significative parameters. pH and temperature shown a hardly influence in leaching process. Furthermore, leaching time was also significative. According our results, it may be assumed that percentage of As and Se leaching in experimental conditions tested is relatively low for acidic fly ashes

  6. Radon exhalation of cementitious materials made with coal fly ash: Part 2 - testing hardened cement-fly ash pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovler, K.; Perevalov, A.; Levit, A.; Steiner, V.; Metzger, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in measuring radionuclides and radon concentrations in fly ash (FA), cement and other components of building products is due to the concern about health hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The paper focuses on studying the influence of FA on radon exhalation rate (radon flux) from cementitious materials. In the previous part of the paper the state of the art was presented, and the experiments for testing raw materials, Portland cement and coal fly ash, were described. Since the cement and FA have the most critical role in the radon release process relative to other concrete constituents (sand and gravel), and their contribution is dominant in the overall radium content of concrete, tests were carried out on cement paste specimens with different FA contents, 0-60% by weight of the binder (cement+FA). It is found that the dosage of FA in cement paste has a limited influence on radon exhalation rate, if the hardened material is relatively dense. The radon flux of cement-FA pastes is lower than that of pure cement paste: it is about ∼3 mBq m -2 s -1 for cement-FA pastes with FA content as high as 960 kg m -3

  7. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  8. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1 Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2 Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1 the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test and identical variances (F-test; and (2 the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  9. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2015-08-11

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  10. Radon induced radiological impact of coal, fly ash and cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Sharma, G.S.; Chakravarti, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Coal and its by-product fly ash are technologically important materials being used for power generation and in the manufacture of bricks, sheets, cement, land-filling, etc., respectively. Increased interest in measuring radon concentration in coal, fly ash and cement is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution. As the presence of radon in the environment (indoor and outdoor), soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, tracking its concentration is thus of paramount importance for radiological protection. Samples of coal and fly ash were collected from different thermal power stations in northern India and cement samples from National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh (Haryana), India and were analysed for radon concentration. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Based upon the available data, the annual effective dose and the lifetime fatality risk factors have been calculated. The radon concentration from coal samples varied from 433 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 2086 ± 28 Bqm -3 . The radon concentration from fly ash samples varied from 748 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 1417 ± 111 Bqm -3 and from 158 Bqm -3 to 1810 Bqm -3 in cement samples, with an average of 624 ± 169 Bqm -3 . (author)

  11. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  12. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  13. Hazards from radioactivity of fly ash of Greek coal power plants (CPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Charalambous, C.

    1980-01-01

    Fly ash and fine dispersion releases by coal combustion in Greek coal power plants are radioactive. Concentrations in the fly ash up to 20 pCi/g and 10 pCi/g were measured for 238 U and 226 Ra respectively (not in secular equilibrium). The radioactivity of fly ash deduces risks in two ways: a) from the escaping fly ash in particulate form or fine dispersion and b) from using fly ash as substitute for cement in concrete. In a room of dimensions 10 x 10x4 m 3 the concentration of Radon in the air will be about 10 -9 μCi/cm 3 . For the above estimation a concrete porosity of 5% and a wall thickness of 20 cm was used. The estimated concentration of Radon was about two orders of magnitude lower than that of the MPC of Radon in the air, which is about 10 -9 μCi/cm 3 . It is pointed out that if a 25% porosity were used, the Radon concentration will be an order of magnitude higher. (U.K.)

  14. Synthesis of zeolite from coal fly ashes with different silica-alumina composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki Inada; Yukari Eguchi; Naoya Enomoto; Junichi Hojo [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Coal fly ashes can be converted into zeolites by hydrothermal alkaline treatment. This study focuses on the effect of Si/Al molar ratio of the fly ash source on the type of formed zeolite, which also is affected by the alkaline condition. The fly ashes were mixed with an aqueous NaOH solution and hydrothermally treated at about 100{degree}C. Zeolite Na-P1 and/or hydroxy-sodalite appeared after the treatment. Zeolite Na-P1 predominantly formed from silica-rich fly ash at a low-NaOH concentration. The cation exchange capacity of the product with a large content of zeolite Na-P1 reached a value of 300 meq/100 g. The type of the product was controlled by addition of aerosil silica or alumina. It was found that silica addition effectively enhances the formation of zeolite Na-P1, even at a high-NaOH concentration. These results were discussed on the basis of a formation mechanism of zeolite from coal fly ash through dissolution-precipitation process. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization of coal fly ash components by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ctvrtnickova, Tereza; Mateo, Mari-Paz; Yanez, Armando; Nicolas, Gines

    2009-01-01

    The high sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of most of the fly ash components enables the analysis of these residues produced during the combustion of coal. Fly ash consists of oxides (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO...) and unburnt carbon which is the major determinant of combustion efficiency in coal fired boilers. For example, an excessive amount of residual carbon dispersed in the fly ash means a significant loss of energy (Styszko et al., 2004). Standard methods employed for the analysis of fly ash make not possible a control of boiler in real time. LIBS technique can significantly reduce the time of analysis, in some cases even an online detection can be performed. For this reason, some studies have been addressed in order to demonstrate the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for the detection of carbon content in high pressure conditions typical of thermal power plants (Noda et al., 2002) and for the monitoring of unburnt carbon for the boiler control in real time (Kurihara et al., 2003). In particular, the content of unburnt carbon is a valuable indicator for the control of fly ash quality and for the boiler combustion. Depending on this unburnt carbon content, fly ash can be disposed as an industrial waste or as a raw material for the production of concrete in the construction sector. In this study, analyses were performed on specimens of various forms of preparation. Pressed pellets were prepared with two different binders. Presented results concern the nature and amount of the binder used to pelletize the powder, and the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy parameters and procedure required to draw calibration curves of elements from the fly ash. Analysis 'on tape' was performed in order to establish the experimental conditions for the future 'online analysis'.

  16. Trace element toxicity in VA mycorrhizal cucumber grown on weathered coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosskey, M.G.; Adriano, D.C. (University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization is widely recognized as enhancing plant growth on severely disturbed sites. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi will enhance vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basinss, Spores of Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) were added to weathered precipitator ash (EC-0.91 dSm[sup -1], pH 5.0) and to a pasteurized soils of the same pH (Grossarenic Paleudult, 92% sand, 1% organic matter). Some soil and ash were left unamended as non-mycorrhizal controls. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsette 76) seeds were sown, watered regularly, and fertilized periodically with macronutrient solution. By 8 weeks all ash-grown plants exhibited smaller leaves with leaf margin curl and necrosis, and plant biomass was significantly less (0.75x) than soil-grown plants. Based on analysis of 18 elements in plant tissues, toxicity to B, Mn, or Zn could have caused growth suppression, confirming trace element problems for plant growth on fly ash. For plants grown on fly ash, G. etunicatum was the only fungus that colonized roots (20% of root length reduced from 67% on soil) and it suppressed plant growth to 0.80 x that of uninoculated ash-grown plants. Correspondingly, shoot Zn concentration in G. etunicatum-inoculated plants was 3.5 x higher than in uninoculated plants and at generally toxic levels (273 mg kg[sup -1]). Glomus etunicatum had no other significant effects on elemental concentrations. These results indicate that VAM colonization in acid, weathered fly ash suppressed plant growth by facilitating uptake of Zn to toxic levels, and implies a limitation to successful use of VAM for vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basins.

  17. Mercury in coals and fly ashes from Republika and Bobov dol thermoelectric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.; Vassileva, C.; Hower, J.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.; Nikolova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Feed coal and y ash samples were collected at Republika and Bobov Dol thermoelectric power plants (TPPs). The y ashes (FAs) were collected fromthree rows of the hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) array. Each sam- ple was wet-screened at 100, 200, 325 and 500 mesh. The coals and y ashes were characterized with regard to their petrological and chemical composition (including mercury content) and to their surface area properties. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) shows that the Hg concentrations in the bulk coal samples from Republika and Bobov Dol TPPs are 2.19 and 1.41, respectively. In some coal size fractions the EF can be up to 4 times higher than the Clarke value. The calculated EF for fly ashes shows that the Hg concentrations in the bulk samples studied are lower (between 0.03 and 0.32) than the Clarke value. The most enriched in Hg are the fly ashes from the 3rd ESP row of Republika TPP. The Hg distribution in bulk FAs taken from dierent rows of the electrostatic precipitators of both TPPs studied shows well established tendency of gradual increase in the Hg content from the 1st to the 2nd and 3rd ESP rows. The correlation between Hg content and surface area, mesopore and micropore volume of y ashes was also done in the present investigation.

  18. The reaction of acid mine drainage with fly ash from coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The placement of alkaline fly ash in abandoned, reclaimed or active surface coal mines is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites by neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion. A continuing concern with this application is the potential release of trace elements from the fly ash when it is placed in contact with AMD. To investigate the possible release of antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc from fly ash, a series of column leaching tests were conducted. A one kg fly ash sample, placed in a 5-cm by 1 m acrylic columns, was leached at a nominal rate of 250 mL/d for between 30 and 60 days. The leachant solutions were deionized water, and dilute solutions of sulfuric acid and ferric chloride. Leaching tests have been completed on 28 fly ash samples. leachate data, analyzed as the mass extracted with respect to the concentration in the solid, indicate that the release of trace elements is variable, with only barium and zinc extracted at greater than 50 pct of the amount present in the original sample. As a comparison, water quality changes have been monitored at three sites where fly ash grout was injected after reclamation to control AMD. When compared before and after grouting, small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points were observed. Concentrations of trace metals were found to be comparable in treated and untreated areas. When grouted and ungrouted areas were compared, the effect of the fly ash was shown to be localized in the areas of injection. These studies indicated that when fly ash is used as a reagent to control of AMD, the release of trace elements is relatively small

  19. Determination of radioactive trace elements in ashes and fly-ashes from Brazilian coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, L.F.; de Castro Arezzo, B.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to apply a epithermal neutron activation technique to determine the uranium and thorium content in coal ashes and fly ashes from Brazilian coal-fired thermoelectric plants and to evaluate the contribution of these elements and their descendents to the environmental radioactivity. Brazil has adopted as short term policy the use of alcohol and coal as alternative sources of energy. With regard to coal, large deposits of this mineral are found in southern states but the serious problem of its utilization is the risk of environmental contamination which can reach dangerous levels because the industrial plants burn several million tons per year. Uranium and thorium contents, determined experimentally, are extrapolated for annual coal consumption and their amounts and the activity of the radium isotopes descendents released to the atmosphere are calculated. The significance of these values and problems in environmental pollution are discussed

  20. Partial oxidation of methane to methanol over catalyst ZSM-5 from coal fly ash and rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirda Yanti Fusia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that can be converted into liquid fuels such as methanol to retain most of the energy of methane and produce a cleaner environment. The conversion of methane to methanol using ZMS-5 represents a breakthrough in the utilization of methane. However, material sources for zeolite synthesis as catalyst usually are pro-analysis grade materials, which are expensive. Therefore, in this research, coal fly ash and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. First, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment to extract silicate (SiO44− and aluminate (AlO45− and impurities separation. The ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates. After ZSM-5 was synthesized, it was modified with Cobalt through impregnation method. The catalytic activity of both ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane were preliminary tested and compared with that commercial one. The result showed that the zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 from fly ash coal and rice husk ash has the potential to be used as catalysts in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  1. Recovery of gallium from coal fly ash by a dual reactive extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J. [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the extraction of gallium from coal fly ash by leaching and extraction with commercial extractants Amerlite LA-2 and LIX-54N dissolved in kerosene. Leaching of gallium and other metals from the fly ash was carried out with 6 M hydrochloric acid. The leaching liquor is first contacted with Amerlite LA-2 which extracts the gallium and iron. The iron is then precipitated with sodium hydroxide, while gallium remains in solution. Gallium is extracted selectively from the base solution with LIX 54; the resulting stripped solution contains 83% of the gallium present in the leaching liquor.

  2. Glass Ceramics Composites Fabricated from Coal Fly Ash and Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angjusheva, B.; Jovanov, V.; Srebrenkoska, V.; Fidancevska, E.

    2014-01-01

    Great quantities of coal ash are produced in thermal power plants which present a double problem to the society: economical and environmental. This waste is a result of burning of coal at temperatures between 1100-14500C. Fly ash available as fine powder presents a source of important oxides SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, but also consist of small amount of ecologically hazardous oxides such as Cr2O3, NiO, MnO. The combination of the fly ash with waste glass under controlled sintering procedure gave bulk glass-ceramics composite material. The principle of this procedure is presented as a multi barrier concept. Many researches have been conducted the investigations for utilization of fly ash as starting material for various glass–ceramics production. Using waste glass ecologically hazardous components are fixed at the molecular level in the silicate phase and the fabricated new glass-ceramic composites possess significantly higher mechanical properties. The aim of this investigation was to fabricate dense glass ceramic composites using fly ash and waste glass with the potential for its utilization as building material

  3. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Loya, E Ivan; Allouche, Erez N; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5

  4. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  5. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  6. Leaching characteristics of toxic constituents from coal fly ash mixed soils under the influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonweeraket, Kanokwan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cetin, Bora, E-mail: bora.cetin@sdsmt.edu [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Benson, Craig H., E-mail: chbenson@wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Edil, Tuncer B., E-mail: edil@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The impact of pH on the leaching of elements and metals from fly ash mixed soils. • Generally Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr follows a cationic leaching pattern. • The leaching of As and Se shows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. • The leaching behavior of elements does not change based on material type. • Different fly ash types show different abilities in immobilizing trace elements. - Abstract: Leaching behaviors of Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cadmium (Cd), Magnesium (Mg), Selenium (Se), and Strontium (Sr) from soil alone, coal fly ash alone, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures, were studied at a pH range of 2–14 via pH-dependent leaching tests. Seven different types of soils and coal fly ashes were tested. Results of this study indicated that Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr showed cationic leaching pattern while As and Se generally follows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. On the other hand, leaching of Ba presented amphoteric-like leaching pattern but less pH-dependent. In spite of different types and composition of soil and coal fly ash investigated, the study reveals the similarity in leaching behavior as a function of pH for a given element from soil, coal fly ash, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures. The similarity is most likely due to similar controlling mechanisms (e.g., solubility, sorption, and solid-solution formation) and similar controlling factors (e.g., leachate pH and redox conditions). This offers the opportunity to transfer knowledge of coal fly ash that has been extensively characterized and studied to soil stabilized with coal fly ash. It is speculated that unburned carbon in off-specification coal fly ashes may provide sorption sites for Cd resulting in a reduction in concentration of these elements in leachate from soil-coal fly ash mixture. Class C fly ash provides sufficient CaO to initiate the pozzolanic reaction yielding hydrated cement products that oxyanions, including As and Se, can be incorporated into.

  7. Determination of 30 elements in coal and fly ash by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty elements are determined in coal and fly ash by instrumental neutron-activation analysis using both thermal and epithermal irradiation. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded 7 and 20 days after the irradiations. The procedure is applicable to the routine analysis of coals and fly ash. Epithermal irradiation was found preferable for the determination of Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U, whereas thermal irradiation was best for Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Yb and Lu. Results for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) agree with those of other investigators. (author)

  8. Preparation of sintered foam materials by alkali-activated coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yelong; Ye, Junwei; Lu, Xiaobin; Liu, Mangang; Lin, Yuan; Gong, Weitao; Ning, Guiling

    2010-02-15

    Coal fly ash from coal fired power stations is a potential raw material for the production of ceramic tiles, bricks and blocks. Previous works have demonstrated that coal fly ash consists mainly of glassy spheres that are relatively resistant to reaction. An objective of this research was to investigate the effect of alkali on the preparation process of the foam material. Moreover, the influence of foam dosage on the water absorption, apparent density and compressive strength was evaluated. The experimental results showed that homogenous microstructures of interconnected pores could be obtained by adding 13 wt.% foaming agent at 1050 degrees C, leading to foams presenting water absorption, apparent density and compressive strength values of about 126.5%, 0.414 g/cm(3), 6.76 MPa, respectively.

  9. Uranium trace and alpha activity characterization of coal and fly ash using particle track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium is extensively found in carbonaceous components of sedimentary rocks and is considered to be accumulated in coals during the coalification process through the geological times. Burning of coal is mainly responsible for a manifold increase in the concentration of radioactive nuclides in atmosphere precipitates. Fly ash being an incombustible residue and formed from 90% of the inorganic material in coal, escapes into the atmosphere and constitutes a potential hazard. Also its use as one of the pozzolanic materials in the products of concrete, bricks etc and filling of ground cavities is even more hazardous because of the wall radioactivity, besides emission and diffusion of radon. This paper reports a simple method called Particle Track Etch (PTE) technique, for trace determination of uranium content in coal and fly ash samples by making use of low cost and versatile plastic detectors known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Total alpha activity has also been estimated using these SSNTDs. The values of uranium concentration in coal samples are found to range from 1.1 to 3.6 ppm (uniform component) and 33 to 46 ppm (non-uniform part) whereas in fly ash, it varies from 8 to 11 ppm (uniform) and 55 to 71 ppm in non-uniform range. It is also observed that the alpha activity is a function of uranium concentration for most of the natural samples of coal studied except for mixtures of fly ash samples where relationship is found to be on higher side. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Adsorption of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se from coal fly ash leachate by Fe3 modified bentonite clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhahangwele, M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash contains the potentially toxic elements As, B, Cr, Mo and Se which upon contact with water may be leached to contaminate surface and subsurface water bodies. This study aims to evaluate the adsorption of these elements from coal fly ash...

  11. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  12. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  13. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reuse and recycling options for solid prescribed industrial wastes and brown coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum Hailu, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of detailed investigation of the possible use of stabilised sludge and brown coal fly ash as raw material ingredients for road construction and manufacture of building bricks. The thesis is organised into seven chapters including a general introduction chapter. A literature review of solid waste management practices employed in Australia and some selected countries are discussed (chapter 1) together with waste generation from power station...

  15. Alkaline coal fly ash amendments are recommended for improving rice-peanut crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.K.; Ghosh, B.C. [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indi an Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India); Rautaray, S.K. [RRLRRS, Gerua Via-Hajo, Dist-Kamrup, Assam (India)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment investigating amendments of organic material including farmyard manure, paper factory sludge and crop residues combined with fly ash, lime and chemical fertilizer in a rice-peanut cropping system was conducted during 1997-98 and 1998-99 at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. The soil was an acid lateritic (Halustaf) sandy loam. For rice, an N:P:K level of 90:26.2:33.3 kg/ha was supplied through the organic materials and chemical fertilizer to all the treatments except control and fly ash alone. The required quantities of organic materials were added to supply 30 kg N/ha and the balance amount of N, P and K was supplied through chemical fertilizer. Amendment materials as per fertilization treatments were incorporated to individual plots 15 days before planting of rice during the rainy season. The residual effects were studied on the following peanut crop with application of N:P:K at 30:26.2:33.3 kg/ha through chemical fertilizer alone in all treatments, apart from the control. An application of fly ash at 10 t/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer and organic materials increased the grain yield of rice by 11% compared to chemical fertilizer alone. The residual effect of both lime and fly ash applications combined with direct application of chemical fertilizer increased peanut yields by 30% and 24%, respectively, compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Treatments with fly ash or lime increased P and K uptake in both the crops and oil content in peanut kernel compared to those without the amendments. Alkaline coal fly ash proved to be a better amendment than lime for improving productivity of an acid lateritic soil and enriching the soil with P and K.

  16. Microwave radiation improves biodiesel yields from waste cooking oil in the presence of modified coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the effects of using modified coal fly ash as a catalyst to convert waste cooking oil (WCO into biodiesel under microwave-strengthened action. Coal fly ash was modified with sodium sulphate and sodium hydroxide, and the obtained catalyst was characterized using FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The experimental results showed that the modified coal fly ash catalyst improved biodiesel yields under the microwave-assisted system, and the maximum biodiesel yield from waste cooking oil reached 94.91% at a molar ratio of methanol to WCO of 9.67:1 with 3.99% wt% of modified coal fly ash catalyst (based on oil weight at a 66.20 °C reaction temperature. The reusability of the modified coal fly ash catalyst was excellent, and the conversion yield remained greater than 90% after the catalyst was reused 8 times. The produced biodiesel met the main parameters of the ASTM D-6751 and EN14214 standards. Keywords: Biodiesel, Modified coal fly ash, Microwave assisted system, Waste cooking oil

  17. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  18. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hmidi, N. [Goldcorp Inc., Musselwhite Mine, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  1. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  2. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash generated in Coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    The burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants results in huge quantity of coal ash of varying properties. Because of the increase in electricity production, the amount of ash produced will increase proportionally. A large percentage of coal fly ash is comprised of relatively inert materials, such as silica and other trace and toxic elements. The coal ash also contain organic constituents of potential environmental concern. So far, very few studies on characterization of organic constituents in fly ash have been reported in the literature. In the present study, the fly ashes generated from the power stations are investigated regarding the distribution of 14 PAHs. The total amount of PAHs in the fly ash samples varied between 45.8 ng/g and 257.7 ng/g. Lower molecular weight (MW) PAHs, were found to be predominant in the fly ash samples. The concentration of Benzo(a)pyrene, which is the most potent carcinogenic PAH was found to vary between 0.8 ng/g to 6.3 ng/g with a mean concentration of 2.5 ng/g. (author)

  3. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): An introduction of occupational health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Saikia, Binoy K.; Waanders, Frans B.; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. - Highlights: • We research changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles about coal–ash quality. • Increasing dates will increase human health quality in this Indian coal area. • Welfare effects depend on ex-ante or ex-post assumptions about

  4. Coal fly ash based carbons for SO2 removal from flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, B; Izquierdo, M T

    2010-07-01

    Two different coal fly ashes coming from the burning of two coals of different rank have been used as a precursor for the preparation of steam activated carbons. The performance of these activated carbons in the SO(2) removal was evaluated at flue gas conditions (100 degrees C, 1000 ppmv SO(2), 5% O(2), 6% H(2)O). Different techniques were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples in order to explain the differences found in their behaviour. A superior SO(2) removal capacity was shown by the activated carbon obtained using the fly ash coming from a sub-bituminous-lignite blend. Experimental results indicated that the presence of higher amount of certain metallic oxides (Ca, Fe) in the carbon-rich fraction of this fly ash probably has promoted a deeper gasification in the activation with steam. A more suitable surface chemistry and textural properties have been obtained in this case which explains the higher efficiency shown by this sample in the SO(2) removal. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  6. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Diez, S.; Vazquez, E.; Barra, M.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 o C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut fuer Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80 o C

  7. Chemical forms of the fluorine, chlorine, oxygen and carbon in coal fly ash and their correlations with mercury retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment (China); Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Shu, Yun [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tian, Gang; Huang, Jiayu [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Fan, E-mail: zhangfan5188@vip.sina.com [Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Chlorine and fluorine are present mainly in an inorganic form on ash. • Correlations of carbon–oxygen complexes with mercury retention are established. • Concentrations of carbon–oxygen complexes on ash are related to coal type. • No effect of fluorine on mercury retention is observed. • Chlorine, fluorine and carbon in ash are enriched on surface. - Abstract: Fly ashes recovered from the particulate control devices at six pulverized coal boiler unites of China, are studied using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a particular focus on the functionalities of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), carbon and oxygen on fly ash. It is found that the inorganic forms of F and Cl are predominant on the ash surface in comparison with their organics, and the proportion of organic Cl is relatively higher than that of organic F. Similar results are also obtained in the bulk by correlating the F and Cl contents with those of the unburnt carbon and other compositions in ash. Strong correlations of mercury retention with surface carbon–oxygen functional groups indicate that the C=O, OH/C−O and (O−C=O)−O on surface are of significant importance for mercury retention in fly ash. Their surface concentrations are related to coal type. The presence of Cl in fly ash helps with mercury retention. No obvious effect of F is observed.

  8. Metal leaching from experimental coal fly-ash oyster cultch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homziak, J.; Bennett, L.; Simon, P.; Herring, R. (Mississippi State University, MS (USA). Coastal Research and Extension Center)

    1993-08-01

    Because oysters accumulate metals far in excess of ambient concentrations potential leaching and bioaccumulation of metals may be important public health concerns where ash-cement aggregates are being considered for oyster cultivation. This study examined the potential for metal release from an ash-cement aggregate proposed for use in oyster reef construction in Mississippi coastal waters. Seven acid-washed aquaria were each filled with 77L of artificial seawater. Five randomly selected aquaria each received 8.6 L of aggregate pellets. Samples were taken from each aquarium one hour after the start of the experiment and at 10 day intervals on six subsequent sampling dates. The samples were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. Cadmium, iron and mercury were essentially not detected in the treatment aquaria. Except for chromium, the mean concentrations of metals in the treatment samples were generally less than 10 ppb. An overall comparison of the concentrations of 8 metals among all aquaria and sampling dates detected significant differences in the concentration of chromium (p[lt]0.001), manganese (p[lt]0.05) and selenium (p[lt]0.001). Treatment aquaria had significantly greater concentrations of chromium and selenium than did either control (nonparametric multiple comparison, p[lt]0.05). Most of the chromium found in the treatment aquaria was the hexavalent form (means range from 0.052 to 1.328 ppm). Treatment hexavalent chromium concentrations increased over time. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Effects of inhaled coal fly ash on lung biochemistry and function in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.A.; Chen, L.C.; Ryan, I.; Gordon, I.; Amdur, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    The ultrafine fraction of particles produced during the combustion of coal are the most difficult to remove with control devices and are retained longest in the atmosphere. Combustion of a high-sulfur coal, such as Illinois No. 6, produces a significant quantity of sulfuric acid, most of which is absorbed to the surface of those particles smaller than 1 μm in diameter. Particles smaller than 0.05 μm in diameter, moreover, consist largely of sulfuric acid; since these particles penetrate to the deepest regions of the lung, exposure to coal fly ash can result in the administration of large doses of acid to the alveolar tissues. Using a combustion system that generates coal fly ash similar to that collected in flue gas, guinea pigs were exposed for 2 h to aerosols produced from Illinois No. 6 (mean aerodynamic diameter 0.2 μm) at concentrations of 5 and 20 mg/m 3 . The animals were lavaged at 24 h post-exposure and levels of dehydrogenase (LDH), β-glucuronidase (β-GC), and protein were compared to those of control animals. After 24 h, no changes in levels of LDH and β-GC were seen in the lavage fluid from both high-dose and low-dose animals. Slight, but statistically significant elevations in protein concentration were measured in the high-dose exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found to be exchanged following both exposures. It was previously found that exposure to 5 mg/M 3 of Illinois No. 6 fly ash results in immediate reductions in pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco), total lung capacity (TLC), and vital capacity, and that both DLco and TLC values are not completely restored to normal 96 h post-exposure. These results suggest that the alterations in pulmonary function resulting from exposure to acidic coal fly ash are not accompanied by major inflammatory changes in lavage fluid

  10. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  11. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  12. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas...... at the low-temperature location showed a slow initial build-up and a stable mass of deposits after approximately 1-5 h. The deposits collected during pulverized wood combustion contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of coal fly ash (~4 times of the mass flow of wood...... ash) to the boiler, these alkali species were effectively removed both in the fly ash and in the deposits, and a more frequent shedding of the deposits was observed. The results imply that coal fly ash can be an effective additive to reduce ash deposition and corrosion problems in a pulverized wood...

  13. Unburnt carbon from coal fly ashes as a precursor of activated carbon for nitric oxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Begoña; Izquierdo, M Teresa; Mayoral, M Carmen; Bona, M Teresa; Andres, Jose M

    2007-05-08

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the characteristics of an activated carbon obtained from unburnt carbon in coal fly ashes to be used in the removal of NO. Carbon-rich fraction was obtained by mechanical sieving of fly ashes. The mineral matter was removed by conventional HCl and HF demineralization procedure. Activation was carried out with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the sample. Characterization of samples was performed by several techniques with a main objective: to follow the mineral matter content, composition and distribution on the samples in order to better understand how to remove it from unburnt carbon in fly ashes. To study the use of this unburnt carbon as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbons for gas cleaning, the NO removal by ammonia using activated carbon as a catalyst at low temperature was performed. Results show a good performance of activated carbon in this reaction that is in relationship with BET surface area.

  14. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  15. Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers from South African coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsho, Nomso; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Masenda, Hilary; Naidoo, Deena; Billing, Dave; Franklyn, Paul; Durbach, Shane

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), cylindrical nanostructures containing graphene, were synthesized directly from South African fly ash (a waste product formed during the combustion of coal). The CNFs (as well as other carbonaceous materials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were produced by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (CCVD) in the presence of acetylene gas at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C. The fly ash and its carbonaceous products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. It was observed that as-received fly ash was capable of producing CNFs in high yield by CCVD, starting at a relatively low temperature of 400°C. Laser Raman spectra and TGA thermograms showed that the carbonaceous products which formed were mostly disordered. Small bundles of CNTs and CNFs observed by TEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the catalyst most likely responsible for CNF formation was iron in the form of cementite; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed these findings.

  16. Application of Coal Ash to Postmine Land for Prevention of Soil Erosion in Coal Mine in Indonesia: Utilization of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of coal-fired power plants with the increase in coal production and its consumption has caused the problem of the treatment of a large amount of coal ash in Indonesia. In the past studies, coal ash was applied to postmine land with the aim of improving soil conditions for plant growth; however, heavy rain in the tropical climate may cause soil erosion with the change in soil conditions. This study presents the effects of application of coal ash to postmine land on soil erosion by performing the artificial rainfall test as well as physical testing. The results indicate that the risk of soil erosion can be reduced significantly by applying the coal ash which consists of more than 85% of sand to topsoil in the postmine land at the mixing ratio of over 30%. Additionally, they reveal that not only fine fractions but also microporous structures in coal ash enhance water retention capacity by retaining water in the structure, leading to the prevention of soil erosion. Thus, the risk of soil erosion can be reduced by applying coal ash to topsoil in consideration of soil composition and microporous structure of coal ash.

  17. Distributional Fate of Elements during the Synthesis of Zeolites from South African Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W. Du Plessis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of zeolites from South African coal fly ash has been deemed a viable solution to the growing economical strain caused by the disposal of ash in the country. Two synthesis routes have been studied thus far namely the 2-step method and the fusion assisted process. Fly ash contains several elements originating from coal which is incorporated in the ash during combustion. It is vital to determine the final destination of these elements in order to unveil optimization opportunities for scale-up purposes. The aim of this study was to perform a material balance study on both synthesis routes to determine the distributional fate of these elements during the synthesis of zeolites. Zeolites were first synthesized by means of the two synthesis routes. The composition of all raw materials and products were determined after which an overall and elemental balance were performed. Results indicated that in the 2-step method almost all elements were concentrated in the solid zeolite product while during the fusion assisted route the elements mostly report to the solid waste. Toxic elements such as Pb, Hg, Al, As and Nb were found in both the supernatant waste and washing water resulting from each synthesis route. It has also been seen that large quantities of Si and Al are wasted in the supernatant waste. It is highly recommended that the opportunity to recycle this liquid waste be investigated for scale-up purposes. Results also indicate that efficiency whereby Si and Al are extracted from fused ash is exceptionally poor and should be optimized.

  18. Identification of high molecular weight nitroaromatic compounds from coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Okamoto, D.J.; Chess, E.K.; Wilson, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    A large sample of stack-collected coal fly ash was extracted with 60:40 nu/nu benzene:methanol to remove as much of the soluble organic material as possible. This solution was concentrated by gentle evaporation, and was then fractionated on a series of high performance liquid chromatography columns to generate samples suitable for probe mass spectrometric analysis. A series of nitrated derivatives of C 21 H 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon have been tentatively identified by low and high resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The series includes a mononitro, two dinitro isomers, and a trinitro derivative

  19. Distribution and occurrence of lithium in high-alumina-coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Pengpeng; Hou, Xinjuan; Zhang, Jianbo

    2018-01-01

    the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method indicated that Li occurred in Q3(0Al) and Q3(1Al) structures by reacting with Q4(0Al) and Q4(1Al). Based on the experimental and simulation results, we propose extracting Li during the pre-desilication process by dissolving the glass phase.......High-alumina-coal fly ash (HAFA) with a high Li content is regarded as a potential resource for Li production. To support the development of Li recovery technology from HAFA, the distribution and modes of occurrence of Li in HAFA were investigated. HAFA was separated into magnetic particles, glass...

  20. Arsenic removal from water using a novel amorphous adsorbent developed from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Dongxue; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A novel effective adsorbent of alumina/silica oxide hydrate (ASOH) for arsenic removal was developed through simple chemical reactions using coal fly ash. The iron-modified ASOH with enhancing adsorption activity was further developed from raw fly ash based on the in situ technique. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron micrograph, laser particle size and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area. The results show that the adsorbents are in amorphous and porous structure, the surface areas of which are 8-12 times that of the raw ash. The acidic hydrothermal treatment acts an important role in the formation of the amorphous structure of ASOH rather than zeolite crystal. A series of adsorption experiments for arsenic on them were studied. ASOH can achieve a high removal efficiency for arsenic of 96.4% from water, which is more than 2.5 times that of the raw ash. Iron-modified ASOH can enhance the removal efficiency to reach 99.8% due to the in situ loading of iron (Fe). The condition of synthesis pH = 2-4 is better for iron-modified ASOH to adsorb arsenic from water.

  1. Exploring evaluation to influence the quality of pulverized coal fly ash. Co-firing of biomass in a pulverized coal plant or mixing of biomass ashes with pulverized coal fly ash; Verkennende evaluatie kwaliteitsbeinvloeding poederkoolvliegas. Bijstoken van biomassa in een poederkoolcentrale of bijmenging van biomassa-assen met poederkoolvliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Cnubben, P.A.J.P [ECN Schoon Fossiel, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    In this literature survey the consequences of co-firing of biomass and mixing of biomass ash with coal fly ash on the coal fly ash quality is evaluated. Biomass ash considered in this context is produced by gasification, pyrolysis or combustion in a fluidized bed. The irregular shape of biomass ash obtained from gasification, pyrolysis or combustion has a negative influence on the water demand in concrete applications of the coal fly ash resulting from mixing biomass ash and coal fly ash. In case of co-firing, high concentrations of elements capable of lowering the ash melting point (e.g., Ca and Mg) may lead to more ash agglomeration. This leads to a less favourable particle size distribution of the coal fly ash, which has a negative impact on the water demand in cement bound applications. Gasification, pyrolysis and combustion may lead to significant unburnt carbon levels (>10%). The unburnt carbon generally absorbs water and thus has a negative influence on the water demand in cement-bound applications. The contribution of biomass ash to the composition of coal fly ash will not be significantly different, whether the biomass is co-fired or whether the biomass ash is mixed off-line with coal fly ash. The limit values for Cl, SO4 and soluble salts can form a limitation for the use of coal fly ash containing biomass for cement-bound applications. As side effects of biomass co-firing, the level of constituents such as Na, K, Ca and Mg may lead to slagging and fouling of the boiler. In addition, a higher emission of flue gas contaminants As, Hg, F, Cl and Br may be anticipated in case more contaminated biomass streams are applied. This may also lead to a higher contamination level of gypsum produced from flue gas cleaning residues. Relatively clean biomass streams (clean wood, cacao shells, etc.) will hardly lead to critical levels of elements from a leaching point of view. More contaminated streams, such as sewage sludge, used and preserved wood, petcoke and RDF

  2. Effect of mixes made of coal bottom ash and fly ash on the mechanical strength and porosity of Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiz, C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New additions to the cement are needed to achieve a more sustainable and durable construction material. Within this context, bottom ashes can be used as a main constituent of Portland cements when it is mixed in an optimized proportion with fly ashes. The mechanical characteristics of standarized mortars made of mixes of pulverized coal combustion bottom and fly ashes are studied. The mortars were made of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5 N and mixes of bottom ashes with fly ashes in similar proportions to those of CEM II/A-V, CEM II/B-V and CEM IV/A (V. Summing up, it can be said that the utilization of bottom ashes mixed with fly ashes in replacement levels from 0% to 100% do not affect significantively on the mechanical caracteristics of the mortars considered in the present study which had an addition maximum content of 35%.

    La utilización de nuevas adiciones en el cemento es necesaria con el fin de obtener un material más sostenible y durable. En este sentido, las cenizas de fondo o cenicero de las centrales termoeléctricas de carbón se podrían reciclar siendo empleadas como un componente principal de los cementos Portland. Se han estudiado las propiedades mecánicas de unos morteros normalizados elaborados con mezclas de cenizas volantes con cenizas de fondo fabricados con unos porcentajes similares a los correspondientes de los CEM II/A-V, CEM II/B-V y CEM IV/A (V. En conclusión, la utilización de mezclas de cenizas de fondo o cenicero con cenizas volantes sustituyendo a éstas últimas entre el 0% y el 100%, no influye significativamente en el comportamiento mecánico de los morteros estudiados en los que el contenido máximo de adición ha sido del 35%, si bien afecta a determinados aspectos microestructurales, como la cantidad y distribución de poros capilares.

  3. Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papandreou, A.; Stournaras, C.J.; Panias, D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers' interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3-8 mm, high relative porosity and very good mechanical strength. The pellets were used in adsorption experiments for the removal of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of agitation rate, equilibration time, pH of solution and initial metal concentration were studied. The adsorption of both cations follows pseudo-second order kinetics reaching equilibrium after an equilibration time of 72 h. The experimental results for copper and cadmium adsorption fit well to a Langmuirian type isotherm. The calculated adsorption capacities of pellets for copper and cadmium were 20.92 and 18.98 mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments were performed in several extraction media. The results showed that both metals were desorbed substantially from pellets under acidic solutions. For this reason, metal saturated pellets were encapsulated in concrete blocks synthesized from cement and raw pulverized fly ash in order to avoid metal desorption. The heavy metals immobilization after encapsulation in concrete blocks was tested through desorption tests in several aqueous media. The results showed that after 2 months in acidic media with pH 2.88 and 4.98 neither copper nor cadmium were desorbed thus indicating excellent stabilization of heavy metals in the concrete matrix. As a conclusion, the results showed that fly ash shaped into pellets could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from wastewaters. Moreover, the paper proposes an efficient and simple stabilization process of the utilized adsorbents thus guarantying their safe disposal in industrial landfills and eliminating the risk of pollution

  4. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasby, S.E.; Sanei, H.; Beauchamp, B. [Geological Survey Canada Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    During the latest Permian extinction about 250 Myr ago, more than 90% of marine species went extinct, and biogeochemical cycles were disrupted globally. The cause of the disruption is unclear, but a link between the eruption of the Siberian Trap flood basalts and the extinction has been suggested on the basis of the rough coincidence of the two events. The flood basalt volcanism released CO{sub 2}. In addition, related thermal metamorphism of Siberian coal measures and organic-rich shales led to the emission of methane, which would have affected global climate and carbon cycling, according to model simulations. This scenario is supported by evidence for volcanic eruptions and gas release in the Siberian Tunguska Basin, but direct indicators of coal combustion have not been detected. Here we present analyses of terrestrial carbon in marine sediments that suggest a substantial amount of char was deposited in Permian aged rocks from the Canadian High Arctic immediately before the mass extinction. Based on the geochemistry and petrology of the char, we propose that the char was derived from the combustion of Siberian coal and organic-rich sediments by flood basalts, which was then dispersed globally. The char is remarkably similar to modern coal fly ash, which can create toxic aquatic conditions when released as slurries. We therefore speculate that the global distribution of ash could have created toxic marine conditions.

  5. Evaluation of radioactivity levels of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.; Chevik, U.; Damla, N.; Yeshilbag, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    In present work natural radionuclides activities (236Ra, 232Th and 40K) of the different types of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. These samples were collected as homogeneously and separately around Giresun province. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in coal, slag and fly ash samples were found as 107, 67 and 440 Bg.Kg - 1 for coal; 59, 25 and 268 Bg.kg - 1 for slag and 136, 60 and 417 Bg.kg - 1 for fly ash samples, respectively. To estimate health effect due to the aforementioned radionuclides, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses have been calculated. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values

  6. Clean up fly ash from coal burning plants by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu

    2017-09-15

    In Turkey approximately 45 million tons of coals are burned in a year and 19.3 million tons of fly ash have emerged. The bioremediation of heavy metals or different elements from fly ash makes them bio-available. However, in previous studies, requiring of long operational time and failing to show tolerance to high pulp densities of fly ash of selected fungal species makes them impractical. In this work, bioremediation of fly ash by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum were investigated in one step and two step bioremediation process. Ca, Si, Fe and S were found to be considerable amount in studied fly ashes by ED-XRF element analysis. The bioremediation yields of Mo (100%), S (64.36%) Ni (50%) and Cu (33.33%) by F. oxysporum were high. The remediated elements by P. glabrum in fly ash were Mo (100%), S (57.43%), Ni (25%), Si (24.66%), V (12.5%), Ti (5%) and Sr (3.2%). The isolation of high fly ash resistant fungi and reduction of the bioremediation time will allow the practical applications of the bioremediation technology when it is scaled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon-enriched coal fly ash as a precursor of activated carbons for SO2 removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M T; Rubio, B

    2008-06-30

    Carbon-enriched coal fly ash was evaluated in this work as a low-cost adsorbent for SO2 removal from stack gases. The unburned carbon in coal fly ash was concentrated by mechanical sieving and vegetal oil agglomeration. The carbon concentrates were activated with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the samples. The performance of these samples in the SO2 abatement was tested in the following conditions: 100 degrees C, 1000 ppmv SO2, 5% O2, 6% water vapor. A good SO2 removal capacity was shown by some of the studied samples that can be related to their textural properties. Cycles of SO2 adsorption/regeneration were carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of thermal regeneration and re-use of these carbons. Regeneration of the exhausted carbons was carried out at 400 degrees C of temperature and a flow of 25 ml/min of Ar. After each cycle, the SO2 removal capacity of the sample decreases.

  8. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  9. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO 2 NPs with average size 2 nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO 2 NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO 2 NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO 2 NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO 2 NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications

  10. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai, E-mail: purnasaik.clri@gmail.com

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  11. Removal of unburned carbon in fly ash produced in coal combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez V, Leonardo F; De La Cruz M, Javier F; Sanchez M, Jhon F

    2007-01-01

    The coal unburned in flying ashes obtained in the processes of coal combustion is the main disadvantage for its use in the industry of the construction. This material normally has a size of particle greater than the mineral material, therefore it is possible to be separated in a considerable percentage, obtaining double benefit: the reusability of unburned like fuel or precursor for the activated charcoal production and the use of the mineral material in the industry of the construction since the organic matter has retired him that disables its use. In this work it is experienced with a sifted technique of separation by for three obtained flying ash samples with different technology (travelling Grill, pneumatic injection and overturning grill), were made grain sized analyses with meshes of a diameter of particle greater to 0,589 mm, the short analyses were made to them next to the retained material in each mesh and the unburned percentage of removal was determined of. The technique was compared with other developing.

  12. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  13. Growth and elemental content of two tree species growing on abandoned coal fly ash basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.L.; Adriano, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in aboveground tissue concentrations of trace elements were assessed for sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) growing on two abandoned coal fly ash basins and a control soil. The wet basin (pH = 5.58) had originally received precipitator ash in an ash-water slurry, while the dry basin (pH = 8.26) had received both precipitator and bottom ash in dry form. In general, trees from the wet basin exhibited elevated trace element concentrations in comparison to the controls, while the dry basin trees exhibited reduced concentrations. On eof the most striking differenced in elemental concentrations among the ash basin and control trees was observed for Mn, with the control trees exhibiting concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the ash basin trees. Differences in foliar trace element concentrations among the sites can generally be explained by differences in substrate trace element concentrations and/or substrate pH. While trees from the wet ash basin generally had the highest trace element concentrations, these trees also attained the greatest height and diameter growth, suggesting that the elevated trace element concentrations in the wet basin substrate are not limiting the establishment of these two species. The greater height and diameter growth of the wet basin trees is presumably a result of the greater water-holding capacity of the substrate on this site. Differences in growth and tissue concentrations between sweetgum and sycamore highlight the importance of using more than one species when assessing metal toxicity or deficiency on a given substrate

  14. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    KocKal, N. U.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar) and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrin...

  15. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  16. Conversion of South African coal fly ash into high-purity ZSM-5 zeolite without additional source of silica or alumina and its application as a methanol-to-olefins catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of ZSM-5 synthesized from H2SO4-treated coal fly ash and fused coal fly ash extracts are compared in this study. In the synthesis process, fused coal fly ash extract (without an additional silica source) was used in the synthesis...

  17. Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation dose in fly ash and coal samples from NTPC, Badarpur, Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study radon activities and exhalation rates from fly ash and coal samples from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) situated at Badarpur, Delhi, India, have been measured. 'Sealed Can Technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors was employed. In fly ash samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 400.0 ± 34.7 to 483.9 ± 38.1Bqm -3 with an average value of 447.1 ± 36.6 Bqm -3 and in coal samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 504.0 ± 39.0 to 932.1 ± 52.9 Bqm -3 with an average value of 687.2 ± 45.2 Bqm -3 . Radon exhalation rate from coal is found to be higher than radon exhalation rate from its ash products, whereas the opposite is expected. Indoor inhalation exposure (radon) effective dose has also been estimated. (author)

  18. The bonding of heavy metals on nitric acid-etched coal fly ashes functionalized with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, M.I.; Aller, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Coal fly ash is a waste by-product of the coal fire industry, which generates many environmental problems. Alternative uses of this material would provide efficient solutions for this by-product. In this work, nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was assessed for retention of Al(III), As(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Hg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using various surface analytical techniques. Visualization of the organically-functionalized coal fly ash particle was possible using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the elemental composition of the functionalized material, before and after retention of the metal ions, was obtained by energy dispersive (ED)-X ray spectrometry (XRS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and Raman spectrometry were used to obtain information about the functional groups. It was found that some metal(oid) ions (As, Ni, Pb, Zn) were coordinated through the mercaptan group, while other metal(oid)s (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn) were apparently bonded to oxygen atoms. A low-cost and effective solid phase retention system for extraction of heavy metals from aqueous solutions was thus developed. - Graphical abstract: Nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was intended for the retention of heavy metals. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using surface analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Coal fly ashes were organically-functionalized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes were spectrometrically characterized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes can be used as an effective solid sorbent for metal(oid)s. • This retention

  19. Trace elements and As speciation analysis of fly ash samples from an Indonesian coal power plant by means of neutron activation analysis and synchrotron based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawat; Bennett, J.W.; Juan Jose Leani; Mateusz Czyzycki; Alessandro Migliori; Germanos Karydas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The elemental characterization of coal fly ash samples is required to estimate the coal burning emissions into the environment and to assess the potential impact into the biosphere. Fly ash samples collected from a coal fired power plant in center Java, Indonesia were characterized by instrumental neutron activation analysis at two different facilities (BATAN, ANSTO) and synchrotron based techniques at Elettra Italy. Assessment of thirty (30) elements and an investigation of the potential toxicity of As species in coal fly ash were presented. The results obtained are discussed and compared with those reported from other regions of the world. (author)

  20. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  1. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C. [Colorado State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  2. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  3. An appraisal of the potential use of fly ash for reclaiming coal mine spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Lal C; Masto, Reginald E

    2010-01-01

    Growing dependence on coal-fired power plants for electrical generation in many countries presents ongoing environmental challenges. Burning pulverized coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) generates large amounts of fly ash (FA) that must be disposed of or otherwise handled, in an environmentally-sound manner. A possible option for dealing with fly ash is to use it as an amendment for mine spoil or other damaged soil. It has been demonstrated through studies in India and other countries that FA alone or in combination with organic or inorganic materials can be used in a productive manner for reclamation of mine spoil. The characteristics of FA, including silt-sized particles, lighter materials with low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity, favorable pH and significant concentrations of many essential plant nutrients, make it a potentially favorable amendment for mine spoil reclamation. Studies have indicated that the application of FA has improved the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soil to which it is applied. The release of trace metals and soluble salts from FA could be a major limitation to its application. This is particularly true of fresh, un-weathered FA or acidic FA, although perhaps not a concern for weathered/pond ash or alkaline FA. Some potential contaminants, especially metals and other salt ions, could be immobilized and rendered biologically inert by the addition of certain inorganic and organic amendments. However, in view of the variability in the characteristics of FAs that are associated with location, feed coal, combustion conditions and other factors, the suitability of a particular FA for a specific soil/mine spoil needs to be critically evaluated before it is applied in order to maximize favorable results and eliminate unexpected consequences. FA generated in India tends to be mostly alkaline, with lower levels of trace elements than are often found in FAs from other countries. The concentrations of potential

  4. Transformation of South African coal fly ash into ZSM-5 zeolite and its application as an MTO catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a way of using South African coal fly ash by extracting metals such as Al and Fe with concentrated sulphuric acid, and then using the solid residue as a feedstock for the synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite. The percentage of aluminium...

  5. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  6. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

  7. Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J.M.A. Rincon; M. Romero [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy

    2006-11-15

    Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and pressure in reducing atmosphere. Under that conditions, gases such as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} or CO, which are the main components of the gas mixture in the gasifier, show a high solubility in the melt and during the cooling remain enclosed in the vitreous slag. When these wastes are afterward thermal treated in oxidizing conditions, two phenomena occur. The development of a crystalline phase by devitrification of the glassy matrix and the releasing of the enclosed gas, which starts at temperatures nearly to the softening point. At higher temperatures the bubbles with increasing kinetic energy tend to ascend with difficulty through the viscous liquid phase and promotes an expansive reaction, giving rise to a foam glass-ceramic product. This paper has been focused on the study of thermal expansion in slag and fly ash samples from the ELCOGAS IGCC power plant located in Puertollano (Spain). 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Utilization of coal-biomass fly ash in reactive barriers for treating acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, K.; Mohammedelhassan, E.; Catalan, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coal- and biomass-derived fly ash (CBFA) was used as a reactive barrier system for treating acid mine drainage. Two reactive barriers were investigated, notably a flow-through reactive barrier with minimum disruption to the existing flow regime, and a low-permeability barrier for the construction of containment dams. A synthetic acid mine drainage system was prepared in a laboratory. Kinetic column tests were conducted to analyze the effects of acid mine drainage flow on the hydraulic conductivity and leachate composition for mixtures of mine tailings and CBFA. The tests demonstrated that a mixture of the CBFA of between 10 to 50 per cent with mine tailings increased the pH and decreased the dissolved concentrations of heavy metals in acid mine drainage. Mineral precipitation caused large reductions in hydraulic conductivity in relation to the cumulative amounts of acid mine drainage flowing through the columns. It was concluded that the number of progressive pore volumes of acid mine drainage required for achieving reductions in hydraulic conductivity is inversely related to the fly ash content of the column packs. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Hepatic microsomal phospholipids in rats exposed intratracheally to coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Chauhan, S.S.; Misra, U.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of intratracheal administration of fly ash (50 mg/kg body weight, daily for 7 days) on hepatic microsomal phospholipid metabolism has been studied in rats using various phospholipid precursors, viz NaH 2 32 PO 4 , (methyl- 14 C)-choline, and (methyl- 14 C)-methionine. Fly ash administration significantly increased microsomal phosphatidylcholine (PC), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). The incorporation of NaH 2 32 PO 4 into total liver phospholipids, PC and Phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) was significantly increased in fly ash-treated rats as compared to the control. Fly ash administration also increased the incorporation of (methyl- 14 C)-choline into microsomal PC. Incorporation of (methyl- 14 C)-methionine into microsomal PC was not affected. Fly ash administration decreased the per cent distribution of arachidonic acid in PC and PE and increased that of oleic acid in PC and of linoleic acid in PE. (orig.)

  10. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of upgraded hydrogel biochar from blended rice husk with coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Farhana; Alias, Azil Bahari; Talib, Norhayati; Rashid, Zulkifli Abd; Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim

    2017-12-01

    Rice husk biochar (RB) blended with coal fly ash (CFA) is used as a material to develop hydrogel for heavy metal removal. This combination, namely hydrogel rice husk biochar-coal fly ash (HRB-CFA) composite is synthesized by embedding the biochar into acrylamide (AAM) as monomer, with N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. While activated carbon (AC) remains an expensive material, HRB-CFA is attracting great interest for its use in the absorption of organic contaminants due to its low material cost and importance as renewable source for securing future energy supply in the environmental system. Although the CFA does not have the surface area as high as AC, certain metallic components that are naturally present in the CFA can play the catalytic role in the removal of heavy metal from wastewater. The percentage of heavy metal removal is depends on the parameters that influence the sorption process; the effect of pH solution, dosage of adsorbent, initial concentration of solution, and contact time. The aim of this study is to characterize HRB-CFA by performing several analyses such as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) methods. The results obtained revealed that the best hydrogel ratio is 0.5:0.5 of blended RB and CFA, as proven by BET surface area, pore volume and pore size of 3.5392 m2/g, 0.00849 cm3/g and 90.566 Å, and the surface morphology showed an increase in porosity size.

  12. Reclamation of the Domtar/Canada brick quarry using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, P J

    1991-03-20

    Two power plants in the Toronto area required disposal sites for coal fly ash in the late 1970s. A local brick quarry was recognized as a potential disposal site, since a 10-hectare area of the quarry was no longer in production and was required to be filled for reclamation. Ontario Hydro and the brick company joined together to obtain approval for the landfilling project. The preliminary site investigations included an examination of the impact of the project on local residents and the environment in terms of traffic volumes, noise levels, road dirt, airborne dust, and contamination of surface water and groundwater. Ontario Environmental Assessment Board hearings were held, with evidence presented from concerned parties. The findings from the hearings indicated that the project would have little effect on nearby residents and would improve the local environment by reclaiming usable land. Filling of the quarry began in December 1981 and continued for 5 years, after which a total of over 680,000 tonnes of fly ash was deposited. After completion, the ash was covered with a seal layer consisting of at least 1 m of clay or till compacted to structural fill standards with a 1 m thick protective cover layer to protect the seal layer from desiccation cracking and frost heave. Material is currently being stockpiled at the site to increase the thickness of the protective layer in order to make the site self-managing. Monitoring of surface water and groundwater is still ongoing and will continue for many years. 17 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 2. Usage of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.

    1996-01-01

    It has been shown that coal fly ash is a good adsorbent for both radionuclides of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Radiocesium adsorption is maximal around the neutral region whereas radiostrontium adsorption increases with pH, especially above pH 8. Cesium retention sharply drops with ionic strength while strontium adsorption increases sharply and steadily at low and moderate concentrations of the inert electrolyte, respectively. The suggested mechanisms of radionuclide retention by fly ash is specific adsorption of Cs + and irreversible ion-exchange uptake of Sr 2+ . The isotherm of adsorption is a Langmuir approximation of the B.E.T. multi-layered sorption. Acid pretreatment of fly ash, though not increasing radionuclide sorption capacity, may be useful in preventing the leach-out of other contaminants from the sorbent into water during the adsorption process. (author)

  14. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 2. Usage of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    It has been shown that coal fly ash is a good adsorbent for both radionuclides of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Radiocesium adsorption is maximal around the neutral region whereas radiostrontium adsorption increases with pH, especially above pH 8. Cesium retention sharply drops with ionic strength while strontium adsorption increases sharply and steadily at low and moderate concentrations of the inert electrolyte, respectively. The suggested mechanisms of radionuclide retention by fly ash is specific adsorption of Cs{sup +} and irreversible ion-exchange uptake of Sr{sup 2+}. The isotherm of adsorption is a Langmuir approximation of the B.E.T. multi-layered sorption. Acid pretreatment of fly ash, though not increasing radionuclide sorption capacity, may be useful in preventing the leach-out of other contaminants from the sorbent into water during the adsorption process. (author).

  15. The Impact of Coal Combustion Fly Ash Used as a Supplemental Cementitious Material on the Leaching of Constituents from Cements and Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this report is to compare the leaching of portland cement-based materials that have been prepared with and without coal combustion fly ash to illustrate whether there is evidence that the use of fly ash in cement and concrete products may result in increased leac...

  16. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi, S., Guerrero, A.

    2006-01-01

    [EN] The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C) fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with...

  17. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  18. Gypsum amendment to soil can reduce selenium uptake by alfalfa grown in the presence of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Woodbury, P.B.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in the field and greenhouse were conducted in the presence of coal fly ash to determine whether gypsum can reduce Se concentration in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In the field experiment, conducted at a coal fly ash landfill, 11.2 t ha -1 gypsum was applied to soil as a top dressing to test the effect of gypsum in reducing selenium (Se) concentration in aboveground plant tissue. There were four treatment combinations of gypsum over a two year period, 1990, and 1991: (0, 0), (0, 11.2) (11.2, 0) and (11.2, 11.2). In 1991, the Se concentration was lower in alfalfa grown with gypsum, regardless of whether the gypsum was applied in both years or in only one year, indicating that the effect of gypsum application in the first year persisted into the second year. Since there was no increase in aboveground biomass with added gypsum, differences in Se concentration reflect a competitive interaction between S and Se. In the greenhouse experiment, 12 soil treatments were tested: three levels of fly ash (0, 10 and 20%) in combination with each of four levels of gypsum (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The Se concentration in alfalfa grown in 10% fly ash declined linearly with increasing gypsum dose, resulting in a reduction in Se concentration of 0.04 ± 0.02 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added for the first harvest and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added in the second harvest. Based on these results, gypsum may prove useful as a management tool to reduce the uptake of Se by plants growing on coal fly ash landfills

  19. Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g, with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents.

  20. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Analytical applications of atomic spectroscopy, with particular reference to inductively coupled plasma emission analysis of coal and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougnet, M.A.B.

    1983-08-01

    This thesis outlines the analytical applications of atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy to a variety of materials. Special attention was directed to the analysis of coal and coal ashes. A simple slurry sampling technique was developed and used to determine V, Ni, Co, Mo and Mn in the National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (NBS-SRM) coals 1632a and 1635 by furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Coal and fly ash were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The determination of B, Be, Li, C, K and other trace elements by ICP-AES was investigated. Analytical methods were developed for the analysis of coal, fly ash and water samples. Fusion with sodium carbonate and a digestion bomb dissolution method were compared for the determination of boron in a South African boron-rich mineral (Kornerupine). Eight elements were determined in 10 industrial water samples from a power plant. Ca, Mg, Si and B were determined by ICP-AES and V, Ni, Co and Mo by FAAS. Various problems encountered during the course of the work and interferences in ICP-AES analysis are discussed. Some recommendations concerning method development and routine analysis by this technique are suggested

  3. Characterization of humidity-controlling porous ceramics produced from coal fly ash and waste catalyst by co-sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lo, Kang-Wei; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the following operating conditions were applied to develop humidity-controlling porous ceramic (HCPC) products: sintering temperatures of 800-1000 °C and percentages of coal fly ash in waste catalyst of 0%-40%. The HCPC samples then underwent a flexural strength test, to determine their quality according to the Chinese National Standards (CNS 3298). Their microstructures, crystal structures, and pore volume were determined in terms of equilibrium moisture content, water vapor adsorption/desorption, and hygroscopic sorption properties over 48 h. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms showed a hydrophobic behavior (type H3 isotherm). The water vapor adsorption/desorption and hygroscopic sorption properties satisfied the JIS A1470 intensity specification for building materials (>29 g/m2). At sintering temperatures of 950-1000 °C, HCPC samples for coal fly ash containing 20%-30% waste catalyst met the JIS A1470 intensity specifications for building materials (<29 g/m2).

  4. The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Patrick, E-mail: brownpd@cf.ac.uk [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3YE Cardiff (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, CF10 3US Cardiff (United Kingdom); Jones, Tim, E-mail: jonestp@cf.ac.uk [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3YE Cardiff (United Kingdom); BeruBe, Kelly, E-mail: berube@cf.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, CF10 3US Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 {mu}m. Respirable particles (<10 {mu}m) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. - Highlights: > Chinese CFA had a greater crystalline mineral content and smaller particle size. > Mullite and quartz, two hazardous minerals, recrystallise from glass melt particles. > Mullite revealed a fibrous habit, with fibres 1-10 {mu}m in length and 0.5-1 {mu}m in width. - Chinese CFA possessed a greater crystalline mineral content and smaller particle size than UK and Polish CFA, the fibrous mullite prhiesent displayed a high aspect-ratio and thus is likely to be a respiratory hazard in vivo.

  5. The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 μm. Respirable particles (<10 μm) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BeruBe, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 μm. Respirable particles (<10 μm) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. - Highlights: → Chinese CFA had a greater crystalline mineral content and smaller particle size. → Mullite and quartz, two hazardous minerals, recrystallise from glass melt particles. → Mullite revealed a fibrous habit, with fibres 1-10 μm in length and 0.5-1 μm in width. - Chinese CFA possessed a greater crystalline mineral content and smaller particle size than UK and Polish CFA, the fibrous mullite prhiesent displayed a high aspect-ratio and thus is likely to be a respiratory hazard in vivo.

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly and Photocatalytic Activity of Titania Nanosheets on Coal Fly Ash Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the problem with titania distribution and recovery, series of Ti0.91O2/CFA photocatalysts (Ti0.91O2/CFA-n, n=2,4,6, and 8 were fabricated by assembling Ti0.91O2 nanosheets on coal fly ash (CFA microspheres via the layer-by-layer assembly (LBLA process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, N2-sorption, and ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis techniques. The SEM images and UV-vis spectra illustrated that Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were immobilized successfully on the CFA by the LBLA approach and changed the characteristics of CFA noticeably. The photocatalytic activity of Ti0.91O2/CFA was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB under UV irradiation. The results demonstrated that Ti0.91O2/CFA-6 showed the best photocatalytic activity among the series of Ti0.91O2/CFA irradiated for 60 min, with a decoloration rate above 43%. After photocatalysis, the Ti0.91O2/CFA could be easily separated and recycled from aqueous solution and Ti0.91O2 nanosheets were still anchored on the CFA.

  8. Synthesis of Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash: Its Application as Water Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Pavasant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash (CFA was used as raw material for zeolite synthesis by fusion method. In detail, it was mixed with NaOH (with ratio of 2.25 and treated under various temperatures. Synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques i.e. X-rayfluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and BET surface area analysis. It was found that the surface area of synthesized zeolite were in the range of 49.407-69.136 m2/g depending on the preparing condition, compared to the surface area of CFA about 17.163 m2/g. In addition, according to the XRD result, it was proven that the form of zeolite was Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate (1.08Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O. The synthesized zeolite was then applied as water sorbent to remove water from ethanol solution (95%. The testing results revealed that the optimal fusion temperature was 450.C, which provided maximum percentage of water removal from ethanol solution (from 95% ethanol to 99.25% ethanol. For comparison, commercial-grade molecular sieve was also tested and was found to increase ethanol concentration from 95% to 99.61%. Hence, it is concluded that our synthesized zeolite provides comparable performance to the commercial-grade molecular sieve.

  9. Optimized Production of Coal Fly Ash Derived Synthetic Zeolites for Mercury Removal from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Shah, D.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) derived synthetic zeolites have become popular with recent advances and its ever-expanding range of applications, particularly as an adsorbent for water and gas purification and as a binder or additive in the construction industry and agriculture. Among these applications, perpetual interest has been in utilization of CFA derived synthetic zeolites for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. We herein focus on utilization of locally available CFA for efficient adsorption of mercury from wastewater. To this end, experimental conditions were investigated so that to produce synthetic zeolites from Kazakhstani CFAs with conversion into zeolite up to 78%, which has remarkably high magnetite content. In particular, the effect of synthesis reaction temperature, reaction time, and loading of adsorbent were systematically investigated and optimized. All produced synthetic zeolites and the respective CFAs were characterized using XRD, XRF, PSA and porosimetric instruments to obtain microstructural and mineralogical data. Furthermore, the synthesized zeolites were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions. A comparison of removal eficiency and its relationship to the physical and chemical properties of the synthetic zeolites were analyzed and interpreted.

  10. Coal fly ash as a source of iron in atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2012-02-21

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash (FA) aerosol may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made that compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report here an investigation of iron dissolution for three FA samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust (AZTD), a reference material for mineral dust. The effects of pH, simulated cloud processing, and solar radiation on iron solubility have been explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provides the predominant component of dissolved iron. Iron solubility of FA is substantially higher than of the crystalline minerals comprising AZTD. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in FA particles. Iron is continuously released into the aqueous solution as FA particles break up into smaller fragments. These results suggest that the assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes and their effect on the biogeochemistry at the ocean surface should be constrained by the source, environmental pH, iron speciation, and solar radiation.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of Cs"+ onto artificial zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash and diatomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, Erni; Yoshida, Kohei; Itagaki, Yoshiteru; Aono, Hiromichi; Munthali, Moses Wazingwa; Matsue, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive decontamination of water, soil and other materials requires cheap and effective adsorbents. Artificial zeolites synthesized from an industrial waste (coal fly ash: Na-P1 type zeolite) and a natural material (diatomite: mordenite type zeolite) have a high Cs"+ adsorptivity in the adsorption experiments using 0.1 g of the zeolite and 50 mL of up to 7.5 mM CsCl. The coexisting cation suppressed the Cs"+ adsorption onto the zeolites, and the effect of the suppression was in the order, K"+ > Na"+ > Ca"2"+ > Mg"2"+. A thermodynamic analysis proved that the Cs"+ adsorption onto the two zeolites was exothermic favoring a lower temperature. The artificial mordenite showed a greater Cs"+ adsorption strength, higher distribution coefficient and lower ΔG°, especially at low Cs"+ concentrations. Adsorption isotherm analysis by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models showed a greater Cs"+ adsorption selectivity for the artificial mordenite even at a low pH. (author)

  12. Fixed-bed studies of the interactions between mercury and coal combustion fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Grant E.; DeWall, Raymond A. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

    2003-08-15

    Sixteen different fly ash samples, generated from both pilot-scale and full-scale combustion systems, were exposed to a simulated flue gas containing either elemental mercury or HgCl{sub 2} in a bench-scale reactor system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center to evaluate the interactions and determine the effects of temperature, mercury species, and ash type on adsorption of mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury. The fly ash samples were characterized for surface area, loss on ignition, and forms of iron in the ash. While many of the ash samples oxidized elemental mercury, not all of the samples that oxidized mercury also captured elemental mercury. However, no capture of elemental mercury was observed without accompanying oxidation. Generally, oxidation of elemental mercury increased with increasing amount of magnetite in the ash. However, one high-carbon subbituminous ash with no magnetite showed considerable mercury oxidation that may have been due to unburned carbon. Surface area as well as the nature of the surface appeared to be important for oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury. The capacity of the ash samples for HgCl{sub 2} was similar to that for elemental mercury. There was a good correlation between the capacity for HgCl{sub 2} and the surface area; capacity decreased with increasing temperature.

  13. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: microstructure and metal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilize a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  14. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Maria, E-mail: mariaizq@ija.csic.es [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' -CSIC, Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Davidovits, Joseph [Cordi-Geopolymere, Espace Creatis, Z.A. Bois de la Chocque 02100 Saint-Quentin (France); Antenucci, Diano [Institut Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP) 200, rue du Chera, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Nugteren, Henk [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Particle Technology Group, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  15. Coal fly ash-slag-based geopolymers: Microstructure and metal leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Davidovits, Joseph; Antenucci, Diano; Nugteren, Henk; Fernandez-Pereira, Constantino

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly alkaline environment, which inhibits the leaching of heavy metals but may enhance the mobilization of certain oxyanionic species. Thus, fly ash-based geopolymers were found to immobilise a number of trace pollutants such as Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements. However, the leachable levels of elements occurring in their oxyanionic form such as As, B, Mo, Se, V and W were increased after geopolymerization. This suggests that an optimal dosage, synthesis and curing conditions are essential in order to obtain a long-term stable final product that ensures an efficient physical encapsulation.

  16. Methodical studies of groundwater pollution caused by fly ash deposits from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuziak-Salzenberg, D.

    1990-01-01

    The risk potential of fly ash deposits from fossil-fuel power plants was investigated through laboratory elution experiments (single elution, multiple elution, column leaching). The groundwater risk potential in the case of indiscriminate, unsealed dumping is high because of an increased water hardness and due to sulfate, molybdenum, selenium, boron, chromium, barium, strontium and arsenic contamination. Higher barium and strontium concentrations are typical of fly ash deposits. Barium and strontium thus serve as target elements for identification of sites of long-standing pollution. The risks of arsenic leaching are discussed in detail. (orig./LU) [de

  17. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  18. Immersion freezing induced by different kinds of coal fly ash: Comparing particle generation methods and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Clemen, Hans-Christian; Eriksen-Hammer, Stine; Lubitz, Jasmin; Schneider, Johannes; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2017-04-01

    To date, a lot of effort has been put into the identification and characterization of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs), which may influence both weather and climate. The majority of studies focuses on INPs from natural origin such as biological particles or mineral dust particles (Hoose and Möhler 2012, Murray et al. 2012). Combustion ashes, being possible sources of anthropogenic INPs, have rarely been investigated in the past. Ash particles may be emitted into the atmosphere either by the action of wind from ash deposits on the ground (bottom ash), or during the combustion process (fly ash). Two recent studies (Umo et al., 2015; Grawe et al., 2016) identified fly ash from coal combustion as the most efficient of the investigated samples (including also bottom ashes from wood and coal combustion). These results motivate the here presented study in which we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of four coal fly ash samples taken from the filters of different coal-fired power plants in Germany. A combination of two instruments was used to capture the temperature range from 0 °C to the homogeneous freezing limit at around -38 °C. Firstly, the new Leipzig Ice Nucleation Array (LINA) was used, where droplets from an ash-water suspension are pipetted onto a cooled plate. Secondly, we used the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS; Hartmann et al., 2011), a laminar flow tube in which every droplet contains a single size-segregated ash particle. Here, it was possible to study the effect of different kinds of particle generation, i.e., atomization of an ash-water suspension, and aerosolization of dry ash material. The composition of the ash particles was investigated by means of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry and particles were sampled on filters for environmental scanning electron microscope analysis. Our measurements show that all four fly ash samples feature a similar immersion freezing behavior (ice fractions vary by a

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolite from Coal Class F Fly Ash. Influence of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goñi, S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of temperature of alkaline hydrothermal treatment on the conversion in zeolite of Spanish coal low calcium-fly ash (ASTM class F is presented in this work. Zeolite Na-P1 gismondine type (Na6Al6Si10O32.12H2O was formed at the temperature of 100ºC, which transformed in zeolite; analcime-C type (Na(Si2AlO6H2O and sodalite (1.08 Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O at 200ºC together with traces of tobermorite-11Å (Ca5(OH2Si6O16.4H2O. At this temperature the 100% of the fly ash reaction was allowed. An equivalent study was carried out in water as reference. The zeolite conversion of the fly ash was characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD, FT infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, surface area (BET-N2 and thermal analyses.

    En este trabajo se presenta el papel que juega la temperatura durante el tratamiento hidrotermal en medio alcalino para convertir una ceniza volante de bajo contenido en cal (clase F, según la norma ASTM en zeolita. Durante este tratamiento a la temperatura de 100ºC se forma Zeolita Na-P1 tipo gismondina (Na6Al6Si10O32.12H2O; al elevar la temperatura a 200ºC, dicha zeolita se transforma en zeolita Analcima C (Na(Si2AlO6H2O y en fase sodalita (1.08 Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O junto con trazas de tobermorita-11Å (Ca5(OH2Si6O16.4H2O. A esta temperatura y en estas condiciones se ha conseguido un 100% de reacción. Un estudio equivalente se ha llevado a cabo empleando agua como medio de referencia. La conversión de ceniza volante en zeolita se ha caracterizado mediante técnicas, como difracción de Rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia

  20. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  1. Mobility and contamination assessment of mercury in coal fly ash, atmospheric deposition, and soil collected from Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Wu, Guanghong; Su, Ruixian; Li, Congwei; Liang, Peiyu

    2011-09-01

    Samples of class F coal fly ash (levels I, II, and III), slag, coal, atmospheric deposition, and soils collected from Tianjin, China, were analyzed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 3052 and a sequential extraction procedure, to investigate the pollution status and mobility of Hg. The results showed that total mercury (HgT) concentrations were higher in level I fly ash (0.304 µg/g) than in level II and level III fly ash and slag (0.142, 0.147, and 0.052 µg/g, respectively). Total Hg in the atmospheric deposition was higher during the heating season (0.264 µg/g) than the nonheating season (0.135 µg/g). Total Hg contents were higher in suburban area soils than in rural and agricultural areas. High HgT concentrations in suburban area soils may be a result of the deposition of Hg associated with particles emitted from coal-fired power plants. Mercury in fly ash primarily existed as elemental Hg, which accounted for 90.1, 85.3, and 90.6% of HgT in levels I, II, and III fly ash, respectively. Mercury in the deposition existed primarily as sulfide Hg, which accounted for 73.8% (heating season) and 74.1% (nonheating season) of HgT. However, Hg in soils existed primarily as sulfide Hg, organo-chelated Hg and elemental Hg, which accounted for 37.8 to 50.0%, 31.7 to 41.8%, and 13.0 to 23.9% of HgT, respectively. The percentage of elemental Hg in HgT occurred in the order fly ash > atmospheric deposition > soils, whereas organo-chelated Hg and sulfide Hg occurred in the opposite order. The present approach can provide a window for understanding and tracing the source of Hg in the environment in Tianjin and the risk associated with Hg bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ian Gilmour; Silvia O' Connor; Colin A.J. Dick; C. Andrew Miller; William P. Linak [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CD1 mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 {mu}g of ultrafine ({lt}0.2 {mu}m), fine ({lt}2.5 {mu}m), and coarse ({gt}2.5 {mu}m) coal fly ash from a combusted Montana subbituminous coal, and of fine and coarse fractions from a combusted western Kentucky bituminous coal. After 18 hr, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar fluid was assessed for cellular influx, biochemical markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The responses were compared with saline and endotoxin as negative and positive controls, respectively. On an equal mass basis, the ultrafine particles from combusted Montana coal induced a higher degree of neutrophil inflammation and cytokine levels than did the fine or coarse PM. The western Kentucky fine PM caused a moderate degree of inflammation and protein levels in bronchoalveolar fluid that were higher than the Montana fine PM. Coarse PM did not produce any significant effects. In vitro experiments with rat alveolar macrophages showed that of the particles tested, only the Montana ultrafine displayed significant cytotoxicity. It is concluded that fly ash toxicity is inversely related with particle size and is associated with increased sulfur and trace element content. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Coal fly ash impairs airway antimicrobial peptides and increases bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Jennifer A; Chen, Haihan; Caraballo, Juan C; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infections, and one of its main components is particulate matter (PM), which is comprised of a number of particles that contain iron, such as coal fly ash (CFA). Since free iron concentrations are extremely low in airway surface liquid (ASL), we hypothesize that CFA impairs antimicrobial peptides (AMP) function and can be a source of iron to bacteria. We tested this hypothesis in vivo by instilling mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and CFA and determine the percentage of bacterial clearance. In addition, we tested bacterial clearance in cell culture by exposing primary human airway epithelial cells to PA01 and CFA and determining the AMP activity and bacterial growth in vitro. We report that CFA is a bioavailable source of iron for bacteria. We show that CFA interferes with bacterial clearance in vivo and in primary human airway epithelial cultures. Also, we demonstrate that CFA inhibits AMP activity in vitro, which we propose as a mechanism of our cell culture and in vivo results. Furthermore, PA01 uses CFA as an iron source with a direct correlation between CFA iron dissolution and bacterial growth. CFA concentrations used are very relevant to human daily exposures, thus posing a potential public health risk for susceptible subjects. Although CFA provides a source of bioavailable iron for bacteria, not all CFA particles have the same biological effects, and their propensity for iron dissolution is an important factor. CFA impairs lung innate immune mechanisms of bacterial clearance, specifically AMP activity. We expect that identifying the PM mechanisms of respiratory infections will translate into public health policies aimed at controlling, not only concentration of PM exposure, but physicochemical characteristics that will potentially cause respiratory infections in susceptible individuals and populations.

  4. Odorants and malodors associated with land application of biosolids stabilized with lime and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laor, Yael; Naor, Moshe; Ravid, Uzi; Fine, Pinchas; Halachmi, Ilan; Chen, Yona; Baybikov, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Malodor emissions limit public acceptance of using municipal biosolids as natural organic resources in agricultural production. We aimed to identify major odorants and to evaluate odor concentrations associated with land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludges (Class B) and their alkaline (lime and coal fly ash)-stabilized products (Class A). These two types of biosolids were applied at 12.6 tonnes ha(-1) (dry weight) to microplots of very fine clayey Vertisol in the Jezreel Valley, northern Israel. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the biosolids before and during alkaline stabilization and after incorporation into the soil were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Odor concentrations at the plots were evaluated on site with a Nasal Ranger field olfactometer that sniffed over a defined land surface area through a static chamber. The odors emitted by anaerobically digested sewage sludges from three activated sludge water treatment plants had one characteristic chemical fingerprint. Alkaline stabilization emitted substantial odors associated with high concentrations of ammonia and release of nitrogen-containing VOCs and did not effectively reduce the potential odor annoyance. Odorous VOCs could be generated within the soil after biosolids incorporation, presumably because of anaerobic conditions within soil-biosolids aggregates. We propose that dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which seem to be most related to the odor concentrations of biosolids-treated soil, be used as potential chemical markers for the odor annoyance associated with incorporation of anaerobically digested sewage sludges. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  6. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kockal, N. U.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrinkage and strength because of the densification observed also in microstructural investigation.

    Se ha evaluado la influencia de la proporción de diferentes tipos de cenizas volantes (en lugar de feldespato y diferentes temperaturas de sinterización en las propiedades de soportes cerámicos. Los resultados indicaron que las composiciones con un alto contenido de cenizas volantes provocaron una disminución en las propiedades de las piczas cocidas a alta temperatura como consecuencia del hinchamiento. Las composiciones con una mayor cantidad de cenizas sinterizadas a baja temperatura mostraron una menor absorción de agua, mayor contracción y resistencia mecánica debido a la densificación como también se observó en la investigación microestructural.

  7. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg -1 , 40 K-689 Bq kg -1 , 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg -1 , 235U-13.5 Bq kg -1 , 238U-50 Bq kg -1 and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg -1 .

  8. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  9. Classification of pulverized coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van der Hoek, E.E.; De Groot, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1992-09-01

    The leachability of fifty different pulverized coal ashes from utilities in the Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium has been studied. Five different ashes were analyzed according to the complete standard leaching test and the results were published earlier. The examination of a wide variety of ashes under a wide range of pH and Liquid to Solid ratio (LS) conditions creates the possibility of identifying systematic trends in fly ash leaching behaviour and to identify the mechanisms controlling release. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 app., 25 refs

  10. Chemical forms of the fluorine and carbon in fly ashes recovered from electrostatic precipitators of pulverized coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoto Tsubouchi; Hidekazu Hayashi; Akiyuki Kawashima; Masahide Sato; Noboru Suzuki; Yasuo Ohtsuka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

    2011-01-15

    The functionalities of the fluorine and carbon present in fly ashes formed in pulverized coal combustion have been studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. The ash samples include 20-130 {mu}g/g-dry and 0.4-4.1 mass%-dry of fluorine and carbon elements, respectively, and these components are enriched at the outermost layer of the ash surface. The F consists of both inorganic and organic functionalities, and the proportion of the latter is as high as 84-98 mol%. The C has different types of surface oxygen species, such as carboxyl, lactone/acid anhydride and phenolic groups, and most of these groups decompose to CO{sub 2} or CO up to 700{sup o}C to yield carbon active sites. When the amount of the O-functional forms increases, the content of organic C-F forms tends to increase almost linearly. On the basis of the above results, it may be speculated as one possibility that the formation of covalent C-F bonds takes place mainly through secondary reactions between gaseous F-containing compounds (HF and/or F{sub 2}) in flue gas and carbon active sites produced below 700{sup o}C downstream of coal-fired boilers. 30 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Radon exhalation of cementitious materials made with coal fly ash: Part 1 - scientific background and testing of the cement and fly ash emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovler, K.; Perevalov, A.; Steiner, V.; Metzger, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in measuring radionuclides and radon concentrations in fly ash, cement and other components of building products is due to the concern of health hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The current work focuses on studying the influence of fly ash (FA) on radon-exhalation rate (radon flux) from cementitious materials. The tests were carried out on cement paste specimens with different FA contents. The first part of the paper presents the scientific background and describes the experiments, which we designed for testing the radon emanation of the raw materials used in the preparation of the cement-FA pastes. It is found that despite the higher 226 Ra content in FA (more than 3 times, compared with Portland cement) the radon emanation is significantly lower in FA (7.65% for cement vs. 0.52% only for FA)

  12. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  13. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Zimmerman, C.A.; Dvorak, A.J.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot/root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil; however, more vigorous growth occurred on lime-amended gob than on fly ash-amended gob. Significant differences (rho < 0.05) in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations which have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  14. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  15. Adsorption of oxyanions of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se from coal fly ash leachates using Al3+/Fe3+modified bentonite clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhahangwele, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ponds. On disposal, coal fly ash leaches out toxic chemical species on contact with the aqueous media hence posing hazardous effects to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Of prime concern are Oxyanionic species such as As, B, Cr, Mo and Se...

  16. Synthesis of zeolite-P from coal fly ash derivative and its utilisation in mine-water remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F. Petrik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues resulting from the active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash were successfully converted to zeolite-P under mild hydrothermal treatment conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the zeolite-P product was highly crystalline. The product had a high cation exchange capacity (178.7 meq / 100 g and surface area (69.1 m2/g and has potential application in waste-water treatment. A mineralogical analysis of the final product identified zeolite-P, as well as mullite and quartz phases, which indicated incomplete dissolution of the fly ash feedstock during the ageing step. Further optimisation of the synthesis conditions would be required to attain complete utilisation of the feedstock. The zeolite-P was tested for decontamination potential of circumneutral mine water. High removal efficiency was observed in the first treatment, but varied for different contaminants. The synthesised zeolite-P exhibited a high efficiency for the removal of heavy metal cations, such as aluminium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and nickel, from contaminated mine water, even with repeated use. For potassium, calcium, strontium and barium, the removal was only efficient in the first treatment and decreased rapidly with subsequent treatments, indicating preferential adsorption of the other metals. A continuous release of sodium was observed during decontamination experiments, which decreased with subsequent treatments, confirming that sodium was the main exchangeable charge-balancing cation present in the zeolite-P product.

  17. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and coal fly ash slurries using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotopic dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, S.M.; Pozebon, D.; Curtius, A.J. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A method has been investigated for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and in coal fly ash, using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope dilution. The slurry, 25 mg ml{sup -1}, was prepared by mixing the powdered sample (less than or equal to 36 - 45 mm) with acid solutions (nitric acid for coal and nitric and hydrofluoric acids for coal fly ash) and submitting the mixture to an ultrasonic agitation, letting it stand afterwards in a water bath at 60{sup o}C for 2 h. An ultrasonic probe was used to homogenize the slurry in the autosampler cup just before its introduction into the graphite tube. The best conditions were determined regarding analyte sensitivity, furnace temperature program, amount of modifier, acid concentration, gas flow rate and particle size. For Hg, the pyrolysis stage was omitted and a low vaporization temperature was used (450 - 1000{sup o}C); the residual matrix was eliminated in the first step of the following cycle. The modifiers used were: Pd for Cd and Tl; Au, Ir or Pd for Hg; Ir or Pd for Pb. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing six certified coal reference materials (SARM 20, SARM 19, BCR No. 40, BCR No. 180, BCR No. 181 and NIST 1630a) and one certified coal fly ash (NIST 1633b). With one exception (Hg in BCR No. 180), the found concentrations were typically within 95% confidence interval of the certified values, or close enough to the recommended values, as long as the samples were ground to a small enough particle size. The limits of detection were typically around 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 1 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl, respectively. The precision was also adequate with relative standard deviations of usually < 5%.

  18. Application of paste technology to mitigate the dust emissions from handling of fly and bottom ash at coal fired power plant : CGTEE in Candiota, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Marques, M.E. [Golder Associates Peru, Lima (Peru); Lima, H. [Golder Associates Brazil, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mandl, B.; Francoeur, R.; Palkovits, F. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Blois, R. [Companhia de Geracao Termica de Energia Electrica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a method developed to reduce dust emissions generated in a fly ash handling procedure used at a thermal power plant located in the south of Brazil. The fly ash is collected in dry form at several locations in the plant and pneumatically conveyed to storage silos, where it is moistened with water in a mixer, loaded into dump trucks and deposited in a disposal area near a surface coal mine. The new solution created low density fly ash slurry in localized mixing tanks within the power plant. The low density slurry is pumped to an ash conditioning plant where the slurry is then mixed with the bottom ash, dewatered, and densified. The densified slurry is then pumped to an adjacent coal mine disposal site in order to be used as backfill in mined areas. The proposed method will significantly reduce dust emissions both inside and outside the plant, and will substantially reduce truck traffic at the mine. The method will reduce the environmental impacts associated with fly ash dust emissions in the region. 8 figs.

  19. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Mechanical strength, porosity and pore size distribution were also studied in equivalent mortar samples.En este trabajo se discute la influencia del tipo de curado y de un aditivo reductor de la demanda de agua en la actividad hidráulica de un cemento belítico de cenizas volantes de alto contenido en cal denominado (CBCV-2-A. Este cemento ha sido sintetizado por una ruta húmeda hidrotermal con posterior calcinación, empleando ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal (ASTM tipo C como materia prima. La actividad hidráulica se ha estudiado en la pasta de cemento, durante un periodo de 180 días, por medio del contenido de agua combinada, determinada por análisis termogravimétrico, y el grado de hidratación por difracción de rayos X (DRX. La resistencia mecánica y la porosidad total y distribución de tamaño de poro se han estudiado en probetas equivalentes de mortero

  20. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  1. Use of analcime zeolite from mineral coal fly ash in adsorption of Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Junior, C.A.F.; Santos, S.C.A.; Angelica, R.S.; Neves, R.F.; Souza, C.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The use of zeolite for removing heavy metals from contaminated effluents over the years has been widespread due to its high cation exchange capacity in aqueous solutions. Thus this study aims to use analcime zeolite for removal of Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 from aqueous solutions at different concentrations, and the zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash generated in an alumina plant in northern Brazil . The use of zeolite analcime proved quite satisfactory, since this product has removed almost entirely Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 solutions with concentrations up to 200ppm, and demonstrated an average capacity for solutions of 400ppm, which shows good applicability of this material for the treatment of effluent contamination in the ranges studied. The adsorption models of Langmuir and Freundlich showed a good fit to experimental data generated in this work. (author)

  2. Surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash particles after interaction with seawater under natural deep sea conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brami, Y.; Shemesh, A.; Cohen, H.; Herut, B.

    1999-01-01

    The surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash (CFA) before and after interaction with Mediterranean deep seawater was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly lower values of Si, Ca, and S and higher values of Mg and Cl were found in the retrieved CFA as compared to fresh CFA. It is suggested that hydrolysis of the oxide matrixes results in an alkaline environment which rapidly leads to several chemical reactions. The two most important are (a) dissolution of the amorphous silicate and the calcium phases and (b) precipitation of Mg(OH) 2 -brucite. A depth profile of the retrieved CFA was measured by both line-shape analysis of the XPS spectra and by consecutive cycle of sputtering. The thickness of the brucite layer is estimated to be 1.3 nm

  3. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  5. Experimental on fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding to improve the performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler co-burning coal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lunbo; Xu, Guiling; Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Changsui [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of reducing carbon content in fly ash, fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding (FARBF) technology was applied to a 75 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler burning mixture of coal and coal sludge. And industrial experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of FARBF technology on the combustion performance and pollutant emission characteristics of the CFB boiler. Results show that as the recirculation rate of fly ash increases, the CFB dense bed temperature decreases while the furnace outlet temperature increases, and the temperature distribution in the furnace becomes uniform. Compared with the conditions without fly ash recirculation, the combustion efficiency increases from 92 to 95% when the recirculation rate increases to 8 t/h, and the desulfurization efficiency also increases significantly. As the recirculation rate increases, the emissions of NO and CO decrease, but the particulate emission increases. The present study indicates that FARBF technology can improve the combustion performance and desulfurization efficiency for the CFB boilers burning coal sludge, and this can bring large economical and environmental benefits in China.

  6. Possibilities of utilization of fly ash from the black coal Power Engineering of the U. S. Steel Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Františka Michalíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modes of a direct utilization of the fly ash by-product of the combustion of black power coal in the slag - bottom boilers of the Division Plant Power Engineering ( DP PE of the U. S. Steel Košice ( next USSK . The properties of fly ash limit its use in metallurgy and foundry industry. The fly ash is directly utilizable in the metallurgical industry as a component of powder cover mixtures and insulation inserts, heat insulation parts and exothermical mixtures. The most important components in the mixtures are light micro spheres – cenospheres and heavy micro spheres – plerospheres. The micro spheres significantly improve properties of the powder cover mixtures.

  7. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  8. Jatropha curcas: A potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, S.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, N.; Sharma, P.N. [National Botany Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to test the heavy metal phytoremediation capacity of Jatropha curcas from fly ash. Both natural accumulation by J. curcas and chemically enhanced phytoextraction was investigated. Plants were grown on FA and FA amended with fertile garden soil, in presence and absence of chemical chelating agent EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} and 0.3 g kg{sup -1} of soil. EDTA enhanced the uptake of all five elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Cu and Mn) tested. Fe and Mn were retained more in roots while Cu, Al and Cr were translocated more to the shoot. Metal accumulation index indicates that the effect of EDTA at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} was more pronounced than EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} in terms of metal accumulation. Biomass was enhanced up to 37% when FA was amended with GS. Heavy metal uptake was enhanced by 117% in root, 62% in stem, 86% in leaves when EDTA was applied at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} to FA amended with GS. Study suggest that J. curcas has potential of establishing itself on FA when provided with basic plant nutrients and can also accumulate heavy metals many folds from FA without attenuating plant growth.

  9. Self-cementitious properties of fly ashes from CFBC boilers co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Guanghong; Li Qin; Zhai Jianping; Li Feihu

    2007-01-01

    Self-cementitious properties of fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke (CPFA) were investigated. CPFA was self-cementitious which was affected by its fineness and chemical compositions, especially the contents of SO 3 and free lime (f-CaO). Higher contents of SO 3 and f-CaO were beneficial to self-cementitious strength; the self-cementitious strength increases with a decrease of its 45 μm sieve residue. The expansive ratio of CPFA hardened paste was high because of generation of ettringite (AFt), which was influenced by its water to binder ratio (W/A), curing style and grinding of the ash. The paste cured in water had the highest expansive ratio, and grinding of CPFA was beneficial to its volume stability. The hydration products of CPFA detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were portlandite, gypsum, AFt and hydrated calcium silicate (C-S-H)

  10. Modern management of building materials with the example hard coal fly ash; Modernes Baustoffmanagement am Beispiel von Steinkohlenflugasche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, H.P.; Brandenburger, D.; Meissner, M. [BauMineral GmbH, Herten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Today, Germany has a leading position world-wide regarding the utilisation of power plant by-products as well as regarding the use of fly ash as concrete addition, in particular. This is based on a modern management of building materials successfully practised in Germany for decades. Current tasks show how possibilities of fly ash application and thus sustainable construction methods can be increased by a modern management of building materials. (orig.)

  11. Utilization of coal fly ash in construction in relation to regulations within the framework of the Dutch Soil Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Sloot, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, the Dutch Government passed the Soil Protection Act. Within the framework of this act aiming at reduction of soil pollution by anthropogenic activities, a number of regulations will be enforced. One of these is the Regulation for Construction Materials, which is intended to control environmental impacts resulting from the utilization of industrial residues in construction. The regulation will apply to all conventional materials used in construction and raw materials derived from waste materials. For effective enforcement of this regulation by 1992, a full set of well documented procedures are needed to cover such aspects as sampling, storage, analysis of solids and liquids, leaching, and evaluation of test results. These procedures should ultimately be available as national (NEN), or preferably internationally (CEN, ISO), agreed standard protocols. A coherent program of projects has been started in 1990 in association with the Dutch Normalization Institute to generate these protocols and initiate the necessary research activities. As a result of the new regulations, initiatives have been taken to certify industrial residues for certain applications. The utilization of coal combustion residues in construction is governed by certificates. Thus, quality control at the utilities is an integral part of coal fly ash utilization and marketing. For public acceptance of utilization of these materials, quality control and certification is an essential element along with demonstrations of proper performance in practice

  12. An determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cuihua; Zhou Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We participated an international comparison on the determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and in standard solution organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA in 2002. The sample was dispensed in 100.0 ± 0.1 g aliquots in plastic container and was spiked with known amounts of certified standard γ-emitting radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 88 Y, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am. The determination of the anthropogenic )γ-emitting radionuclides in the test samples was carried out with an ORTEC gamma-ray spectrometry system coupled with a HPGe detector with resolution of 1.75 keV and relative efficiency of 55% for 137 Cs, located in a 10 cm thick lead container. The energy and efficiency calibration were with home-made volume calibration sources containing some of the radionuclides to be analyzed. The analysis procedure is described elsewhere. Table 1 lists the results of the determination and the comparisons with IAEA reference data and evaluation. Overall our results are agreeable in ±8.6% with the IAEA reference data, except for 60 Co. The differences for 60 Co was -10.8%. It may be caused by the 60 Co calibration source made with residual of quiet old standard solution. The difference for 241 Am is due to self-absorption in the fly ash sample. This bias was small for the solution sample. For standard solution sample, the results are agreeable within ±3.7% for all radionuclides except for 60 Co, being 12%. (authors)

  13. Study of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Coal Power Plant Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study comprises of concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement and with different configurations of fly ash by replacing cement and fine aggregate. To achieve the aim of this study, total 81 concrete cubes were cast. Among 81 cubes, 9 cubes were made with normal concrete, 36 cubes were made by replacing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fine aggregate with fly ash and 36 cubes were made by replacing 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of cement with fly ash. The cubes were 6\\" x 6\\" in cross-section, and the mix design was aimed for 5000 psi. After proper curing of all 81 cubes, they were tested at 3, 7 and 28 days curing age. The cubes were tested in Forney Universal Testing Machine. By analyzing the test results of all the concrete cubes, the following main findings have been drawn. The compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 100 % fine aggregate by fly ash was higher than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all 3, 7 and 28 days curing ages. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 10 % and 25 % cement by fly ash was slightly lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages, whereas, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 50 % and 75 % of cement by fly ash were quite lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages.

  14. Evaluation of the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca{sup 2+} ions from coal fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO{sub 2} sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100-330 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 20-80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution, and seawater). The CO{sub 2} sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO{sub 2} flow rate. A 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO{sub 2}/g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  15. Evaluation of the CO2 sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. ► CO 2 uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO 2 with Ca 2+ ions from coal fly ash. ► The CO 2 sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. ► Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO 2 sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100–330 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 20–80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH 4 Cl solution, and seawater). The CO 2 sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO 2 sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO 2 flow rate. A 1 M NH 4 Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO 2 /g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  16. On the pollution of fly coal ashes issued from the thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barca, F.; Drimer, D.; Georgescu, I.I.

    1992-01-01

    Coals in different steps of carbonization for the inorganic mass were investigated using UV-spectroscopy, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and for Uranium the fission fragments track methods. It has been concluded that the toxic and radioactive elements are more concentrated in lower carbonized coals than in higher ones, i.e. pit coals. (Author)

  17. Adsorptive removal of organics from aqueous phase by acid-activated coal fly ash: preparation, adsorption, and Fenton regenerative valorization of "spent" adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Jiaqing; Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Han

    2018-05-01

    Raw coal fly ash was activated to an adsorbent by sulfuric acid impregnation. The activation condition, the adsorption capacity, and the regenerative valorization of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions of the adsorbent are [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1 mol L -1 , activation time = 30 min, the ratio of coal fly ash to acid = 1:20 (g:mL), calcination temperature = 100 °C. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol on the adsorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the adsorption rate constant is 0.089 g mg -1  min -1 . The adsorption on this adsorbent can be considered enough after 35 min, when the corresponding adsorption capacity is 1.07 mg g -1 (85.6% of p-nitrophenol removal). Compared with raw coal fly ash, the adsorbent has a stable adsorption performance at low pH range (pH = 1-6) and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol is an exothermic process. Ninety minutes is required for the regenerative valorization of saturated adsorbent by Fenton process. The regenerative valorization for this saturated adsorbent can reach 89% under the optimal proposed conditions (30 °C, pH = 3, [H 2 O 2 ] = 5.0 mmol L -1 , [Fe 2+ ] = 5.5 mmol L -1 ). Within 15 experimental runs, the adsorbent has a better and better stability with the increase of experimental runs. Finally, the mechanism of activating coal fly ash is proposed, being verified by the results of the SEM and BET test.

  18. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  19. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  20. Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using Al2O3-NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes synthesized from solid waste coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Ji, Jiayou; Wang, Shulin; Xu, Chenxi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Man

    2018-09-01

    Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated via hydrothermal synthesis by using industrial solid waste coal fly ash and porous Al 2 O 3 hollow fiber supports. The as-synthesized Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hollow fiber membranes were used to remove lead ions (Pb(II), 50 mg L -1 ) from synthetic wastewater with a removal efficiency of 99.9% at 0.1 MPa after 12 h of filtration. This study showed that the Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes (the pore size of the membrane was about 0.41 nm in diameter) synthesized from coal fly ash could be efficiently used for treating low concentration Pb(II) wastewater. It recycled solid waste coal fly ash not only to solve its environment problems, but also can produce high-value Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes for separation application in treating wastewater containing Pb(II). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio on the leachability of fly ash and slag produced from a large PCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Izquierdo; Oriol Font; Natalia Moreno (and others) [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera'

    2007-08-01

    Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparison of H2S adsorption by two hydrogel composite (HBC) derived by Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) biochar and Coal Fly Ash (CFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meri, N. H.; Alias, A. B.; Talib, N.; Rashid, Z. A.; Ghani, W. A. W. A. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study are covered the adsorption performance of two adsorbent Empty Fruit Bunch Hydrogel Biochar Composite (EFB-HBC) and Coal Fly Ash Hydrogel Composite (CFA-HC) on hydrogen sulphide. The EFB biochar were produce by pyrolysed and heated from room temperature to 550˚C at 10˚C/min under the Nitrogen flow. Meanwhile, coal fly ash collected from a power plant located in Selangor, Malaysia. Both of the materials is a waste from different industries and became the precursor to our adsorbents. EFB biochar and coal fly ash has been synthesized to become hydrogel by polymerization process with acrylamide (AAm) as monomer, N,N’-methylene bisacry lamide (MBA) as cross linker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. In addition, because of the speciality of hydrogel itself, which is has high ability in storing water, the effect of H2O wetness on EFB-HBC and CFA-HC were investigate in adsorption of H2S. EFB-HBC gave a longest breakthrough time and highest adsorption capacity compared with CFA-HC in both condition (dry/wet). The result also indicated that, the increased the bed height, increased the adsorption capacity.

  3. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  4. Optoelectronic system of online measurements of unburned carbon in coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Janusz; Jankowski, Henryk; Niewczas, Bogdan; Piechna, Janusz; Skiba, Antoni; Szkutnik, Wojciech; Szkutnik, Zdzislaw P.; Wartak, Ryszarda; Worek, Cezary

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-in-ash level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The optoelectronic analyzing system for on-line determination and monitoring of the u burned carbon content of ash samples is presented. The apparatus operates on the principle that carbon content is proportional to the reflectance of IR light. Ash samples are collected iso kinetically from the flue gas duct and placed in a sample tube with a flat glass bottom. The same is then exposed to a light. The reflectance intensity is used by the system's computer to determine residual carbon content from correlation curves. The sample is then air purged back to the duct or to the attached sample canister to enable laboratory check analysis. The total cycle time takes between 5 and 10 minutes. Real time result of carbon content with accuracy 0.3-0.7 percent are reported and can be used for boiler controlling.

  5. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Procoro; Almanza, Jose Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 o C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O originally containing 740 ppb.

  6. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-05-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, CFA and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, CFA and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author)

  8. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  9. Leaching Behavior of Selected Trace and Toxic Metals in Coal Fly Ash Samples Collected from Two Thermal Power Plants, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, P; Sahu, S K; Kothai, P; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Studies on leaching behavior of metals associated with coal fly ash (FA) are of great concern because of possible contamination of the aquatic environment. In the present study, leaching behavior of metals (As, Se, Cr, Pb, V, Zn, etc.) in two different FA samples (FA1 and FA2) was investigated at various pH (2-12), temperatures of leachate solution and using TCLP. At pH 2, the highest leaching was observed for Fe (21.6 and 32.8 µg/g), whereas at pH 12, Arsenic was found to have the highest leaching (1.5 and 2.4 µg/g) in FA1 and FA2. Leachate solution temperature showed a positive effect on the metal's leachability. In TCLP, most of the metal's leachability was observed to be higher than that of batch leaching tests. The present study suggests that, leaching of As and Se from FA samples can moderately affect ground/surface water quality at the study locations.

  10. Analysis of arsenic and some other elements in coal fly ash by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Akira; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Sakaguchi, Yuka; Iwashita, Akira; Takanashi, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    Surface characterization of coal fly ash (CFA) was carried out by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), especially focusing on the occurrence of As. A peak in the XPS spectrum of CFA was assigned to oxide forms of As(3d). The molar ratios of Al, As, Ca, Fe, and S normalized to Si were obtained from XPS analysis (MR-X). Also, the molar ratios of those elements were calculated from bulk analysis (total element concentration in CFA) (MR-B). The MR-X/MR-B ratio of As was much higher than those of other elements, suggesting that As is highly enriched on the surface of CFA. When eight CFA samples were analyzed, there was an approximate relationship between the MR-X values and MR-B values for As. The leaching of elements from CFA was examined by XPS analysis and by bulk analysis. The leaching tests using EDTA and HNO 3 resulted in a great decrease in the As(3d) peak area; the %leaching of As obtained by XPS analysis was almost equal to that by bulk analysis

  11. Synthesis of monoclinic Celsian from Coal Fly Ash by using a one-step solid-state reaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Gonzalez, D.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C.A.; Pena, P.; Baudin, C.; Turrillas, X. [CINVESTAV, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Monoclinic (Celsian) and hexagonal (Hexacelsian) Ba1-xSrxAl{sub 2}Si2O8 solid solutions, where x=0, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75 or 1, were synthesized by using Coal Fly Ash (CFA) as main raw material, employing a simple one-step solid-state reaction process involving thermal treatment for 5 h at 850-1300{sup o}C. Fully monoclinic Celsian was obtained at 1200{sup o} C/5 h, for SrO contents of 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.75. However, an optimum SrO level of 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.375 was recommended for the stabilization of Celsian. These synthesis conditions represent a significant improvement over the higher temperatures, longer times and/or multi-step processes needed to obtain fully monoclinic Celsian, when other raw materials are used for this purpose, according to previous literature. These results were attributed to the role of the chemical and phase constitution of CFA as well as to a likely mineralizing effect of CaO and TiO{sub 2} present in it, which enhanced the Hexacelsian to Celsian conversion.

  12. Toxicity of coal fly ash (CFA) and toxicological response of switchgrass in mycorrhiza-mediated CFA-soil admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Olushola M; Dzantor, E Kudjo

    2017-10-01

    Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass. The TA100 exposed to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% (w/v) CFA-water extracts elicited significant (p CFA-soil admixtures at 7.5% and 15% (w/w) significantly (p CFA/soil). Under the same conditions, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased by 75.9% and 66.9%. In contrast to the antioxidant enzyme activities, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) an indicator of lipid peroxidation increased significantly (p CFA-soil admixtures with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizophaga clarus enhanced the activities of both SOD and GPx in the switchgrass, while it significantly (p CFA (at concentrations considered to be non-mutagenic against TA100) as soil amendment produced concentration-dependent oxidative stress responses in switchgrass; however, inoculation of the CFA-soil admixtures with AMF significantly modulated the oxidative stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and Gravimetric Analysis of the Dissolved Quartz in the Conversion of Coal Fly Ash to Sodalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mohamed; Zainab Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste product produced from the electrical power plant and hazardous towards the environment. However, the high composition of silica and alumina in the CFA makes it useful as raw materials in the zeolite synthesis. However, the presence of silica in the form of quartz in the CFA does not facilitate the transformation of CFA to zeolite at 100 degree Celsius and autogeneous pressure. In this study, CFA was converted to zeolites in various NaOH concentrations by microwave heating at various heating time. All synthesized product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gravimetric analysis. XRD has shown that quite pure sodalite in nano size has been formed as early as 15 minutes and increase with time. Prolong heating up to 45 minutes has reduced the content of quartz to ca 20 %. Gravimetric analysis performed on the liquor of the reaction showed that the dissolved silica decrease with increase of heating time indicating that most of the dissolved quartz is used up to form sodalite framework. Hence, quartz of CFA did help in enhancing the crystallinity of the formed sodalite after prolong heating. (author)

  14. Phytoextraction of rhenium by lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) from alkaline soils amended with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Pang, Jiayin; Wu, Gao-Lin; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Xingchang

    2018-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is an industrial waste generated in huge amounts worldwide, and the management of CFA has become an environmental concern. Recovery of valuable metals from CFA is one of the beneficial reuse options of CFA. Rhenium (Re) is one of the rarest metals in the Earth's crust and one of the most expensive metals of strategic significance in the world market. A CFA at the Jungar Thermal Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, contains more Re than two alkaline soils in the surrounding region. Pot experiments were undertaken to grow lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) in a loessial soil and an aeolian sandy soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) of CFA. The results show that plant growth was considerably enhanced and Re concentration in plants was significantly increased when CFA was applied to the alkaline soils at rates of ≤20%; while in some cases plant growth was also markedly enhanced by the 40% CFA treatment, which increased plant Re concentration the most of all treatments. Both lucerne and erect milkvetch showed potential for phytoextracting Re from CFA-amended alkaline soils. Using CFA for soil amendment not only offers a potential solution for the waste disposal problem of CFA, but the phytoextraction of Re by both lucerne and erect milkvetch may also bring an economic profit in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of double-layer biofilter packed with coal fly ash ceramic granules in treating highly polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhaoqian; Li, Yu-You; Cao, Shiwei; Liu, Yuyu

    2012-09-01

    To improve trickling filters' denitrification efficiency, a biofilter with a trickling upper layer and a submerged lower layer was developed and applied in treating highly polluted river water. It was packed with porous coal fly ash ceramic granules. Its start-up characteristics, influence of hydraulic loading rates (HLR), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and filter depth on pollutants removal were investigated. The results indicated this biofilter was started quickly in 16 days with river sediment as inoculum. Alternating nitrification and denitrification were achieved when water flowed downwards. COD and nitrogen were mainly removed in the upper layer and the lower layer, respectively. With HLR of 4.0-5.0m(3)/(m(2)d), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were below 50, 5 and 15 mg/L, respectively. This biofilter removed more than 80% of COD, 85% of NH(4)(+)-N and 60% of TN with C/N ratios ranging from 6 to 10. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO 3 , CFA and Al 2 O 3 was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author)

  17. Radiobiological assessment of usability of the fly ash from coal-fired power plants in building sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the specific activities of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K radionuclide in the samples of cement and concrete added fly ash (FA) used building sector were measured by using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. In order to assess the usability of the samples of the cement and concrete added FA in building sector and the FA samples obtained as a by-product from coal-burning thermic power plants in Turkey in geotechnical applications from radiological point of view, the radium equivalent activity (Ra e q), the activity concentration index (Iγ), the alpha index (Iα), the absorbed gamma dose rates (D I O, D D O) and the corresponding effective dose rates (H I O, H D O) caused from the external exposure in indoor and outdoor were calculated and compared with the limit value or the criterion. The results showed that the mean values of the Ra e q, Iγ (except the mean value calculated for the concrete added with 30% Kangal FA), Iα (except the mean values calculated for the cement added with 30-35%) and the indoor effective dose rate (except the mean values calculated for the cement added with 30-35% and the concrete added with 30% Kangal FA) were lower than or close to the limit value or the criterion recommended for the safe use of construction materials. (Includes 12 figures and 12 tables)

  18. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Adriana [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Gamero, Procoro, E-mail: pgamerom@hotmail.com [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Almanza, Jose Manuel [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, G.A. Madero, C.P. 07730, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Vargas, Gregorio [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Izquierdo, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Luis Sole Sabaris, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 {sup o}C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O originally containing 740 ppb.

  19. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  20. Synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X from tablet compressed and calcinated coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Gao, Wenyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions. We optimized the control variables for zeolite synthesis and showed that phase-pure zeolite Na-A can be synthesized with CFA at reactant molar ratio, hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time of 1.3Na2O: 0.6Al2O3: 1SiO2: 38H2O at 80°C for 6 h, respectively, while phase-pure zeolite Na-X can be synthesized at 2.2Na2O: 0.2Al2O3: 1SiO2: 88H2O at 100°C for 8 h, respectively. The composition, morphology, specific surface area, vibration spectrum and thermogravimetry of synthesized Na-A and Na-X were further characterized.

  1. Impact assessment of dredging to remove coal fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil plant using fathead minnow elutriate exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Bednar, Anthony J; Chappell, Mark A; Seiter, Jennifer M; Averett, Daniel E; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2013-04-01

    On December 22, 2008, failure of an earthen containment structure resulted in the release of approximately 4.1 million m(3) of coal fly ash into the Emory River and the surrounding area from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston, Tennessee, USA. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of dredging activities performed to remove the fly ash from the river to result in increased risk to pelagic fish, with special consideration of mobilization of metals. Elutriates were created using two sources of fly ash by bubbling with air over 10 d. This elutriate preparation method was designed to represent worst-case conditions for oxidation, metal release, and dissolution. Larval and juvenile Pimephales promelas underwent 10-d exposures to these elutriates. Larval end points included survival and biomass, and juvenile end points included survival, length, biomass, liver somatic index, and bioaccumulation. No significant toxicity was observed. Bioaccumulation of metals in juveniles was found to be primarily attributable to metals associated with particles in the gut. Results suggest little potential for toxicity to related fish species due to fly ash removal dredging activities given the extreme conditions represented by the elutriates in the present study. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Manufacture of lightweight aggregates utilizing coal fly ash. Sekitan bai riyo ni yoru jinko keiryo kotsuzai seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1990-11-20

    Processing of a large amount of coal ash is a serious problem in considering the locational conditions of coal firing power generation plants. 46% of the coal ash was effectively used in 1985, and the remaining 54% was disposed at landfills on land and sea. Positive promotion of the effective use of coal ash is the necessity. A production method for an artificial lightweight aggregate utilizing coal ash was established by a joint research. The history of the research and development of this artificial lightweight aggregate (brand name: FA-lIGHT), outline of the manufacturing facilities, physical properties and result of use are introduced. The lightweight aggregates are used not only for the construction of multistoried buildings but also used as most suitable aggregates for making lightweight large scale panels and concrete secondary products such as lightweight blocks. FA-LIGHT is most suitable for use in the production of concrete lightweight aggregates, and can be used for hydroponic agriculture and for the improvement of drainage of land. Spread of its use is expected. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  4. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  5. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  6. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  7. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  8. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Aziza Aftab; Noorullah Soomro; Mir Shah Nawaz; Kambiz Vafai

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling c...

  9. Immobilization of chromate from coal fly ash leachate using an attenuating barrier containing zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Stipp, S. L. S.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was (i) to test the effectiveness of a barrier engineered to remove Cr(VI) from leachates of higher pH and salinity typical of coal burning ashes and (ii) to determine which geochemical processes control Cr immobilization. Laboratory column and batch desorption e...

  10. Application of mine water leaching protocol on coal fly ash to assess leaching characteristics for suitability as a mine backfill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Ramasenya, Koena; Tlowana, Supi; Coetzee, Henk; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K

    2018-04-16

    Over the years, coal mining in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa has negatively affected the environment by causing pollution of water resources, land subsidence and spontaneous coal combustion. Previous studies show that in-situ treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash (CFA) from local power stations was possible and sludge recovered out of such treatment can be used to backfill mines. In this article, the authors have attempted to understand the leaching characteristics of CFA when placed underground as a backfill material using the mine water leaching protocol (MWLP). The results show that the migration of contaminants between the coal fly ash and the AMD in the mine voids depends on the pH and quality of the mine water. While backfilling mine voids with CFA can neutralize and scavenge between 50% and 95% of certain environmentally sensitive elements from AMD such as Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn. At this moment, it is also important to point out that certain scavenged/removed contaminants from the AMD during initial phases of backfilling can be remobilized by the influx of acidic water into the mine voids. It has therefore been concluded that, while CFA can be used to backfill mine voids, the influx of fresh acidic mine water should be avoided to minimize the remobilization of trapped contaminants such as Fe, Al, Mn and As. However, the pozzolanic material resulting from the CFA-AMD interaction could prevent such influx.

  11. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  13. Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolay P. K.; Singh H.

    2013-01-01

    The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which w...

  14. ICP-AES determination of rare earth elements in coal fly ash samples of thermal power stations: assessment of possible recovery and environmental impact of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Mary, Thomas Anitha; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in ashes of thermal power plants is important in the current scenario due to its economic value, and the pollution caused if they are released in to the environment. Their toxicity to living organisms now gaining importance in international community, and some investigation shows it causes retardation in plant growth. In coal based thermal stations huge quantity of coal used annually as a fuel and lakhs of tones of waste is generated in the form of ashes. Therefore studies were carried out on three aspects - fairly rapid and accurate ICP-AES determination REEs in coal fly ash samples using addition technique, a preliminary acid leaching studies on coal received from three different fired thermal power stations using hydrochloric acid at pH 1 and 2, and quantify the REEs leached, and economic recovery of REEs using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid solvent extraction process or precipitation hydroxides using dilute ammonia solution. The standard addition method of REEs determination using rate and reproducible values, besides the analysis is fast compared to the ion exchange separation of REEs followed by the ICP-AES determination. (author)

  15. Dose assessment of natural radioactivity in fly ash and environmental materials from Morupule a coal-fired power station in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudiwa, J

    2015-01-01

    This study has been undertaken to estimate the occupational and public radiation doses due to natural radioactivity at Morupule, a Coal-Fired Power Station and its environs. The radiation doses were reconstructed to include 60 year period from 1985 to 2045. Direct gamma ray spectroscopy was used to determine the natural radionuclides Th-232, U-238, and K-40 both qualitatively and quantitatively for fly ash, coal, soil and water (from the fly ash ponds) samples. The average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 in fly ash samples were 64.54 Bq/kg, 49.37 Bq/kg and 40.08 Bq/kg respectively. In the case of coal, the corresponding average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 27.43 Bq/kg, 18.10 Bq/kg and 17.38 Bq/kg respectively. For soil samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 10.11 Bq/kg, 6.76 Bq/kg and 118.03 Bq/kg respectively. In water samples, the average activity concentrations for Th-232, U-238, and K-40 were 0.79 Bq/l, 0.32 Bq/l and 1.01 Bq/l respectively. These average activity concentrations were generally comparable to the average world activity concentrations in the case of coal samples, but were generally lower than the average world activity concentrations in the case of fly ash, soil and water samples. The average annual effective doses for the study area were estimated as 0.320 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.069 mSv and 0.003 mSv for fly ash, coal, soil and water samples respectively. Dose reconstruction modelling estimated the average fly ash annual effective doses for the years 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, 2025, 2035 and 2045 to be 0.182 mSv, 0.459 mSv, 0.756 mSv, 0.320 mSv, 0.183 mSv, 0.137 mSv and 0.124 mSv respectively. The reconstructed average coal annual effective doses for similar years were 0.070 mSv, 0.182 mSv, 0.303 mSv, 0.126 mSv, 0.070 mSv, 0.060 mSv and 0.046 mSv respectively. The dose reconstruction modelling also estimated the average soil annual effective doses for the same years as

  16. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  17. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  18. Ferrospheres from fly ashes of Chelyabinsk coals: chemical composition, morphology and formation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol, E.V.; Kalugin, V.M.; Nigmatulina, E.N.; Volkova, N.I.; Frenkel, A.E.; Maksimova, N.V. [Geophysics and Mineralogy Sb RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). United Institute of Geology

    2002-05-01

    Ferrospheres originating during the pulverised fuel firing of brown coals from the Chelyabinsk basin (South Urals, Russia) have been examined for determination of their chemical and phase compositions, morphology and formation conditions. Most of the ferrospheres are close to ideal spheres with dendritic or skeletal structure. The appearance of microsphere inner anatomy is determined by morphology of ferrispinel aggregates, which compose more than 85 vol% of these globules. The analysed ferrispinels are complex solid solutions based on FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with impurities of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and nCaO x mFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The glasses coexisted with ferrispinel crystallites are basic-ultrabasic in composition. Ferrospheres are the quenching products of high-ferrous melts originated from melting of iron-bearing carbonate admixtures in coals. The mass crystallisation of ferrispinels in ferrospheres was a result of iron changes from Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} and following ferritisation of high-ferrous melts during molten drops cooling. The residual melt is quenched to form a low-silicon, high-calcium, high-ferrous glass. the skeletal and dendritic forms of ferrispinel are due to their crystallisation under drastic supercooling conditions. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Nizar Ismail; Kamaruddin Hussin; Mohd Sobri Idris

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 2 μm to 10 μm. They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Fly ash like soil contains trace concentrations of the following heavy metals: nickel, vanadium, cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, zinc and lead. The chemical compositions of the sample have been examined and the fly ash are of ASTM C618 Class F. (Author)

  20. Remediação de drenagem ácida de mina usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinzas leves de carvão Remediation of acid mine drainage using zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeolitic material was synthesized from coal fly ashes (baghouse filter fly ash and cyclone filter fly ash by hydrothermal alkaline activation. The potential application of the zeolitic product for decontamination of waters from acid mine drainage was evaluated. The results showed that a dose of 30 g L-1 of zeolitic material allowed the water to reach acceptable quality levels after treatment. Both precipitation and cation-exchange processes accounted for the reduction in the pollutant concentration in the treated waters.

  1. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, A.L.; Hopkins, W.A.; Parikh, J.H.; Jackson, B.P.; Unrine, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins may expose their young to contaminants by provisioning them with contaminated food. Diet and tissues of Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscala) nestlings were analyzed for trace elements to determine if nestlings were accumulating elements via dietary exposure and if feather growth limits elemental accumulation in other tissues. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations in ash basin diets were 5× higher than reference diets. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations were elevated in feather, liver, and carcass, but only liver Se concentrations approached levels of concern. Approximately 15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd was sequestered in feathers of older (>5 days) nestlings, whereas only 1% of the total body burden of Sr was sequestered in feathers. Feather concentrations of only three elements (As, Se, and Sr) were correlated with liver concentrations, indicating their value as non-lethal indicators of exposure. - Highlights: ► We examined elemental uptake by grackle nestlings associated with coal ash basins. ► Diet of ash basin nestlings had higher levels of Se, As, and Cd than control nestlings. ► Se, As, Cd, and Sr concentrations of ash basin nestling tissues were elevated. ► Only Se in nestling liver approached published levels of concern. ► Nestling feathers sequestered >15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd. - Nestlings of common grackles attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins were exposed to elevated dietary Se, As, Cd, and Sr, resulting in elevated Se tissue concentrations approaching reported levels of concern.

  2. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  3. Natural radioactivity level in coal and ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaodan; Lu Xinwei

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were assessed in coal (3 samples), fly ash (17 samples) and bottom ash (6 samples) collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant. This paper analyzed the characteristics of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents in bottom ash and fly ash, and studied the concentration factors of these radionuclides in ash in relation to those in coal. The level of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of coal collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant are in the range of radionuclides contents of Chinese coal. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant is close to Beijing and Shanghai coal-fired power plants. The paper farther assessed the possibility of fly ash of Baoji coal-fired power plant used as building materials according to the state standard. The results show that there are 29% samples exceeding the state limit when fly ash used as building materials. So the usage of fly ash in building material should be controlled. (authors)

  4. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  5. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol from waters by sorption using coal fly ash from a Portuguese thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevinho, Berta N.; Martins, Isabel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophenols are one of the most important groups of priority pollutants, due to their high toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Although activated carbon has been the preferred choice for the removal of such pollutants from wastewaters, the search for cheaper alternative sorbents became common in the last years. Fly ash, a by-product from coal burning power plants, has a surface composition that may enable the sorption of specific organic compounds. Therefore, this feasibility study presents the optimization of the operating parameters of a fixed-bed column containing fly ash particles, percolated by aqueous solutions of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) with concentrations of 1 and 100 μg/ml. Both chlorophenols were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD), after solid-phase microextraction (SPME), with limits of detection (LODs) of 7.28 μg/l for 2,4-DCP and 1.76 μg/l for PCP. Removal efficiencies above 99% were obtained for an initial concentration of 10 μg/ml of chlorophenols. Column saturation was achieved after 7 h of continuous operation for 2,4-DCP and 10 h for the PCP for feed levels of 10 μg/ml. Fly ash exhibited more affinity towards the sorption of PCP, in comparison to 2,4-DCP

  6. Does leaching of naturally occurring radionuclides from roadway pavements stabilised with coal fly ash have negative impacts on groundwater quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahayni, T; Vanhoudt, N

    2018-05-05

    We assessed the potential impact of using coal fly ash to stabilise roadway pavements on groundwater quality and human health. The leaching potential of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) typically present in the fly ash was assessed with the HYDRUS-1D code and data representative of a segment of the Wisconsin State Trunk Highway 60 as a case study. Our assessment suggests that the impact would be mainly from the chemical toxicity of uranium (U). In our particular case study, U concentration in the leachate exceeded the maximum contaminant level for this element (MCL = 30 μg L -1 ) in almost all the scenarios. In the groundwater, the MCL was only exceeded under conditions of high leaching and low dilution in the aquifer. The radiological toxicity from the consumption of the contaminated groundwater by a hypothetical adult, however, was at maximum 43% of the individual dose criterion (IDC = 0.1 mSv y -1 ). The results also highlight the need to consider site-specific conditions such as climate and hydrogeology when assessing the environmental impacts of utilising fly ash in roadway construction applications since they could have profound effects on the assessment findings. There is also a pressing need for reliable and representative data to support realistic assessments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  8. Certification of trace element contents (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn) in a fly ash obtained from the combustion of pulverised coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griepink, B.; Colinet, E.; Guzzi, G.; Haemers, L.; Muntau, H.

    1983-01-01

    The element contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn of a fly ash from pulverised coal are certified. The procedures and their results for the homogenisation, the contamination and homogeneity checks and the analytical campaign are reported. The certified mass fractions and indicative values for Cr, Ni, Th, V and water soluble sulphate are given. The work was carried out within the framework of the activities of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) of the Commission of the European Communities. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  10. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  11. Microstructure Development and Transport Properties of Portland Cement-fly Ash Binary Systems : In view of service life predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of burning coal in electric power generating plants. It is commonly known that owing to its pozzolanic properties fly ash is widely used as a partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete. The use of fly ash in concrete not only reduces the landfill costs of fly ash,

  12. Characterization of coal fly ash nanoparticles and induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ali, Al-Yousef Sulaiman; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-01-01

    The nano-sized particles present in coal fly ash (CFA) were characterized through the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The XRD data revealed the average crystallite size of the CFA nanoparticles (CFA-NPs) as 14 nm. TEM and SEM imaging demonstrated predominantly spherical and some polymorphic structures in the size range of 11 to 25 nm. The amount of heavy metal associated with CFA particles (μg/g) were determined as Fe (34160.0 ± 1.38), Ni (150.8 ± 0.78), Cu (99.3 ± 0.56) and Cr (64.0 ± 0.86). However, the bioavailability of heavy metals in terms of percent release was in the order as Cr > Ni > Cu > Fe in CFA-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract. The comet and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays revealed substantial genomic DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cells treated with CFA-NPs in Aq and DMSO extracts. About 1.8 and 3.6 strand breaks per unit of DNA were estimated through alkaline unwinding assay at 1:100 DNA nucleotide/CFA ppm ratios with the Aq and DMSO extracts, respectively. The DNA and mitochondrial damage was invariably greater with CFA-DMSO extract vis-à-vis -Aq extract. Generation of superoxide anions (O 2 • − ) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through metal redox-cycling, alteration in mitochondrial potential and 8-oxodG production elucidated CFA-NPs induced oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for CFA-induced genotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► CFA consists of spherical crystalline nanoparticles in size range of 11–25 nm. ► Alkaline unwinding assay revealed single-strandedness in CFA treated ctDNA. ► CFA nanoparticles exhibited the ability to induce ROS and oxidative DNA damage. ► Comet and CBMN assays revealed DNA and chromosomal breakage in PBMN cells. ► CFA-NPs resulted in mitochondrial membrane damage in PBMN cells.

  13. Characterization of coal fly ash nanoparticles and induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, Al-Yousef Sulaiman [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Science, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1683, Hafr Al Batin-31991 (Saudi Arabia); Musarrat, Javed, E-mail: musarratj1@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh202002 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The nano-sized particles present in coal fly ash (CFA) were characterized through the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The XRD data revealed the average crystallite size of the CFA nanoparticles (CFA-NPs) as 14 nm. TEM and SEM imaging demonstrated predominantly spherical and some polymorphic structures in the size range of 11 to 25 nm. The amount of heavy metal associated with CFA particles ({mu}g/g) were determined as Fe (34160.0 {+-} 1.38), Ni (150.8 {+-} 0.78), Cu (99.3 {+-} 0.56) and Cr (64.0 {+-} 0.86). However, the bioavailability of heavy metals in terms of percent release was in the order as Cr > Ni > Cu > Fe in CFA-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract. The comet and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays revealed substantial genomic DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cells treated with CFA-NPs in Aq and DMSO extracts. About 1.8 and 3.6 strand breaks per unit of DNA were estimated through alkaline unwinding assay at 1:100 DNA nucleotide/CFA ppm ratios with the Aq and DMSO extracts, respectively. The DNA and mitochondrial damage was invariably greater with CFA-DMSO extract vis-a-vis -Aq extract. Generation of superoxide anions (O{sub 2} Bullet {sup -}) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through metal redox-cycling, alteration in mitochondrial potential and 8-oxodG production elucidated CFA-NPs induced oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for CFA-induced genotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFA consists of spherical crystalline nanoparticles in size range of 11-25 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline unwinding assay revealed single-strandedness in CFA treated ctDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFA nanoparticles exhibited the ability to induce ROS and oxidative DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comet and CBMN assays revealed DNA and chromosomal

  14. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  15. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Micro-scale grain-size analysis and magnetic properties of coal-fired power plant fly ash and its relevance for environmental magnetic pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, U.; Sapkota, B.; Appel, E.; Stanjek, H.; Rosler, W. [University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany). Inst. of Geoscience

    2008-11-15

    Two fly ash samples from a black coal-fired power plant (Bexbach, Germany) were investigated for their magnetic properties, particle structure, grain-size distribution and chemical composition. Grain-size distribution was determined on bulk samples and on magnetic extracts. Magnetic susceptibility of different grain-size fractions was analyzed with respect to the according amount of fractions, high- and low-temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and thermal demagnetization of IRM identified magnetite and hematite as magnetic phases. Magnetic spherules were quantitatively extracted from bulk fly ash samples and examined using SEM/EDX analysis. Particle morphology and grain-size analysis on the magnetically extracted material were studied. Individual spherule types were identified and internal structures of selected polished particles were investigated by SEM and EDX analyses. Main element contents of the internal structures which consist of 'magnetite' crystals and 'glassy' matrix were systematically determined and statistically assessed. The chemical data of the micro-scale structures in the magnetic spherules were compared with XRF data from bulk material, revealing the relative element distribution in composed magnetic spherules. Comparison of the bulk sample grain-size (0.5-300 {mu}m) and grain-size spectra from magnetic extracts (1-186.5 {mu}m) shows that strongly magnetic particles mainly occur in the fine fractions of < 63 {mu}m. This study comprises a comprehensive characterization of coal-fired power plant fly ash, using magnetic, chemical, and microscopic methods. The results can serve as reference data for a variety of environmental magnetic studies.

  17. Influence of relative trophic position and carbon source on selenium bioaccumulation in turtles from a coal fly-ash spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a bioaccumulative constituent of coal fly-ash that can disrupt reproduction of oviparous wildlife. In food webs, the greatest enrichment of Se occurs at the lowest trophic levels, making it readily bioavailable to higher consumers. However, subsequent enrichment at higher trophic levels is less pronounced, leading to mixed tendencies for Se to biomagnify. We used stable isotopes ( 15 N and 13 C) in claws to infer relative trophic positions and relative carbon sources, respectively, of seven turtle species near the site of a recently-remediated coal fly-ash spill. We then tested whether Se concentrations differed with relative trophic position or relative carbon source. We did not observe a strong relationship between δ 15 N and Se concentration. Instead, selenium concentrations decreased with increasing δ 13 C among species. Therefore, in an assemblage of closely-related aquatic vertebrates, relative carbon source was a better predictor of Se bioaccumulation than was relative trophic position. -- Highlights: •Stable isotope results showed trophic separation among turtle species. •Selenium concentrations did not biomagnify with relative trophic position. •Selenium concentrations decreased with increasing δ 13 C among species. •Carbon source influenced Se bioaccumulation in an assemblage of related vertebrates. -- Stable isotope differences indicate that claw selenium concentrations differ among relative carbon sources, and not among relative trophic positions, in an assemblage of aquatic turtles

  18. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  19. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A L; Hopkins, W A; Parikh, J H; Jackson, B P; Unrine, J M

    2012-02-01

    Birds attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins may expose their young to contaminants by provisioning them with contaminated food. Diet and tissues of Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscala) nestlings were analyzed for trace elements to determine if nestlings were accumulating elements via dietary exposure and if feather growth limits elemental accumulation in other tissues. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations in ash basin diets were 5× higher than reference diets. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations were elevated in feather, liver, and carcass, but only liver Se concentrations approached levels of concern. Approximately 15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd was sequestered in feathers of older (>5 days) nestlings, whereas only 1% of the total body burden of Sr was sequestered in feathers. Feather concentrations of only three elements (As, Se, and Sr) were correlated with liver concentrations, indicating their value as non-lethal indicators of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaching of assimilable silicon species from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekos, R.; Paslawska, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the leaching of assimilable silicon species from coal fly ash with distilled water, sea waterand synthetic sea water at various fly ash/water ratios, pHs and temperatures. At the 1 g/100 ml fly ash/water ratio, less than 1 mg Si was found in 11 of aqueous slurries over the pH range 4-8 after 2 h at ambient temperature. The leaching was most effective at pH 10.5. At the fly ash/waterratio indicated, the pH of the suspensions decreased from 10.4 to 8.4 after 5days. The pH of fly ash slurries in sea water varied only slightly over time as compared with that in distilled water. Generally, the leaching of assimilable silicon species with distilled water was more intense than that with the sea water. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation; Sekitanbai no shisshiki datsutanso gijutsu kaihatsu shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, T [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Coal ash tends to become containing more unburned carbon and porous substances depending on conditions of combustion, whose adverse effects to products due to water adsorbability, absorbability and color tones create obstacles in its utilization. Therefore, research and development works have been progressed on wet type carbon removing technology which is characterized in that coal is pulverized to preferable degrees and subjected to flotation. This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1995. The results may be summarized as follows: as a result of the comparison test on a column flotation machine and an FW type flotation machine of machine stirring type, the former machine showed better flotation efficiency; several methods were investigated on crushing as a treatment prior to flotation, whereas a mixer with greater circumferential speed and a homo mixer showed the highest efficiency; strength of the impact to the flotation efficiency was found to decrease in the order of pulp concentration > pretreatment time > collector addition ratio; and as a result of the evaluation on refined ash as a cement admixture and carbons as fuel, possibilities were found in them for practical application. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  4. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Badillo, C. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl2Si2O8 (SAS, was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO3, CFA and Al2O3 was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 °C. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 °C achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 °C, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials.Aluminosilicato de estroncio, SrAl2Si2O8 (SAS, fue sintetizado por reacción en el estado sólido empleando ceniza volante (CFA como materia prima principal. Una mezcla precursora de SrCO3, CFA y Al2O3 fue activada mecánicamente por tiempos de hasta 12 h en un molino de atrición, y después sinterizada a temperaturas de 900-1300 °C. El empleo de la CFA y la activación mecánica tuvieron el propósito de promover la transformación polimórfica de la fase hexagonal (Hexacelsiana de Sr a la monoclínica (Celsiana de Sr del SAS, ya que esta última se asocia con mejores propiedades físicas y mecánicas pero la primera tiende a aparecer primero. El tamaño promedio de partícula y de cristalita, así como la temperatura al

  5. Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from coal fly ash and rice husk: characterization and application for partial oxidation of methane to methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnandi, Y. K.; Yanti, F. M.; Murti, S. D. S.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesian fly ash (SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio = 3.59) was used together with rice husk (SiO2 92%) as raw material for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. Prior being used, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment in order to extract silicate (SiO4 4-) and aluminate (AlO4 5-) and to remove the impurities. Then the ZSM-5 zeolite were synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates (TPAOH and PDDA). The as-synthesized ZSM-5 was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX, and BET. The result of FTIR showed peaks at 1250-950 cm-1 (v asymetric T-O), 820-650 cm-1 (v symetric T-O), and at 650-500 cm-1 confirming the presence of the five number ring of the pentasil structure. The result of XRD showed the appearance of certain peaks in the position 2 theta between 7-9° and 22-25° indicative of ZSM-5 structure, but also showed the pattern of low intensity magnetite and hematite. The SEM image showed the rough surface of hexagonal crystals from ZSM-5 structure, indicative of mesoporosity in the structure. EDX result showed Si/Al ratio of 20, while surface area analysis gave SA of 43.16. The ZSM-5 zeolites then was modified with cobalt oxide through impregnation method. The catalytic activity as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane was tested. The result showed that hence the catalytic activity of ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 from fly ash and rice husk were still inferior compared to the pro-analysis sourced-counterpart, they were potential to be used as catalyst in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  6. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  7. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  8. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  9. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  10. Low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1981-01-01

    Eight coal-fired power plants in New York State were sampled for coal, fly ash and bottom ash. Samples were analyzed for uranium 238, uranium 235, uranium 234, thorium 232, thorium 230, radium 226, lead 210, polonium 210, radon 222. The leachate of six fly ash samples was analyzed for all of the above except radon 222. Some data on fly ash analysis are included

  11. Effects of coal fly ash on the rheological characteristics of concrete paste and mortar; Zum Einfluss von Steinkohlenflugaschen auf das rheologische Verhalten von Zementleimen und -moerteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, T.

    2002-07-01

    stiffening of the paste). Addition of coal fly ashes with low water demand in most cases improves the workability of mortar suspensions. Fly ashes with high water demands reduces the consistency. (orig.)

  12. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  13. Creep life prediction of super heater coils used in coal based thermal power plants subjected to fly ash erosion and oxide scale formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Kushwaha, Shashank

    2018-04-01

    Super heater coils of the coal based thermal power plants and subjected to severe operating conditions from both steam side and gas side. Formation of oxide scale due to prolonged service lead to temperature raise of the tube and erosion due to fly ash present in the combusted gases leads to tube thinning. Both these factors lead to creep rupture of the coils much before the designed service life. Failure of super heater coils during service of the boiler leads to power loss and huge monitory loss to the power plants. An attempt is made to model the creep damage caused to the super heater coils using heat transfer analysis tube thinning due to erosive wear of the tubes. Combined effects of these parameters are taken into consideration to predict the life of the super heater coils. This model may be used to estimate the life of the coils operating under the severe operating conditions to prevent the unexpected failure of the coils.

  14. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  15. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  16. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  17. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  18. Study of the Analytical Conditions for the Determination of Cadmium in Coal Fly Ashes by GFAAS with evaluation of several matrix modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M.I.; Petit, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the determination of cadmium in coal fly ash samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) has been developed. Analytical conditions and different instrumental parameters have been optimized. In a first step, several types of matrix modifiers have been tested and a mixture of 2% NH 4 H 2 PO 4 with 0.4%Mg(NO 3 ) 2 in 0.5N HNO 3 has been selected, since it provides the highest sensitivity. In a second step, an optimization of several conditions, using the selected modifier, has been carried out, such as ashing and atomization temperatures, heating rate, etc. The influence of the use of a L' vov platform on the analytical and background signals has been studied, showing a significative decrease on the background signal, being the net absorbance similar to those obtained in absence of the platform. Using the optimal conditions, the direct method with standard samples provides cadmium concentration consistent with those obtained using the standard addition method. (Author) 18 refs

  19. Guidelines for leaching studies on coal fly ash and other solid wastes with special reference to the use of radioanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Environmental pollution has many causes. One of the most important sources is that associated with the large quantities of solid wastes produced by modern industrial societies - materials such as coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and mine tailings. Not only do these give rise to physical problems of disposal - due to the enormous quantities involved - but also, in the long run, they may pose some serious environmental risks. Questions arise as to what will happen to them as a result of interacting with rain or groundwater. Will their toxic components eventually migrate out of waste depositories and contaminate the environment, including groundwater? Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, are not sufficient in themselves to provide a complete answer to the questions. Nevertheless, they have unique properties which enable them to determine many of the important bulk constituents of solid wastes and to explore how toxic and other trace elements can be removed from them by leaching with different kinds of water (e.g. rain water, groundwater and sea water). This report attempts to explore some of these issues and to offer guidance on how nuclear analytical techniques may be applied in a standardized way, thus helping to ensure that the results reported by different laboratories will be compatible and comparable with each other. 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction-including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and lime kiln dust. The laboratory : program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud Com...

  1. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and : lime kiln dust. The laboratory program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, : resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud C...

  2. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  3. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  4. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream. Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, m ay not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineralogical study of Brazilian fly ashes; origin, characteristics and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-one fly ash samples from the five main Brazilian coal-powered thermoelectric plants were subjected to gravimetric chemical analysis, complexometry, flame photometry, X-ray diffractometry, thermodifferential and thermogravimetric analysis, transmitted and reflected light microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and transmited and scanning electron microscopy. (Author) [pt

  6. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  7. Identification and quantification of radionuclides in coal ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, J.E.; Clikeman, F.M.; Skronski, T.

    1998-01-01

    One of the important environmental issues raised recently in regard to coal ash reuse for highway construction purposes (e.g., embankment development) is that of worker, and public, exposure to radiation which might possibly be emitted by these types of residues. This research project subsequently addressed the associated issue of radiation emission by coal ash residuals generated within the State of Indiana, covering both fly ash and bottom ash materials. Samples were obtained at sixteen different coal-fired power generating facilities within Indiana and subjected to quantitative analysis of their associated gamma-ray emission levels. After identifying the responsible radionuclides, a conservative approximation was then developed for the worst-case potential occupational exposure with construction employees working on this type of high-volume, coal ash embankment. In turn, these potential emissions levels were compared to those of other traditional construction materials and other common sources

  8. Technical progress review of extraction of uranium from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi; Gao Junning; Wu Qingming; Chen Gang; Wan Hongjin; Zhang Ziyue

    2014-01-01

    The increasing of fly ash in coal-fired power plants at home and abroad year by year and the potential impacts to the environment attracted media attention. Although the extraction of uranium from the fly ash in coal-fired power plants had optional process from technique aspect and sufficient preliminary researches, but considering the low grade of the uranium in fly ash and particularity of the mineral composition, it is easy to have a high cost of extraction. As a consequence, it is not included in the development plan of uranium mining and metallurgy. The present applications of fly ash are only building materials, building roads and pit valley backfill, the resource utilization rate was low and was still in its early stages of development and application. In view of this, the research advances and the latest development trends of extraction of uranium from fly ash at home and abroad were introduced from the technical aspect, and the beneficial analyzes of the prospect and advices to this industry were given. (authors)

  9. Using locally available fly ash for modifying concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Toor, S.R.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper suggests the possible use of fly ash, a bye-product produced in our thermal power plants operating on coal as fuel for improvement of concrete quality. In the present investigation, locally available finely divided fly ash has been used for modification Presently, it is being used extensively in concrete in modem countries and is considered as waste material in general. Behavior of fly ash modified concrete in comparison to normal concrete having same mix proportions, aggregates, net water-cement ratio and similar curing conditions has been studied in short terms up to the age of 56 days during which the specimens were subjected to normal water curing method. Tests were carried out for compressive strength at 3, 7, 14,28 and 56 days, 24 hours % age water absorption at the age of 56 days and durability (resistance of concrete against N/2 solutions of both nitric acid and hydrochloric acid for one month) of concrete were also carried out at the age of 56 days. It was seen that the compressive strength of concrete modified with the available type of fly ash was less than the normal concrete. But so. far as the durability and % age water absorption are concerned, fly ash plays an important role here. 24 hours % age water absorption decreases with increase in fly ash content an admixture and as a cement replacement in concrete. But so far as durability is concerned, 20% replacement of fly ash with cement appears to be more effective than it is with 40%. The purpose of investigation was to introduce the use of fly ash in concretes to the Engineers and Architects in Pakistan. (author)

  10. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  11. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  12. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Stockmann, Chris; Romero, Erin G; Lu, Zhenyu; Shapiro, Darien; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2016-11-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  15. Morphological and Strength Properties of Tanjung Bin Coal Ash Mixtures for Applied in Geotechnical Engineering Work

    OpenAIRE

    Awang, Abd. Rahim; Marto, Aminaton; Makhtar, Ahmad Maher

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, coal has been used as a raw material to generate electricity since 1988. In the past, most of the wastage of coal burning especially the bottom ash was not managed properly as it was dumped in the waste pond and accumulated drastically.This paper focuses on some properties of coal ash mixtures (fly  ash and bottom ash mixtures) from Tanjung Bin power plant. The characteristics studied were morphological properties, compaction behaviour and strength properties. Strength properties...

  16. Pengaruh Penambahan Limbah Padat Abu Terbang Batubara(fly Ash) Terhadap Kekuatan Tekan Dan Porositas Genteng Tanah Liat Kabupaten Pringsewu

    OpenAIRE

    Febriyansyah, Puji; Tarkono,; Zulhanif,

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, chemicallyis analumino-silicamineral containing Ca, K, and Na elements, fly ash has amoderate to high bonding capacity characteristic , and has acement-forming properties. In this study the authors use the industrial fly ash coal waste as an alternative mixture of tile manufacture. The tiles manufactured by mixing clay, sand, water and fly ash. Then smoothed with ekstuder machine and forming kuweh then aerate for 3 days, before do the dieing process . Tile dried for 4 days, then do f...

  17. A Comparative study Of Catalityc Activity Of Heterogeneous Base Of Banana Stem Ash And Fly Ash On Production Of Biodiesel Byultrasonic

    OpenAIRE

    Marlinda; Ramli; Muh. Irwan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 and then heated...

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  20. Radiation dose resulting from the releases of fly ash in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Frissel, M.J.

    1986-06-01

    The radiological consequences from radioactivity in the emissions of coal fired power stations are evaluated for the Dutch population until the year 2030. The energy scenario for the Netherlands with the highest coal input considers an input of 55 Tg coal per year in 2030. The fly ash production is then 5.3 Tg, while 0.03 Tg fly ash will be released into the atmosphere. The radiation doses which result from the radionuclides present in the fly ash were calculated. Several pathways were considered, contribution of most of them were insignificant. However, the inhalation of fly ash may cause and H eff of 4.0 E-7 Sv.a -1 . The contribution caused by the ingestion of milk contaminated via depositions of fly ash on grass and soil may reach 0.8 E-7 Sv.a -1 . The report contains numerous calculations, references and a parameter analysis. (Auth.)

  1. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  2. Supplying Fe from molten coal ash to revive kelp community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sadakata, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    The phenomenon of a kelp-dominated community changing to a crust-dominated community, which is called 'barren-ground', is progressing in the world, and causing serious social problems in coastal areas. Among several suggested causes of 'barren-ground', we focused on the lack of Fe in seawater. Kelp needs more than 200 nM of Fe to keep its community. However there are the areas where the concentration of Fe is less than 1 nM, and the lack of Fe leads to the 'barren-ground.' Coal ash is one of the appropriate materials to compensate the lack of Fe for the kelp growth, because the coal ash is a waste from the coal combustion process and contains more than 5 wt% of Fe. The rate of Fe elution from coal fly ash to water can be increased by 20 times after melting in Ar atmosphere, because 39 wt% of the Fe(III) of coal fly ash was reduced to Fe(II). Additionally molten ash from the IGCC (integrated coal gasification combined cycle) furnace in a reducing atmosphere and one from a melting furnace pilot plant in an oxidizing atmosphere were examined. Each molten ash was classified into two groups; cooled rapidly with water and cooled slowly without water. The flux of Fe elution from rapidly cooled IGCC molten ash was the highest; 9.4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. It was noted that the coal ash melted in a reducing atmosphere could elute Fe effectively, and the dissolution of the molten ash itself controlled the rate of Fe elution in the case of rapidly cooled molten ash.

  3. Sorption properties of the activated carbon-zeolite composite prepared from coal fly ash for Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vinay Kumar; Matsuda, Motohide; Miyake, Michihiro

    2008-12-15

    Composite materials of activated carbon and zeolite have been prepared successfully by activating coal fly ash (CFA) by fusion with NaOH at 750 degrees C in N(2) followed by hydrothermal treatments under various conditions. Uptake experiments for Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were performed with the materials thus obtained from CFA. Of the various composite materials, that were obtained by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution (ca. 4M) at 80 degrees C (a composite of activated carbon and zeolite X/faujasite) proved to be the most suitable for the uptake of toxic metal ions. The relative selectivity of the present sorbents for the various ions was Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Ni(2+), with equilibrium uptake capacities of 2.65, 1.72, 1.44 and 1.20mmol/g, respectively. The sorption isotherm was a good fit to the Langmuir isotherm and the sorption is thought to progress mainly by ion exchange with Na(+). The overall reaction is pseudo-second order with rate constants of 0.14, 0.17, 0.21 and 0.20Lg/mmol min for the uptake of Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively.

  4. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  5. P USE EFFICIENCY BY CORN (Zea mays L. IN ULTISOL DUE TO APPLICATION OF COAL FLY ASH-CHICKEN MANURE MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hermawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low P availability is the main constraint for crops on acidic soil such as an Ultisols due to high soil P sorption. The objective of current research was to determine the effect of coal fly ash-chicken manure mixture application on P use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. in Ultisols. The research were arranged according to Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replicates. The treatments tested were the rates of FA-CM mixture (w/w of 1:1 that consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 tons ha-1, and P fertilizer rates that consisted of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of P requirement to achieve of 0.2 μg P mL-1 in soil solution (equivalence to 0, 87, 174, 261 and 348 kg P2O5 ha-1. Results of current research showed that P use efficiency by corn on Ultisols had been increased through the addition of FA-CM in combination with P fertilization at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1. The optimum rate of FA-CM in combination with P fertilizer at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1 is 28.60 tons ha-1, with P uptake efficiency of 42.41 % and agronomic P efficiency of 82.53 mg shoot dry weight/mg P from fertilizer.

  6. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs + and/or Sr 2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs + and/or Sr 2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900–1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ are glass–crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite–nepheline, Sr-feldspar–nepheline and Sr-feldspar–pollucite composites including ∼60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10–20 wt.% of glass. The 137 Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10 −7 g cm −2 day −1 was determined for the pollucite glass–ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water)

  7. Chemistry of the direct acid leach, calsinter, and pressure digestion-acid leach methods for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Canon, R.M.; Egan, B.Z.; Felker, L.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Jones, G.; Owen, G.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    The chemistry of three methods for the recovery of alumina from fly ash is reviewed. Fly ashes are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical properties, and differences in ashes derived from eastern and western coals are identified. Aluminum solubilization from fly ashes is explained in terms of the solid phases present, which are related to the basic element content of the ash. The methods used yield high aluminum solubilization from both eastern and western fly ashes. (9 refs.)

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH water column. However extrapolation of this concept to a field

  10. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  11. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  12. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  13. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste using high-calcium fly ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogburn, C.O.; Hodgson, L.M.; Ragland, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using calcium-rich fly ash from coal-fired power plants in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was examined. The proposed areas of use were: (1) fly-ash cement as a trench lining material; (2) fly ash as a backfill material; and (3) fly ash as a liquid waste solidifier. The physical properties of fly-ash cement were determined to be adequate for trench liner construction, with compressive strengths attaining greater than 3000 psi. Hydraulic conductivities were determined to be less than that for clay mineral deposits, and were on the order of 10 -7 cm/sec, with some observed values as low as 10 -9 cm/sec. Removal of radioisotopes from acidified solutions by fly ash was good for all elements tested except cesium. The removal of cesium by fly ash was similar to that of montmorillonite clay. The corrosive effects on metals in fly ash environments was determined to be slight, if not non-existent. Coatings at the fly-ash/metal interfaces were observed which appeared to inhibit or diminish corrosion. The study has indicated that high-calcium fly ash appears to offer considerable potential for improved retention of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow land disposal sites. Further tests are needed to determine optimum methods of use. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  14. A brief review on fly ash and its use in surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhajantri, Vishwanath; Krishna, Prasad; Jambagi, Sudhakar

    2018-04-01

    Fly ash is a by-product obtained from coal power plants. Over the past two decades, handling this industrial waste has been a great challenge for many developing countries. However, this menace can be used in many industrial applications viz., civil, automobile and aerospace applications. In civil industry, the fly ash has been used in concreate to enhance the porosity that increases the curing time of the concrete. The fly ash has been gaining importance these days as a feedstock material for many thermal spray processes. In automobile sector, the fly ash has been used as a thermal barrier coating in IC engines, whereas in aerospace industry, which demands lighter and stronger materials, the fly ash has been used as a reinforcement material. Hence, so far, fly ash has been used as an either single or a composite feed stock material in thermal spray processes. The fly ash with other materials like alumina, titania and red mud have been deposited using thermal spray processes. These coatings have exhibited higher wear, corrosion and erosion resistance as compared to the uncoated specimens. In this paper, a brief review on fly ash and its use, especially its use as a feed stock in thermal spray coating, is presented. Therefore, the use of fly ash has opened a new frontier of research in thermal spray coating area where economically viable coatings can be produced using industrial waste like fly ash.

  15. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  16. Synthesis of Zeolite from Fly Ash and Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Newly Synthesized Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Parag; Gupta, Vikal; Kulshrestha, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. Characteristics of the various Fly ash samples were carried out. Coal proximate analysis was done. Batch experiment was carried out for the adsorption of some heavy metal ions on to synthesized Zeolite. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  17. Utilization of coal/biomass fly ash and bentonite as a low permeability barrier for the containment of acid-generating mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, K.; Mohamedelhassan, E.; Catalan, L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The control and treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in decommissioned mine sites is a major environmental challenge. In general, AMD has a low pH, high acidity, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals. This study investigated the use of coal/biomass fly ash (CBFA) and CBFA/bentonite mixtures as a low permeability seal to contain acid generating mine tailings and treat AMD. Although pure CBFA is effective as a reactive barrier to treat most toxic metals in AMD, its initial hydraulic conductivity exceeds the maximum regulatory requirement of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. Therefore, 3 cases were investigated, notably CBFA only; CBFA amended with low percentages of bentonite; and layering of CBFA and CBFA amended with bentonite. Practical geoenvironmental applications for low permeability CBFA or bentonite/CBFA mixtures include a cap overlying reactive mine tailings, a containment pond liner, and a core in containment dams and dykes. Mixing 10 per cent by mass bentonite with CBFA decreased the hydraulic conductivity to 1 x 10 -7 cm/s or less throughout the entire permeation by water and AMD. The installation of a layer of pure CBFA upstream of the bentonite/CBFA mixture resulted in a further decrease in hydraulic conductivity over time by preventing the collapse of the bentonite double layer and promoting precipitation of gypsum and ettringite in the CBFA layer. The effluent from all tested bentonite/CBFA barriers met the regulatory requirements for chemical parameters, except for aluminum which was leached from the CBFA. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Impacts of coal fly ash on plant growth and accumulation of essential nutrients and trace elements by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in a loessial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Peng, Qi; Wang, Xia; Fan, Chenbin; Zhang, Xingchang

    2017-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a problematic solid waste all over the world. One distinct beneficial reuse of CFA is its utilization in land application as a soil amendment. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the feasibility of using CFA to improve plant growth and increase the supply of plant-essential elements and selenium (Se) of a loessial soil for agricultural purpose. Plants of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown in a loessial soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of CFA for two years and subjected to four successive cuttings. Dry mass of shoots and roots, concentrations of plant-essential elements and Se in plants were measured. Shoot dry mass and root dry mass were always significantly increased by 5%, 10% and 20% CFA treatments, and by 40% CFA treatment in all harvests except the first one. The CFA had a higher supply of exchangeable phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and Se than the loessial soil. Shoot P, calcium (Ca), Mg, Mo, boron (B), and Se concentrations were generally markedly increased, but shoot potassium (K), Cu, and Zn concentrations were generally reduced. The CFA can be a promising source of some essential elements and Se for plants grown in the loessial soil, and an application rate of not higher than 5% should be safe for agricultural purpose without causing plant toxicity symptoms in the studied loessial soil and similar soils. Field trials will be carried out to confirm the results of the pot experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Arsenic and mercury partitioning in fly ash at a Kentucky power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaporn Sakulpitakphon; James C. Hower; Alan S. Trimble; William H. Schram; Gerald A. Thomas [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2003-08-01

    Coal and fly ash samples were collected from a 500-MW unit at a Kentucky power plant, with the objective of studying the distribution of arsenic, mercury, and other trace elements in fly ash. The coal feed was low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous central West Virginia coal. The plant produced a relatively low-carbon fly ash. In contrast to power plants with high-mercury feed coal, the fly ashes from the lower-mercury feed coal had low mercury values, generally not exceeding 0.01 ppm Hg. Mercury capture by fly ash varies with both the amount and type of carbon and the collection temperature; mercury capture is more efficient at lower temperatures. Arsenic in the feed coal and in the flue gas is of concern to the utility, because of the potential for catalyst poisoning in the selective catalytic reduction system (in the planning stage at the time of the sampling). Arsenic is captured in the fly ash, increasing in concentration in the more-distant (from the boiler) reaches of the electrostatic precipitator system. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Water Adsorption Isotherms on Fly Ash from Several Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navea, Juan G; Richmond, Emily; Stortini, Talia; Greenspan, Jillian

    2017-10-03

    In this study, horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetry to investigate the adsorption isotherms of water on fly ash, a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants. Because of composition variability with the source region, water uptake was studied at room temperature as a function of relative humidity (RH) on fly ash from several regions: United States, India, The Netherlands, and Germany. The FT-IR spectra show water features growth as a function of RH, with water absorbing on the particle surface in both an ordered (ice-like) and a disordered (liquid-like) structure. The QCM data was modeled using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm model. The BET model was found to describe the data well over the entire range of RH, showing that water uptake on fly ash takes place mostly on the surface of the particle, even for poorly combusted samples. In addition, the source region and power-plant efficiency play important roles in the water uptake and ice nucleation (IN) ability of fly ash. The difference in the observed water uptake and IN behavior between the four samples and mullite (3Al 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 ), the aluminosilicate main component of fly ash, is attributed to differences in composition and the density of OH binding sites on the surface of each sample. A discussion is presented on the RH required to reach monolayer coverage on each sample as well as a comparison between surface sites of fly ash samples and enthalpies of adsorption of water between the samples and mullite.

  2. A Comparative study Of Catalityc Activity Of Heterogeneous Base Of Banana Stem Ash And Fly Ash On Production Of Biodiesel Byultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 and then heated to a temperature of 550 0C for 3 hours. Results of preparation banana stem ash contains potassium of 36.52 and surface area of 41.901 m2g. This work presents the effect of ultrasonic assisted of waste cooking oil with methanol as solvent using banana stem ash and coal fly ash as catalyst. The diameter of catalyst particles of banana stem ash and coal fly ash varied at 50 100 150 200 and 250 mesh. The transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of ultrasonic operating frequency constant at 40 kHz methanol molar ratio to oil of 9 1 and reaction time of 30 minutes. The methyl ester biodiesel content of product was 93.26 of banana stems ash and 57 of coal fly ash respectively. The physical property was compared with the National Indonesia Standard SNI 2006 with a density viscosity cloud point flash point and cetane number.

  3. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  5. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  6. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Irfan, E-mail: mirfanwazir@gmail.com; Azizli, Khairun, E-mail: khairun-azizli@petronas.com.my; Sufian, Suriati, E-mail: suriati@petronas.com.my; Man, Zakaria, E-mail: zakaman@petronas.com.my; Siyal, Ahmer Ali, E-mail: ahmersiyal@gmail.com; Ullah, Hafeez, E-mail: Hafeez-wazir@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.

  7. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  8. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    vitrification, electric arc and melting in a secondary combustion chamber by adding coke as a heating source (coke bed melting furnaces) or residual carbon in the fly ash (Rotary surface melting furnace) are the most common methods. In general, vitrification processes require a high-energy input and are therefore relatively cost intensive. Locking the hazardous components into the matrix by a stabilization/solidification with cement is a common alternative to decontamination. Mixing the fly ash with cement or asphalt is widely used for the reuse of fly ash from coal incineration, but it requires careful attention to any leaching of heavy metals if applied to fly ash from waste incineration. Studies by mixing fly ash with cement at concentrations from 5 to 70 % showed, that in most cases an additional pretreatment step, e.g. washing in HNO{sub 3} solution, is necessary to receive acceptable leaching behaviour and required properties as building material. Related European regulations are currently pending. On the other hand, the use of fly ash as filler for asphalt does not require any pretreatment and is already commonly applied in some countries such as the Netherlands as a well-established method. Solvent extraction methods such as acidic extraction (3R-process) or combined basic and acidic extraction (MR-process) are also designed to remove the contaminants. The effectiveness of these methods is only moderate and a further thermal treatment is required to destroy the dioxins. These methods require relatively high amounts of chemicals and wastewater management. However, they are supposed to be relatively cost effective. Other treatment options that are being tested at laboratory scale such as microbiological treatment and supercritical extraction are optimistic but have no realistic practical relevance at this state.

  9. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  10. Investigation of the possibility of binding fly ash particles by elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in Serbia use lignite for electrical power production The secondary product of coal combustion is fly ash in the amount of 17%. Fly ash causes the pollution of air, water and soil, and also cause many human, especially lung diseases. Secondary sulphur is a product of crude oil refining. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sulphur as a bonding material in ultra fine particle agglomeration (smaller than 63 μm in fly ash. The agglomeration should make the ash particles larger and heavy enough to fall without flying fractions. The experiments showed that during the homogenization of the ashes and sulphur from 150 to 170 °C in a reactor with intensive mixing, an amount of 15% sulphur was sufficient to bond particles and cause agglomeration without visible flying fractions.

  11. Briquetting fly ash from power plants for use as a charge in production of FeSiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, R.; Jastrzebski, R.; Podbiol, S.; Mendecki, K.

    1983-02-01

    The paper discusses waste product utilization of fly ash from black coal combustion for production of alloys consisting of iron, silicon and aluminium under laboratory conditions. Proportion of fly ash and coal reducing agent was 60% and 40%, grain size distribution of fly ash and coal ranged from 0 to 0.4 mm. Coal pitch and waste products from the cellulose industry were used as binders (resin soap, waste sulfite liquor etc.). Briquetting pressure was 400 kG/cm/sup 2/. Fly ash briquets were stabilized 168 h long and dried from 0.5 h to 1.0 h at 373 to 523 C. Effects of briquet composition, binders, briquetting pressure, stabilizing and drying on physical and mechanical properties of fly ash briquets are analyzed. The results of analyses are shown in 4 diagrams. Shatter test was used for determining briquet properties. The test shows that fly ash briquets with coal pitch, resin soap and waste sulfite liquor used as binders are characterized by compression strength not lower than 245 x 10/sup 4/ Pa and produce less than 5% fines in the shatter test. The tested fly ash briquets are a suitable charge for metallurgy. Effects of fly ash utilization on environmental protection are discussed. (8 refs.)

  12. Respiratory and reproductive characteristics of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting a coal ash settling basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, B.P.; Hopkins, W.A.; Novak, J.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2004-01-01

    Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins negatively affects metabolism and reproduction in a variety of organisms, including a number of fish species. Some species, most notably the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), are known to maintain viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present in these systems, their degree of tolerance to coal ash has not been investigated using sublethal metrics of exposure. It is possible that eastern mosquitofish persist in habitats affected by coal ash, but experience significant costs such as changes in metabolism and fecundity. Thus, we investigated the effects of coal ash on standard metabolic rate and reproduction of eastern mosquitofish inhabiting a coal-ash contaminated settling basin. Standard metabolic rates of mosquitofish from the ash contaminated site and a reference site were not significantly different. Despite elevated contaminant concentrations in ash basin females (selenium, arsenic, copper, and cadmium) and their offspring (selenium), brood sizes and offspring viability did not differ between clutches collected from ash basin and reference site females. Our data provide further evidence of the high degree of tolerance of eastern mosquitofish to exposure to aquatic coal ash disposal generated by power plants. However, the basis for such tolerance to ash remains unclear. Further investigations are required to determine whether such tolerance is a result of species-specific characteristics or population characteristics due to local adaptation.

  13. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  14. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  15. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  16. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments

  17. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  18. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of class-F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Coal-burning power plants in the United States (US) generate more than 70 million tons of fly ash as a by-product annually. Recycling large volumes of fly ash in geotechnical applications may offer an attractive alternative to the disposal problem as most of it is currently dumped in ponds or landfills. Class-F fly ash, resulting from burning of bituminous or anthracite coals, is the most common type of fly ash in the US. In the present study, the mechanical characteristics (compaction response, compressibility, and shear strength) of class-F fly ash were investigated by performing various laboratory tests (compaction test, one-dimensional compression test, direct shear test and consolidated-drained triaxial compression test) on fly ash samples collected from three power plants in the state of Indiana (US). Test results have shown that despite some morphological differences, class-F fly ash exhibits mechanical properties that are, in general, comparable to those observed in natural sandy soils.

  19. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Casado, Raquel; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Coca, Pilar; Pena, Francisco Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga 2 O 3 and as Ga 3+ and V 3+ substituting for Al 3+ in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 deg. C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash

  20. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ofont@ija.csic.es; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: xquerol@ija.csic.es; Juan, Roberto [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: rjuan@carbon.icb.csic.es; Casado, Raquel [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruiz, Carmen R. [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: cruiz@carbon.icb.csic.es; Lopez-Soler, Angel [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: alopez@ija.csic.es; Coca, Pilar [ELCOGAS S.A., 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: pcoca@elcogas.es; Pena, Francisco Garcia [ELCOGAS S.A., 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: fgarciapena@elcogas.es

    2007-01-31

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and as Ga{sup 3+} and V{sup 3+}substituting for Al{sup 3+} in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 deg. C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash.

  1. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Casado, Raquel; Ruiz, Carmen R; López-Soler, Angel; Coca, Pilar; García Peña, Francisco

    2007-01-31

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga2O3 and as Ga3+ and V3+ substituting for Al3+ in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 degrees C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash.

  2. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  3. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  4. Biological and chemical interactions excelerating the removal of impurities from fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic bacteria were isolated from the deposit of fly ash in Chalmová (Slovakia and identified using the BBL identification system. Bacillus cereus was the dominant species in this deposit of aluminosilicate minerals. Under laboratory conditions , Bacillus cereus accelerated the extraction of major and trace impurities in fly ash during bioleaching processes. This process was dependent on bacterial adhesion and production of organic acids. The effect of organic acids produced by bacteria was detected especially in sites where impregnated metals were found in the aluminosilicate structure. Amorphous spherical aluminosilicate particles in allotriomorphic aluminosilicate grains represent a main mineral component of fly-ash in which also elements such as Fe, Ti, Mn, As are bound. The rate of mobilization of Al, Si and Ti from coal fly ash under biochemically relevant conditions in vitro was previously shown to depend on the quantity of the ash microspheres. The qualitative EDS analyse of leachates confirmed the extraction of toxic elements (As and Mn from the initial sample of fly ash.Heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus genus are capable to remove impurities from deposited fly-ash. A long-term deposition of energy fly-ash causes chemical and mineralogical changes as a result of weathering processes. Depending on the composition of coal concentrate containing SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO and other oxides, fly ash can provide a useful preliminary batch for the preparation of glass-ceramics or zeolite after extracting of bacterially dissolved elements from it. The mobility of major impurities (Ca and Fe and heavy metals, caused by biochemical leaching of fly ash, suggests the possibility of the development of an alternative way of this raw material treatment. The advantage of bioleaching is relatively low cost and the subsequent low demand for energy compared with conventional technologies.

  5. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  6. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  7. Is coal ash and slag any useful or unloaded wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.; Iacob, O.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that all types of coal, like most materials found in nature, contain trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides (uranium and thorium families and potassium-40). Therefore, the combustion of coal results in partitioning of radionuclides included in the non-combustible mineral matter, between the bottom ash and fly ash, and in the release into the environment of large amounts of coal ash. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K . They are discharged into the environment causing changes in the natural radiation background and radiation exposures to the population. The continued releases of these materials to environment may result in a buildup in the air, water and soil of the radionuclides, particularly radium-226. There will be an increase of the basic radiation rate in the neighborhood area of these plants and consequently relatively higher exposure of the local population to radiation. Coal burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides (1,2,3,4,5,6). Coal based thermal power plants constitute about 35% of quantum of energy supply in Romania. In view of the importance of coal for energy supply in Romania, we were interested in knowing possible uses of the resulting wastes and minimize the following harmful consequences of coal burning

  8. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  9. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.; Hoerstedt, P.; Renberg, I.

    1998-01-01

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Power station fly ash. A review of value-added utilization outside of the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.S.; Scott, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of fly ash from coal-fired power stations causes significant economic and environmental problems. A relatively small percentage of the material finds application as an ingredient in cement and other construction products, but the vast majority of material generated each year is held in ash dams or similar dumps. This unproductive use of land and the associated long-term financial burden of maintenance has led to realization that alternative uses for fly ash as a value-added product beyond incorporation in construction materials are needed. Utilization of fly ash in such areas as novel materials, waste management, recovery of metals and agriculture is reviewed in this article with the aim of looking at new areas that will expand the positive reuse of fly ash, thereby helping to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of disposal

  11. On the removal of hexavalent chromium from a Class F fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, F E; Rezaee, M; Honaker, R Q; Hower, J C

    2016-05-01

    Coarse and fine samples of a Class F fly ash obtained from commercial combustion of Illinois bituminous coal have been exposed to two long-term leaching tests designed to simulate conditions in waste impoundments. ICP-AES analysis indicated that the coarse and fine fly ash samples contained 135 and 171mg/kg Cr, respectively. Measurements by XAFS spectroscopy showed that the ash samples originally contained 5 and 8% of the chromium, respectively, in the hexavalent oxidation state, Cr(VI). After exposure to water for more than four months, the percentage of chromium as Cr(VI) in the fly-ash decreased significantly for the coarse and fine fly-ash in both tests. Combining the XAFS data with ICP-AES data on the concentration of chromium in the leachates indicated that, after the nineteen-week-long, more aggressive, kinetic test on the coarse fly ash, approximately 60% of the Cr(VI) had been leached, 20% had been reduced to Cr(III) and retained in the ash, and 20% remained as Cr(VI) in the ash. In contrast, during the six-month-long baseline test, very little Cr was actually leached from either the coarse or the fine fly-ash (ash was retained in the ash in that form, while the remainder, 34% and 80%, respectively, was reduced and retained in the ash as Cr(III). The results are interpreted as indicating that Cr(VI) present in Class F fly-ash can be reduced to Cr(III) when in contact with water and that such chemical reduction can compete with physical removal of Cr(VI) from the ash by aqueous leaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  13. Effect of fly ash characteristics on arsenic mobilization in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhumbla, D.K.; Singh, R.N.; Keefer, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Coal combustion by products are a major source of arsenic mobilization in the environment. These by products have been successfully used in the reclamation of mine lands. However, there are concerns about the potential pollution problems from As by such use. A field experiment was established on a recently remined abandoned mine land where fly ashes from three different power plants were used for reclaiming mine soils. The experiment had seven treatments and 4 replications which were arranged in a randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 3 fly ashes at 2 rates each and a check treatment received lime. Arsenic content of the fly ashes varied between 53 and 220 mg/kg. Fly ashes also varied in the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron and neutralization potential. Arsenic concentrations were monitored in the vegetation, soil solutions, and soils. The results of this experiment showed that arsenic concentrations were higher in plants grown on plots receiving fly ash than in plants grown on plots receiving lime treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the plants, water, or soil were not governed by the arsenic content of fly ashes. Arsenic mobilization from the ashes was controlled by the chemical and morphological characteristics of the fly ashes and chemical transformations in the arsenic containing components in soil

  14. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    India's annual coal production is used in about 72 power- generating plants and ... performance of this material as cracking catalyst was investigated with ... Chemically, the FA was silica to an extent of 55–70%, followed by ... Cu, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Ti, Na, Mo, S, P, Zn and Cl in different ... two-probe method. The dielectric ...

  15. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  16. UTILIZATION OF TORAY FLY ASH AS FILLER SUBSTITUTION IN THE HOT ROLLED SHEET-WEARING COURSE (HRS-WC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Candra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In road construction materials, the utilization of fly ash as additive materials is limited and also small in quantity, while the disposal of fly ash is quite high. An abundance of fly ash can be found at PT Toray Company in Jakarta and Surabaya. Toray fly ash is disposed coal ash resulting from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. Toray fly ash in this research is used as substitute mineral filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Research on utilization of Toray fly ash as filler is conducted in the Hot Rolled Sheet – Wearing Course Mixture.  Filler content in the HRS –WC mixture is 9%. Variations of Toray fly ash in the mixture tested are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and the variations of asphalt content are 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%. Marshall test is  performed to determine the Optimum Asphalt Content  and Marshall Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR to select the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the mixture based on the moisture susceptibility of specimens. The research results show that in variations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Toray fly ash in the HRS-WC Mixture, the Optimum Asphalt Contents are at 6.8%, 7.0%, 7.0%, 7.1% and 7.6%  and Marshall Stability values of the variations are 1649 kg, 1541 kg, 1568 kg, 1678 kg, 1718 kg respectively. TSR values in variations of Toray fly ash are 98.32%, 90.28%, 89.38%, 87.62%, 64.71% respectively, with Minimum TSR value required is 80%. Based on the overall parameters, the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the HRS-WC Mixture recommended is 75% of Toray fly ash at 7.1% Optimum Asphalt Content.

  17. Groundwater impact studies at three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, H.M.; Vorauer, A.G.; Chan, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has produced on the order of 21 million Mg of coal fly ash over the past 40 years, of which, 80% has gone to various landfill sites in the province of Ontario. Hydrogeologic investigations have been performed in the vicinity of three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfill sites to assess the environmental impact of fly ash landfilling on the local groundwater regime. Two of the waste management facilities are associated with thermal generating stations (Lambton TGS and Nanticoke TGS) and are founded on relatively impermeable clay deposits. The third site, Birchwood Park, is a former sand and gravel pit for which the landfill design did not incorporate the use of a liner material. The rates of groundwater flow through the overburden materials a the three sites vary from less than 1 cm/a at the Lambton TGS site, to between 3.45 cm/a and 115 cm/a at contaminant transport at these sites also varies from being controlled by molecular diffusion to advection. This paper discusses the migration rates of contaminants from fly ash leachate at each of the three sites with implications to landfill containment and design

  18. Synthesis of geopolymer from biomass-coal ash blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Wulandari, Winny; Prasetyo, Muhammad Iqbal; Fernando, Muhammad Rizki; Purbasari, Aprilina

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer is an environmentally attractive Portland cement substitute, owing to its lower carbon footprint and its ability to consume various aluminosilicate waste materials as its precursors. This work describes the development of geopolymer formulation based on biomass-coal ash blends, which is predicted to be the prevalent type of waste when biomass-based thermal energy production becomes mainstream in Indonesia. The ash blends contain an ASTM Class F coal fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA), and coconut shell ash (CSA). A mixture of Na2SiO3 and concentrated KOH is used as the activator solution. A preliminary experiment identified the appropriate activator/ash mass ratio to be 2.0, while the activator Na2SiO3/KOH ratio varies from 0.8 to 2.0 with increasing ash blend Si/Al ratio. Both non-blended FA and CSA are able to produce geopolymer mortars with 7-day compressive strength exceeding the Indonesian national SNI 15-2049-2004 standard minimum value of 2.0 MPa stipulated for Portland cement mortars. Ash blends have to be formulated with a maximum RHA content of approximately 50 %-mass to yield satisfactory 7-day strength. No optimum ash blend composition is identified within the simplex ternary ash blend compositional region. The strength decreases with Si/Al ratio of the ash blends due to increasing amount of unreacted silicate raw materials at the end of the geopolymer hardening period. Overall, it is confirmed that CSA and blended RHA are feasible raw materials for geopolymer production..

  19. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  1. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  2. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Economic metal recovery from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Canon, R.M.; Egan, B.Z.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    Results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and several other metals. Two processes are examined in detail, the direct acid leach of ash with hydrochloric acid and a pressure digestion-acid leach method. An economic evaluation is presented for each process, and direct acid leaching is considered the most attractive process. The benefits derived from using such a process are discussed. (15 refs.)

  4. Characterization of Fly and Bottom Ashes Mixtures Treated using Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C.G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia promotes coal as an option for solid fuel in electric power generation. Demanding of electricity needs, therefore, has led to increase the coal consumption and thus producing more coal waste products. The disposal of coal waste ashes has been a main concern to power generation station due to the need of disposal sites and operational costs. This study investigates the composition of fly ash (FA and bottom ash (BA mixtures with difference component percentage treated with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA at 1.5 and 2.5 wt% solutions and examined in terms of specific gravity, pH, maximum dry density properties, and its surface morphology. Although the chemical composition of the SLS and PVA treated fly and bottom ashes studied in this current work is not altered extensively, significant changes could be observed in its physicochemical properties. Chemically treated fly and bottom ashes mixtures with SLS and PVA at 1.5 wt% solution exhibited specific gravity of 1.97 to 2.92 and high pH values within range of 9.28 to 10.52. The mixture of BA:FA=0:1 ratio depicting high maximum dry density of 1.35 to 1.56 g/cm3 in both SLS and PVA solutions at 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy image shows distinct surface morphologies of SLS-treated fly and bottom ashes mixture that the particles are packed closely, strongly bonded similar to popcorn shape due to the effect of active silanol groups acted on coal ashes surface with the presence of Al-O/Si-O/other oxides. These findings suggest that higher level of chemical interaction between the fly and bottom ashes particles, significantly enhances pozzolanic reactions such as shear strength, plasticity, cementing properties, and thus other engineering properties.

  5. Characterization of Fly and Bottom Ashes Mixtures Treated using Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C. G.; Ayob, A.; Zaki, M. F. Muhammad; Razali, M. E.; Lew, E. V.; Hong, P. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Malaysia promotes coal as an option for solid fuel in electric power generation. Demanding of electricity needs, therefore, has led to increase the coal consumption and thus producing more coal waste products. The disposal of coal waste ashes has been a main concern to power generation station due to the need of disposal sites and operational costs. This study investigates the composition of fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) mixtures with difference component percentage treated with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at 1.5 and 2.5 wt% solutions and examined in terms of specific gravity, pH, maximum dry density properties, and its surface morphology. Although the chemical composition of the SLS and PVA treated fly and bottom ashes studied in this current work is not altered extensively, significant changes could be observed in its physicochemical properties. Chemically treated fly and bottom ashes mixtures with SLS and PVA at 1.5 wt% solution exhibited specific gravity of 1.97 to 2.92 and high pH values within range of 9.28 to 10.52. The mixture of BA:FA=0:1 ratio depicting high maximum dry density of 1.35 to 1.56 g/cm3 in both SLS and PVA solutions at 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy image shows distinct surface morphologies of SLS-treated fly and bottom ashes mixture that the particles are packed closely, strongly bonded similar to popcorn shape due to the effect of active silanol groups acted on coal ashes surface with the presence of Al-O/Si-O/other oxides. These findings suggest that higher level of chemical interaction between the fly and bottom ashes particles, significantly enhances pozzolanic reactions such as shear strength, plasticity, cementing properties, and thus other engineering properties.

  6. Pilot-scale demonstration of the OSCAR process for high-temperature multipollutant control of coal combustion flue gas, using carbonated fly ash and mesoporous calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, H.; Thomas, T.J.; Park, A.H.A.; Iyer, M.V.; Gupta, P.; Agnihotri, R.; Jadhav, R.A.; Walker, H.W.; Weavers, L.K.; Butalia, T.; Fan, L.S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A pilot-scale study of the Ohio State Carbonation Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process was performed to demonstrate the reactivity of two novel calcium-based sorbents toward sulfur and trace heavy metal (arsenic, selenium, and mercury) capture in the furnace sorbent injection (FSI) mode on a 0.365 m{sup 3}/s slipstream of a bituminous coal-fired stoker boiler. The sorbents were synthesized by bubbling CO{sub 2} to precipitate calcium carbonate (a) from the unreacted calcium present in the lime spray dryer ash and (b) from calcium hydroxide slurry that contained a negatively charged dispersant. The heterogeneous reaction between these sorbents and SO{sub 2} gas occurred under entrained flow conditions by injecting fine sorbent powders into the flue gas slipstream. The reacted sorbents were captured either in a hot cyclone (about 650{sup o}C) or in the relatively cooler downstream baghouse (about 230{sup o}C). The baghouse samples indicated about 90% toward sulfation and captured arsenic, selenium and mercury to 800 ppmw, 175 ppmw and 3.6 ppmw, respectively.

  7. The heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly-ash and deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Pohl, J.H.; Devir, G.P.; Su, S. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on a series of slagging studies investigating the heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly ash and deposits, and how this heterogeneity affects deposition. The data come from low temperature ashing (LTA) of pulverised coal, fly ash from boilers, and deposits from pilot-scale furnaces and boilers. The paper presents optical and scanning electron (SEM) micrographs, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXRA) of mineral matter, individual fly ash particles, and localised regions of deposits. During combustion, the included mineral matter is transformed into fly ash, melts and partially adheres to the char surface, and may form agglomerated masses. Excluded mineral matter has little chance of encountering another ash particle and agglomerating in the gas phase, but can react with other particles in the wall deposits. Certain fly ash particles adhere to the wall where they can combine with other fly ash particles. Analyses of molten regions of deposits have shown, so far, four mineral phase fields to be responsible for forming difficult deposits with melting points below deposit surface temperatures of 1200 to 1350{sup o}C. These mineral fields include iron cordierite, albite and its silica undersaturated equivalent nepheline, anorthite, and compounds with ratios of Ca to P of 2.3-2.5.

  8. Coal ash parameters by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Edward; Chau, N.D.; Niewodniczanski, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The coal parameters, ash content and ash slagging index, may be strongly related to the chemical composition of mineral impurities in coal. Based on this assumption the authors have examined the feasibility of neutron activation techniques, both as a laboratory and a well logging method, by recording induced γ-rays in the two energy intervals with the help of a scintillation γ-ray spectrometer. Results from the Upper Silesiab Coal Basin have shown that the method can be used to evaluate the ash content and ash fusion temperature, both in the laboratory and in well logging; the corresponding mean standard deviations being 1.5 wt% and 35 o C; and 3 wt% and 45 o C respectively. (author)

  9. Removal of Copper (II Ions in Aqueous Solutions by Sorption onto Alkali Activated Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayanti Lita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a particulate material produced from coal combustion power plants with major components are silica, alumina, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and carbon which are ideal for metal adsorbents. The potential use of fly ash in the wastewater treatment process is obvious because it can be obtained cheaply in large quatities and it can be used as an adsorbent. However, fly ash still shows lower adsorption capacity unless it is activated. In this study, fly ash activated by NaOH 14 M and KOH 14 M solutions. The batch experiments were carried out to study the sorption of copper ions from aqueous on alkali activated fly ash. The influence of initial concentration and contact time were examined at constant pH and dose of adsorbent. The sorption capacity of copper ions increased with the initial concentration and contact time. The sorption capacities followed the order Na1>Ka1>FA. The adsorption isotherm model exhibited that the Langmuir model is very suitable with copper ions adsorption onto fly ash and alkali activated fly ash. Kinetic study shows that adsorption of copper ions onto FA, Na1, and Ka1 follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  10. Study of radon exhalation and emanation rates from fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Gupta, Nitin; Garg, Maneesha; Yadav, Mani Kant

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, a by-product of burnt coal is technologically important material being used for manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. The increased interest in measuring radon exhalation and emanation rates in fly ash samples is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution and the same have been measured to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from fly ash disposal sites. Samples of fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) were collected and analysed for the measurements. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Gamma spectrometry and can technique was used for the measurements. The experimental data show that fly ash samples emanate radon in significant amount and this consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings built by using fly ash bricks and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing in the surroundings of fly ash dumping sites. (author)

  11. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  12. Bioleaching of trace metals from coal ash using local isolate from coal ash ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangayao Denvert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of chromium, copper, manganese and zinc from coal ash were investigated using isolates from coal ash ponds particularly Psuedomonas spp. Six (6 different coal ash ponds were examined however, after initial screening Psuedomonas spp. were only present in three (3 coal ash ponds. Among the three coal ash ponds, results showed that eight (8 putative Pseudomonas spp. isolates were present that were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Using the eight putative Pseudomonas spp. for bioleaching at optimum conditions and 15 days, the pH value ranges from 8.26 to 8.84 which was basic in nature. Moreover, the maximum metal leached were 8.04% Cr, 12.05% Cu, 4.34% Mn and 10.63% Zn.

  13. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  14. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  15. Synergistic effect of fly ash in in-vessel composting of biomass and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Vivek; Mandpe, Ashootosh; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to utilize coal fly ash for its property to adsorb heavy metals and thus reducing the bioavailability of the metals for plant uptake. Fly ash was incorporated into the in-vessel composting system along with organic waste. The in-vessel composting experiments were conducted in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity comprising varying proportions of biomass waste, kitchen waste and fly ash. In this study, maximum degradation of organic matter was observed in Vessel 3 having k value of 0.550 d -1 . In vessel 10, 20% fly ash with a combination of 50% biomass waste and 30% kitchen waste along with the addition of 5% jaggery as an additive produced the best outcome with least organic matter (%C) loss and lowest value of rate constant (k). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Release of microspherolites and metals extraction from energetical fly ashes by Bacillus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The amorphous secondary silicate mineral components formed in the process of coal combustion dominate in the composition of energy fly-ash. Depending on the composition of coal concentrate, this secondary raw material source also contains the industrially interesting components, e.g. titanium (eventually iron and aluminium and can be considered as a non-metallic material suitable for the construction industry.The main secondary mineral components of the energy fly-ash formed during the coal combustion were studied using SEM (scanning electronic microscope. They can be divided into four groups:1. Amorphous spherical alumocilicate particles in allotriomorphic aluminosilicate grains – they represent a main mineral component of fly-ash, which is formed from the accompanying rocks of coal containing silicate minerals,2. Quartz – which formed a substantial component of accompanying rocks of coal or accompanying accessory mineral of coal together with kaolinite and mica, was transformed into tridymite at the temperature exceeding 870°C and into cristobalite at the temperature exceeding 1470°C. The spherical particles are products of reaction between cristobalite and aluminosilicate, which is a frequent phenomenon occurring during the formation of volcanic rocks. These particles form together a main amorphous phase of fly-ash.3. Mullite – represents a secondary component of fly-ash, which is formed from accompanying clay minerals of coal (kaolinite, mica together with cristobalite under the effect of temperature exceeding 1150°C,4. Non-combusted residue – consists of organic substance, represents a non-combusted ratio of coal as a secondary component of fly-ash.Heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus genus are capable to remove 66 % of titanium and 33 % of iron from non-deposited fly-ash from Opatovice after 35 days of leaching of samples. The content of solid phase in fly-ash influences the extraction of elements, mainly iron and titatnium, because

  17. Gehlenite and anorthite formation from fluid fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perná, Ivana; Šupová, Monika; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Fluid fly ash could be considered a waste, but, when well treated, it may also become a useful secondary source material. Its rather high content of calcium-containing phases along with thermally treated alumino-silicate residues resulting from coal combustion can lead to the formation of a stable system with newly formatted phases. The high temperature destroys the clay lattice and activates a new configuration of aluminum ions, changing their coordination to oxygen. The effect is accompanied by changes in charge in the surroundings, which are compensated for by calcium ions. The higher the temperature of the fluid ash treatment, the more pronounced the appearance of gehlenite and anorthite in the final mass. Both are natural materials and, together with mullite and anhydrite, they could ensure safety and protection even if exposed to open fire of up to 1150 °C.

  18. Relation of ash composition to the uses of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieldner, A C; Selvig, W A

    1926-02-01

    The effects of coal ash and ash components on the utilization of coal for coke and gas production, steam generation, water gas production, smithing, and domestic uses were described in a review of literature. Calcite, gypsum, and pyrite which occur in high amounts in coal, increase the ash fusibility of the coal and render it unsuitable for many industrial and domestic uses. As a rule, coal ash of high Si content and low Fe content would not be readily fusible. High amounts of ash in coal also have the effect of reducing the heating value of the coal.

  19. Soot, organics and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is concerned with determining the effects of oxy-combustion of coal on the composition of the ultrafine fly ash. To this end, a 10 W externally heated entrained flow furnace was modified to allow the combustion of pulverized coal in flames under practically relevant s...

  20. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of coal-ash basin effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied for 50 months. The density of the aquatic biota was periodically altered by heavy ash siltation, decreased pH due to fly ash, and by arsenic, copper, selenium and zinc associated with coal ash. Siltation was most influential in decreasing numbers of invertebrates, and lowered pH (from 7.2 to 5.5) more influential in decreasing mosquito fish and retarding recovery of invertebrates. An efficient primary-secondary retaining basin system enabled most invertebrate groups to recover their previous level of abundance.

  1. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  2. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  3. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  4. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  5. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  6. MANUAL. Fly ash in civil engineering, Gravel roads; HANDBOK. Flygaska i mark- och vaegbyggnad, Grusvaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munde, Hanna; Svedberg, Bo; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Ekdahl, Peter; Neren, Jens [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Vaerme Norden

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash based on biofuels or coal has been used as construction material for a long time in roads and other civil engineering applications. Some example, where it has been used in roadbase and subbase of gravel roads, are in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland, Vaestmanland and in Finland. The use of fly ash has contributed to good function for example as bearing capacity, thaw and frost capacity and good durability. This has also reduced costs for maintenance. The objective of this project was to develop a manual to provide a base for contemporary use of fly ash in road constructions. In the manual experience from studies, field tests and regulations has been compiled. The manual handles fly ash as base for products to be used in base and subbase in gravel roads. Future user of the guidelines are mainly consultant engineers and contractors. However the aim of the manual is to also support road administrators, environmental authorities and industry. The project has been carried out parallel to another ongoing national project titled 'Guidelines, Use of alternative materials in civil engineering'. The objective of that project is to establish a base for handling of alternative materials in Sweden. Fly ash in gravel roads are mainly used in two typical applications, one without any additive in a single layer and one with fly ash mixed with gravel. The use of flyash provides functional properties such as increased stiffness, stability and enhanced frost and thaw capacity for the road construction in total. Furthermore the products based on fly ash will have low permeability and good frost and thaw durability. These properties are for example related to fly ash quality, design and construction and are in general expected to be better than for traditional constructions using, for example, sand or gravel. The properties can be enhanced further by using binders such as cement and Merit. Fly ash should always be used above the ground water table with

  7. Sintering of a class F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Biernacki; Anil K. Vazrala; H. Wayne Leimer [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The sinterability of a class F fly ash was investigated as a function of processing conditions including sintering temperature (1050-1200{sup o}C) and sintering time (0-90 min). Density, shrinkage, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and residual loss on ignition (RLOI) were evaluated as measures of sintering efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction was used to examine microstructure and phase development due to processing. The results show that premature densification can inhibit complete carbon removal and that carbon combustion is influenced by both internal and external mass transfer conditions. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Composites Based on Recycled and Stabilized Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Besco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means of an innovative process using rice husk ash as a waste silica source, together with other fly ashes, such as coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization residues. The use of all waste materials to obtain a new filler makes the proposed technology extremely sustainable and competitive. The new composites, obtained by using the stabilized material as a filler for polypropylene, were characterized and their mechanical properties were also investigated. A comparison with a traditional polypropylene and calcium carbonate based compound was also done. This research activity was realized in the frame of the COSMOS-RICE project, financed by the EU Commission.

  11. Waste glass as partial mineral precursor in alkali-activated slag/fly ash system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Keulen, A.; Arbi, K.; Ye, G.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a waste glass powder residue (GP) from glass recycling as partial mineral precursor to produce alkali-activated materials is investigated. GP served as powder coal fly ash (PCFA) replacement within a reference system composed of 50% PCFA and 50% ground granulated blast furnace

  12. Fly ash: An alternative to powdered activated carbon for the removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and raw coal fly ash (RFA) in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous solution in batch processes. Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 120 min ...

  13. Removal of metallic ions from aqueous solutions by fluidized bed fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, S.; Delebarre, A.; Hequet, V. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Blondin, J. [Cerchar 62 - Mazingarbe (France)

    2001-07-01

    One of the main constraints deriving from the generation of power by coal combustion is to find some use for the fly ashes instead of disposing of them. Fly ashes from two fluidized bed power plants were tested to remove Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr (III), Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. Experimental design methodology was used to study the removal and the leaching as a function of (i) the water pollutant content, (ii) the metal concentration in water, (iii) the pH of the solution and (iv) the addition of lime to fly ashes. The results show that the percentage of adsorbed ions was more important when they were in contact with silico-aluminous fly ashes than sulfo-calcic fly ashes, except in the case of the ion Ni{sup 2+}. The removal of metallic ions increases with increasing pH. The metallic canons removal accounting for the leaching test was higher when lime was added to silico-aluminous fly ashes during the adsorption. (authors)

  14. Influence of Kaolin in Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete: Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Ramli, N. Mohd; Burduhos-Nergis, D. D.; Razak, R. Abd

    2018-06-01

    Development of geopolymer concrete is mainly to reduce the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) that adverse the natural effect. Fly ash is a by-product collected from electrical generating power plant which resulted from burning pulverized coal. Since fly ash is waste materials, it can be recycled for future advantages particularly as pozzolanic materials in construction industry. This study focused on the feasibility of fly ash based geopolymer concrete to which kaolin has been added. The main constituents of geopolymer production for this study were class F fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The concentration of NaOH solution was fixed at 12 Molar, ratio of fly ash/alkaline activator and sodium silicate/NaOH fixed at 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Kaolin was added in range 5% to 15% from the mass of fly ash and all the samples were cured at room temperature. Destructive and non-destructive test were performed on geopolymer concrete to evaluate the best mix proportions that yield the highest strength as well as the quality of the concrete. Compressive strength, flexural strength, rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) result have been obtained. It shown that 5% replacement of kaolin contributed to maximum compressive strength and flexural strength of 40.4 MPa and 12.35 MPa at 28 days. These result was supported by non-destructive test for the same mix proportion.

  15. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  16. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated

  17. Pore Structure Characterization in Concrete Prepared with Carbonated Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sanjukta

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technique to address the global concern of continuously rising CO2 level in the atmosphere. Fly ash is considered as a suitable medium for CCS due to presence of metal oxides. The fly ash which has already sequestered carbon dioxide is referred to as carbonated fly ash. Recent research reveals better durability of concretes using carbonated fly ash as part replacement of cement. In the present research pore structure characterization of the carbonated fly ash concrete has been carried out. Mercury Intrusion porosimetry test has been conducted on control concrete and concrete specimens using fly ash and carbonated fly ash at replacement levels of 25% and 40%. The specimens have been water cured for 28 days and 90 days. It is observed that porosity reduction rate is more pronounced in carbonated fly ash concrete compared to control concrete at higher water curing age. Correlation analysis is also carried out which indicates moderately linear relationship between porosity % and pore distribution with particle size and water curing.

  18. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  20. Radon exhalation study from cement, cement slabs and concrete slabs with variation in fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nisha; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste product from coal-fired power plants. Fly ash has become a subject of world-wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses, e.g. in the manufacture of concrete for building purposes, for the filling of underground cavities, or as a component of building material. The fly ash may contain enhanced levels of the natural radionuclides in the uranium and thorium series and by using the fly ash in building materials, the radiation levels in houses may thus be technologically enhanced. Because of its relatively high radionuclide contents (including 226 Ra), fly ash may, however, present a potential hazard to the population through its radon emanation, which would be highly undesirable. Since fly ash is frequently used as a building material, the idea of the experiment was to mix fly ash in different proportions in the cement in the powder form, cemented slabs and concrete slabs to study the combined behaviors. Alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detector, commonly known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), were used to measure the radon concentration. The alpha particles emitted from the radon causes the radiation damaged tracks. The chemical etching in NaOH at 60°C for about 90 minutes was done to reveal these latent tracks, which were then scanned and counted by an optical microscope of suitable magnification. By calculating the track density of registered tracks, the radon concentrations were determined. In case of cement in the powder form and in cemented slab, starting from the pure cement, fly ash was added up to 70% by weight. In this case the radon exhalation rate has increased by addition of fly ash in the cement and in case of concrete slabs by the addition of fly ash in the cement the radon exhalation increases up to 60% and then decreases. Therefore, on the basis of our investigations we concluded that in general radon exhalation rate increases with the addition of fly ash. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  2. Hydrolytic stability of heavy metal compounds in fly ash of a heat power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, E.P.; Pertsikov, I.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Ash and slag from solid fuels are utilized widely in building materials and road surfaces, and in agriculture for soil acidulation. For all these uses it is important to know the amount and form of heavy metal compounds contained in ash and their likely behavior when ash and slag wastes are utilized. Studying the behavior of heavy metals in ash residues at contact with water media is important also because, for most trace elements, the authors lack experimental data that would enable us to predict their behavior after prolonged storage and industrial utilization. The present paper describes a study of lixiviation (at various pH in static conditions) of heavy metals form fly ash obtained by burning Azeisk coal. Homogenized ash selected from electric filter sections 1-4 was used, which has the following composition (%): SiO 2 59.8; Al 2 O 3 ; Fe 23 O 3 7.1; CaO 4.1; MgO 1.3; other 2.8. In a neutral medium, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn lixiviation was slight, amounting to 0.01-0.4%. During coal combustion, these elements apparently form compounds that are slightly soluble in water, although it is also possible that ash retains high adsorptivity for heavy metals. As a result, in these conditions the reverse process of sorption of heavy metals from the solution by fly ash is also possible, which would reduce the heavy metal concentration in the solution

  3. Adsorption Kinetics of Fe and Mn with Using Fly Ash from PT Semen Baturaja in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Purnamasari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One used method to reduce heavy metal ions in acid mine drainage is to adsorb them by coal fly ash. This research aimed to study the isotherms equilibrium and the adsorpstion kinetics that fit with decreasing metals ion. Acid mine draigane and fly ash were charge into batch coloumn adsorption with specified comparison. Variables investigated were dactivated and activated fly ash, adsorption times (0, 20, 30, 40,50, and 60 minutes, adsorben weights (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 gram, and pH (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. The results showed that fly ash can be used to reduce the levels of heavy metal ions Fe and Mn. Coal fly ash adsorption model of acid mine drainage fits to Freundlich adsorption isotherm in all condition. First order pseudo model kinetics is suitable for Fe and Mn adsorption processes. The value of adsorpsi rate constants vary around : Fe and Mn (deactivated fly ash 0.2388 min-1 with R2 = 0.4455 and 0.4173 min-1 with R2 = 0.9781, Fe and Mn (activated fly ash 0.5043 min-1 dengan R2 = 1 and  0.2027 min-1 with R2 = 0.8803.

  4. Characterization of bottom ashes from coal pulverized power plants to determine their potential use feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E.; Alvaro, A. M.; Argiz, C.; Parra, J. L.; Moragues, A.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of coal by products represents environmental and economical problems around the world. Therefore, the reuse and valorisation of this waste has become an important issue in the last decades. While high-value construction products containing fly ash were developed and its use is actually totally accepted as an addition to cement, the use of the bottom ash as supplementary cementitious material has not been allow. This paper examines the chemical and physical properties of fly ashes and bottom ashes from two different coal power plants in order to compare them and analyse the potential feasibility of bottom ash as cement replacement. The mechanical properties of cement mortars made with different percentages of both ashes were also study. The results obtained showed similar chemical composition of both kinds of ashes. The compressive strength values of mortars with 10 % and 25 % of cement replacement (at 28 days) were above the limits established in European standards and there were not significant differences between fly ash and bottom ash from both origins. (Author)

  5. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  6. Electrofiltration of fly ashes extremely strong and special characteristics; Electrofiltracion de Cenizas de Alta Resistividad y Caracteristicas Especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of CARE project was to improve the utilization of electrostatic precipitator technology for control of particle emission to the atmosphere, specially from coal-fired power stations burning coal with fly ash characteristics exhibiting extremely strong particle cohesion. (Author)

  7. Experimental Analysis of Fly Ash & Coir Fiber Mix Cement Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Amit Kumar Ahirwar; Prof. Rajesh Joshi

    2015-01-01

    In India Thermal power plants which use pounded coal as a fuel, generates million tones of fly ash every year as a waste. Conservative clearance of this material which gets easily air-borne and constitutes a serious health hazards to the community, is an expensive operation. A part from this compacted fly ash can be used in embankments, road sub-bases and also for structural fills. The major drawbacks of such materials are their limited load carrying capacity and poor settlement c...

  8. Radiometric determination of {sup 226}, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K in fly ashes and building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harangozo, M; Toelgyessy, J; Lesny, J; Cik, G [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Chemical Technology, Dept. of Environmental Science

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the activities of radium-226, actinium-228 and potassium-40 in fly ashes and building materials of Slovakia were determined. Different origin of coals combusted results in significant differences in specific activities of radium-226 and activities-228 of measured fly-ashes and building materials. The knowledge of the specific activity of selected nuclides contained in fly-ashes is, therefore, very important and in specific cases can indicate the possibilities of their further technological use. (J.K.) 1 tab., 3 refs.

  9. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Physical and chemical characterization of 50 pulverized coal ashes with respect to partial cement replacement in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H A; Weijers, E G

    1986-04-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of 50 pulverized coal ashes from Dutch, Belgian and German installations has been carried out to identify the parameters that have to be kept under control, when pulverized coal ashes are to be used as partial cement replacement in concrete. For a good workability of fly ash/cement mortars the particle size and the carbon content are important. By performing a mortar flow test (Heagermann) upon delivery exterme ashes can be easily eliminated. The compressive strength is largely determined by the fineness of the ash (weight fraction below 20 micron). A direct effect of carbon content on strength development is not observed, but a reduction in mortar slow due to carbon leads to loss in strength, while the workability has to be adjusted. Size distribution measurement by optical methods is recommended as the relevant part of the ash size distribution cannot be properly assessed by sieve methods. The net contribution of fly ash to the compressive strength of a fly ash/cement (20/80) mortar exhibits a minimum at 14 days curing, which is common to all 50 ashes studied. Improvements in ash quality as obtained from pulverized-coal fired installations can be achieved by improvements in coal milling and optimizing ash collection. 6 figs., 4 tabs., 19 refs.

  13. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  14. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report E : hardened mechanical properties and durability performance of HVFA concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A rising concern in todays construction industry is environmental responsibility. : The addition of fly ash is a leading innovation in sustainable design of concrete. Fly ash, : a waste by-product of coal burning power plants, can be used to repla...

  15. Solubility and transport of arsenic coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, R.; Cruickshank, C.; Vega, E.; Silva, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental method combined with a numerical model allows a comparison of two methods for the disposal of ash that contains arsenic, from the Rio Escondido coal-fired power plant. The calculation yields significant differences in aquifer migration times for the site. The wet disposal method gave 10 years time and the dry method gave 22 years. Experiments were performed on the rate of dissolution of the arsenic from ash samples; and these results indicate a first order kinetics reaction. 8 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Energetical fly ashes – separation and utilization of metallic valuable components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, methods of separating metals – Fe, Al, Ge from energetic wastes – fly ashes are presented along with further possibilities of utilization of particular valuable components for industrial purposes.In the contribution, properties of energetic wastes are presented influencing the contents, separability, and utilizability of metal-bearing valuable components. From among physical properties these are grain size distribution and surface area. Chemical properties are characterized by elements contained in combusted coal whose content after combustion is increased 2 to 4 times, depending on the content of ash and combustible matters in original coal. Mineralogical properties of energetic wastes are determined by the combustion process conditions in the course of which mineral novelties are produced in concentrations suitable for separation.In the contribution, methods of separation and utilization of metals such as Fe, Al, Ge are described. From literature information on the processing of Fe component, as well as from results of experiments made at the Department of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, Technical University of Kosice follows that the highest concentration and mass yield of the component can be obtained from black coal fly ashes produced in smelting boilers. The content of Al in Slovak energetic wastes is lower than the 30 % Al2O3 limit that conditions an economic technological processing. Only in the case of black coal fly ash from TEKO Kosice and EVO Vojany was the Al2O3 content of 32.93 %. Therefore, in an indirect way – by separating the residues of uncombusted coal and magnetite Fe – the content of Al in fly ash was increased.For Ge, a principle of selective sizing has been utilized.A complex utilization of energetic wastes, that is the separation of metallic components, elimination of particular metals and the subsequent treatment of nonmetallic residue, should be an effective solution in various

  17. Reducing Heavy Metal Element from Coal Bottom Ash by Using Citric Acid Leaching Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ahmad Asyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is the residue that is produced during coal combustion for instance fly ash, bottom ash or boiler slag which was primarily produced from the combustion of coal. With growth in coal burning power station, huge amount of coal bottom ash (CBA considered as hazardous material which are normally disposed in an on-site disposal system without any commercialization purpose. Previous researchers have studied the extraction of silica from agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk ash (RHA and CBA by using leaching treatment method. In this study, the weaker acid, citric acid solution was used to replace the strong acid in leaching treatment process. Result showed that the heavy metal content such as Copper (Cu, Zinc (Zn and Lead (Pb can be decrease. Meanwhile the silica can be extracted up to 44% from coal bottom ash using citric acid leaching treatment under the optimum reaction time of 60 minutes with solution temperature of 60°C and concentration of citric acid more than 2%.

  18. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in soil around a coal-fired power plant: lead 210, polonium 210, radium 226, thorium 232, kalium 40 emitted with the fly ash and cesium 137 from the worldwide weapon testing fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the effect of airborne emissions of radionuclides from coal-fired power plants on the environment, the concentrations of the most important radionuclides were measured in soil samples from the local environments (0.4-5.2 km) as well as in fly ash. The spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the soil did not indicate any significantly increased concentrations in the area downwind of the plant compared to other areas; the ratios lead 210/radium 226 and polonium 210/radium 226 were within the range observed for unaffected soils. The emissions from the plant, though present, are obviously too small to significantly change the natural local distribution pattern of the radionuclides in the soil. A highly significant correlation between potassium 40 and thorium 232 was observed which was independent of the different types of soils found in this area. The concentration of cesium 137 in topsoil, which is the result of worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons testing, varied at some places even within a small distance (approx. 2 km) by up to one order of magnitude. Furthermore, it was observed that the concentration of cesium 137 in soils from cropland was on average a factor of 2 less than in those from grassland. This variability has to be considered in planning monitoring programs around nuclear power plants, which may also release this radionuclide. (A.V.)

  19. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...... has a low sensitivity toward small variations in AEA adsorption between different fly ashes and it requires further work before a finished procedure is accomplished. Finally, it was shown that changes in temperature affect both test methods. Pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow...... formation. It was found that the AEA adsorption of the fly ash was reduced up to five times compared to reference operation, when the plant was operated with minimum furnace air staging, three levels of burners instead of four and without recycled flue gas. The lower AEA requirements of the fly ash...

  20. Leaching of Nutrient Salts from Fly Ash from Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  2. Utilization of Yatagan Power Plant Fly Ash in Production of Building Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önel, Öznur; Tanriverdi, Mehmet; Cicek, Tayfun

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion, which accumulates in large quantities near the coal-fired power plants as waste material. Fly ash causes serious operational and environmental problems. In this study, fly ash from Yatağgan thermal power plant was used to produce light-weight building bricks. The study aimed to reduce the problems related to fly ash by creating a new area for their use. The optimum process parameters were determined for the production of real size bricks to be used in construction industry. The commercial size bricks (200 × 200 × 90-110 mm) were manufactured using pilot size equipment. Mechanical properties, thermal conductivity coefficients, freezing and thawing strengths, water absorption rates, and unit volume weights of the bricks were determined. Etringite (Ca6Al2 (SO4)3 (OH)12 25(H2O)) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (2CaO.SiO2.4H2O) were identified as the binding phases in the real size brick samples after 2 days of pre-curing and 28 days curing at 50° C and 95% relative moisture. The water absorption rate was found to be 27.7 % in terms of mass. The mechanical and bending strength of the brick samples with unit volume weight of 1.29 g.cm-3 were determined as 6.75 MPa and 1,56 MPa respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fly ash bricks was measured in average as 0,340 W m-1 K-1. The fly ash sample produced was subjected to toxic leaching tests (Toxic Property Leaching Procedure (EPA-TCLP 1311), Single-step BATCH Test and Method-A Disintegration Procedure (ASTM)). The results of these tests suggested that the materials could be classified as non-hazardous wastes / materials.

  3. Synthesis of a nano-crystalline solid acid catalyst from fly ash and its catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitralekha Khatri; Ashu Rani [Government P.G. College, Kota (India). Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of nano-crystalline activated fly ash catalyst (AFAC) with crystallite size of 12 nm was carried out by chemical and thermal treatment of fly ash, a waste material generated from coal-burning power plants. Fly ash was chemically activated using sulfuric acid followed by thermal activation at 600{sup o}C. The variation of surface and physico-chemical properties of the fly ash by activation methods resulted in improved acidity and therefore, catalytic activity for acid catalyzed reactions. The AFAC was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2}-adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and sulfur content by CHNS/O elemental analysis. It showed amorphous nature due to high silica content (81%) and possessed high BET surface area (120 m{sup 2}/g). The catalyst was found to be highly active solid acid catalyst for liquid phase esterification of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride and methanol giving acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate respectively. A maximum yield of 97% with high purity of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and a very high conversion 87% of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) was obtained with AFAC. The surface acidity and therefore, catalytic activity in AFAC was originated by increased silica content, hydroxyl content and higher surface area as compared to fly ash. The study shows that coal generated fly ash can be converted into potential solid acid catalyst for acid catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, this catalyst may replace conventional environmentally hazardous homogeneous liquid acids making an ecofriendly; solvent free, atom efficient, solid acid based catalytic process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Utilization of fly ash as partial sand replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazrin Akmal, A. Z. Muhammad; Muthusamy, K.; Mat Yahaya, F.; Hanafi, H. Mohd; Nur Azzimah, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Realization on the increasing demand for river sand supply in construction sector has inspired the current research to find alternative material to reduce the use of natural sand in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC) production. The existence of fly ash, a by-product generated from coal power plant, which pose negative impact to the environment when it is disposed as waste, were used in this research. The effect of fly ash content as partial sand replacement towards workability and compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete were investigated. Four concrete mixes containing various percentage of fly ash that are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% by weight of sand were used in the experimental work. All mixes were cast in form of cubes before subjected to water curing until the testing age. Compressive strength test were conducted at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. The finding shows that the workability of the OPS LWAC decreases when more fly ash are used as sand replacement. It was found that adding of 10% fly ash as sand replacement content resulted in better compressive strength of OPS LWAC, which is higher than the control mix.

  5. Project ash cultch: A report on optimal oyster cultch based on a prepared fly ash substratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.S.; Hansen, K.M.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a three year study involving setting, growth, mortality, oyster condition, and metals accumulation, the evidence is extensive and convincing that stabilized coal ash is an acceptable oyster growing cultch (substratum). Oyster larvae are attracted to set on coal ash cultch at commercial fishery densities, tend to grow as well as on natural substrata (oyster shell), and are moderately more exposed to predators on the puck shaped ash materials as produced for this study. Oysters grown for one to two years on coal ash do not accumulate heavy metals and generally are in good health as measured by several biological condition indexes

  6. Improved leaching test methods for environmental assessment of coal ash and recycled materials used on construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants will result in lower emissions of mercury and other pollutants. Fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, and other air pollution control residues are used in agricultural, commercial, and engineering applications. Resea...

  7. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    To study the influence of local conditions on the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin or coal fly ash experiments were done on CHECs electrically heated entrained flow reactor, which can simulate the local conditions in suspension fired boilers. The experimental results were compared with mod...

  8. Radioactivity in coal, ashes and selected wastewaters from Canadian coal-fired steam electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    Coal is known to contain naturally occurring radioactive elements and there has been speculation that as a results, coal-fuelled power generation stations may be significant emitters of these substances. In this report, the subject of radioactivity is introduced. The kinds of radioactive substances which occur naturally in coal formations, the nature of their emissions and the existing information on their behaviour and their effects on environmental organisms are also reviewed. The results of an examination of levels of alpha, beta and gamma radiaton levels, and the substances which produce them in coals, fly ashes, bottom ashes and related wastewaters at six Canadian coal-fuelled power stations are presented. Difficulties in studies of this nature and the potential effects of these releases on organisms in the adjacent aquatic environment are discussed. Existing and potential technologies for the removal of these substances from wastewaters are examined. In general the releases in wastewaters from the six stations were found to be lower than those known to cause short-term or acute biological effects. The potential for long-term effects from such low-level releases could not be accurately assessed because of the paucity of information. A number of recommendations for: improvements in further studies of this nature; the further examination of the fate of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment; and the determination of the long-term effects of low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances on aquatic organisms, are made

  9. Effect of mechanical activation of fly ash added to Moroccan Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of grinding fly ash on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of fly ash blended CPJ45 cement. The addition of the fly ash particles to the grinder leads respectively to the breakage of the particles and to reduce the agglomeration effect in the balls of cement grinder. Fly ash milling was found to improve particles fineness, and increase the silica and alumina content in the cement. Furthermore, milled fly ash blended cements show higher compressive strength compared to unmilled fly ash blended cements, due to improved fly ash reactivity through their mechanical activation.

  10. Effect of coal ash on growth and metal uptake by some selected ectomycorrhizal fungi in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Reddy, U.G.; Lapeyrie, F.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2005-07-01

    Six isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Laccaria fraterna (EM-1083), Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1081), Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1290), Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293), Scleroderma verucosurn (EM-1283), and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233), were grown on three variants of coal ash, namely electrostatically precipitated (ESP) ash, pond ash, and bottom ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans (MMN) medium in vitro. The colony diameter reflected the growth of the isolates on the coal ash. Metal accumulation in the mycelia was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six metals, namely aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, and nickel were selected on the basis of their abundance in coal ash and toxicity potential for the present work. Growth of vegetative mycelium on fly ash variants and metal accumulation data indicated that Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1290) was the most tolerant among the isolates tested for most of the metals. Since this isolate is known to be mycorrhizal with Eucalyptus, it could be used for the reclamation of coal ash over burdened sites.

  11. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  12. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dinakar; K.G. Babu; Manu Santhanam [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Building Technology Division

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.

  13. Performance evaluation of clay fly ash brick masonry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kute, S.; Deodhar, S.V. [K.K. Wagh College of Engineering, Panchavati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Despite inexorable trends of automation in manufacturing industry throughout the world, the conventional brick manufacturing practices have remained largely unchanged since the dawn of civilization in India. This has imposed restrictions on quality of bricks in general. The paper highlights the results derived from an extensive experimental work on performance evaluation of brick masonry. Four types of bricks, three values of joint thickness and fineness modulus of sand, and two grades of mortar with four different proportions were used as samples. Fly ash was from Nashik Thermal Power Station in Maharashtra, India. The results show that the brick masonry of 40% fly ash bricks and mortar with 20% fly ash as replacement to cement with 1:4 and 1:6 proportion gives optimum strength and advocates use of fly ash for this combination. 8 tabs.

  14. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  15. The Photocatalytic Removal of Ortho Chlorophenol from Aqueous Solution Using Modified Fly Ash - Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic process is a useful method for the effective removal of phenolic compounds. Conducted in the spring‒summer 2013 at the Engineering Research Center for Environmental Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, this experimental study used a modified fly ash‒TiO2 mixture to enhance the photocatalytic removal efficiency of ortho-chlorophenol. Fly ash obatined from the Thermal Power Plant in Zarand, Kerman, was initially washed with sulfuric acid before being oxidized with potassium permanganate. The mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 was then used for the removal of ortho-chlorophenol in the presence of UV light and the factors involved in the removal process were optimized. It was found that the ortho-chlorophenol removal efficiency recorded by the mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 was higher than that by each of the modified fly ash or TiO2/UV alone. It was, further, observed that removal efficiency with a modified fly ash to TiO2 ratio of 3:1 rose to 98.8% under optimum conditions (i.e., pH: 2; contact time: 2 h; room temperature (29±2˚C, and a catalyst dose of 0.6 g. The ortho-chlorophenol removal efficiency in real wastewater from the Coal Wash Plant in Zarand was recorded at 88.4%. Based on the results obtained from simultaneous use of modified fly ash and TiO2, the proposed method may be recommended for industrial applications.

  16. Bulk modulus of basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(OH)2·2H2O, a possible zeolitic precursor in coal-fly-ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Mancio, Mauricio; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4] 6(OH)2•2H2O, cubic, P43n, (also known as hydroxysodalite hydrate) was prepared by the alkaline activation of amorphous aluminosilicate glass, obtained from the phase separation of Class F fly ash. The sample

  17. Effect of Alkali Concentration on Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah Azzahran Abdullah, Siti; Yun-Ming, Liew; Bakri, Mohd Mustafa Al; Cheng-Yong, Heah; Zulkifly, Khairunnisa; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effect of NaOH concentration on fly ash geopolymers with compressive up to 56 MPa at 12M. The physical and mechanical on fly ash geopolymer are investigated. Test results show that the compressive strength result complied with bulk density result whereby the higher the bulk density, the higher the strength. Thus, the lower water absorption and porosity due to the increasing of NaOH concentration.

  18. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  19. Comparison of creep of the cement pastes included fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padevět Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparison of creep of cement pastes containing fly ash admixture. The size of creep in time depends on the amount of components of the cement paste. Attention is paid to the content of classical fly ash in cement paste and its impact on the size of creep. The moisture of cement pastes is distinguished because it significantly affects the rheological properties of the material.

  20. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion....... The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all...... four ashes. Final Cd concentrations below 2.0 mg Cd/kg were reached in all ashes within 14 days of remediation and legislative requirements were met. After further optimization of the remediation process on the pre-washed straw ash, limiting concentrations were reached after only 48 hours...

  2. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  3. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. PMID:28793518

  4. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  5. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni; Sulistio Aldi Vincent; Wahjudi Samuel; Hardjito Djwantoro; Hardjito Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In th