WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal basin czech

  1. Czech and Polish Conference Geology of Coal Basins /9./

    OpenAIRE

    Kožušníková, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Department of Laboratory Research on Geomaterials of the Institute of Geonics AS CR has organized the Czech - Polish conference about geology of coal basins since 1993. Traditionally, at the conference meet experts especially from the Czech Republic and Poland, dealing with the development and research of coal deposits, geology of the coal basins, tectonics and coal petrography. However, with new trends in the use of coal deposits, there are also presented the results of research in phys...

  2. Geology of Coal Basins - Czech - Polisch Conference /10./

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppenthalová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Department of Laboratory Research on Geomaterials of the Institute of Geonics AS CR has organized the Czech - Polish conference about geology of coal basins since 1993. This year the 10th jubilee of conference is held. Traditionally, at the conference meet experts especially from the Czech Republic and Poland, dealing with the development and research of coal deposits, geology of the coal basins, tectonics and coal petrography. However, with new trends in the use of coal, there are also...

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  4. Distribution of the trace elements in Czech coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klika, Z.; Mrozek, S.; Kolomaznik, I. [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    A new concept for the calculation of the quantitative element distribution between inorganic and organic parts of coal was used for the evaluation of element associations in two Czech coals. The calculation was based on the experimental data from sink-float separation of coal into fractions. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Potential Unconventional Gas Plays in the Mature Basin of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujok Petr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unconventional resources has been proven in deeper parts of mature oil and gas provinces and coal basins of the world. In this context, it is worth to focus also on the prospects of unconventional gas production from within hydrocarbon provinces of the Moravian part of the Vienna basin. The estimation of hydrocarbon generation potential of Jurasic marls from the Mikulov Formation of the Czech part of the Vienna Basin was performed based on the Rock Eval pyrolysis.

  6. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  7. Properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    Although shale gas-bearing deposits have a markedly lower gas content than coal deposits, great attention has recently been paid to shale gas as a new potential source of fossil energy. Shale gas extraction is considered to be quite economical, despite the lower sorption capacity of shales, which is only about 10% of coal sorption capacities The selection of a suitable locality for extracting shale gas requires the sorption capacity of the shale to be determined. The sorption capacity is determined in the laboratory by measuring the amount of methane absorbed in a shale specimen at a pressure and a temperature corresponding to in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption. According to the principles of reversibility of adsorption/desorption, this amount should be roughly related to the amount of gas released by forced degassing. High pressure methane sorption isotherms were measured on seven representative samples of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic. Excess sorption measurements were performed at a temperature of 45oC and at pressures up to 15 MPa on dry samples, using a manometric method. Experimental methane high-pressure isotherms were fitted to a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum measured excess sorption parameter and the Langmuir sorption capacity parameter were used to study the effect of TOC content, organic maturity, inorganic components and porosity on the methane sorption capacity. The studied shale samples with random reflectance of graptolite 0.56 to 1.76% had a very low TOC content and dominant mineral fractions. Illite was the prevailing clay mineral. The sample porosity ranged from 4.6 to 18.8%. In most samples, the micropore volumes were markedly lower than the meso- and macropore volumes. In the Silurian black shales, the occurrence of fractures parallel with the original sedimentary bending was highly significant. A greater proportion of fragments of carbonaceous particles of graptolites and bitumens in the

  8. A curse of coal? Exploring unintended regional consequences of coal energy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Nováková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal energy * environmental injustice * resource curse * spatial analysis * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2014 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2014_02.pdf

  9. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  10. Effects of torpedo blasting on rockburst prevention during deep coal seam mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Wojtecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB, coal seams are exploited under progressively more difficult geological and mining conditions (greater depth, higher horizontal stress, more frequent occurrence of competent rock layers, etc.. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants in coal seams are the most important factors responsible for the occurrence of rockburst hazards. Longwall mining next to the mining edges of neighbouring coal seams is particularly disadvantageous. The levels of rockburst hazards are minimised via the use of rockburst prevention methods. One active prevention method is torpedo blasting in roof rocks. Torpedo blastings are performed in order to decrease local stress concentrations in rock masses and to fracture the roof rocks to prevent or minimise the impact of high-energy tremors on excavations. The estimation of the effectiveness of torpedo blasting is particularly important when mining is under difficult geological and mining conditions. Torpedo blasting is the main form of active rockburst prevention in the assigned colliery in the Polish part of the USCB. The effectiveness of blasting can be estimated using the seismic effect method, in which the seismic monitoring data and the mass of explosives are taken into consideration. The seismic effect method was developed in the Czech Republic and is always being used in collieries in the Czech part of the coal basin. Now, this method has been widely adopted for our selected colliery in the Polish part of the coal basin. The effectiveness of torpedo blastings in the faces and galleries of the assigned longwall in coal seam 506 has been estimated. The results show that the effectiveness of torpedo blastings for this longwall was significant in light of the seismic effect method, which corresponds to the in situ observations. The seismic effect method is regularly applied to estimating the blasting effectiveness in the selected colliery.

  11. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doruska, J. [Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech, Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  12. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  13. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  14. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  15. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1995-03-01

    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Geological structure and coal contents of Guvilgra cavity of Gonamsk coal-bearing area of southern Yakut coal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukovich, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Southern Yakut coal basin is a huge and reliable base of the high-quality coked and steam coals in the east of the country. The Southern Yakut TPC was begun in the 70-s in the south of Yakutia forming, what predetermined considerable strengthening in this region of exploration works on coal. Now the fields of Neryungri, Elga and certain sites on Denisovsk and Chulmakan fields are developed by an open method. Absence near the operating Neryungri coal mine of the coalfields suitable for open-cast mining, and also finite useful lives of the Neryungri field (till 2018-2020) caused expansion of search works on coal on flanks of the basin, directed at identification of the powerful coal layers suitable for development by an open method.

  17. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Židková, Monika; Kramulová, Barbora; Tauchen, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 171, MAR (2017), s. 97-105 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014; European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : chromatography-mass-spectrometry * gas-chromatography * human pharmaceuticals * waste - water * surface- water * risk-assessment * diclofenac * ibuprofen * products * plants * NSAID Surface water * Pharmaceuticals * GCxGC-TOFMS Elbe basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  18. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  19. Coal petrology and genesis of Jurassic coal in the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sets of thick coal beds characterized by simple structure and shallow burial depth were developed in the Early and Middle Jurassic strata of the Ordos Basin, northwestern China. The huge reserves of this high quality coal have a high commercial value. We studied the coal’s petrologic characteristics and its maceral distribution to determine the maceral’s contribution to generation of oil and gas. The results show that the Jurassic coals in the Ordos Basin have special petrological features because of the Basin’s unique depositional environment which was mainly a series of high-stand swamps in the upper fluvial system. These petrographic features are a result of the development of typical inland lakes where some sand bodies were formed by migrating rivers. After burial, the peat continued to undergo oxidizing conditions, this process generated extensive higher inertinite contents in the coals and the vitrinite components were altered to semi-vitrinite. The macroscopic petrographic types of these Jurassic coals are mainly semi-dull coal, dull coal, semilustrous and lustrous coal. The proportions of semi-dull coal and dull coal are higher in the basin margins, especially in the area near the northern margin. The numbers of semilustrous and lustrous coals increase southwards and towards the central basin. This situation indicates that different coal-forming swamp environments have major controlling effects on the coal components. Another observation is that in the Ordos’ coal sequences, especially in the lower part, some sandstone beds are thick, up to 20 m with a coarse grain size. The higher fusinite content in the macerals accompanies a higher semi-vitrinite content with more complete and regular plant cell structure. The fusinite structure is clear and well preserved. After burial, the lithology of the roof and floor rocks can continue to affect the evolution of coal petrology. The sand bodies in the roof and floor exhibit good

  20. Analysis and characterization of ash-free coals from the Pechora coal basin obtained by organic solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdelnaya, N. S.; Burtsev, I. N.; Bushnev, D. A.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Mokeev, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    The probability of obtaining of ash-free coal extracts, so-called "hyper-coals," has been shown for coals of the Pechora basin for the first time. The ash content in them does not exceed a few percent, whereas initial coals contain up to 20% ash. High-resolution 13C NMR shows the similarity in the structure of the initial coal and the extract. It is demonstrated that the solvent selected for hyper-coal extraction is not chemically inert, and the products of interaction of N-metylpyrrolidone and organic matter of coal are present in the composition of the extracts obtained.

  1. Chemometric Study of Trace Elements in Hard Coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompalski, Przemysław; Cybulski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the analysis of trace elements contents in coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), which may pose a potential threat to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. Productive carbon overburden in central and southern zones of the USCB is composed mostly of insulating tertiary formations of a thickness from a few m to 1,100 m, and is represented by Miocene and Pliocene formations. In the data study the geological conditions of the coal seams of particular zones of the USCB were taken into account and the hierarchical clustering analysis was applied, which enabled the exploration of the dissimilarities between coal samples of various zones of the USCB in terms of basic physical and chemical parameters and trace elements contents. Coals of the northern and eastern zones of the USCB are characterized by high average Hg and low average Ba, Cr, and Ni contents, whereas coals of southern and western zones are unique due to high average concentrations of Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, and V. Coals of the central part of the USCB are characterized by the highest average concentration of Mn and the lowest average concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, V, and Zn. PMID:24967424

  2. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmonson, Lee M.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of abundant new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for a comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This report on the Southwestern Powder River Basin assessment area represents the third area within the basin to be assessed, the first being for coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field in 2008, and the second for coal resources and reserves in the northern Wyoming area of the basin in 2010.

  3. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R.M. [Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh, were collected for palynological analysis. The lower coal bed (331.5-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group.

  5. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  6. Methodology for the exploration of coal bed methane (CBM in Colombia coal basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Mariño

    2013-07-01

    additional equipment have been adapted and improved in the UPTC by Geological Engineering research group during the last years. These CBM guides have been written following the current knowledge on CBM and propose additional recommendations for making the sampling and gas measuring more reliable and supportive of the CBM exploration projects that are taking place in the different coal basins in Colombia.

  7. Sedimentary cycles in coal and evaporite basins and the reconstruction of Paleozoic climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, F.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with large-scale processes controlling the formation of sedimentary cycles in coal and evaporite basins and their relation to large-scale fluctuations of Palaeozoic climate. Coal-clastic cycles dominate Pennsylvanian sequences in palaeo-equatorial basins from Euramerica. They

  8. Test usage of AMS for the sedimentological and structural analyses in selected regions of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobien, K.; Werner, T.; Nawrocki, J.

    2009-04-01

    The principal aim of our mainly methodological work, was to determine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes in the stratigraphic profile of clastic Upper Silesian Coal Basin rocks as well as in Devonian carbonate rocks of its north-eastern margin. Furthermore, relations between obtained axes directions and detritus transport and also changeable tectonics were to be defined. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is situated in the borderland of Poland and Czech Republic. It was formed over the northern corner of the Upper Silesia massif, as a foredeep of the Moravo-Silesian Fold Zone. Structural development of the basin was strictly related with its geotectonic position. The western part was affected by the fold activity of the Moravo-Silesian Zone, while its central and eastern part was dominated by disjunctive basement processes during the Variscan orogenesis. The Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata are considered as molasse sediments of the Variscan orogenic system. The basin was asymmetric. Migration of the axis during the sedimentation caused differences in thickness of separate series. Clastic material of various sources (mainly from the west) was supplied during the basin sedimentary history. Almost 250 oriented samples from Namurian and Westphalian molasse association (mudstones, sandstones) as well as Middle Devonian carbonates were selected from eight brickyards and mines. Variability of magnetic anisotropy trend was analyzed in all of the sites respectively. Additionally, to test the reliability of the obtained AMS data, detailed petromagnetic analyses of magnetic carriers were performed. Unique collection of magnetic anisotropy data allowed for simplified model development, that combines rocks' anisotropy with tectonics. Lineation directions observed in carbonates and fine grained clastic rocks are in general perpendicular to the tectonic stress directions interchangeable during the last stages of the Variscan orogen evolution (adjacent to the

  9. Attitudes of stakeholders towards the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihar, Martin; Stankova, Jindriska

    2006-11-01

    In August 2000, a survey of public opinion was carried out among visitors, local residents and representatives of local self-governments in the territory of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic. The goal was to obtain stakeholders' opinions and attitudes towards nature conservation, the National Park and tourism within the territory which used to be closed to the public for 40 years due to the Iron Curtain. Without the knowledge of opinions of stakeholders it is not possible to manage nature conservation and development in the protected area properly. Using the method of direct interviews, 646 questionnaires where collected, of which 523 were from visitors and tourists, 115 from local residents and 8 from mayors of towns/villages. The questionnaires were analysed in order to detect differences in attitudes among the respondent groups in the following thematic areas: (a) the National Park, its environment and perception of it by respondents; (b) relationship of respondents to the territory; (c) tourism and attitudes towards recreational activities; (d) the Administration of the National Park and evaluation of its work; and (e) economic impact of tourism for local communities. One section of the study focused on comparing the attitudes between local inhabitants and mayors and the other section presents a collation of opinions from locals, mayors and tourists. Although a positive evaluation of the national park dominated the results, some negative attitudes and experiences were identified among locals. In addition, the situation also differed within communities. Results also indicated a relatively strong relationship to the territory by locals, but low job opportunities and income from tourism. The level of tourism intensity was perceived as an increasing and sometimes disturbing factor for local communities; motoring was observed as being the most negative activity for nature. The Administration of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National

  10. Experimental study on supercritical CO2 adsorption on coals from Upper Silesian coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken from selected positions of drill cores from exploration boreholes in the Bohemian part of the Upper Silesian Basin, and were characterized by a narrow range of the degree of coalification and extremely different petrographic composition. A positive correlation has been found between the equilibrium moisture in the coal samples and the total abundance of oxygen functional groups determined by FTIR. The experimental isotherm data were fitted partly by the modified Langmuir sorption isotherm, partly by the modified Dubinin-Radushkevich sorption isotherm. The calculated values of sorption capacities were compared. After recalculation to the mineral-matter free basis, a positive trend has been observed in the studied samples in the dependence of the sorption capacity on the micropore volume, as well as a positive trend in the dependence on percentage of vitrinite and collotelinite, which forms a major part of vitrinite. On the contrary, a negative trend has been found in the dependence on inertinite percentage.

  11. Problems with the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of oxygen rich Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, H.; Machovic, V.; Cerny, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sebestova, E. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies are two main methods used for the structural analysis of coals and their various products. Obtaining quantitative parameters from coals, such as arornaticity (f{sub a}) by the above mentioned methods can be a rather difficult task. Coal samples of various rank were chosen for the quantitative NMR, FTIR and EPR analyses. The aromaticity was obtained by the FTIR, {sup 13}C CP/MAS and SP/MAS NMR experiments. The content of radicals and saturation characteristics of coals were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The following problems have been discussed: 1. The relationship between the amount of free radicals (N{sub g}) and f{sub a} by NMR. 2. The f{sub a} obtained by solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. 3. The differences between the f{sub a} measured by CP and SP/NMR experiments. 4. The relationship between the content of oxygen groups and the saturation responses of coals. The reliability of our results was checked by measuring the structural parameters of Argonne premium coals.

  12. Evidence of widespread wildfires in a coal seam from the middle Permian of the North China Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Zhao, Cunliang; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Kalkreuth,Wolfgang; Qin, Shenjun

    2017-01-01

    The North China Basin is the largest coal-bearing basin in China, and has an areal extent of 800,000 km2. We analyzed 138 coal samples and in situ pillar coal samples of the middle Permian from this basin by macropetrography, microscope, scanning electron microscope, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometer in order to study wildfires. High contents of inertinite (charcoal) and natural coke particles observed in coal samples indicate that vegetation in precursor mires and ...

  13. Environmental and economic aspects of coal deposits exploration of the Ulugh-Khem basin (Tuva)

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    11 deposits coal on the territory of Tuva are accounted by State Reserves Register of the Russian Federation, the total profitable reserves are estimated at 1,12 billion tons whereof 936.6 thousand tons are dealt with as coking coals. The vast majority of explored deposits of coals of the republic are concentrated in the Ulugh-Khem basin, the total projected resources of which exceed 20 bill.t. It is substantiated that coking coal of the Ulugh-Khem basin is the most competitive resource of Ty...

  14. An approach to development of an information geomechanical structural model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Yushkin, V.F.; Kiril' tseva, N.A.; Izotov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

    2006-05-15

    The geographic information system designed at the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry for the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and the non-linear geomechanics researches undertaken at the Institute of Mining has served the basis for analyzing the hierarchical structure of geological faults in the Anzherskiy economic district (Kemerovo Region). The analysis is performed by a new canonical scale for structural-hierarchical representations with base root 2, where A and x are the normalized functionally related values. The recommendations are given on how to utilize the geoinformation system of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in order to obtain a graphical-analytical representation and a system analysis of experimental geomechanical data.

  15. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals in fish and sediments from the Morava river basin, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Petr; Andreji, Jaroslav; Mráz, Jan; Líšková, Zuzana Dvořáková

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring survey to assess the environmental pollution status of the river Morava--was carried out in 2014. This study presents the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd) in the water, sediment and muscle tissue of fish from the middle and lower reaches of the Morava river basin (Bečva, Dřevnice, Haná, Kyjovka and Morava rivers), in the Czech Republic. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. European chub (Squalius cephalus) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of monitored localities. Results showed a positive significant correlation between concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in muscles and age of fishes (pmetals in European chub muscles were low Hg 0.049-0.402, Pb 0.005-0.035, Cd 0.006-0.026, Cr 0.016-0.042 and Zn 5.59-64.31 mg.kg(-1) wet weight basis and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic. The contents of the analyzed metals in European chub muscles were low at monitoring sites and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic.

  16. An analysis of the coal-seam gas resource of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed geologic analysis of the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado shows that nearly 84 Tcf (2.4 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) of coal-seam gas is in place in three target coal groups. The Cameo coal group contains the most coalbed methane with 65 Tcf (1.8 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/). The more areally limited Coal Ridge and Black Diamond coal groups contain significantly less gas, 10 and 9 Tcf (280 x 10/sup 9/ and 255 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/), respectively. The areas of highest methane concentration are in the east-central portion of the Piceance basin. These areas coincide with thick deposits of high-rank coal at significant depths and their associated higher gas contents. Also, these areas appear to have been structurally (tectonically) altered, leading to enhanced permeability to gas and water. Thus, the east-central basin area appears favorable for coalbed methane production. This study relied on extensive well data to correlate and map the subsurface extent of the Cretaceous coals of the Piceance basin. Newly derived correlations of coal-rank/depth with gas content were used along with estimates of coal volume to determine gas in place.

  17. Paleobotany and palynology of the Bristol Hill Coal Member (Bond Formation) and Friendsville Coal Member (Mattoon Formation) of the Illinois Basin (Upper Pennsylvania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, D.A.; Phillips, T.L. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Late Pennsylvanian coal swamps of the Illinois Basin were dominated by Psaronius tree ferns with a spatially heterogeneous distribution of medullosan pteridosperms (subdominant), calamites, sigillarian lycopsids, and cordaites. Miospore and coal-ball plant assemblages from the Missourian-age Bristol Hill Coal Member (Bond Formation) and Friendsville Coal Member (Mattoon Formation) of southeastern Illinois were quantified to analyze vegetational patterns in Late Pennsylvanian peat swamps and to compare vegetational composition of the coals.

  18. The possibility of developing methane-coal deposits in the Korotaikha depression of the Pechora basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Mitronov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pechora coal basin is considered to be one of the promising targets for the extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon raw materials – coalbed methane. Korotaikha depression is a structural subdivision of two basins – the Timano-Pechora oil and gas basin and Pechora coal basin. Currently, there is a favorable situation for the development of coalbed methane resources: on the one hand, the construction of new coal enterprises is postponed indefinitely, on the other hand, oil producing companies come with technologies close to the technologies for self-extracting methane from coal seams.The issue of perspective methane-coal fields of the Korotaikha depression in the Pechora coal basin is considered in the article. Favorable conditions and significant (about 900 billion cubic meters methane resources predetermine the prospects of this territory for its independent production. The geological characteristics of the fields are considered and their ranking is carried out taking into account the preliminary selection of the most promising methane-coal objects. Due to the different degree of exploration of fields and the lack of (complete or partial necessary data, some of the geological indicators served as evaluation criteria, and the preliminary assessment carried out. The prospects of four fields for the experimental work on the methane extraction opportunities are justified.

  19. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R.M. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center)

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favoured by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. 32 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. IMPACT OF MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN ON SURFACE WATER AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Harat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the deposits of quality hard coal, the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB has been one of the most industrialised regions in Europe for centuries. One of the most significant issues in terms of environmental impact and risks related to mining activities are the discharged mine waters. Mine water is pumped to the surface in great amount from mine workings of active underground mines both in Czech and Polish part of the USCB. In the past, the mine waters used to be discharged to nearby watercourses without systematic control of their amount and quality. It resulted in uncontrolled impacts on quality of the main rivers in the USCB. This is why a technically and economically demanding solution was adopted: discharging of mine (but also waste waters through an artificial channel – so-called “Olza Collector” – directly to the Oder River, i.e. away of the Olza River and its minor tributaries. Automated control and dosing of waters to the Oder River depending on quality of the discharged waters and quality and quantity of the Oder surface water ensures maintaining of the total content of chlorides and sulphates in Oder below 500 mg/dm3 with the efficiency of more than 90% of days in a year.

  1. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  2. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  3. Iron sulfide precipitation sequence in Albian coals from the Maestrazgo Basin, southeastern Iberian Range, Northeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Chinchon, S.; Lopez-Soler, A.

    1989-03-01

    Deposition of important coal accumulations in the proximal areas of a delta-estuary, occurred in the Maestrazgo Basin during the middle Albian (late Lower Cretaceous). These coals are characterized by high sulfur contents: 4.18% in coal from the Castellote subbasin, and 7.16% in coal from the Calanda subbasin (dry basis). A petrographic study of iron sulfide was carried out on the subject coals, to deduce an iron sulfide precipitation sequence for five principal stages: (a) early syngenetic stage; (b) late syngenetic stage; (c) syngenetic-diagenetic stage; (d) early epigenetic stage; and (e) late epigenetic stage. A sulfide precipitation control during the syngenetic stage, carried out by different compounds liberated from organic matter during its coalification stages, is deduced from the confrontation with other studies on coal differing in rank, depositional environment and geographical location. 16 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Body burdens of metals in spiders from the Lidice coal dump near Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, G.; Babczynska, A.; Majkus, Z. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    Spiders' feeding behaviour and external digestion expose them to man-made pollutants, especially those easily transferred along the food chain. The problem for this study was whether the levels of heavy metals in selected species of spiders from the Lidice coal dump reflect adaptation to environmental pollutants. We used flameless and flame AAS to measure the whole-body concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni and Mg in male and female spiders differing in their hunting strategies, type of web construction, prey, and taxonomic position (Araneidae, Agelenidae, Linyphiidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae, Pisauridae, Clubionidae, Philodromidae). The levels of metals found in the spiders were species-dependent, indicating differences related to the hunting strategy and type of prey. Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn was always higher in ground spiders than in web-constructing species. Sheet-web spiders Linyphia triangularis and wandering spiders Clubiona lutescens had the lowest Cd, Mg and Cu content of all the studied species. Web-building spiders of the Tetragnathidae family showed the highest Cd, Cu and Pb content, even in species with feeding behaviour similar to spiders of other families. There were no interspecific differences in accumulation only for Fe and Mg. The concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb were lower in females than in males, irrespective of their taxonomic position and the intensity of their hunting activity. This may suggest that females have better metal-excretion ability than males.

  5. MINE DEGASIFICATION AS BASIC SAFETY ELEMENT IN THE UNDERGROUND PARTS OF GASSY COAL MINES IN THE OSTRAVA – KARVINÁ COALFIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, degasification methods to drain the gas from the underground parts of coal mines in the Czech Republic are described. The authors are concerned with the possibilities of and new trends in ensuring safety by means of drilling operations. Examples of applications of degasification in mine plants in the Czech Republic, above all in a hard coal deposit in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield in the Upper Silesian Basin are presented.

  6. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  7. Rank of coal beds of the Narragansett basin, Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Chase, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    Coal of the Narragansett basin generally has been considered to be anthracite and/or meta-anthracite. However, no single reliable method has been used to distinguish these two ranks in this basin. Three methods - chemical, X-ray, and petrographic - have been used with some degree of success on coal of the Narragansett basin, but too often the results are in conflict. Chemical methods have been limited by inadequate sampling on a coal-bed-by-coal-bed basis and by a lack of analyses made according to (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1974) standard specifications. In addition, when corrections are made by using the Parr formulas, as required by the ASTM (1974) procedures, the generally high to very high ash content of coal from the Narragansett basin causes the fixed-carbon content to appear higher than it actually is. X-ray methods using the degree of graphitization as a measure of rank are not reliable because some of the graphite is related to shearing and brecciation associated with folding and faulting. Petrographic methods using reflectance on vitrinite give results that are generally consistent with results from chemical determinations. However, it is not clear whether the mean maximum reflectance or mean bireflectance is a better indicator of similar rank of such high-rank coals that have been structurally deformed. Coal from the Cranston Mine, RI, is probably meta-anthracite and coal from the Portsmouth Mine is probably anthracite. These ranks are based on chemical,X-ray, and petrographic data and are supported by associated metamorphic mineral assemblages that indicate that the Cranston Mine is in a higher metamorphic zone than the zone containing the Porthmouth Mine. Interpretation of the rank of Mansfield, MA, coal on the basis of extant chemical data is difficult because it is an impure coal with an ash content of 33 to 50%. Reflectance data indicate that the Mansfield, Foxborough, and Plainville coals in the northern part of the Narragansett

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the No. 6 Coal (Pennsylvanian) in the Junger Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, S.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the mineralogy and geochemistry of the No. 6 Coal (Pennsylvanian) in the Junger Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China. The results show that the vitrinite reflectance (0.58%) is lowest and the proportions of inertinite and liptinite (37.4% and 7.1%, respectively) in the No. 6 Coal of the Junger Coalfield are highest among all of the Late Paleozoic coals in the Ordos Basin. The No. 6 Coal may be divided vertically into four sections based on their mineral compositions and elemental concentrations. A high boehmite content (mean 6.1%) was identified in the No. 6 Coal. The minerals associated with the boehmite in the coal include goyazite, rutile, zircon, and Pb-bearing minerals (galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena). The boehmite is derived from weathered and oxidized bauxite in the weathered crust of the underlying Benxi Formation (Pennsylvanian). A high Pb-bearing mineral content of samples ZG6-2 and ZG6-3 is likely of hydrothermal origin. The No. 6 coal is enriched in Ga (44.8 ??g/g), Se (8.2 ??g/g), Sr (423 ??g/g), Zr (234 ??g/g), REEs (193.3 ??g/g), Hg (0.35 ??g/g), Pb (35.7 ??g/ g), and Th (17.8 ??g/g). Gallium and Th in the No. 6 Coal mainly occur in boehmite, and the Pb-bearing selenide and sulfide minerals contribute not only to Se and Pb contents in the coal, but also probably to Hg content. A high Zr content is attributed to the presence of zircon, and Sr is related to goyazite. The REEs in the coal are supplied from the sediment-source region, and the REEs leached from the adjacent partings by groundwater. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy supplies over much of the last three centuries. Appalachian coal and petroleum resources are still available in sufficient quantities to contribute significantly to fulfilling the Nation’s energy needs. Although both conventional oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  10. Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series, 1983/1984. [Alabama, Warrior Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.

    1984-09-01

    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin. It also establishes a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assists the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data.

  11. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  12. Production of gas from coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the post-injection period of an ECBM pilot site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Krzystolik, P.; Wageningen, N. van; Pagnier, H.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Winthaegen, P.; Kobiela, Z.

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the scope of the RECOPOL project, funded by the European Commission. About 760 tons CO2 were injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2 was

  13. Origin of red pelagic carbonates as an interplay of global climate and local basin factors: Insight from the Lower Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábek, Ondřej; Faměra, Martin; Hladil, Jindřich; Kapusta, Jaroslav; Weinerová, Hedvika; Šimíček, Daniel; Slavík, Ladislav; Ďurišová, Jana

    2018-02-01

    Red pelagic sediments are relatively common in the Phanerozoic. They are often interpreted as products of sea-bottom oxidation during greenhouse climate showing a conspicuous alternation with black shales and thus carrying important palaeoceanographic information. The Lower Devonian (Pragian) carbonate strata of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic (Praha Formation) contain a marked band of red pelagic carbonate, up to 15 m thick, which can be correlated for several tens of km. We investigated seven sections (17 to 255 m thick) of the Prague Basin using the methods of facies analysis, outcrop gamma-ray logging, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, optical microscopy, element geochemistry, magneto-mineralogy and electron microprobe analysis. The aim was to find the mineral carriers of the red colour, investigate the stratigraphic context of the red carbonates and evaluate the local and global prerequisites for their formation. The red pigmentation represents enrichment by hematite with respect to goethite. Approximately 31% of the total reflectance falling in the red colour band represents a threshold for red coloration. The red pigmentation is carried by submicronic hematite dispersed in argillaceous pelagic calcilutite and/or inside skeletal allochems. Gamma-ray log correlation indicates that the red carbonate band developed in stratigraphic levels with low sedimentation rates, typically from 1 to 7.1 mm/kyr, which are comparable to the Mesozoic Rosso Ammonitico facies. The red beds and the whole Praha Formation (Pragian to early Emsian) are characterized by low TOC values (successions of the Prague Basin indicate that switching between two greenhouse climatic modes, colder oligotropic and warmer mesotrophic, may have been responsible for the alternation of red and grey carbonate strata, respectively.

  14. Opportunities for visual resource management in the Southern Appalachian Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Simpson

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines the opportunities for visual resource management (VRM) in the southern Appalachian coal basin resulting from the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. It focuses upon VRM as a regulatory activity that works to insure the proper enforcement of the law and effective development of its implementation programs. VRM for Appalachian surface mining...

  15. First conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y. P.; Van Besien, A. [eds.

    1980-06-01

    The first conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin was held at the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, August 22-24, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. New data on Late Turonian crinoids from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žítt, Jiří; Vodrážka, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2008), s. 311-326 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Echinodermata * Crinoidea * taxonomy * taphonomy * Late Turonian * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Origin and distribution of biomarkers in the sulphur rich Utrillas coal basin - Teruel mining district - Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivella, M.A.; Gorchs, R.; de las Heras, F.X.C. [University Politecnica Catalunya, Manresa (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The Utrillas coal facies are located in the Maestrazgo basin in NE Spain. This mining district of Teruel contains subbituminous deposits from the Middle Albian (Lower Cretaceous 105 Ma) in areas near a delta estuary with abundant sulphur. The high sulphur content is due to an influx of sulphate caused by the geological recycling of Triassic gypsum from the catchment area into the delta estuary. In some outcrops, the weathered coal reveals leonardite deposits. The depositional environment of the basin originated coals, some of which are currently mined. The organic matter of the coals has been the object of scattered reports. Studies have focused on bulk pyrolysis parameters and microscopic observation in Utrillas samples, as well as the inorganic and insoluble organic fraction. We analysed the organic soluble extract of the Utrillas coals using GC-MS in order to characterize their aliphatic, aromatic and organosulphur compounds. The biomarker distribution allowed us to recognize different inputs, assess their depositional palaeoenvironment and finally determine their degree of maturity. In particular, homologous series of hopanes related to eubacteria were present. Biomarkers characteristic of higher plant inputs were also widely distributed (e.g. phyllocladane or C-29 steranes). The presence of linear alkylbenzenes allowed us to recognize the palaeodepositional reducing environments where they were deposited. Specifically, thienylhopanes were associated with sulphur-reducing environments. Finally, the abundance of unsaturated biomarkers such as diacholestenes indicated low-maturity coals. Various aromatic ratios such as the methylphenanthrene index also suggested diagenesis in the initial stage.

  18. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  19. Microbiological and Geochemical Survey of CO2-Dominated Mofette and Mineral Waters of the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Krauze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cheb Basin (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic is a shallow, neogene intracontinental basin. It is a non-volcanic region which features frequent earthquake swarms and large-scale diffuse degassing of mantle-derived CO2 at the surface that occurs in the form of CO2-rich mineral springs and wet and dry mofettes. So far, the influence of CO2 degassing onto the microbial communities has been studied for soil environments, but not for aquatic systems. We hypothesized, that deep-trenching CO2 conduits interconnect the subsurface with the surface. This admixture of deep thermal fluids should be reflected in geochemical parameters and in the microbial community compositions. In the present study four mineral water springs and two wet mofettes were investigated through an interdisciplinary survey. The waters were acidic and differed in terms of organic carbon and anion/cation concentrations. Element geochemical and isotope analyses of fluid components were used to verify the origin of the fluids. Prokaryotic communities were characterized through quantitative PCR and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Putative chemolithotrophic, anaerobic and microaerophilic organisms connected to sulfur (e.g., Sulfuricurvum, Sulfurimonas and iron (e.g., Gallionella, Sideroxydans cycling shaped the core community. Additionally, CO2-influenced waters form an ecosystem containing many taxa that are usually found in marine or terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. Multivariate statistics highlighted the influence of environmental parameters such as pH, Fe2+ concentration and conductivity on species distribution. The hydrochemical and microbiological survey introduces a new perspective on mofettes. Our results support that mofettes are either analogs or rather windows into the deep biosphere and furthermore enable access to deeply buried paleo-sediments.

  20. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J. [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Public Health Science

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  1. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  2. Coal deposition in carbonate-rich shallow lacustrine systems: the Calaf and Mequinenza sequences (Oligocene, eastern Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Saez, A.

    1987-05-01

    Two main coal-bearing sequences developed during the Oligocene in the Tertiary Ebro Basin, the Calaf (early Oligocene) and Mequinenza (late Oligocene) coal basins. Coal deposition took place in shallow marsh-swamp-lake complexes which sometimes became closed and evolved under warm climatic conditions with fluctuating humidity. These shallow lacustrine systems are closely interrelated with the terminal parts of the distributive fluvial systems which spread from the tectonically active Ebro basin margins. Laterally extensive lignite-bearing sequences, including rather thin, lenticular autochthonous and/or hypautochthonous coal seam with high ash and sulphur contents, characterized coal deposition in the shallow lacustrine systems. Coal seam geometry, which makes them nearly subeconomic, resulted from the tectonic instability during basin margin evolution and the sometimes closed, arid conditions under which the lacustrine systems evolved. High ash and sulphur contents resulted from the inadequate isolation of peat forming environments from clastic influx and from the very low acidity and sometimes high sulphate contents of the lacustrine waters. Coal exploration in shallow lacustrine sequences similar to those described here must take into account that the spread of coal-forming environments and maxima of coal deposition are usually coincident with lake expansions and retraction or shifting of the terminal fluvial zones interrelated with the lacustrine areas. 44 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  4. Depositional Cycles of Muara Wahau Coals, Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.v1i2.183Fifteen samples were taken ply by ply from a 33 m thick drill core of Muara Wahau coal seams for interpretation of depositional environments. Generally, lithotype variation in the bottom part of the coal seams has a lower frequency than in the upper part. Petrographical analysis was performed to determine the maceral composition, groundwater index (GWI, and gelification index (GI. The samples from lower sections show much higher GWI-GI values and lower variation frequency than from the upper section. This characteristic is interpreted as the result of development of mesotrophic to ombrotrophic peats during the deposition of lower to upper parts of the section, respectively. During the development of the mesotrophic peat, water was more abundant and relatively stable in budget. However, during the development of ombrotrophic peat, water was less abundant and relatively not stable in budget. The latter is related to the water supply depending only on rain, resulted in the more sensitive water table in the om- brotrophic peat. The unstable water table is thought as the reason of higher variation frequency of lithotype, GWI, GI, as well as maceral composition in the upper part of the core. Unstable water table would lead to moist condition in the uppermost layer of the ombrotrophic peat, favoring fungi to grow. This is confirmed by the higher abundance of sclerotinite maceral in samples from the upper part of the coal core.

  5. Sedimentary environment dynamics and the formation of coal in the Pennsylvanian Variscan foreland in the Ruhr Basin (Germany, Western Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, M. Peter [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, Universtaet Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Drozdzewski, Guenter [Geologischer Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, de-Greiff-Str. 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Schaefer, Andreas [Geologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    During the Pennsylvanian, formation of coal was a phenomenon that was spread over many continents. It is the aim of this paper to illustrate factors that led to the formation of coal seams in paralic clastic sedimentary environments in the Ruhr Basin (German Variscan foreland) during the Pennsylvanian in terms of sequence stratigraphy and the structural evolution of the basin. Lithostratigraphic sections from exploration wells in the currently explored zone of the coal basin allowed the generation of volumetric lithofacies models, using geostastical methods. These models support the analysis of sedimentary facies and a sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the successions that are widely correlated throughout the basin. We then evaluate the relation of the sequence stratigraphic elements derived from the facies models with the abundance of coal seams. (author)

  6. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  7. Carbon isotopes of Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-derived alkane gases from the major basins of northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jinxing [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Faculty of Natural Resources and Information Technology, University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102200 (China); Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Liu, Quanyou; Yang, Chun [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jian; Hu, Guoyi [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development-Langfang Branch, Hebei 065007 (China); Zhang, Xiaobao [Lanzhou Institute of Geology, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Anping [Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-11-01

    Coal-derived hydrocarbons from Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata in northwestern China are distributed in the Tarim, Junggar, Qaidam, and Turpan-Harmi basins. The former three basins are dominated by coal-derived gas fields, distributed in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Turpan-Harmi basin is characterized by coal-derived oil fields which occur in the coal measures. Based on analysis of gas components and carbon isotopic compositions from these basins, three conclusions are drawn in this contribution: 1) Alkane gases with reservoirs of coal measures have no carbon isotopic reversal, whereas alkane gases with reservoirs not of coal measures the extent of carbon isotopic reversal increases with increasing maturity; 2) Coal-derived alkane gases with high {delta}{sup 13}C values are found in the Tarim and Qaidam basins ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1}: - 19.0 to - 29.9 permille; {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}: - 18.8 to - 27.1 permille), and those with lowest {delta}{sup 13}C values occur in the Turpan-Harmi and Junggar basins ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1}: - 40.1 to - 44.0 permille; {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}: - 24.7 to - 27.9 permille); and 3) Individual specific carbon isotopic compositions of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 5-8}) in the coal-derived gases are lower than those in the oil-associated gases. The discovered carbon isotopic reversal of coal-derived gases is caused by isotopic fractionation during migration and secondary alteration. The high and low carbon isotopic values of coal-derived gases in China may have some significance on global natural gas research, especially the low carbon isotope value of methane may provide some information for early thermogenic gases. Coal-derived methane typically has much heavier {delta}{sup 13}C than that of oil-associated methane, and this can be used for gas-source rock correlation. The heavy carbon isotope of coal-derived ethane is a common phenomenon in China and it shed lights on the discrimination of gas origin. Since most giant gas

  8. Coalification of organic matter in coal balls of the Pennsylvanian (upper Carboniferous) of the Illinois Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the degree of coalification of two coal balls from the Illinois Basin of the Pennsylvanian (upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Previous interpretations are mainly misleading and contradictory, primarily because of the assumption that the brown color and exceptional cellular and subcellular preservation typical of American coal balls imply chemical preservation of cellulose and lignin, the primary components of peat. Xylem tissue from a medullosan seed fern contained in a coal ball and the coal attached to the coal ball from the Calhoun coal bed, Mattoon Formation, Illinois, was analyzed by elemental, petrographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to determine the degree of coalification. The NMR and elemental data indicate the lack of cellulose and lignin and a probable rank of high-volatile C bituminous coal. These data corroborate data for a coal ball from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (Carbondale Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian) and support our hypothesis that the organic matter in coal balls of the Pennsylvanian strata of the United States is coalified to about the same degree as the surrounding coal. Data presented show a range of lower reflectances for xylem tissue and vitrinite in the analyzed coal balls compared with vitrinite in the attached coal. The data reported indicate that physical preservation of organic matter in coal balls does not imply chemical preservation. Also our study supports the hypothesis that compactional (static load) pressure is not a prerequisite for coalification up to a rank of high-volatile C bituminous coal. A whole-rock analysis of the Calhoun coal ball indicates a similarity to other carbonate coal balls from the United States. It consists primarily of calcium carbonate and 1-2% organic matter; silica and alumina together make up less than 0.5%, indicating the lack of minerals such as quartz and clays. ?? 1984.

  9. The problem with coal-waste dumps inventory in Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Anna; Chybiorz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Coal-waste dumps are the side effect of coal mining, which has lasted in Poland for 250 years. They have negative influence on the landscape and the environment, and pollute soil, vegetation and groundwater. Their number, size and shape is changing over time, as new wastes have been produced and deposited changing their shape and enlarging their size. Moreover deposited wastes, especially overburned, are exploited for example road construction, also causing the shape and size change up to disappearing. Many databases and inventory systems were created in order to control these hazards, but some disadvantages prevent reliable statistics. Three representative databases were analyzed according to their structure and type of waste dumps description, classification and visualization. The main problem is correct classification of dumps in terms of their name and type. An additional difficulty is the accurate quantitative description (area and capacity). A complex database was created as a result of comparison, verification of the information contained in existing databases and its supplementation based on separate documentation. A variability analysis of coal-waste dumps over time is also included. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018.

  10. Sulphur and carbon isotopic composition of power supply coals in the Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamor-Vido, Maria [Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary, H-1145 Budapest, Kolumbusz st. 17-23 (Hungary); Hamor, Tamas [Hungarian Geological Survey, H-1143 Budapest, Stefania st. 14 (Hungary)

    2007-08-01

    The present work is an attempt to establish the stable isotope database for Mesozoic to Tertiary coals from the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. Maceral composition, proximate analysis, sulphur form, sulphur isotopes (organic and pyritic), and carbon isotopes were determined. This database supports the assessment of the environmental risks associated with energy generation, the characterization of the formation and the distribution of sulphur in the coals used. The maceral composition, the sulphur composition, the C, S isotopic signatures, and some of the geological evidences published earlier show that the majority of these coals were deposited in freshwater and brackish water environments, despite the relatively high average sulphur content. However, the Upper Cretaceous, Eocene, and Lower Miocene formations also contain coal seams of marine origin, as indicated by their maceral composition and sulphur and carbon chemistry. The majority of the sulphur in these coals occurs in the organic form. All studied sulphur phases are relatively rich in {sup 34}S isotopes ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub organic} = + 12.74 permille, {delta}{sup 34}S{sub pyrite} = + 10.06 permille, on average). This indicates that marine bacterial sulphate reduction played a minor role in their formation, in the sense that isotopic fractionation was limited. It seems that the interstitial spaces of the peat closed rapidly during early diagenesis due to a regime of high depositional rate, leading to a relative enrichment of the heavy sulphur isotopes. (author)

  11. Using the space survey data for fire objects monitoring of the Donetsk coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I.; Sergieieva, K. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    A fundamental factor in economic and ecological balance disturbance of industrial coal-mining regions that present danger to population health and life involve the combustion processes of carbonaceous rocks caused by endogenous and exogenous influences. High temperature leading to smoldering or combustion is a peculiarity of land surface areas. Detection and allocation of thermal anomalies caused by coal fires is a major issue for coal deposits worldwide, particularly in India, China, and the United States, where the largest deposits can be found. This paper examined the practical aspects of using the Terra and Landsat multisensor survey data for solving the tasks of fire objects allocation and monitoring of coal-industrial regions, particularly for mapping the burning waste banks of the Donetsk coal basin area located in the Ukraine. The paper presented an analysis of the results of land cover types classification. For classification quality improvement, the estimated values of surface temperature derived from the Landsat thermal band as well as information about vegetation cover based on the vegetation indexes calculation were utilized. Specifically, the paper presented and discussed the study area and data as well as fire waste banks allocation based on space survey, vegetation indices and temperature data using the morphometric analysis procedures. It was concluded that the presented process of multilevel data processing enabled the efficient use of information about mines and waste banks and helped classify them according to fire risk. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. High arsenic (As content in coals from Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Markič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High contents of arsenic (As in coal samples from four localities within Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin in Slovenia are presented and discussed in this paper. Data from three localities represent interval samples of coal cuttings from wells TER-1 (Terbegovci, Sob-3g (Murska Sobota, and MD-1 (Mislinjska Dobrava. The fourth locality is Globoko, where the main lignite seam was analysed already in 1989. The oldest are coal samples from the MD-1 well which are supposed to be of the Lower Miocene age (except for the shallowest one, which is of the Plio-Quaternary age. Coal samples from the TER-1 and Sob-3g wells are of the Upper Miocene age (Mura Formation. The lignite sample from Globoko is of the Upper Miocene age too (Pontian; Globoko Formation. Most samples were prepared for the ICP-MS method analysis as “whole coal”, dry, pulverized lab-samples, weighting ca. 10 g. The results show for all “whole coals” samples considerably increased contents of As: 22.7, 111.4, 222.1, and 131.4 µg/g for the Lower Miocene (?, and 84.5 µg/g for the Plio-Quaternary coals from MD-1 well, 392 µg/g for coals from the Sob-3g well, and 116 µg/g for a coal from the TER-1 well (both Upper Miocene – Mura Formation. In the case of Globoko, not “whole coal” but its high temperature ash was analysed and showed As content as high as 170 µg/g applying AAS method of analysis, and even 260 µg/g applying the ICP-MS. Origin of As could be pre-Neogene rocks of the hinterland and/or Neogene calc-alkaline volcanites. Mineral-gas exhalations from the under-continental upper mantle, containing As, could also be a source of this highly volatile element.

  13. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  14. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, September 1986-September 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of geologic assessment, the natural gas in place in the Fruitland Formation coals of the San Juan Basin is estimated at 50 trillion cubic feet. The north-central portion of San Juan Basin contains the highest concentrations of coalbed methane for the Fruitland Formation coals. The area coincides with the thick deposits of high-rank coals. To provide a foundation for evaluating the coalbed methane in place on a township-by-township basis, the study delineates the subsurface geology of the Fruitland Formation coals. Four regional cross sections and detailed overburden, net coal isopach, and coal rank maps are included.

  15. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  16. Use of modflow drain package for simulating inter-basin transfer in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation of groundwater flow in abandoned mines is difficult, especially where flux to and from mines is unknown or poorly quantified, and inter-basin transfer of groundwater occurs. A 3-year study was conducted in the Elkhorn area, West Virginia to better understand groundwater-flow processes and inter-basin transfer in above drainage abandoned coal mines. The study area was specifically selected, as all mines are located above the elevation of tributary receiving streams, to allow accurate measurements of discharge from mine portals and tributaries for groundwater model calibration. Abandoned mine workings were simulated in several ways, initially as a layer of high hydraulic conductivity bounded by lower permeability rock in adjacent strata, and secondly as rows of higher hydraulic conductivity embedded within a lower hydraulic conductivity coal aquifer matrix. Regardless of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to mine workings, neither approach to simulate mine workings could accurately reproduce the inter-basin transfer of groundwater from adjacent watersheds. To resolve the problem, a third approach was developed. The MODFLOW DRAIN package was used to simulate seepage into and through mine workings discharging water under unconfined conditions to Elkhorn Creek, North Fork, and tributaries of the Bluestone River. Drain nodes were embedded in a matrix of uniform hydraulic conductivity cells that represented the coal mine aquifer. Drain heads were empirically defined from well observations, and elevations were based on structure contours for the Pocahontas No. 3 mine workings. Use of the DRAIN package to simulate mine workings as an internal boundary condition resolved the inter-basin transfer problem, and effectively simulated a shift from a topographic- dominated to a dip-dominated flow system, by dewatering overlying unmined strata and shifting the groundwater drainage divide up dip within the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam several kilometers into the adjacent

  17. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  18. Metalliferous coals of the Westphalian A Joggins Formation, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia, Canada: Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Five coals of Westphalian A (early Middle Pennsylvanian) age were sampled from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century, yet there have been few detailed published investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 28 (Upper Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopsid spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 ('clam coal') has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly coal shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Middle Kimberly coal, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an upward increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Middle Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The coals all have high sulfur contents, yielding up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements. Zinc, ranging up to 15,000 ppm (ash basis), is present as sphalerite in fusain lumens. Arsenic and lead each exceed 6000 ppm (ash basis) in separate lithotypes of the Kimberly coals. Together these data are consistent with elevated pH in planar mires. The source of the elemental enrichment in this presumed continental

  19. Study of coal mine fire in Damodar River basin,India using thermal remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Alokesh; Bhattacharya, Asis

    Coal mine fires are a serious socio-economic problem because of hazards to health and the environment including toxic fumes, and subsidence of surface infrastructures. Globally, thou-sands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning today, especially in China and India. In India, Damodar River basin is the repository of the 46The entire Damodar River basin exhibits in an almost linear fashion in the central part of the Jharkhand and western part of West Bengal States of India. The coal fields are adjacent to the Damodar River or its tributaries. The general trends of coalfields are nearly east-west and showing gentle dip towards south. The area is bounded within Latitude 2330 -2350N and Longitude 8456 -8648E. Since all the coal deposits of Damodar River basin were formed in almost similar sedimentary environmental condition and are of equivalent geologic age; and the coal grades are more or less comparable, it is highly probable that the other coal fields in this region are also vulnerable to mine fires. Aerial and Space borne Thermal Infra-Red Remote Sensing method has been proved to be the most cost effective and time saving method to find out the thermal anomalies present in an area. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the presence of coalmine fire and their aerial extent in Damodar River basin including the well known Jharia and Raniganj coalfields using Space borne single band thermal IR data of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor. Two daytime Landsat ETM+ images (path / row:140/44), acquired on 07.03.2001 and 24.01.2003, covering visible, one near Infrared (NIR), two short wave infrared (SWIR), one thermal infrared (TIR) and a panchromatic band, were used for the present study. Standard procedure of calculating surface temperature from band 6 of Landsat ETM+ data was followed. These include atmospheric corrections, data normalization for sun elevation angle, conversion of image DN values to spectral radiance and spectral radiance to radiant

  20. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  1. Data on coal dumps retrieving in petroşani basin using sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents data on the sea buckthorn (Hippöphae rhamnoides, with focus on its value on coal dumps retrieving in the Petroşani Basin. Due to its peculiar roots exposing a lot of nodules, this plant has an important role in fixing the atmospheric azoth and soil genesis. It is very adaptable to any kind of soil and has wide climatic exigencies, but is depending on light intensity. It has a large dissemination capacity, due to its light and numerous seeds. Besides its utilization on dump retrieving, sea buckthorn is used in medicine and pharmacy, as well as in organic fuel production.

  2. Bioconversion of Coal: Hydrologic indicators of the extent of coal biodegradation under different redox conditions and coal maturity, Velenje Basin case study, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Lazar, Jerneja; Jamnikar, Sergej; Zavšek, Simon; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Underground mining of coal and coal combustion for energy has significant environmental impacts. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, other lower -carbon energy sources must be utilized. Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important source of relatively low-carbon energy. Approximately 20% of world's coalbed methane is microbial in origin (Bates et al., 2011). Interest in microbial CBM has increased recently due to the possibility of stimulating methanogenesis. Despite increasing interest, the hydrogeochemical conditions and mechanisms for biodegradation of coal and microbial methane production are poorly understood. This project aims to examine geochemical characteristics of coalbed groundwater and coalbed gases in order to constrain biogeochemical processes to better understand the entire process of coal biodegradation of coal to coalbed gases. A better understanding of geochemical processes in CBM areas may potentially lead to sustainable stimulation of microbial methanogenesis at economical rates. Natural analogue studies of carbon dioxide occurring in the subsurface have the potential to yield insights into mechanisms of carbon dioxide storage over geological time scales (Li et al., 2013). In order to explore redox processes related to methanogenesis and determine ideal conditions under which microbial degradation of coal is likely to occur, this study utilizes groundwater and coalbed gas samples from Velenje Basin. Determination of the concentrations of methane, carbondioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, argon was performed with homemade NIER mass spectrometer. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide, isotopic composition of methane, isotopic composition of deuterium in methane was determined with Europa-Scientific IRMS with an ANCA-TG preparation module and Thermo Delta XP GC-TC/CF-IRMS coupled to a TRACE GC analyzer. Total alkalinity of groundwater was measured by Gran titration. Major cations were analyzed by ICP-OES and anions by IC method. Isotopic composition of

  3. Geochemical Characteristics of the Bismuth and Antimony Occurrence in Some Coal Seams in the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzentny, Henryk R.; Róg, Leokadia

    2017-06-01

    The study included 24 samples of coal with 7 cores, boreholes (7 coal seams), made by the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw at the site of a Chelm field and 6 coal samples taken from 2 decks in the Lublin Coal mine "Bogdanka" S.A. in LCB. Based on performed tests found generally low levels of Sb and Bi in coal. In the vertical profile of the LCB contents of Bi and Sb in coal generally increases from coal seams younger to older age. Content of Bi in coal from roof part coal seams is usually higher, and ash content in the coal content of Sb are generally lower than in the carbon of the middle part decks. The content of Bi in the lateral coal deposits is unlikely to vary, and the gap in the coal content of Bi between the sampling regions coal do not exceed 1.7 g / Mg. In contrast gap Sb content in coal on the extent LCB is from 1.7 g / Mg of 5.8 g / Mg. The biggest influence on the content of Bi and Sb in coal from the LCB is probably organic matter in which these elements are scattered and do not form their own minerals.

  4. Coalbed methane potential and coal characteristics in the Lati region, Berau basin, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Suwarna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol1no1.20063aA geological research was performed in the Berau Basin, to provide a better understanding on the potential and resources of coalbed methane (CBM in Berau Regency, East Kalimantan Province, particularly in the Lati Coalfield. Field observation conducted in the coalfield, shows that the banded to bright banded Lati coal is dominated by the bright banded one. Petrographically, the coal consists of vitrinite comprising typical telocollinite and desmocollinite; with rare to sparse exinite, and minor inertinite, and mineral matter. Geochemical analysis shows the range of volatile matter content is from 32.65–39.60%, total sulfur from 0.35–3.04%, ash varies between 2.78–14.50%, and moisture from 12.23–19.98%. Vitrinite reflectance values (Rv, varying from 0.42–0.57%, tend to indicate that the Lati coal rank ranges from sub-bituminous B to high volatile bituminous C category, with low ash content in general. Moreover, the coal maturity level, thermally immature to early mature, leads to the assumption that the expected gas present is suggested to be of biogenic origin. The fairly well cleated Lati coal shows cleat orientations trending north - northeastward, perpendicular to nearly oblique to the syncline axis. Furthermore, coal microcleat occurs as open tensional, sub-curved to curved lines microcracks, diagonally to perpendicular to bedding plane, but some are parallel to the bedding plane. An in-situ coal gas calculation tends to indicate a low to moderate methane content level, with a value of 44.20–47.08 scf/t. However, the Q1 plus Q2 calculation exhibits the gas content ranging from 41.69 to 78.71 scf/t. Moreover, total calculated gas in-place of the P, Q, and R Seams =  5.33 m3/t = 191.56 scf/t.    

  5. Implications of paleobotany of Pennsylvanian-age coal of the central Appalachian basin for climate and coal-bed development. [USA - Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.B. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Lycopod abundance in coal is used to estimate climatic 'wetness' during the Pennsylvanian period in the central Appalachian basin. Plants were identified from their anatomy using etched, polished coal rather than using permineralized peat, compressions/impressions, or palynology. The data indicate that two drier intervals occurred: one in the Westphalian B (middle of the Kanawha Formation), the other in the early Stephanian (Conemaugh Formation). Both drier intervals have been previously recognized in the Illinois basin, but only the second has been previously recognized in the Appalachian basin. In 9 of 18 localities, lycopod abundance decreases upward within coal beds, whereas at the other nine localities, no statistically significant trends in lycopod abundance were observed. An upward decrease in lycopod abundance is suggestive of coal that formed in the central region of a domed peat swamp, but peat-dome formation is not demonstrated. Within coalbeds, pteridosperms are most abundant in samples which are split or contain abundant mineral matter. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. THE ANTHROPOGENIC INUNDATED AREA ”SZCZECIN” IN THE ZONE OF ACTIVE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF HARD COAL IN THE LUBLIN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ciosmak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated area lies in the geographical centre of Lublin Province. More specifically, it is located in the northern part of the Central Coal Region, between the Puchaczów-Urszulin route and the route leading through the village of Szczecin, which the investigated inundated area is named after, and between the town of Dratów and the ”Bogdanka” Hard Coal Mine. The Lublin Upland, with the Lublin Coal Basin located in its centre, has one of the most valuable natural environments in Poland. There are many reserves, Poleski National Park and Natura 2000 area. The process of the intensive hard coal exploitation makes subsidence of surface as its result. The process of basin subsidence is irreversible. This paper deals with the problem of forming an anthropogenic water reservoir and its development in compliance with the policy of sustainable development and biodiversity maintenance in the face of heavy hard coal exploitation. It is suggested to use fluorides ground water to organize a health resort based on water reservoir and the described natural environment.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Production in the Münsterland Basin, Germany - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösle, B.; Kukla, P.; Stollhofen, H.; Preuße, A.

    2009-04-01

    Growing demands on energy and high energy prices have lead to a re-evaluation of the coal bed methane (CBM) potential in Germany. For research reasons the Technical University of Aachen is holding a concession area in NW Germany, located in the Münsterland Basin. This concession covers an area of about 3460 km2. The southern part of the concession area involves one of the most developed, densely populated mining districts in Western Europe, the Ruhr Area. The Upper Carboniferous coal measures there are covered by northward thickening Cretaceous strata which not only limits the coal mining activity to the south of the basin but also represents a challenge to CBM production technology. This is currently restricted to a depth of about 1200 m. Mine gas has been successfully produced in the Ruhr Area for decades. With the successive closure of coal mines, gas production rates will decrease and consequently production of CBM will become more important. The Münsterland Basin contains a large portion of known Carboniferous coals in western Germany and the production of mine gas proofs that there is a significant resource of natural gas in place. Estimates of the amount of gas in place are at about 3 Trillion m3 in Germany's mining districts of which 2 Trillion m3 are expected to occur in the Ruhr Area alone. First exploration efforts on CBM were made by a consortium of Ruhrgas AG and Conoco-Phillips Inc. in the 1990s. Because of low production rates, relatively high exploration and production costs, and the low gas prices at that time this project was stopped. The present study investigates the reservoir quality and geometry in order to better estimate the potential gas content for a general economic benefit assessment. The structural inventory of the study area comprises NE-SW trending folds and thrusts which are crossed obliquely by faults. Potential gas accumulations may be found in anticlinal structures paired with thrusts. However, these gas accumulations will add

  8. Evolution of the passive margin of the peripheral foreland basin: an example from the Lower Miocene Carpathian Foredeep (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francírek, Michal; Nehyba, Slavomír

    2016-02-01

    The Karpatian deposits of the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep in Moravia, which are deeply buried under the Outer Western Carpathians, provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct the former evolutionary stages of this peripheral foreland basin and its paleogeography. A succession of three depositional units characterized by a distinct depositional environment, provenance, and partly also foreland basin depozone, have been identified. The first depositional unit represents a proximal forebulge depozone and consists of lagoon-estuary and barred coastline deposits. The source from the "local" crystalline basement played here an important role. The second depositional unit consists of coastline to shallow marine deposits and is interpreted as a forebulge depozone. Tidalites recognized within this unit represent the only described tide-generated deposits of the Neogene infill of the Carpathian Foredeep basin in Moravia. The source from the basin passive margin (the Bohemian Massif) has been proved. The third depositional unit is formed by offshore deposits and represents a foredeep depozone. The provenance from both passive and active basin margin (Silesian Unit of the Western Carpathian Flysch Zone) has been proved. Thus, both a stepwise migration of the foredeep basin axis and shift of basin depozones outwards/cratonwards were documented, together with forebulge retreat. The shift of the foreland basin depozones more than 50 km cratonward can be assumed. The renewed thrusting along the basin's active margin finally completely changed the basin shape and paleogeography. The upper part of the infill was deformed outside the prograding thrust front of flysch nappes and the flysch rocks together with a strip of Miocene sediments were superposed onto the inner part of the basin. The width and bathymetric gradient of the entire basin was changed/reduced and the deposition continued toward the platform. The basin evolution and changes in its geometry are interpreted

  9. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Menefee Formation, San Juan Basin. Topical report, May 1988-May 1989. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crist, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Boyer, C.M.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a regional geologic assessment of the San Juan Basin Menefee Formation include stratigraphic cross-section and overburden, net coal thickness, coal rank, and gas-in-place maps. A geologic investigation was conducted of two microstudy areas which further examine the site-specific characteristics of the coal seams. Natural gas-in-place estimates for the Menefee Formation coal seams range between 22.0 and 34.2 Tcf.

  10. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  11. MERCURY OXIDATION PROMOTED BY A SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Power River Basin (PRB) coal combustion ...

  12. A contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis to the biogenic coal bed methane reserves of Southern Qinshui Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Thompson, Ian P; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-11-01

    The activity of methanogens and related bacteria which inhabit the coal beds is essential for stimulating new biogenic coal bed methane (CBM) production from the coal matrix. In this study, the microbial community structure and methanogenesis were investigated in Southern Qinshui Basin in China, and the composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM were also determined. Although geochemical analysis suggested a mainly thermogenic origin for CBM, the microbial community structure and activities strongly implied the presence of methanogens in situ. 454 pyrosequencing analysis combined with methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene clone library analysis revealed that the archaeal communities in the water samples from both coal seams were similar, with the dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium. The activity and potential of these populations to produce methane were confirmed by the observation of methane production in enrichments supplemented with H2 + CO2 and formate, and the only archaea successfully propagated in the tested water samples was from the genus Methanobacterium. 454 pyrosequencing analysis also recovered the diverse bacterial communities in the water samples, which have the potential to play a role in the coal biodegradation fueling methanogens. These results suggest that the biogenic CBM was generated by coal degradation via the hydrogenotrophic methanogens and related bacteria, which also contribute to the huge CBM reserves in Southern Qinshui Basin, China.

  13. A thrust-ridge paleodepositional model for the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated clastic facies, Upper Potomac coal field, Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, E.S.; Lyons, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    A blind-thrust-ridge model is proposed to explain the lack of coarse clastic material in the vast minable Upper Freeport coal bed (UF). This coal bed contains only fine elastic partings and is overlain by regionally extensive, closely spaced channel-belt deposits in the Upper Potomac coal field of the Appalachian basin. A blind-thrust ridge may have formed a sediment trap and prevented c coarse fluvial sediments from entering the swamp during a period (Westphalian D) when the thick Upper Freeport peat accumulated. Anticlinal thrust ridges and associated depressions may have existed uninterrupted for about 40 km parallel to the Appalachian orogen. Sediment shed from the breached anticlinal ridges accumulated in the sediment trap and was carried out of the ends of the trap by streams that occupied the shear zone at the ends of the blind-thrust ridge. The extent, parallel to the orogen, of thick, areally extensive UF is related to the length of the blind-thrust ridge that, in turn, controlled the spacing of the river-derived coarse clastic sediments that entered the main basin from the east. The thrust plane eventually emerged to the surface of the blind-thrust ridge and peat accumulation was terminated when the ridge became eroded and the sediment trapped behind it was released. The peat was buried by abundant coarse clastic sediment, which formed closely spaced channel belts and intervening flood basins. This model has implications for widespread peat deposits (now coal) that developed in tropical regions a few hundred kilometers from the sea in a tectonically active foreland basin. ?? 1989.

  14. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  15. Characterization of Coal Quality Based On Ash Content From M2 Coal-Seam Group, Muara Enim Formation, South Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frillia Putri Nasution

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muara Enim Formation is well known as coal-bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin. As coal-bearing formation, this formation was subjects of many integrated study. Muara Enim Formation can be divided into four coal-seam group, M1, M2, M3, and M4. The M2 group comprising of Petai (C, Suban (B, Lower Mangus (A2, and Upper Mangus (A1. Depositional environments of Group M2 is transitional lower delta plain with sub-depositional are crevasse splay and distributary channel. The differentiation of both sub-depositional environments can be caused the quality of coal deposit. One of quality aspects is ash content. This research conducted hopefully can give better understanding of relationship between depositional environments to ash content. Group M2 on research area were found only Seam C, Seam B, and Seam A2, that has distribution from north to central so long as 1400 m. Coal-seam thickness C ranged between 3.25-9.25 m, Seam B range 7.54-13.43 m, and Seam C range 1.53-8.37 m, where all of coal-seams thickening on the central part and thinning-splitting to northern part and southern part. The ash content is formed from burning coal residue material. Ash contents on coal seam caused by organic and inorganic compound which resulted from mixing modified material on surrounded when transportation, sedimentation, and coalification process. There are 27 sample, consists of 9 sample from Seam C, 8 sample from Seam B, and 10 sample from Seam A2. Space grid of sampling is 100-150 m. Ash content influenced by many factors, but in research area, main factor is existence of inorganic parting. Average ash content of Seam C is 6,04%, Seam B is 5,05%, and Seam A2 is 3,8%. Low ash content influenced by settle environment with minor detrital material. High ash content caused by oxidation and erosional process when coalification process. Ash content on coal in research area originated from detritus material carried by channel system into brackish area or originated

  16. The utilization of waste clay from coal basin in the wall tile body formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isik, I.; Gocmez, H.; Yanik, G. [Dumlupinar Univ., Dept. of Ceramics Engineering, Kutahya (Turkey); Ceylantekin, R. [Anadolu Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the waste clays extracted from coal basin were used as a wall tile ingredient instead of the clay materials of the standardized biscuit formulation of the wall tile. XRD data show that waste clay contains major clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. It was found that clay-size particles (equal or less than 2{mu}m) distributed between 19.85 and 47%. The green and dry strength of the specimen containing illite and/or montmorillonite were increased 35% compared with the standard biscuit specimen. The fired strength of the samples having alkaline Earth oxides has been improved 20%, whereas water absorption reduced 28%. It was also found that the substitution of 5% waste clay in the wall tile biscuit formulation has revealed relatively better physical properties. (orig.)

  17. Jurassic continental deposits in the sections of the Irkutsk Coal Basin stratoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritchkova, A. I.; Kostina, E. I.; Nosova, N. V.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents bed-by-bed description and paleofloristic characterization (on the basis of plant macroremains) of the Jurassic continental deposits of the Irkutsk Coal Basin, in the sections of the stratotype region where the lithostrata now widely used for the geological mapping works were established for the first time. The characteristics of these units are refined along with their age and occurrences. Newly obtained taphofloras are comparatively analyzed and established to be synchronous. The spatial distribution of Jurassic deposits from different outcrops is correlated with sections of the reference boreholes. Two successive phytostratigraphic assemblages, Cheremkhovo and Prisayan, are recognized. These assemblages are correlated based on the taxonomic composition of the dominant plant groups, with the assemblages of the end of the Early Jurassic and the beginning of the Middle Jurassic of Western Siberia, which are dated using coastal marine fauna.

  18. Peat biomass and early diagenetic controls on the paraffinic oil potential of humic coals, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, R. [Institute of Geology & Nuclear Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2004-11-01

    Early mature, Pukeiwitahi Formation (Late Cretaceous) coals from Galleon-1 and Endeavour-1 wells in the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand have been analysed by petrographic, bulk chemical and thermal extraction- and pyrolysis-GC techniques, and compared with similar coals in the Taranaki Basin to determine the primary controls on their paraffinic oil potential. The Pukeiwitahi coals, which are moderately perhydrous (HI 180-305 mgHC g{sup -1}TOC), vitrinite-rich (73-95%) and relatively liptinite-poor ({lt}10%), accumulated in gymnosperm-dominated, planar mires in a temperate, coastal plain environment. Pyrolysate compositions are representative of high-wax, paraffinic-naphthenic-aromatic crude oil-generating coals. Petrographic data and the n-alkyl chain length distributions of extracts and pyrolysates suggest that the long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons are derived primarily from leaf-derived liptinites (cutinite and liptodetrinite). The paraffinic oil potential of the coals is accordingly dependent on the net amount of leaf biomass in the precursor peats, following partial degradation of the available leaf litter under generally high surface water levels and dilution with other, less paraffinic biomass, particularly wood. The coals in Endeavour-1 generally contain more leaf-derived liptinites than those in Galleon-1 and, thus, have greater paraffinic oil potentials despite commonly lower HI values. Brackish conditions within the depositional environment caused the Galleon-l and Endeavour-1 coals to be variably enriched in hydrogen but not in aliphatics. HI is, therefore, not a reliable indicator of the paraffinic oil potential of marine-influenced coals.

  19. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  20. Characteristics of type III kerogen in coal-bearing strata from the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) in the Ruhr Basin, Western Germany: Comparison of coals, dispersed organic matter, kerogen concentrates and coal-mineral mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Krooss, B.M.; Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, De-Greiff-Str. 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany)

    2009-10-01

    Quality, quantity and maturity of coal and dispersed terrigenous organic matter were studied on six coal-bearing intervals in Duckmantian strata (Pennsylvanian/Upper Carboniferous) of the Ruhr Basin, Western Germany. Between 10 and 40 samples were collected from fresh drill cores of each interval typically consisting of a coal seam as well as clastic roof and floor strata (sandstone, siltstone, claystone). Coal seams constitute about 8 vol.% of the succession studied. The samples were analysed by organic petrological methods and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Maturity expressed in terms of vitrinite reflectance is between 0.75 and 1.0 %. For the six successions studied, the total amount of dispersed organic matter in clastic rocks is about half of that stored in coal seams, both containing predominantly vitrinite. Significant differences between Rock-Eval parameters determined on whole rock samples and kerogen concentrates were observed, especially with respect to Hydrogen Index (HI) values. Thus, the HI of the coal is about twice as high as that of the dispersed organic matter, although the maceral composition is similar. The effects of minerals were further examined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis of artificial mixtures of coal (lignite) powder and different minerals. Reduced HI values are partly explained by the retention of generated hydrocarbons on mineral surfaces and partly by reactions of generated fluids with pyrite in kerogen concentrates. (author)

  1. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  2. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  3. Organic geochemistry of the Lower Suban coal seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia: Palaeoecological and thermal metamorphism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amijaya, H.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Littke, R. [University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrocarbons extracted from the Tertiary age coals from the Lower Suban seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia have been investigated using gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low rank (vitrinite-huminite reflectance about to 0.41-0.45%) coals from the Tambang Air Laya mine represent different maceral assemblages of an ideal succession of ombrogenous palaeo-peat development in a vertical section. High rank coals (vitrinite reflectance about to 1.42-5.18%) from the Suban mine have been thermally metamorphosed by an andesitic intrusion. Variations in the distributions of n-alkanes, isoprenoids and saturated and aromatic biomarkers in the low rank coals reflect variations in local source input and palaeomire conditions. Terpenoid biomarkers, such as cadinane- and eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids and oleanane- and ursane-type triterpenoids, indicate the predominance of angiosperm plants in the palaeomire, particularly Dipterocarpaceae. The distribution of hopanoids is affected by the organic facies of the coal and their maturity, and correlates with the palaeomire evolution as derived from petrological studies. Close to the igneous intrusion, rapid thermal stress has destroyed most of the biomarkers, but variations in n-alkane distributions, attributable to palaeomire conditions, remain. Reversals in the trends for molecular parameters based on aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkane distribution and pristane/phytane ratio) and aromatic hydrocarbons (methyl phenanthrenes) with coal rank are observed.

  4. Pre-Laramide tectonics - possible control on locus of Turonian-Coniacian parallic Coal Basins, west-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Anderson, O.J.

    1985-05-01

    Published evidence indicates that Late Cretaceous shorelines trended northwest through west-central New Mexico and adjacent Arizona. Our investigations delineate these shorelines through time and relate them to the prominent northwest-trending monoclinal flexures in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins. We related the transgressive (T)-regressive (R) marine cycles (T2-R2, T3-R3, T4-R4) of C.M. Molenaar to deep-rooted monoclinal or asymmetric anticlinal structures. The T2-R2 turn-around is coincident with the Pinon Springs anticline in the northern part of the Zuni basin and appears to be controlled by the Atarque and Gallestina monoclines in the southern part of this basin. Shoreline configurations during the T3 and T4 transgressive maximums coincide with the axis of the Nutria monocline and relate to some subtle pre-Laramide movements along this structure. The R2 regression is unique to New Mexico, suggesting local tectonic control on the configuration of the seaway. The subsequent T3 transgression, which was a major widespread event elsewhere in the Western Interior, was abbreviated in west-central New Mexico near the location of the Nutria monocline. The T2-R2 through T4-R4 shoreline turnarounds produced numerous parallic basins favorable for the accumulation of organic detritus. A turn-around probably represents a period of slow rates of shoreline migration which allowed a thicker, more extensive accumulation of plant material and hence thicker coals. The present and most of the past coal production in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins is from coals formed in parallic basins just landward of the turnarounds caused by pre-Laramide tectonics.

  5. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  6. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  7. Provenance change in the Irkutsk coal basin during the early and middle Jurassic: Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, E. A.; Demonterova, E. I.; Frolov, A. O.; Arzhannikova, A. V.; Arzhannikov, S. G.; Cherkashina, T. Yu.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of the recently accepted chronostratigraphic chart, Jurassic sedimentation in the Irkutsk coal basin took place over a short time interval ( 23 My), from the Pliensbachian ( 191 Ma) to the Aalenian ( 170 Ma). In this study, we present geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data for sedimentary rocks of the Prisayan and Kuda formations and those in the upper course of the Angara River, which were deposited over an even shorter time interval (from 174 to 170 Ma), as indicated by new data on biostratigraphy. Our results suggest that a greater contribution from Transbaikalia compared to that from the Siberian Platform during sediment deposition in the Irkutsk coal basin may reflect the onset of mountain building in Transbaikalia and reorganization of the river drainage network during the Middle Jurassic.

  8. Characterization of Czechoslovak coals from Ostrava-Karvina basin by means of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panek, P.; Scheler, G.; Neiser, J. (Pedagogical Faculty Ostrava, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-07-01

    In this study coals from the Ostrava-Karvina basin, and their products obtained by extraction using quinoline, were examined. Solid state {sup 1}H n.m.r. spectroscopy, employing magic-angle spinning (MAS) and multiple-pulse sequences (BR-24) at 270 MHz gave spectra of coals and coal-derived solids in which aromatic and aliphatic hydrogens were resolved. Solid state {sup 13}C n.m.r. spectra were measured using cross polarization (CP) in conjunction with dipolar decouping (DD) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 15.09 MHz. Structural parameters were calculated using modified Brown-Ladner equations, and significant differences could be observed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Cenomanian and Cenomanian-Turonian boundary deposits in the southern part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, S.; Hradecká, L.; Svobodová, Marcela; Švábenická, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2005), s. 321-354 ISSN 1210-3527 Grant - others:GA MŽP1(CZ) 1975/630/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Cenomanian * biostratigraphy * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2005/vol80no4/321_cech.pdf

  10. Magnetic tracing of coal slag and ash in a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Erwin; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Zhang, Qi; Rösler, Wolfgang; Zhang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric distribution of pollutants by magnetic means has been extensively studied, but only little is known about pollution-related magnetic signatures for aquatic transport. The case of a textile factory in Croatia that released heavy-metal polluted and highly magnetic ash and slag material from coal burning into Mrežnica River for 110 years (1884-1994) represents an ideal target for studying principles of magnetic tracing through a river system. Samples from the riverside close to the factory show high concentrations of magnetite (mass-specific susceptibility χ ˜1-4 x10-5 m3kg-1) with low frequency dependence (χfd% magnetic properties of the river sediments, presumably due to hydrodynamic sorting. Surface mapping of χ on riverbanks ˜3 km downstream of the factory reveals clear evidence for substantial distribution of slag and ash materials in the river basin due to flooding; the affected area reaches to >100 m from the riverside. The spatial pattern of shallow vertical sections of χ (surface to ˜0.5 m depth) shows different layers of coal burning residues which may even allow discriminating different flooding events (historical flooding). In order to assess the possible influence of fly ash from the factory, we studied vertical soil profiles at locations which cannot be reached by floods. These (red) soils, formed on limestones, are strongly magnetic (χ >10-6 m3kg-1). Despite this strong natural magnetic signals, the depth dependence of χfd% and characteristic chemical properties (sulfur content, Ni/Cu ratio) as well as the dependence of the vertical χ distribution with distance to the point source indicate a contribution of fly ash to soil contamination near the factory (within about one kilometer). The presently available results indicate that with a strong magnetic point source as in the case of the studied textile factory, magnetic tracing can contribute important information on the transport and mass balance of sediments in a river basin.

  11. Secondary gas emissions during coal desorption, Marathon Grassim Oskolkoff-1 Well, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: Implications for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.; Dallegge, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from the Oligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska show secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistent with renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption. The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorption measurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbed gas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement. About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas began and continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volume reached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres, some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gases released during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signature over time of methane from ??13CCH4 of -53.60 ??? and ??DCH4 of -312.60 ??? at the first day to ??13CCH4 of -57.06 ??? and ??DCH4 of -375.80 ??? after 809 days, when the experiment was arbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. These isotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shift from a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of natural gases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook Inlet Basin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source. However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissions with a ??13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 ???, interpreted using the carbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986), indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operative during renewed gas emission. Adding nutrients to the coal cuttings and canister water and culturing the microbial consortia under anaerobic conditions led to additional methane-rich gas generation in the laboratory. After this anaerobic culturing, ultraviolet microscopy showed that canister water contained common, fluorescent, rod-like microbes comparable to Methanobacterium sp. Scanning electron microscope

  12. Solute Concentrations Influence Microbial Methanogenesis in Coal-bearing Strata of the Cherokee Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F; Wilson, Brien H; Marquart, Kyle A; Zeglin, Lydia H; Vinson, David S; Flynn, Theodore M

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms have contributed significantly to subsurface energy resources by converting organic matter in hydrocarbon reservoirs into methane, the main component of natural gas. In this study, we consider environmental controls on microbial populations in coal-bearing strata of the Cherokee basin, an unconventional natural gas resource in southeast Kansas, USA. Pennsylvanian-age strata in the basin contain numerous thin (0.4-1.1 m) coalbeds with marginal thermal maturities (0.5-0.7% R o ) that are interbedded with shale and sandstone. We collected gas, water, and microbe samples from 16 commercial coalbed methane wells for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The water samples were Na-Cl type with total dissolved solids (TDS) content ranging from 34.9 to 91.3 g L(-1). Gas dryness values [C1/(C2 + C3)] averaged 2640 and carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of methane differed from those of carbon dioxide and water, respectively, by an average of 65 and 183‰. These values are thought to be consistent with gas that formed primarily by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Results from cultivation assays and taxonomic analysis of 16S rRNA genes agree with the geochemical results. Cultivable methanogens were present in every sample tested, methanogen sequences dominate the archaeal community in each sample (avg 91%), and few archaeal sequences (avg 4.2%) were classified within Methanosarcinales, an order of methanogens known to contain methylotrophic methanogens. Although hydrogenotrophs appear dominant, geochemical and microbial analyses both indicate that the proportion of methane generated by acetoclastic methanogens increases with the solute content of formation water, a trend that is contrary to existing conceptual models. Consistent with this trend, beta diversity analyses show that archaeal diversity significantly correlates with formation water solute content. In contrast, bacterial diversity more strongly correlates with location than solute content

  13. Solute concentrations influence microbial methanogenesis in coal-bearing strata of the Cherokee basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Kirk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have contributed significantly to subsurface energy resources by converting organic matter in hydrocarbon reservoirs into methane, the main component of natural gas. In this study, we consider environmental controls on microbial populations in coal-bearing strata of the Cherokee basin, an unconventional natural gas resource in southeast Kansas, USA. Pennsylvanian-age strata in the basin contain numerous thin (0.4-1.1 m coalbeds with marginal thermal maturities (0.5-0.7 %Ro that are interbedded with shale and sandstone. We collected gas, water, and microbe samples from 16 commercial coalbed methane wells for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The water samples were Na-Cl type with total dissolved solids (TDS content ranging from 34.9 to 91.3 g L-1. Gas dryness values [C1/(C2+C3] averaged 2640 and carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of methane differed from those of carbon dioxide and water, respectively, by an average of 65‰ and 183‰. These values are thought to be consistent with gas that formed primarily by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Results from cultivation assays and taxonomic analysis of 16S rRNA genes agree with the geochemical results. Cultivable methanogens were present in every sample tested, methanogen sequences dominate the archaeal community in each sample (avg 91%, and few archaeal sequences (avg 4.2% were classified within Methanosarcinales, an order of methanogens known to contain methylotrophic methanogens. Although hydrogenotrophs appear dominant, geochemical and microbial analyses both indicate that the proportion of methane generated by acetoclastic methanogens increases with the solute content of formation water, a trend that is contrary to existing conceptual models. Consistent with this trend, beta diversity analyses show that archaeal diversity significantly correlates with formation water solute content. In contrast, bacterial diversity more strongly correlates with location than solute

  14. The controlling factors of oil and gas generation from coal in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shengfei; Dai, Jinxing [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development (RIPED), Petrochina, No.20 Xueyuan Road, P. O. Box 910, Beijing, 100083 (China); Liu, Xianwei [Daqing Oilfield Corp. Ltd., PetroChina, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163453 (China)

    2007-04-02

    The organic matter-rich rocks in the Kuqa Depression are mainly coal measures and therefore are gas prone. However, small amounts of oil also occur and appear to be derived from these coals and associated shales. The hydrocarbons have five different modes of occurrence: pure dry gas, wet gas, condensate, oil-gas mixtures and pure oil. The distribution of coal-related reservoired petroleum in the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin indicates that the existence oil versus gas accumulations are largely influenced by geologic history and timing of generation. The oils and gases occur in various geological settings. The coal measures have mainly generated gas, but in different geological settings, different types of oil and gas accumulations occur. The traps containing dry gas in the Kuqa Depression formed late in the geological history, and therefore could only capture late gas generated by high maturity coaly source rocks. The traps which reservoir wet gas or condensates have a high integrity and formed when the coals had a lower maturity. The oil pools mainly occur in areas where seals are poor and in some cases fractured. The gas previously existing in these reservoirs was largely dissipated, but a small quantity of oil remained to form minor, residual oil or oil-gas occurrences. (author)

  15. X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sajau Coal, Berau Basin, Indonesia: 3D Imaging of Cleat and Microcleat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Helman Hamdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene Sajau coals of the Berau Basin area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. Mostly the cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and these cleats are generally inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam. The presence of cleat networks/fractures in coal seam is the important point in coalbed methane prospect. The 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT technique was performed to identify cleats characteristics in the Sajau coal seams, such as the direction of coal cleats, geometry of cleat, and cleats mineralization. By CT scan imaging technique two different types of natural fractures observed in Sajau coals have been identified, that is, face cleats and butt cleats. This technique also identified the direction of face cleats and butt cleats as shown in the resulting 3D images. Based on the images, face cleats show a NNE-SSW direction while butt cleats have a NW-SE direction. The crosscutting relationship indicated that NNE-SSW cleats were formed earlier than NW-SE cleats. The procedure also identified the types of minerals that filled the cleats apertures. Based on their density, the minerals are categorized as follows: very high density minerals (pyrite, high density minerals (anastase, and low density minerals (kaolinite, calcite were identified filling the cleats aperture.

  16. Interregional correlation as exemplified by determining age of Permian suites of the Pechora coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorskii, V.P.; Guseva, E.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using several different methods, age was estimated of several suites of Pechora coals located on northern part of Pre-Ural basin where the strato-type of the Permski system is found. Results of correlation of upper parts of Talatinski suite and all of Lekvorkutski with stratotypical sections of Central Pre-Ural demonstrate the Kungurski age of this part of the section, and confirm the expediency of including the Saraninski horizon in the composition of the Kungurski age, without which the border between the Artinski and Kungurski stages cannot be found as an isochronic level for any significant distance. The examined example indicates that results of interregional correlation proved to be essential factors in determining the volume of stratigraphic divisions (in the given example of Artinski and Kungurski stages). Question whether it is necessary to transfer border between sections of the Permski system to the base of the Saraninski horizon, i.e., the base of the Kungurski stage, must be decided separately on the basis of broader factual material in the order of a general revision of the entire scale of the Permski system. On the basis of the example, it is possible to conclude that the definiteness and volume of stratotype of general stratigraphic division in process of stratigraphic correlation and dependence of this volume on results of interregional correlation are a dialectic unity of two contradictory tendencies which depending on circumstances appear now in the role of argument, now of function. 16 references.

  17. Regional Rockburst Inidicator for Structural Units of Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patyńska Renata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of seismic tremors and rockbursts that occurred between 2001 and 2015. The characteristics are based on a general description of the geological structure of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB. The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed a number of times and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions in each of the five regions where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Troughs and which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia. It was found out that in the case of rockbursts the phenomena were recorded in three regions. These are: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Troughs. The so called Regional Rockburst Indicator (RWT was estimated for each of the regions where the rockbursts had been recorded. The obtained values of RWT are presented against the Probability of RockBurst (PT in a given area.

  18. Rugosa (anthozoa) from the serpukhovian (lower carboniferous) of the upper silesian coal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy; Machłajewska, Iwona

    2014-03-01

    Two species, Antiphyllum sp. nov. 1 and Zaphrufimia sp. nov. 1, the first corals found in Štur horizon of the upper Malinowickie Beds, Upper Pendleian (E 1 ), are here described. Additional study of the subspecies of Zaprufimia disjuncta show them to be more similar than previously thought. Although they occur mainly in the Enna and Barbara horizons, one specimen of Z. d. serotina comes from the Gabriela horizon. Biozone Zaphrufimia disujncta disjuncta/Z .d .praematura is proposed for the Enna and Barbara horizons. The subzone of Zaphrufimia/ Triadufimia of that Biozone, defined by the presence of Triadufimia gen. nov., is restricted to the Enna horizon. As confirmed by the occurrence of Cravenoceratoides edalensis, the new subzone roughly corresponds to the E2b1 ammonite Zone. An Antiphyllum/Ostravaia/Variaxon assemblage Zone is proposed for the coral assemblage of the Gaebler horizon. Cravenoceratoides nitidus present in the Roemer band (I b ) shows it to correlate with the E2b2 ammonite Zone. Comparison with other European regions suggests possible faunal exchange between those areas and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Serpukhovian time.

  19. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 2. Equilibria relationships and qualitative modeling of ash-water reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Alkaline and acidic Illinois Basin coal fly ash samples were each mixed with deionized water and equilibrated for about 140 days to simulate ash ponding environments. Common to both equilibrated solutions, anhydrite solubility dominated Ca2+ activities, and Al3+ activities were in equilibrium with both matrix mullite and insoluble aluminum hydroxide phases. Aqueous silica activities were controlled by both mullite and matrix silicates. The pH of the extract of the acidic fly ash was 4.1 after 24 h but increased to a pH value of 6.4 as the H2SO4, assumed to be adsorbed to the particle surfaces, was exhausted by the dissolution of matrix iron oxides and aluminosilicates. The activities of aqueous Al3+ and iron, initially at high levels during the early stages of equilibration, decreased to below analytical detection limits as the result of the formation of insoluble Fe and Al hydroxide phases. The pH of the extract of the alkaline fly ash remained above a pH value of 10 during the entire equilibration interval as a result of the hydrolysis of matrix oxides. As with the acidic system, Al3+ activities were controlled by amorphous aluminum hydroxide phases that began to form after about 7 days of equilibration. The proposed mechanisms and their interrelations are discussed in addition to the solubility diagrams used to deduce these relationships. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  20. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages of final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the Cameo/Fairfield coal group east of 107 deg 15'...

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  2. Post-Variscan thermal history of the Moravo-Silesian lower Carboniferous Culm Basin (NE Czech Republic - SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Dariusz; Dunkl, István; Anczkiewicz, Aneta; Mazur, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    Apatite fission track analysis (AFT) and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology (ZHe) have been carried out for a lower Carboniferous greywacke succession of the Moravo-Silesian Culm Basin in the Nízký Jeseník Mountains. The range of apparent zircon helium ages is 303-233 Ma (late Carboniferous to Early Triassic) in the eastern part of the basin, whilst they are significantly younger in the western part, ranging from 194 to 163 Ma (Early-Middle Jurassic). Apatite fission track central ages range from 152 (Latest Jurassic) to 44 Ma (Eocene), with the majority being grouped between 114 (Aptian) and 57 Ma (Paleocene). All samples experienced substantial post-depositional thermal reset; both the AFT ages and the ZHe are considerably younger than the depositional ages. The mean track length varies in the range between 12.5 and 15.4 μm. The unimodal track length distribution, the relatively short mean track length (in most samples), and their rather low standard deviation values (1.2 to 2.1 μm) indicate that their thermal history was determined by Variscan and post-Variscan heating event(s) followed by a prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone in the Mesozoic and finally by cooling in the Paleogene. Geological evidence combined with thermal modeling based on AFT and ZHe data indicate that the lower Carboniferous strata had already reached maximum palaeotemperatures in the late Carboniferous, however, they were presumably later re-heated during the Permian-Triassic. Post-Variscan extensional tectonics events were responsible for high heat flow that together with Carboniferous burial could account for the reset of both thermochronometers. A major phase of cooling occurred in the Late Cretaceous. Finally, exhumation was probably faster in the Paleogene, causing the present-day exposure of the studied rocks.

  3. Source rock properties of lacustrine mudstones and coals (oligocene Dong Hom Formation), onshore Song Hong Basin, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H.; Nielsen, L.H.; Nytoft, H.P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tru, V.; Duc, N.A. [Vietnam Petroluem Inst., Hanoi (Vietnam)

    2005-01-01

    Oligocene lacustrine mudstones and coals of the Dong Ho Formation outcropping around Dong Ho, at the northern margin of the mainly offshore Cenozoic Song Hong Basin (northern Vietnam), include highly oil-prone potential source rocks. Mudstone and coal samples were collected and analysed for their content of total organic carbon and total sulphur, and source rock screening data were obtained by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. The organic matter composition in a number of samples was analysed by reflected light microscopy. In addition, two coal samples were subjected to progressive hydrous pyrolysis in order to study their oil generation characteristics, including the compositional evolution in the extracts from the pyrolysed samples. The organic material in the mudstones is mainly composed of fluorescing amorphous organic matter, liptodetrinite and alginite with Botryococcus-morphology (corresponding to Type I kerogen). The mudstones contain up to 19.6 wt.% TOC and Hydrogen Index values range from 436-572 mg HC/g TOC. From a pyrolysis S{sub 2} versus TOC plot it is estimated that about 55% of the mudstones' TOC can be pyrolised into hydrocarbons; the plot also suggests that a minimum content of only 0.5 wt.% TOC is required to saturate the source rock to the expulsion threshold. Humic coals and coaly mudstones have Hydrogen Index values of 318-409 mg HC/g TOC. They are dominated by huminite (Type III kerogen) and generally contain a significant proportion of terrestrial-derived liptodetrinite. Upon artificial maturation by hydrous pyrolysis, the coals generate significant quantities of saturated hydrocarbons, which are probably expelled at or before a maturity corresponding to a vitrinite reflectance of 0.97%R{sub o}. This is earlier than previously indicated from Dong Ho Formation coals with a lower source potential. The composition of a newly discovered oil (well B10-STB-1x) at the NE margin of the Song Hong Basin is consistent with contributions from both source rocks

  4. The geology and coal petrology of a Pleistocene lignite profile at Horemi mine, Megalopolis Basin, Peloponnese (southern Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakorafa, K.; Michailidis, K. [Universita degli Studi di Roma `La Sapienza`, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes the geology, coal petrology and geochemistry of a Pleistocene coal-bearing succession at Horemi mine, Megalopolis Basin (southern Greece). Within a 45-m interval 9 coals seams are exposed, ranging in thickness from 20 cm to 10 m. Reflectance measured on the maceral-type eu-ulminite B range between 0.24 and 0.31% mean R{sub random}. This indicates a coalification stage in the transition zone between peat and lignite rank of the ASTM classification for the Horemi coals. Petrographic studies demonstrated the immature nature of these coals and the low degree of compaction during diagenesis. Compositionally, the Horemi coals are characterized by low amounts (53. vol%) of the inertinite group macerals, moderate amounts (11.9 vol%) of liptinte group macerals and very high amounts (82.8 vol%) of the huminite group macerals (on average and mineral-matter-free basis). Within the latter group densinite, attrinite and ulminite make up the bulk of the samples. Results from proximate and ultimate analysis gave on average 53.7% bed moisture, and 37.3% ash, 45.8% volatiles and 18.1% fixed carbon (d.b.). Calorific value determinations vary between 1805 and 5470 kcal/kg. Mineral matter is high, varying within the range 20.8-51.9 vol%. Identifiable mineral constituents include quartz, anhydrite, illite, feldspars, calcite, gypsum and chlorite, and minor amounts of barite and pyrite. Reflectance obtained from ulminite were found to be negatively correlated with volatile matter, whereas there is a trend for a positive correlation of them with calorific values. The predominance of humodertrinite (attrinite and densinite) macerals type and the low amount of inertinite suggest a formation of the Pleistocene peats in marsh/fen-type swamps in a probably lower delta plain depositional setting. 37 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distribution of sulphur in the Albian coals of the Maestrazgo basin. Distribution del azufre en los carbones albienses de la cuenca del Maestrazgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Chinchon, J.S.; Lopez, A. (Inst. Geol. Jaume Almera, Barcelona (Spain))

    1989-01-01

    Important accumulations of coal took place in the proximal areas of a delta-estuary in the Maestrazgo Basin in Spain during the Middle Albian (Late Lower Cretaceous). Tectosedimentary control of this depositional system was carried out by distensive faults, creating a sedimentary space divided into four principal subbasins. Only two sub-basins (Calanda and Castellote), located in the northern sector of Maestrazgo Basin, contain workable coal deposits. These are dominantly subbituminous coals with high sulfur contents. In the present study inorganic sulfur bearing phases: (a) calcium, iron and magnesium sulfates; (b) iron sulfides (framboidal, euhedral fibrous and massive pyrite, and radial, anhedral and fibrous marcasite) and vertical distribution of sulfur in coal seams from Maestrazgo Basin coal are characterized. Some relations between the iron sulfide contents and the sedimentological features of interlayered sediments are shown; there is a clear tendency to increase iron sulfide content in the roofs of coal seams which are covered by marine influenced sediments. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 plts., 2 tabs.

  6. Czech feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Czech feminist movement was inextricably linked with nationalism. Nationalist ideology recognised the power of women as mothers and their consequent claim to equality within the context of the nation. Having implicitly acknowledged the justice of feminism, nationalists then had to accommodate women's demands. As nationalism changed from a cultural to a political force, feminine patriotism slowly became a feminist movement. These links with nationali...

  7. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  8. SULPHIDE MINERALIZATION IN UPPER WESTPHALIAN COAL SEAMS FROM THE EASTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  9. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  10. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  12. Genesis and rank distribution of Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero, Juan Ramon; Barba, Pedro; Llorens, Teresa [Department of Geology, Salamanca University, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC). Ap. Co, 73. 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez-Suarez, Javier [Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Complutense University, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-03

    The Cantabrian Mountains located in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula constitute the most important coal-mining district of Spain. Anthracitic and bituminous coals (high and medium rank coals) have been mined in the area since the end of the nineteenth century and they currently account for about 70% of the total coal resources of the country. The region forms part of the Cantabrian and West Asturian-Leonese Zones of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt and is strongly deformed by a set of imbricate thrusts, coeval folds and high-angle faults. Coal-bearing successions are Westphalian and Stephanian (Pennsylvanian) in age and are exposed in numerous coalfields of variable size arranged roughly parallel to the tectonic structures. Coal rank varies from medium-rank bituminous D coals (Rr {>=} 0.5%) to high-rank anthracites A coals (Rr < 6.0%). The regional rank distribution can be correlated with the increase in the thermal effect observed from Westphalian to the Stephanian coals, and from the Cantabrian Zone to the West Asturian-Leonese Zone. These rank variations are related to the thermal processes caused by the emplacement of some major faults, and granitoids and mafic rocks in upper crustal levels and the subsequent development of the regional methamorphic contact aureoles. (author)

  13. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A L; Hopkins, W A; Parikh, J H; Jackson, B P; Unrine, J M

    2012-02-01

    Birds attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins may expose their young to contaminants by provisioning them with contaminated food. Diet and tissues of Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscala) nestlings were analyzed for trace elements to determine if nestlings were accumulating elements via dietary exposure and if feather growth limits elemental accumulation in other tissues. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations in ash basin diets were 5× higher than reference diets. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations were elevated in feather, liver, and carcass, but only liver Se concentrations approached levels of concern. Approximately 15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd was sequestered in feathers of older (>5 days) nestlings, whereas only 1% of the total body burden of Sr was sequestered in feathers. Feather concentrations of only three elements (As, Se, and Sr) were correlated with liver concentrations, indicating their value as non-lethal indicators of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Net coal thickness in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1 ft thick for the Cameo/Fairfield coal...

  15. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  16. Limnic Condition In Rheotrhopic Peat Type As the Origin of Petai Coal, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Prayitno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Petrographic coal is the study of organic and inorganic components of bearing coal formation. This study aims to determine the composition, depositional facies, type and stage of the genesis of coal in the area of research. This research method using a diagram approach Diessel, 1986, Calder et al., 1991 to determine the depositional facies and peat ecosystems formation of coal carrier. Microscopic observations using Carl Zeiss Microscope and Point Counter Model F was conducted to determine the micro-organic components of coal. Based on microscopic investigation of the overall sample average abundance maceral vitrinite reached 66.3%, 30.32% mineral matter, maceral liptinite 3:26%, and to absent maceral inertinit no indicates oxidation process that occurs during the decomposition of organic matter. Syngenetic depositional pyrite component type spread sporadically on the surface of the coal seam in the form frambiodal and particulates. Facies deposition of coal based on the calculation of tissue prevetion index versus gelification index show faises limnic while the calculation of ground water index versus vegetation index show atmosphere rheotropic mires (correlation + supported the absence maceral inertinit and funginite, hypothesized water level in stable condition was high watertable during the decomposition process takes place in an atmosphere ph 6-8 and eh balanced. Average rate comparison gelifikasi the preserved tissues of plant cells (tellocolinite is smaller than the 23.6% plant cell tissue is not preserved (desmocollinite amounted to 52.6% indicated from plants of the type herbaceous plant.

  17. Environmental and tectonic influences on the formation and distribution of carbonate nodules above the Springfield coal seam, southern Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillipson, S.E. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Roof Control Division, Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center, P.O. Box 18233, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2005-11-10

    Carbonate nodules have been encountered for many years in the southern Illinois Basin, in parts of southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and southwestern Kentucky. The nodules occur as oblate spheroids of calcium carbonate that are isolated in the shale immediate roof of coal mines. They are common in the Springfield coal seam, known as the No. 5 seam in Illinois, and as the No. 9 seam in western Kentucky. Several different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of various semi-spherical objects in coal measure rocks. The distribution and association with rooted horizons suggest that carbonate nodules in black fossiliferous shale observed in the roof of a studied mine in the Springfield seam represent pedogenic carbonate paleosols, which formed in a caliche-favoring environment subsequent to Springfield mire deposition. This interpretation is supported by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope ratios of 0.710893+/-13 to 0.711035+/-12, which indicate a freshwater rather than seawater source. Petrographic examination of rock textures and mineral grains indicates that nodules collected from two Illinois Basin coal mines are composed of subangular grains of fine-grained, crystalline microspar. Although the carbonate is not ferroan, iron hydroxide stains interstices between microspar grains. The rounded, commonly pinched boundaries of nodules truncate commonly imbricated microspar grains. In contrast, concentric growth patterns are not observed except as defined by secondary, subhedral to euhedral pyrite crystals that form a diffuse, concentric replacement zone around the nodule's outer rind. Polished slickensides, with well-developed radial slickenlines, are developed at highly compacted margins in black shale or mudstone that commonly encases the carbonate nodules. Of the 450 carbonate nodules documented at a study mine in the southern Illinois Basin, the long axes of 36% are preferentially aligned parallel to regional structures such as anticline axes and drag

  18. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  19. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  20. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  1. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A watershed-based spatially-explicit demonstration of an integrated environmental modeling framework for ecosystem services in the Coal River Basin (WV, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Johnston; Mahion C. Barber; Kurt Wolfe; Mike Galvin; Mike Cyterski; Rajbir Parmar; Luis Suarez

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a spatially-explicit regional assessment of current condition of aquatic ecoservices in the Coal River Basin (CRB), with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The integrated modeling framework (IMF) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat suitability for aquatic biota, fish biomasses, population densities, ...

  3. Depositional environments and tectonic controls on the coal-bearing Lower to Middle Jurassic Yan'an Formation, southern Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E.A.; Shu, Liu; Yonglin, Zhang

    1989-01-01

    This nonmarine interior basin developed on the North China-Korean platform following the Late Triassic Indochina orogeny and, for a time, contained a large freshwater lake prior to being uplifted into its present form at the close of the Mesozoic. Because of the tectonic influence on peat accumulation, coal beds thin and merge toward anticlines and thicken and split toward synclines. -from Authors

  4. Possibilities to use collected methane by central degasing system in Lupeni, Paroseni and Livezeni mines in the Jiu Valley Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurca, L.; Lupa, C.

    1998-07-01

    Geological conditions and degassing in Lupeni, Paroseni and Livezeni mines in the Jiu Valley Coal Basin in Romania are described. These mines are equipped with a central degassing installation from Poland. Degassing layouts adopted by these mines are presented. The possibilities of utilisation of methane collected at these mines are addressed. 2 tabs.

  5. Report on information collection and analysis for fundamental survey on coal resource development in fiscal 1998. Survey on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia; 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki hokokusho. Goshu Bowen bonchi sekitan kyokyu potentiality chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia. The main coal beds exist in the order of four beds in the Permian period. The oldest bed is the Reids Dome bed in the Lower Permian period, deposited in the south-west part of the basin. The later wide-area transgression has caused the Back Creek bed groups to deposit, whereas three coal measures have deposited in a concave on the raised basic bed. Later, the ocean has invaded into the entire basin. After having turned into the Upper Permian period, regression had occurred from north to south, where major coal measures such as the Moranbah and German Creek beds had deposited over the entire basin. Further regression has taken place to south, causing three uppermost coal measures to have deposited over the entire basin. In major part of the areas identified currently with existence of coal measures, and even in areas without mines, the mining right or the exploration right has been established, limiting the areas having development potentiality. Five abandoned mining areas exist in the Rangal coal measure, two in the Moranbah coal measure, two in the Reids Dome coal measure, and one in the Baralaba coal measure. There is a possibility of discovering areas developable for a scale of several ten million tons. (NEDO)

  6. Mystification in Czech cinematography and Czech culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA BRZEZIŃSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issue of mystification and hoax in Czech culture. It demonstrates historical aspects of this phenomenon and, basing on the example of various cultural texts, shows that the mystification as a means of artistic expression is deeply rooted in Czech culture. Surrealistic and illogical themes that are characteristic for Czech humour are used by artists, especially filmmakers, in creating successive mystifications. The article examines films such as Oil Gobblers (1988, Year of Devil (2002, Czech Dream (2004, Jara Cimrman Lying, Sleeping (1983, in order to analyse the role of this phenomenon in both films that speak of mystification and the ones that are mystifications themselves.

  7. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  8. Sage-Grouse and Coal-Bed Methane: Can They Coexist within the Powder River Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns are growing regarding the availability of sustainable energy sources due to a rapidly growing human population and a better understanding of climate change. In recent years, the United States has focused much attention on developing domestic energy sources, which include coal-bed methane (CBM). There are vast deposits of the natural gas…

  9. Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

    2005-01-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Preliminary report on methodology for calculating coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ochs, Allan M.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone includes reports on the geology, stratigraphy, quality, and quantity of coal. The calculation of resources is only one aspect of the assessment. Without thorough documentation of the coal resource study and the methods used, the results of our study could be misinterpreted. The task of calculating coal resources included many steps, the use of several commercial software programs, and the incorporation of custom programs. The methods used for calculating coal resources for the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone vary slightly from the methods used in other study areas, and by other workers in the National Coal Resource Assessment. The Wyodak-Anderson coal zone includes up to 10 coal beds in any given location. The net coal thickness of the zone at each data point location was calculated by summing the thickness of all of the coal beds that were greater than 2.5 ft thick. The amount of interburden is not addressed or reported in this coal resource assessment. The amount of overburden reported is the amount of rock above the stratigraphically highest coal bed in the zone. The resource numbers reported do not include coal within mine or lease areas, in areas containing mapped Wyodak-Anderson clinker, or in areas where the coal is extrapolated to be less than 2.5 ft thick. The resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone are reported in Ellis and others (1998). A general description of how the resources were calculated is included in that report. The purpose of this report is to document in more detail some of the parameters and methods used, define our spatial data, compare resources calculated using different grid options and calculation methods, and explain the application of confidence limits to the resource calculation.

  11. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the C, F, K, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Randall

    1998-07-01

    The C-, F-, K-, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P) (C-, F-, K-, and P-CPRBs) waste units are listed as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Units/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) units in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The C-, F-, K-, and P-CPRBS comprise a single operable unit which was remediated under an early removal action during the summer of 1997. Slightly elevated levels of naturally occurring metals and radionuclides in the coal-laden sediments and shallow soils were confined to the 0-1 foot interval below the basin floor. These source materials were identified as low level threat wastes. Under the Removal Site Evaluation Report/Wastewater Closure Plan for the C-, F-, K-, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P) (U) (WSRC 1997b), the coal-laden sediments and shallow soils were removed from each of the four basins during the summer of 1997. At least four feet of clean backfill was placed in each basin to restore the area to the surrounding grade. This removal action completely freed the four CPRBS of the source material for the constituents of concern and the sulfide minerals, which were reducing the pH of the infiltrate. Because the source material has been removed from the CPRBs, releases of hazardous substances will not occur from this operable unit and there is no imminent or substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  14. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  15. Key technology for treating slack coal blockage in CBM recovery: A case study from multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of coal bed, slack coal production is inevitable in gas recovery sby water drainage. When coalbed methane (CBM wells are reentered after low energy exploitation and shut-in, the negative effect of slack coal production on productivity of CBM is irreversible. In this paper, the CBM occurrence characteristics and multi-lateral horizontal well trajectory in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, were analyzed. In the multi-lateral horizontal wells, the expected gas production rate could not be reached and the production rate after shut-in maintenance could not restore to the level before shut-in. The reason for these issues is that migration pathways in the reservoirs are blocked by slack coal deposits, while formation water and slack coal deposit accumulated at the troughs of horizontal sections enlarge the resistance for gas to flow into the bottom hole. Furthermore, three key technologies to deal with slack coal blockage were proposed. Firstly, CBM horizontal well trajectory should follow the principle of keeping the wellbores smooth and updip instead of being “wavy”, on the premise of guaranteeing CBM drilling rate. Secondly, the cavities of production wells, as an important part of multi-lateral horizontal wells, are capable of settling sand, and can be used for gas–liquid–solid separation. And thirdly, a tree-like horizontal well with its main hole set on stable seam top or floor, provides a stable well flushing passage for coal powder. This research provides a useful attempt in solving the problem of slack coal production in gas recovery by water drainage.

  16. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the raton and vermejo formations, raton basin. Topical report, January 1991-June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.H.; Lombardi, T.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Coates, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The coalbed methane resources of the Raton basin were assessed through an analysis of public and proprietary data sources covering stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, coal rank, and gas content data. The total volume of methane contained in Raton and Vermejo Formation coal seams is estimated to range from 8.4 to 12.1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with a mean estimate of 10.2 Tcf. The highest coalbed methane resource concentration occurs in the deep trough around the town of La Veta. The second highest resource concentration occurs southeast of Vermejo Park. Successful development will need to consider favorable coal seam geometry, depth, and reservoir properties in addition to the in-place resource. The study recommends future research of complex parameters affecting coalbed methane producibility in the area.

  17. Peculiarities of distribution of gas-dynamic manifestations in mines of the Kuznetsk coal basin by days of the weekly cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Ludzish, V.S.; Kulakov, G.I.; Rudakov, V.A. [Ecology & Industrial Safety Monitoring Center at Kuznetsk Basin, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-01

    The peculiarities of the origin of gas-dynamic events (rock, coal, and gas outbursts, methane ignition) in the Kuznetsk Basin mines in 1988 - 2004 are analyzed. A review is presented for information on recent accident and injury rate caused by disastrous gas-dynamic manifestations. The effect of bimodal frequency distribution of gas-dynamic events generated by explosion and burning of methane is revealed within a generalized weekly cycle.

  18. Perspectives of coal presence in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic depression basin of the BAM territory and surrounding regions. [USSR]. Perspektivy uglenosnosti mezozoiskikh i kainozoiskikh vpadin territorii BAM i sopredel'nykh raionov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnov, A.G.; Cherepovski, V.F.; Grebennikov, G.A.; Onishuk, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    The Mesozoic and Cenozoic depression basins of the zone of economic utilization of the Baikal-Amurski main route (BAM) contains significant resources of coal and brown coal (125 billion tons) which can supply the territorial-industrial complex (TIG) and the industrial unit (IU) which have been established there with fuel and coke. In the survey the geologic structure of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic coal containing depression basins is described. It is located in the fundamental geologic structural elements of the region: the Siberian platform, the Baikal-Stanovi folded region, the Mongol-Okhotski belt and the Sikhot-Alinski folded system. Formation of coal bearing deposits took place in different paleotectonic conditions that determined the variety of conditions of the occurrence, lithologic composition, thickness and structure of the coal layers, quality and metamorphosis of the coal. The presence of a clear-cut connection between lithologic composition of coal containing deposits, petrographic composition of coal and complexity of the structure of the coal layer is demonstrated. Investigation and utilization of the coal basins and fields of the examined territory are not uniform and on the whole are not high. In the BAM zone the creation of industrial units (TIC) depends on the detection and industrial evaluation of new coal containing areas and coal deposits. Recommendations are presented for conducting geologic prospecting work and scientific investigation in the area. A schematic diagram of the geologic structural division of the BAM territory and surrounding regions and the disposition of coal fields and deposits in it is presented. (9 refs.)

  19. Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

  20. Effects of groundwater recharge rates and nutrient supply on metabolic pathways for coal bed methane generation in the Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, B. L.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Powder River Basin (PRB), located in northeastern Wyoming (USA), is a principle producer of coal bed methane world-wide. The basin contains an extensive natural gas well network, which combined with past studies, facilitates a unique opportunity to study the coupling of hydrology and microbial methane generation. Microbes generate methane via two metabolic pathways, acetate fermentation and carbon dioxide reduction, which can be distinguished using C and H isotopes of CO2, CH4, and H2O, and DNA studies. The relative importance of these pathways is primarily dependent on the bioavailability of organic matter, presence of nutrients, salinity, and microbial community structure. Previous studies by Flores et al. (2008) observed the dominance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in select areas near the basin margins where the coal zones were burned (clinker deposits). Methane generated via CO2 reduction is dominant at depth throughout the basin. We hypothesize that the spatial and depth distribution of CO2 versus acetate -utilizing methanogens in the PRB is related to groundwater recharge rates, residence times, proximity to clinker deposits, and nutrient supply. To test this hypothesis, we collected co-produced groundwaters and natural gas from 32 wells, along two transects across the basin that were parallel to regional hydrologic gradients. Four shallow groundwater samples were also collected from a surface coal mine. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, tritium, and carbon-14 were used to estimate apparent groundwater ages and recharge rates. Variations in ion concentrations (e.g. Cl, SO4, NO3, NO2, NH4, PO4, SO4, acetate) were coupled to age tracers to determine the effects of recharge rates and flowpaths on nutrient transport and cycling, which may in turn affect metabolic pathways for methane generation in organic-rich aquifers.

  1. Spatial distribution and origin of coalbed gases at the working faces of the Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, since the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Zavšek, Simon; Jamnikar, Sergej; Verbovšek, Timotej

    2016-10-01

    Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields) are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2) and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4) tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide-methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than -50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.

  2. Spatial distribution and origin of coalbed gases at the working faces of the Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, since the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanduč Tjaša

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2 and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4 tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide–methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than –50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.

  3. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  4. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

  5. An evaluation of palaeogeography and palaeoecology in the Most Basin (Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany) from the late Oligocene to the early Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, K.; Teodoridis, V.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kvaček, Z.; Suhr, P.; Standke, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2014), s. 13-45 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/1357 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : palaeogeography * geochemistry * floras * Most Basin Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2014

  6. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  7. Czech Republic [2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš; Petrúšek, Ivan; Linek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 69-75 ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12130/full

  8. A Middle Pennsylvanian (Bolsovian) peat-forming forest preserved in situ in volcanic ash of the Whetstone Horizon in the Radnice Basin, Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opluštil, Stanislav; Pšenicka, Josef; Libertín, Milan

    2009-01-01

    the same tuff bed in the adjacent, former opencast Ovcín Mine, it appears that species richness in the forest was comparable to some of the less diverse Westphalian peat-forming swamps in the U.S.A. The Lower Radnice mire vegetation was compositionally homogeneous, but had a heterogeneous distribution...... with patchiness occurring at a very ¿ne scale. The preserved plant assemblage most resembles mires dominated by medullosan pteridosperms and Paralycopodites described from upper Westphalian coal balls in the U.S.A., which were characterised by high diversity in all storeys and involved plants centred in high...

  9. Bioelements and mineral matter in human livers from the highly industrialized region of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska-Preis, Lucyna; Jabłońska, Mariola; Fabiańska, Monika J; Kita, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    Contents of mineral substance, silica, and a range of bioelements and toxic elements (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cr, P Al, Cd, Mn Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, Fe) in 38 livers of donors from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (southern Poland) are presented. Elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with the exception of silica that was estimated colorimetrically. Concentrations, concentration variability, and correlations between selected liver components determined for the total population are related to donor age, gender, and lesion occurrence. Correlations between particular elements were found using correlation coefficient values and the Fisher transformation. Mineral substance in the livers lies in the range 0.40-5.03 wt%. With increasing donor age, mineral-matter content decreases to a minimum for the 40-60 years of age range. Microbioelement contents show a similar tendency, while microbioelements and toxic elements reach maximum contents in donors aged 60-80 years. All elements show content decreases in livers from the oldest group (>80 years). Silica contents increase with age. Variability of element contents is lowest in the older subpopulations. Livers with lesions show lower element contents and variability. The results are compared to literature data for regions of Poland assumed to be of low pollution and to data from comparable regions in Japan and Hungary. Up to our knowledge, this paper is the first work describing the total contents, as distinct from contents of selected elements, of mineral substance in human livers.

  10. Middle miocene badenian transgression: New evidences from the Vrdnik coal basin (Fruška Gora Mt., Northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundić Ljupko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest field investigation of the Vrdnik Coal Basin as well as new data from numerous boreholes enabled the finding of an unconformity between the undivided continental-lacustrine Lower Miocene and the marine Middle Miocene Badenian. The different terrestrial-lacustrine sediments indicate a very mobile and dynamic environment (according to known drilling data, the total thickness of these deposits reaches up to 300 m. All these rocks belong to the Vrdnik series (Vrdnik Formation. The evolution of the Vrdnik series is distinguished by several stages (e.g. pre-lacustrine, lacustrine, peat-swamp, etc.. Each of these phases was proved by their sedimentologic and structural characteristics. On the other hand, among the fossils, only the swamp flora remains (Sequoia, Laurus, Taxodium, Glyptostrobus, etc. and poor and fragmented ostracode valves (Candona sp. were documented. Presently, the exact stratigraphic position of the Vrdnik series is unknown. Discordantly over the mentioned rocks, real marine sediments of the Paratethys Sea occur. To date, it was a completely unknown subsurface distribution of these sediments. Among a few types of rocks that have a small distribution, the so-called the Leitha limestones (Middle Miocene, Badenian have great significance (up to 98% of CaCO3. The total thickness of the limestones reaches up to 70 meters (borehole B-11. The findings of key foraminifer species (Orbulina - Globigerinoides Zone indicate an early Badenian (Moravian transgressive event (ca. 15 Ma. Lithologically, it is represented by gray, sandy marls and sandy clays, coarse-grained sands and microconglomerates in the base of the mentioned limestones (boreholes B-11, B-15, B-19, and B-21 with a total thickness of up to 15 meters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176015

  11. Organic geochemistry and petrology of subsurface Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox and Claiborne Group coal beds, Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Hook, Robert W.; Alimi, Hossein; Mastalerz, Maria; Swanson, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Coal samples from a coalbed methane exploration well in northern Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, were characterized through an integrated analytical program. The well was drilled in February, 2006 and shut in after coal core desorption indicated negligible gas content. Cuttings samples from two levels in the Eocene Claiborne Group were evaluated by way of petrographic techniques and Rock–Eval pyrolysis. Core samples from the Paleocene–Eocene Indio Formation (Wilcox Group) were characterized via proximate–ultimate analysis in addition to petrography and pyrolysis. Two Indio Formation coal samples were selected for detailed evaluation via gas chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Samples are subbituminous rank as determined from multiple thermal maturity parameters. Elevated rank (relative to similar age coal beds elsewhere in the Gulf Coast Basin) in the study area is interpreted to be a result of stratigraphic and/or structural thickening related to Laramide compression and construction of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the southwest. Vitrinite reflectance data, along with extant data, suggest the presence of an erosional unconformity or change in regional heat flow between the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections and erosion of up to >5 km over the Cretaceous. The presence of liptinite-rich coals in the Claiborne at the well site may indicate moderately persistent or recurring coal-forming paleoenvironments, interpreted as perennially submerged peat in shallow ephemeral lakes with herbaceous and/or flotant vegetation. However, significant continuity of individual Eocene coal beds in the subsurface is not suggested. Indio Formation coal samples contain abundant telovitrinite interpreted to be preserved from arborescent, above-ground woody vegetation that developed during the middle portion of mire development in forested swamps. Other petrographic criteria suggest enhanced biological, chemical and physical

  12. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  13. Data preparation for digital modelling of the coal seams in the South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (Czech part of the Vienna Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Honěk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution data preparation for digital modelling and assessing the Kyjov Seam (Pannonian, zone B of the Vienna Basinstratigraphy and the Dubňany Seam (Pannonian, zone F is presented. The seams occur partly as unit seam and partly as seam splitin up to four benches. Almost 3000 holes were drilled in the area in the last 50 years. Data about lithological logs, laboratory resultsand other measurements were gathered, uniformed, and stored in digital database. Input data for modelling, which were the thicknessand average values of analytical parameters in set thickness in each data point (drill hole, were derived from the primary data storedin database by designed software. The thickness was defined in five ways in each drill hole. Firstly as the geological thickness to modelnatural geometry of the seam and secondly as deposit thickness to model only part of the seam with required quality. Deposit thicknesswas defined in four variants according to limit parameter of maximal average ash content value of 50, 40, 35, and 30 % in the seamin borehole.

  14. Area of coal-bearing Mesaverde Formation and Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin assessment area, Colorado (psmvbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...

  15. Parameters determining the carbon isotopic composition of coal and fossil wood in the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Petrographical and geochemical data of gelified and ungelified fossil wood from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite seam (Styrian Basin, Austria) provide evidence that the early diagenetic, aerobic degradation of wood by fungi may be followed by further decomposition under reducing conditions by the activity of anaerobic bacteria. Based on the molecular compositions of terpenoid hydrocarbons, the wood fragments in the lignite are identified as gymnosperms. The mean carbon isotope values found for gymnosperms and coals (-24.2 parts per thousand and -24.7 parts per thousand, respectively) confirm the results from biomarker analyses indicating that the peat-forming vegetation of the Oberdorf seam was dominated by gymnosperm taxa. The results obtained from the Early Miocene Oberdorf lignite indicate that the carbon isotope ratios of the coals are primarily affected by varying contributions of different parts of whole-plant tissue, due to their different isotopic and molecular compositions (e.g. epicuticular leaf waxes, resins, wood) and their different decay-resistance against the early diagenetic changes involved in organic matter decomposition. Carbon cycling during anoxic decomposition of plant-derived organic matter is assumed to affect the {delta}-{sup 13}C values of coal. {delta}-{sup 13}C Values of wood and extracted cellulose are affected only to a minor extent.

  16. Palynofacies patterns of the Highveld coal deposits (Karoo Basin, South Africa: Clues to reconstruction of palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The early Permian represents a crucial period of climate change in Gondwana. This climate signature is captured in the palynological record that represents the floral assemblage of the region. Palynofacies analysis of the No. 2 Coal Seam of the Highveld Coalfield provides a high-resolution picture of this climatic shift, as well as detailing the vegetation patterns and local environments. Core samples taken from two localities were studied with respect to the characteristics of the plant debris and the palynomorph assemblages to differentiate between regional and local signatures. At both of the sampling localities, the No. 2 Coal Seam is split into a Lower Coal Seam and an Upper Coal Seam by a siltstone and a sandstone intraseam parting, respectively. The uneven palaeotopography and distal depositional environment of the Highveld Coalfield distinguish it from the northern Witbank Coalfield as a river-dominated delta plain, with differences in the palaeoenvironment at each locality. Results from the Lower Coal Seam indicate a fern-dominated lowland and conifer-dominated upland. This gives way to a Glossopteris-dominated lowland and a diverse gymnospermous assemblage in the upland of the Upper Coal Seam. This change in floral composition is also observed in the adjacent Witbank Coalfield and is likely caused by climate amelioration related to the movement of Gondwana away from the South Pole.

  17. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  18. [Czech bariatry in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalický, M; Barinka, A; Beno, P; Cernl, S; Cierny, M; Dostalík, J; Holéczy, P; Hroch, T; Hrubý, M; Karnos, V; Michalský, D; Pacholík, K; Rejholec, J; Svoboda, L; Tvarůzek, J; Verner, T; Volsanský, P; Vraný, M

    2011-05-01

    It is only during the past two decades, when obesity has become to be considered a pandemic disorder. However, in 1953 Varco performed jejunoileal bypass as the world's first bariatric surgical procedure. 30 years later, Pesková performed the first bariatric surgery--a gastroplasty--in Czechoslovakia. From 1984 she started to perform fixed gastric bandages, through laparotomic app- roach at that time. The first laparoscopic fixed bandage in Czechoslovakia was performed in 1993. Over the years, the number of surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity, as well as the number of bariatric surgeons, continued to increase. In 2004, Czech Bariatric Section of the Czech Surgical Society and the Czech Society of Obesitology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyne, were established. 170 bariatric surgeries were performed in the Czech Republic in 1999. The majority of procedures included fixed gastric bandage, rarely, adjustable bandage was performed. At that time, bariatric procedures were performed at five sites only. However, over the past 10 years, bariatric surgery has largely developed in the Czech Republic. The exact number of bariatric procedures completed per year was unknown, therefore, 21 surgical clinics, at which bariatric procedures are performed, were contacted from January to June 2010. Heads of the clinics were asked to provide basic data on surgical treatment of obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the situation in bariatric surgery in the Czech Republic at the end of 2009. A total of 18 clinics (85.8%) joined the study and provided their own statistical data. 14 of them perform over 20 bariatric procedures a year. The analysis data showed that, in 2009, a total of 1558 bariatric procedures were completed at 18 surgical clinics and approximately 1600 procedures were performed in the whole Czech Republic. However, out of the total, over 230 patients were foreigners. In 99% of bariatric procedures in morbid obese subjects, laparoscopic

  19. Organic geochemistry and coal petrology of Tertiary brown coal in the Zhoujing mine, Baise Basin, South China; 3. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-G.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Shashi City (China). Petroleum Geochemistry Unit)

    1991-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the Tertiary brown coal from Zhoujing mine have been characterized in detail. They are composed mainly of aromatic sesqui-, di-, sester- and triterpenoid hydrocarbons, with retene and simonellite as the predominant species. Secondary in abundance are mono- to pentaaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons, derived from oleanane, ursane and lupane precursors, indicators of terrestrial sources. Minor species present are a tetraaromatic norhopane, undecyltoluene and perylene and most of the regular polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are found at trace levels only. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-04-23

    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.

  1. The experimental modeling of gas percolation mechanisms in a coal-measure tight sandstone reservoir: A case study on the coal-measure tight sandstone gas in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone gas from coal-measure source rock is widespread in China, and it is represented by the Xujiahe Formation of the Sichuan Basin and the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. It is affected by planar evaporative hydrocarbon expulsion of coal-measure source rock and the gentle structural background; hydrodynamics and buoyancy play a limited role in the gas migration-accumulation in tight sandstone. Under the conditions of low permeability and speed, non-Darcy flow is quite apparent, it gives rise to gas-water mixed gas zone. In the gas displacing water experiment, the shape of percolation flow curve is mainly influenced by core permeability. The lower the permeability, the higher the starting pressure gradient as well as the more evident the non-Darcy phenomenon will be. In the gas displacing water experiment of tight sandstone, the maximum gas saturation of the core is generally less than 50% (ranging from 30% to 40% and averaging at 38%; it is similar to the actual gas saturation of the gas zone in the subsurface core. The gas saturation and permeability of the core have a logarithm correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.8915. In the single-phase flow of tight sandstone gas, low-velocity non-Darcy percolation is apparent; the initial flow velocity (Vd exists due to the slippage effect of gas flow. The shape of percolation flow curve of a single-phase gas is primarily controlled by core permeability and confining pressure; the lower the permeability or the higher the confining pressure, the higher the starting pressure (0.02–0.08 MPa/cm, whereas, the higher the quasi-initial flow speed, the longer the nonlinear section and the more obvious the non-Darcy flow will be. The tight sandstone gas seepage mechanism study shows that the lower the reservoir permeability, the higher the starting pressure and the slower the flow velocity will be, this results in the low efficiency of natural gas migration and accumulation as well as

  2. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  3. Site Characterization for CO2 Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter E. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Carlson, Eric [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Goodliffe, Andrew [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven D. [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Thompson, Mason [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for

  4. On information-provided monitoring of geodynamic processes in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in the conditions of highly intensive sub-soil usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Tanaino, A.S. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

    2006-09-15

    It is shown that formation of underground hollows of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin (Kuzbass), induced by opencut and underground mining has reached an intensity of 1.3-1.5 million m{sup 3}/day. In the conditions of high concentration of mines and open-cuts in small areas, a regional monitoring network is required in view of a generated geomechanical space, hazardous in geodynamic manifestations. A developed information support of this network is presented, including information models of a geological environment and database obtained from instrumental observations on geomechanical processes. The equations of connection between structural and strength characteristics of rocks, their metamorphization grade and occurrence depth are given for five geological-tectonic zones of the Kuzbass as a way of prediction of their properties.

  5. Czech Contribution to Athena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the recent status of the Czech contribution to the ESA Athena space mission, with emphasis on the development of new technologies and test samples of X-ray mirrors with precise surfaces, based on new materials, and their applications in space. In addition, alternative X-ray optical arrangements are investigated, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez systems.

  6. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  7. Fuelling car production with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, U. [FAM Foerderanlagen, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    FAM Foerderanlagen Magdeburg Group was commissioned by SKO-Energo Fin s.r.o. to supply, erect and commission a complete coaling plant with stockyard for the latter's thermal power station, to be built on the premises of the Skoda works at Mlada Boleslav in the Czech Republic. Coal from rail wagons is unloaded into an underground bunker and is moved from the stockpile with chain and inclined conveyors into a processing building for screening, crushing and blending, using an FAM PHM 1214 MRVD impact hammer. From the processing plant coal is conveyed to the coal bunker of the power plant which has two boilers with circulating atmospheric fluidized beds. The coaling plant is controlled from an independent coaling control room. It achieves low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, Co and dust. 4 figs.

  8. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming....

  9. Mine and lease boundaries in the Green River Basin, Wyoming, 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (grbleasg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of mine & lease boundaries in the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield in the Greater Green River Basin,...

  10. An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

  11. Inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radenovic [University of Zagreb, Sisak (Croatia). Faculty of Metallurgy

    2006-07-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More than one hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been found in coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates), minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the order of w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprised in coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases. Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A variety of analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode of occurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumental methods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is the one most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that have influence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion. Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuously and widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is a conflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution on the other. It's known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, can be: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mikoláš; Jiří Varady; Jaroslav Bažant; František Žoček

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB) and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the pas...

  14. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. Hydrogeology of the Erunakovo region of the Kuznetsk Basin in the context of coal methane formation and mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsev, S.L.; Khryukin, V.T.; Domrocheva, E.V.; Kuzevanov, K.I.; Rasskazov, N.M.; Popova, T.S.; Lepokurova, O.E.; Shvachko, E.V. [RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Detailed study was given to the hydrogeology of the coal methane-promising Erunakovo region. We have established that all aquifers there are mutually related and form a single aquifer complex consisting of a series of microbeds of different water transmissivities and permeabilities. Two zones have been recognized in the Erunakovo region - of intense and slow water exchange (fresh- and brackish-water, respectively). Fresh waters with mineralization of up to 1 g/l and pH = 7 - 8 occur at depths down to about 300 m or, seldom, 500 m. Brackish waters have mineralization of 1 - 13 g/l and pH reaching 10.1. The higher mineralization is due to the higher contents of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and Na and, sometimes, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, produced through sulfide oxidation, and Cl{sup -}, concentrated as a result of evaporation. In the study region, CO{sub 2} is not of mantle genesis but is the product of coal metamorphism.

  17. Detecting the effects of coal mining, acid rain, and natural gas extraction in Appalachian basin streams in Pennsylvania (USA) through analysis of barium and sulfate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xianzeng; Wendt, Anna; Li, Zhenhui; Agarwal, Amal; Xue, Lingzhou; Gonzales, Matthew; Brantley, Susan L

    2017-10-13

    To understand how extraction of different energy sources impacts water resources requires assessment of how water chemistry has changed in comparison with the background values of pristine streams. With such understanding, we can develop better water quality standards and ecological interpretations. However, determination of pristine background chemistry is difficult in areas with heavy human impact. To learn to do this, we compiled a master dataset of sulfate and barium concentrations ([SO4], [Ba]) in Pennsylvania (PA, USA) streams from publically available sources. These elements were chosen because they can represent contamination related to oil/gas and coal, respectively. We applied changepoint analysis (i.e., likelihood ratio test) to identify pristine streams, which we defined as streams with a low variability in concentrations as measured over years. From these pristine streams, we estimated the baseline concentrations for major bedrock types in PA. Overall, we found that 48,471 data values are available for [SO4] from 1904 to 2014 and 3243 data for [Ba] from 1963 to 2014. Statewide [SO4] baseline was estimated to be 15.8 ± 9.6 mg/L, but values range from 12.4 to 26.7 mg/L for different bedrock types. The statewide [Ba] baseline is 27.7 ± 10.6 µg/L and values range from 25.8 to 38.7 µg/L. Results show that most increases in [SO4] from the baseline occurred in areas with intensive coal mining activities, confirming previous studies. Sulfate inputs from acid rain were also documented. Slight increases in [Ba] since 2007 and higher [Ba] in areas with higher densities of gas wells when compared to other areas could document impacts from shale gas development, the prevalence of basin brines, or decreases in acid rain and its coupled effects on [Ba] related to barite solubility. The largest impacts on PA stream [Ba] and [SO4] are related to releases from coal mining or burning rather than oil and gas development.

  18. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  19. Specificity of Czech Economic Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Haberle, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the economic transformation in Czech Republic in 1990-1997 with accent on difference between transformation process in Czech Republic and other transition countries. Theoretical part is based on the description of the model of centrally planned economy and transformation theory. Practical part discuss macroeconomy a microeconomy measures of economic transformation.

  20. Basin-wide groundwater vulnerability assessment: a GIS based DRASTIC approach to the problem of coal seam gas extracted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Navi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal seam gas (CSG production requires the extraction of large volumes of water. Discharges of the extracted water into the environment occur via authorised temporary permits or through accidental releases. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk to shallow groundwater aquifers from potential CSG water releases in Queensland, Australia. A GIS based methodology was used to identify vulnerable shallow aquifers by overlaying a series of risk factors, which increase the likelihood of flow from the ground surface into aquifers below. We identified where the vulnerable aquifers are located and estimate that about 10,000 people live in these areas. The GIS based exposure mapping approach applied here provides a useful ‘first-pass’ assessment of areas with CSG activity. Areas identified as potentially high risk should be prioritised for further detailed investigation.

  1. Analytical investigation of lignite and its ash samples taken from the Afsin-Elbistan coal basin in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukonder, Adnan; Paksoy, Emine; Biber, Seyma [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Durdu, Burhanettin Goeker [Kilis 7 Aralik Univ., Kilis (Turkey). Opticianry Program; Baskaya, H.; Dogru, Mahmut [Bitlis Eren Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2014-04-15

    Lignite, taken from basin in Afsin-Elbistan region, and ash samples were analyzed according to the qualitative, quantitative and radioactivity properties. An elemental analysis was made by using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. 59.5 keV photons emitted from a {sup 241}Am source and 5.9 keV photons emitted from a {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation. The characteristic K X-rays of the elements were counted with a Si(Li) detector. For the same samples gross alpha, gross beta and radionuclide activities were also measured. (orig.)

  2. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  3. Assessment of Mine Water Quality Using Heavy Metal Pollution Index in a Coal Mining Area of Damodar River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Gurdeep; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar

    2017-07-01

    A total no. of 16 mine water (underground and opencast coal mine pump discharges) samples were collected from East Bokaro coalfield during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cd and Cr were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the assessment of spatio-temporal variations, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution indexing. The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the pre-monsoon season. The principle component analysis for ionic source identification was synthesized into three factors with eigen values cut off at greater than unity and explained about 64.8% of the total variance. The extracted factors seemed to be associated to the geogenic, extensive mining and allied transportation sources of the elements. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of the mine water calculated for the individual locations varied from 7.1 to 49.5. Most of the locations fall under low to medium classes of HPI except few locations which are under the influence of surface mining and associated transportation.

  4. Geology and fuel resources of the southern part of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Part 1, The coal field from Gallup eastward toward Mount Taylor, with a measured section of pre-Dakota(?) rocks near Navajo Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Julian D.

    1934-01-01

    The report describes the geology and coal deposits of the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin, N.Mex. The field lies northeast of the town of Gallup, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, and is an irregular tract of about 630 square miles in central and west-central McKinley County; it includes the southeast corner of the Navajo Indian Reservation. Settlement is confined to the white families at a few trading posts and the Indian agency at Crown Point and to scattered Navajo Indians. The land forms, drainage, vegetation, and climate are those typical of the highland in the semiarid Southwest.The investigation disclosed complicated relations of the Mancos shale and the Mesaverde formation, of Upper Cretaceous age, and a marked variation in the stratigraphic boundary between them. At the western edge of the field, as in the adjoining Gallup coal district, the Mancos consists of about 725 feet of marine shale almost wholly of Benton (lower Colorado) age. It is overlain by about 1,800 feet of chiefly estuarine and fluviatile deposits that represent the lower part of the Mesaverde formation. In ascending order the Mesaverde here consists of the Gallup sandstone member (which includes local lenses of valuable coal), the Dilco coal member, the Bartlett barren member, the Gibson coal member, and the Allison barren member. Eastward through the field the outcrops extend obliquely across the trend of old shore lines out into the ancient basin of marine deposition, and some of the beds consequently show a progressive lateral change into rocks of littoral and marine types. The Gallup sandstone member is in part replaced by marine shale of the Mancos. The upper part of the Dilco coal member is replaced by the Dalton sandstone member, and still farther east the bottom of the Dalton and the top of the remaining Dilco are replaced by the Mulatto tongue of the Mancos shale. The Bartlett barren member becomes coal-bearing and thus merges with the Gibson. The Gibson coal

  5. Czech children's literature reception in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Starc, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...

  6. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  7. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain

    2017-03-01

    The coal-bearing sequences of Barakar and Raniganj formations exposed in Bina and Jhingurdah open-cast collieries, respectively, are analysed for their macro- and miofloral content. The sediment successions primarily comprise of sandstones, shales, claystones and coal seams. In addition to the diverse glossopterid assemblage, four palynoassemblage zones, namely Zones I and II in Bina Colliery and Zones III and IV in Jhingurdah Colliery, have also been recorded in the present study. The megafossil assemblage from the Barakar strata of Bina Colliery comprises of three genera, namely Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and cf. Noeggerathiopsis. Palynoassemblage-I is characterised by the dominance of non-striate bisaccate pollen genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate Faunipollenites and infers these strata to be of Early Permian (Artinskian) age (Lower Barakar Formation). The palynoassemblage has also yielded a large number of naked fossil spore tetrads, which is the first record of spore tetrads from any Artinskian strata in the world and has a significant bearing on the climatic conditions. The palynoassemblage-II is characterised with the dominance of Faunipollenites over Scheuringipollenites and is indicative of Kungurian age (Upper Barakar Formation). The megafossil assemblage from the Raniganj Formation of Jhingurdah Colliery comprises of five genera with 26 species representing four orders, viz., Equisetales, Cordaitales, Cycadales and Glossopteridales. The order Glossopteridales is highly diversified with 23 taxa and the genus Glossopteris, with 22 species, dominates the flora. The mioflora of this colliery is represented by two distinct palynoassemblages. The palynoassemblage-III is correlatable with the palynoflora of Early Permian (Artinskian) Lower Barakar Formation. The assemblage suggests the continuity of older biozones into the younger ones. The palynoassemblage-IV equates the beds with composition V: Striatopodocarpites

  8. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  9. CUMHURİYET DÖNEMİ’NDE EREĞLİ KÖMÜR HAVZASI (1920-1940 (REPUBLICAN IN PERIOD EREĞLİ COAL BASIN (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KARA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available National Government and Republican Administration has paid special attention to economics and done important works in the economic sphere in the country. The establishment of Ministry of Economics, Law for the Encouragement of Industry, making of Workers Law, organizing of İzmir Economy Congress, opening of Is Bank and Etibank are the most significant works done by the Republican Administration. As a result of all those works, Coal Production has increased in Ereğli Coal Basin and this also has led to economic development in the country. First of all, Private Sector has been encouraged, but because of the difficult war conditions, the state has tried to develop the economic conditions of the country by interfering the economy. In this way, The "principle of Etatisme" of Ataturk has been put into practice. With the belief economic development could only be realized by means of domestic capital and local entrepreneurs, local companies has been supported and Etibank and Ereğli Coal Basin has been nationalized and obtained significant gains in the name of the country.

  10. Paleo-environments, paleo-climates and sequences of Westphalian deposits of Lorraine coal basin (upper carboniferous, NE France); Paleoenvironnements, paleoclimats et sequences des depots westphaliens du Bassin houiller lorrain (carbonifere superieur, NE France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izart, A.; Fleck, St.; Michels, R. [Nancy Univ. Henri Poincare,UMR 7566, Geologie des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, 54 -Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Palain, Ch.; Malartre, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie, UMR 7566, Geologie et Gestion des Ressources Minerales et Energetiques, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2005-07-01

    Facies and sequences of the Westphalian C are identified in cores and well logs of three boreholes and three seismic lines supplied by Conoco-Phillips from the Lorraine coal Basin. The litho-facies associations suggest various paleo-environments and sequences during the Westphalian C. Decametric-thick sedimentary bodies display alluvial fan deposits in the northwestern border of the basin (Chaumont borehole). Decametric sedimentary bodies constituted either of conglomeratic and sandy facies with cylindrical shape in well logs represent braided river deposits, or alternations of fining and coarsening upward sequences with sandy, silty and clayey facies with bell and funnel shapes in well log correspond to meander river and lacustrine deltaic deposits in the Saulcy and Lorettes boreholes. Three fining upward third order sequences in the center of the basin in the Lorettes and Saulcy boreholes represent a period 1 with braided river deposits, a period 2 with flood plain, lake and meandering river deposits and a period 3 with anastomosed or meandering river deposits. Period 1 is correlated with a subsidence period in the basin and uplift of the borders, period 2 with the maximum fresh water flooding period with flood plain or lake deposits and period 3 with the filling period. The seismic profiles of Conoco-Phillips confirm the tectonic structures described by previous authors in Lorraine Basin. We agree that this basin was a strike-slip basin as demonstrated by previous authors with depocenters near the South Hunsruck and Metz faults from the Westphalian to the Permian. Bio-markers show that paleo-climate changes (wet/dry) of weak amplitude in the equatorial climate could also modify the sedimentation of this basin and act on sequences of second order. (authors)

  11. Astronomy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Hadrava, Petr

    -, č. 128 (2007), s. 3-3 ISSN 0722-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomy * astropohysics * Czech republic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and

  13. Overview of the potential and identified petroleum source rocks of the Appalachian basin, eastern United States: Chapter G.13 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Brown, Stephen; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the oldest and longest producing commercially viable petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Source rocks for reservoirs within the basin are located throughout the entire stratigraphic succession and extend geographically over much of the foreland basin and fold-and-thrust belt that make up the Appalachian basin. Major source rock intervals occur in Ordovician, Devonian, and Pennsylvanian strata with minor source rock intervals present in Cambrian, Silurian, and Mississippian strata.

  14. Czech Delegation visiting the LHC magnet string test

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    List of participants: Czech Technical University, Prague; Charles University, Prague; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and Association of Innovation Enterprising, Czech Republic

  15. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  16. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  17. Trace and minor elements in coal and methods of their investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Páchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis is to provide an overview of the minor and trace elements in coal matter and to characterize their origin, distribution and effect on quality of coal in term of its industrial utilization, including potential environmental impacts. The thesis describes main methods currently used when investigating coal geochemistry and mineralogy. The thesis includes overview of the distribution of these elements in the major coal deposits of the Czech Republic.

  18. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  19. Quantum GIS plugin for Czech cadastral data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kratochvílová, Anna; Petráš, Václav

    2012-01-01

    .... QGIS is written in C++, and uses the Qt library. The plugin is developed in C++, too. The new plugin can work with Czech cadastral data in the new Czech cadastral exchange data format called VFK...

  20. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  1. Mining adjacent inclined coal seams of varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    In the Donbass coal basin a large number of thin coal seams located near other thicker coal seams are left. It is suggested that coal output from the Donbass could be increased by 100% and cost of mining could be lowered by 0.4-1.1 roubles per 1 ton of coal if thinner coal seams were also mined. Mining methods in the Donbass are analyzed from the point of view of reducing the cost of mining and increasing coal production. Recommendations on methods of mining thin inclined coal seams are given. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. Coal geology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. All aspects of coal geology are covered in one volume, bridgint the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry...

  3. Household measures for river flood risk reduction in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, B.; Vikhrov, Dmytro; Kelman, I.; Stojanov, R.; Juřička, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 253-266 ISSN 1753-318X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : Becva river basin * Czech Republic * flood damage Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  4. An evaluation of processing InSAR Sentinel-1A/B data for correlation of mining subsidence with mining induced tremors in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Radar Interferometry is one of the common methods that allow to measure the land subsidence caused by the underground black coal excavation. The interferometry images processed from the repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR systems give the spatial image of the terrain subjected to the surface subsidence over mining areas. Until now, the InSAR methods using data from the SAR Systems like ERS-1/ERS-2 and Envisat-1 were limited to a repeat-pass cycle of 35-day only. Recently, the ESA launched Sentinel-1A and 1B, and together they can provide the InSAR coverage in a 6-day repeat cycle. The studied area was the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland, where the underground coal mining causes continuous subsidence of terrain surface and mining tremors (mine-induced seismicity. The main problem was with overlapping the subsidence caused by the mining exploitation with the epicentre tremors. Based on the Sentinel SAR images, research was done in regard to the correlation between the short term ground subsidence range border and the mine-induced seismicity epicentres localisation.

  5. An evaluation of processing InSAR Sentinel-1A/B data for correlation of mining subsidence with mining induced tremors in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Artur; Grzybek, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The Satellite Radar Interferometry is one of the common methods that allow to measure the land subsidence caused by the underground black coal excavation. The interferometry images processed from the repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems give the spatial image of the terrain subjected to the surface subsidence over mining areas. Until now, the InSAR methods using data from the SAR Systems like ERS-1/ERS-2 and Envisat-1 were limited to a repeat-pass cycle of 35-day only. Recently, the ESA launched Sentinel-1A and 1B, and together they can provide the InSAR coverage in a 6-day repeat cycle. The studied area was the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland, where the underground coal mining causes continuous subsidence of terrain surface and mining tremors (mine-induced seismicity). The main problem was with overlapping the subsidence caused by the mining exploitation with the epicentre tremors. Based on the Sentinel SAR images, research was done in regard to the correlation between the short term ground subsidence range border and the mine-induced seismicity epicentres localisation.

  6. Radioactive elements in Paleozoic coals of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Volostnov, A.V.; Varlachev, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    The geochemistry of radioactive elements was examined in the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Tunguska, and Gorlovo Paleozoic coal basins in Siberia. Quantitative analytical techniques (INAA, delayed neutron analysis, and XRF) were used to study 2600 samples of coals and their host rocks. The average U and Th concentrations in the coals are 2 and 3 ppm, respectively. The lateral and vertical variability of the distribution of radioactive elements was examined on the scale of coal basins, deposits, and individual coal seams. It was determined that elevated U and Th concentrations in coals are often related to rock blocks enriched in radioactive elements in the surroundings of the basins or are correlated with volcanic activity during coal accumulation. High concentrations of these elements in coal seams are restricted to zones near the tops of the seams and the soil zones, the boundaries of partings, or to beds enriched in pyroclastic material. Using the f-radiography method, it was determined that the main mechanism of U accumulation in coals is its sorption on the organic matter. Thorium is contained in both the mineral and the organic constituents of coals. An increase in the ash contents of coals with clarke radioactivity is associated with an increase in the contents of U and Th in the mineral matter.

  7. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  8. The Corpus of Czech Verse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecháč, Petr; Kolár, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 107-118 ISSN 2346-6901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech poetry * versification * corpus linguistics * theory of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  9. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  10. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  11. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  12. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hiding Neoliberal coal behind the Indian poor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talukdar, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    The opening up of extensive coal reserves in Central Queensland's Galilee Basin for mining and export has been strongly criticised for environmental and social reasons that will be felt for generations to come...

  14. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  15. Czech-German relationships in relation to the anthroponymy of the Czech lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jana Pleskalová

    2015-01-01

    A diachronic analysis of Czech-German relationships in relation to the anthroponymy of the Czech lands has revealed that the most significant effect of the contact can be seen in the domain of personal names...

  16. Sea-level changes vs. organic productivity as controls on Early and Middle Devonian bioevents: Facies- and gamma-ray based sequence-stratigraphic correlation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábek, Ondřej; Faměra, Martin; Šimíček, Daniel; Weinerová, Hedvika; Hladil, Jindřich; Kalvoda, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    The Devonian marine stratigraphic record is characterized by a number of bioevents - overturns in pelagic and benthic faunal assemblages, which are associated with distinct changes in lithology. The coincidence of lithologic and biotic changes can be explained by the causal link between biotic evolution, carbonate production and relative sea-level changes. To gain insight into the sea-level history of Early and Middle Devonian bioevents (the Lochkovian/Pragian Event, Basal Zlíchovian E., Daleje E., and Choteč E.) we carried out a sequence-stratigraphic analysis of carbonate-dominated successions in the Prague Basin (peri-Gondwana), a classic area of Devonian bioevents. The study is based on a basin-wide correlation of facies and field gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) logs from 18 sections (Lochkovian to Eifelian), supported by element geochemistry and published biostratigraphic and carbon isotope data. Devonian carbonate deposition in the Prague Basin alternated between two end-member modes: an oligotrophic, homoclinal ramp (Praha and Daleje-Třebotov Formations) and a mesotrophic, distally steepened ramp (Lochkov, Zlíchov, and Choteč Formations). They show contrasting facies, particularly the absence/presence of gravity-flow deposits, allochem composition, U/Th ratios, and geochemical composition (productivity proxies such as P/Al, Si/Al, Zn/Al, TOC and stable carbon isotopes). The mesotrophic systems reflect an increased availability of nutrients on the shelf during the late Lochkovian, early Emsian (Zlíchovian), and Eifelian periods when sea surface temperature, pCO2, and silicate weathering rates were higher. The oligotrophic systems deposited during the Pragian-to-earliest Emsian and late Emsian (Dalejan) periods reflect reversed palaeoclimatic trends. We identified three depositional sequences (DS), DS1 (base of Pragian to early Emsian); DS2 (early Emsian to mid Emsian); and DS3 (mid Emsian to mid Eifelian). These sequences were integrated into a peri

  17. Innovations and czech retail business

    OpenAIRE

    Pecho, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe current trends in global retail, the current state of retail in Czech Republic and possible need of bringing innovation to the outburst of Millennials generation economic activity. Introduction is devoted to theoretical description of retail and its meaning. As part of the thesis, there is a significant part containing relations within the worldwide retail and also its current trends and development. Furthermore, part of the thesis is devoted to the devel...

  18. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  19. [Why do Czechs seldom cite the works of other Czech scientists? Does a "national character" exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízek, G O

    2008-01-01

    The author is an American psychiatrist of Czech origin, who has lived abroad since 1966, primarily in the USA. This contribution presents his viewpoint regarding several articles in Journal of Czech Physicians No. 1., 2008. The point of discussion is the purported lack of representation of Czech authors among authors cited by Czech doctors in articles which appear in domestic and also international medical journals.

  20. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaček Michal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article surveys the current experience with the use of benchmarking at Czech universities specializing in economics and management. The results indicate that collaborative benchmarking is not used on this level today, but most actors show some interest in its introduction. The expression of the need for it and the importance of benchmarking as a very suitable performance-management tool in less developed countries are the impetus for the second part of our article. Based on an analysis of the current situation and existing needs in the Czech Republic, as well as on a comparison with international experience, recommendations for public policy are made, which lie in the design of a model of a collaborative benchmarking for Czech economics and management in higher-education programs. Because the fully complex model cannot be implemented immediately – which is also confirmed by structured interviews with academics who have practical experience with benchmarking –, the final model is designed as a multi-stage model. This approach helps eliminate major barriers to the implementation of benchmarking.

  1. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  2. Storage of N{sub 2}, He and CH{sub 4} in coal: Study and application in a practical case in the central Asturian coal basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro Garcia, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, C/ Julian Claveria s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alvarez Fernandez, M.I.; Gonzalez Nicieza, C. [Department of Mining Engineering, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Alvarez Vigil, A.E. [Department of Mathematics, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Lopez Gayarre, F. [Department of Construction and Manufacture Engineering, Engineering School of Gijon, Campus de Viesques, 33201 Asturias (Spain)

    2010-01-07

    The behaviour of different gases (He, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) in coal was analyzed using a device for treating raw coal, designed for taking samples in the mine. This device was subsequently used to transport the samples and inject them with the gases under study. Experiments were conducted under different pressures, and a clear relationship was found between the drop in pressure and the occupation of different storage levels. On analysing the pressure evolution it was found that helium rapidly stabilised due to the characteristics of this gas. As for the other gases, N{sub 2} showed a percentage fall much lower than that of CH{sub 4}. In order to compare the storage capacity of different materials with respect to these gases, experiments were performed with different materials which form the mine's ceiling and walls. It was shown that the fall in pressure is very inferior. A fitting equation relating the evolution of pressure with time is proposed which may be used to define the time needed for the gas to stabilize in the coal. A normalized equation, very similar to that proposed by Langmuir, is likewise obtained to characterize the adsorption and desorption processes. (author)

  3. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  4. Evolution of Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) peat swamps of the Ruhr Basin, Germany: Comparison of palynological, coal petrographical and organic geochemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, de-Greiff-Strasse 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the reconstruction of the environment during peat swamp development. Eight coal and sedimentary organic rock bearing seam successions were examined all belonging to the Duckmantian (Pennsylvanian, Late Carboniferous). 410 samples were analysed with coal petrographical methods, 155 of these also by palynological methods. In addition, on 55 samples organic geochemical investigations were carried out with respect to n-alkanes and iso-alkanes. The established coal petrographical parameters gelification index (GI), tissue preservation index (TPI), groundwater index (GWI) and vegetation index (VI) were used to characterize different periods of peat swamp development. Furthermore, the new index WCI (= Water Cover Index) was introduced to reflect water level conditions by using the ratio between hydrophilous/hygrophilous and mesophilous plants. In this study the index is based on palynological data but can be equally applied when quantitative macrofloral counts are available. GI versus TPI values show two general trends of peat swamp evolution: low GI and TPI values as indicator for drier swamp conditions like ombrogenous mires and high GI and TPI values which show a trend to water covered environments like topogenous mires. In addition, ash yields and GWI versus VI data also emphasize a general trend from topogenous to ombrogenous mires. A decrease in water level towards the top of the seams and thus resulting in the development of domed mires is reflected by the newly introduced WCI. Hence, these parameters show recurrent peat swamp successions, characterized by mineral- and vitrinite-rich coals, typical for topogenous swamps and an evolution towards inertinite/liptinite-rich coals with low ash yield, typical for ombrogenous swamps. n-alkane ratios like the carbon preference index (CPI), pristane/n-C{sub 17}, phytane/n-C{sub 18}, pristane/phytane and the n-C{sub 17}/n-C{sub 27} relationship indicate a strong correlation of these parameters with

  5. The World Coal Quality Inventory: South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Alex W.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Bragg, Linda J.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary-Introduction: The concepts of a global environment and economy are strongly and irrevocably linked to global energy issues. Worldwide coal production and international coal trade are projected to increase during the next several decades in an international energy mix that is still strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Therefore, worldwide coal use will play an increasingly visible role in global environmental, economic, and energy forums. Policy makers require information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding domestic coal resource allocation, import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy objectives, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. The development of a worldwide, reliable, coal quality database would help ensure the most economically and environmentally efficient global use of coal. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with many agencies and scientists from the world's coal producing countries, originally undertook a project to obtain representative samples of coal from most of the world's producing coal provinces during a limited period of time (roughly 1998-2005), which is called the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). The multitude of producing coal mines, coal occurrences, or limited accessibility to sites in some countries can preclude collecting more than a single sample from a mine. In some areas, a single sample may represent an entire coal mining region or basin. Despite these limitations in sampling and uneven distribution of sample collection, the analytical results can still provide a general overview of world coal quality. The USGS intends to present the WoCQI data in reports and, when possible, in Geographic Information System (GIS) products that cover important coal bearing and producing regions.

  6. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  7. The Czech National Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.; Křenková, I.; Mulač, M.; Ruda, M.; Sitera, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Czech National Grid Infrastructure is operated by MetaCentrum, a CESNET department responsible for coordinating and managing activities related to distributed computing. CESNET as the Czech National Research and Education Network (NREN) provides many e-infrastructure services, which are used by 94% of the scientific and research community in the Czech Republic. Computing and storage resources owned by different organizations are connected by fast enough network to provide transparent access to all resources. We describe in more detail the computing infrastructure, which is based on several different technologies and covers grid, cloud and map-reduce environment. While the largest part of CPUs is still accessible via distributed torque servers, providing environment for long batch jobs, part of infrastructure is available via standard EGI tools in EGI, subset of NGI resources is provided into EGI FedCloud environment with cloud interface and there is also Hadoop cluster provided by the same e-infrastructure.A broad spectrum of computing servers is offered; users can choose from standard 2 CPU servers to large SMP machines with up to 6 TB of RAM or servers with GPU cards. Different groups have different priorities on various resources, resource owners can even have an exclusive access. The software is distributed via AFS. Storage servers offering up to tens of terabytes of disk space to individual users are connected via NFS4 on top of GPFS and access to long term HSM storage with peta-byte capacity is also provided. Overview of available resources and recent statistics of usage will be given.

  8. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  9. Czech Comparative Education in the Bipolar World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterova, Eliska

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the influence of official government policy on Czech comparative education, by tracing changes in its ideological and geopolitical orientation, as well as attempts by the Czech education community to sustain a balance in international orientation toward notions of democracy and human progress. The period of the cold war…

  10. AN OUTLINE OF CZECH NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CZECH NOMINALS, WHICH CONSIST OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVE, NUMERALS AND PRONOUNS, ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS PREPRINT. THE PAPER DISCUSSED EACH CATEGORY SEPARATELY, DIVIDING IT INTO SUBCLASSES, AND PROVIDES ILLUSTRATIONS IN CZECH. IN THE PARADIGMS, SEPARATE FORMS FOR THE VOCATIVE ARE GIVEN FOR MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS…

  11. Business Model for Czech Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poláková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Business modelling facilitates the understanding of value creation logic in organizations in general. Identifying the components of business models based on different criteria helps understanding the fundamentals of business and the position of entrepreneurs and managers in companies. The present research is focused on the definition of a specific business model for the Czech agribusiness sector. Based on the theoretical background and evaluation of selected business models, the aim is to create a new business model, using components which take into account the specifics of this particular industry.

  12. Eugene Onegin in Czech translations

    OpenAIRE

    Rubáš, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    The paper covers five complete Czech translations of Pushkin's Eugene Onegin by Václav Čeněk Bendl, Václav Alois Jung, Josef Hora, Olga Mašková and Milan Dvořák. Translation quality assessment is based on the question of how each rendering reflects semantic complexities of the original. Analysis of each translation involves the significant phonetic, imaginative, ideational and structural features of Pushkin's novel in verse. Often a particular rendering is contrasted with another one to demon...

  13. AL – Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Coal Waste Hazard Characterization

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Coal from the Warrior Coal Fields in Alabama, which include portions of the Cahaba River Basin, has been recognized as having some of the highest metal and trace...

  14. Simulations at Czech poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the possible scenarios of the development of the poultry market in the Czech Republic, in view of the trends in production, consumption and foreign trade. The individual scenarios are based upon the forecasts of selected factors that have a substantial impact on the poultry market and whose changes can be expected in the subsequent years with great likelihood. The article sets out and addresses various scenarios for the period of 2012–2014. The scenarios are based upon the partial equilibrium model of the poultry market, which has been derived on the basis of time series and panel data within the years 1995–2009. The conducted analysis clearly shows that changes in the prices of agricultural producers will have an effect on changes in the production of poultry meat, an increase in VAT through consumer prices will impact the rate of domestic consumption, as well as changes in disposable income. Similarly, a change in the exchange rate will have an effect on the amount of poultry imported into the Czech Republic.

  15. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  16. Deep-coal-bed methane potential of the San Juan River coal region, southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S.; Goolsby, S.M.; Tremain, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The deepest, highest ranking and probably gassiest coals in the San Juan River coal region of southwestern Colorado are found in the 100 mile (mi) wide San Juan Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. The thickest and most continuous coal beds in the basin are found in the Cretaceous Fruitland Formation. Logs from 231 petroleum exploration drill holes were used to produce the following: a Fruitland Formation isopach, a Pictured Cliffs structure map, Fruitland Formation net coal and net sand isopachs, and Fruitland coal percentage and sand percentage maps. Of the 231 holes, 8 produced natural gas from sandstones in coal bearing zones, 5 were production tested in mixed sandstone and coal intervals (one well had an initial production of 1.6 MMCFGPD), and 5 were drill stem tested in coal bearing zones (one flowed 1 MMCFG in 35 min). The authors calculate 19.7 billion tons of coal are present in the study area. The coals are ranked high-volatile B (hvB) and high-volatile A (hvA) with local upgrading to medium-volatile (mv). Comparing gas contents of Cretaceous Raton Mesa coals to San Juan Basin coals, a gas potential ranging from 72 cubic feet/ton (cu ft/ton) to 514 cu ft/ton exists. The authors estimate a gas resource in the study area ranging from 1.4 to 10.0 trillion cubic feet. The data indicates that gas is present in the coals of the study area. This gas has been produced from sandstones adjacent to the coals and possibly from the coals themselves. Therefore, it might pay to test the Fruitland coals encountered while drilling for deeper targets. With the right economic factors and development of completion techniques for coal bed methane, this gas resource may prove to be important. Data gained from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings, desorption of cuttings, and desorption of conventional cores continue to support the existing evidence that coal bed gas is being generated and trapped in the deeper portion of the San Juan Basin.

  17. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a simplified provisional correlation chart that was compiled from both published and unpublished data in order to fill a need to visualize the currently accepted stratigraphic relations between Appalachian basin formations, coal beds and coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions of Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Appalachian basin coal beds and coal zones were deposited in a variety of geologic settings throughout the Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian and Pennsylvanian formations were defined on the presence or absence of economic coal beds and coarse-grained sandstones that often are local or regionally discontinuous. The correlation chart illustrates how stratigraphic units (especially coal beds and coal zones) and their boundaries can differ between States and regions.

  18. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  19. Return to the catagenesis assessment of the sedimentary stratum in the Timan‑Pechora oil and gas basin by means of coal petrographical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pronina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Timan-Pechora basin still has a large importance and as a potential region for the hydrocarbons mining in Russia. At present, new facts are emerging from oil and gas exploration. The authors studied more than 50 samples from 11 wells. Most samples in this series were related to the Middle-Late-Frasnian sediments (Late Devonian, which are allocated in «domanic» horizon. Organic macerals of the studed samples are represented both by fragments of humic macerals and sapropelic OM (formed from algal material. The common organic macerals in Timan-Pechora basin are bituminites. They were met in all samples without exception and provide total content of OM,% in the rock. Bituminites are regularly distributed among mineral matter and color the rock in gray or more dark colors. Bituminite was used to determine the reflectance index (RB,% that later was converted into the corresponding equivalent of vitrinite reflectance index (RVeq,%. This is particularly important as authors’ information was used together with the results of earlier studies. ID-modeling has been made in the program PetroMod (2015.1 Schlumberger and helped to understand evolution in Timan-Pechora basin and maturity degree of rocks. The concept of the model was coordinated with the main evolution stages of the northeast European Platform and the foredeep Ural trough. The thicknesses of catagenesis zones and position of boundaries between them are indicators of thermal regime in the analyzed regions. The heat flow used in the modelling was one and the same for most tectonic regions (except foredeep Ural trough and Khoreiverskaja depression. According to the classification of the sedimentary basins by P. Robert (1985, 5 regions belong to regions with a normal or slightly hypothermal geothermal regime (heat flow 45-65 mV/m2 and foredeep Ural trough with heat flow up to 74 mV/m2 is a region with a high hyperthermal regime.

  20. Quantum GIS plugin for Czech cadastral data

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kratochvílová; Václav Petráš

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new Quantum GIS plugin for Czech cadastral data and its development. QGIS is a rapidly developing cross-platform desktop Geographic Information System (GIS) released under the GNU GPL. QGIS is written in C++, and uses the Qt library. The plugin is developed in C++, too. The new plugin can work with Czech cadastral data in the new Czech cadastral exchange data format called VFK (or NVF). Data are accessed through VFK driver of the OGR library. The plugin should facilitate t...

  1. European and Czech principles of contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Balážová, Júlia

    2008-01-01

    8 Summary European and Czech Principles of Contract Law This thesis is focused on principles of contract law. In the first instance, it explains the theoretical conception of principles of law and adverts to their status in the Czech legal system. The second Chapter of the thesis dissertates about basic principles of the Czech private law starting with the principle of freedom of contract, ends with the principles of good faith and fair dealing. The main part of the thesis deals with the Euro...

  2. UKRAINIAN LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim STRIELKOWSKI; Hryshova, Inna Yuriivna

    2017-01-01

    Our paper sheds the new light on the existence of structural channels in pushing Ukrainian  migration along occupational lines to the Czech Republic. We argue that the integration of the Czech and Ukrainian construction sectors has generated international „channels‟ that enhance the process of labour migration from Ukraine to the Czech Republic. Our novel analysis is based on a unique dataset obtained via questionnaire surveys in Zakarpat‟ye region of Ukraine and multivariate models linking p...

  3. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  4. In search of a Silurian total petroleum system in the Appalachian basin of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: Chapter G.11 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Lentz, Erika E.; Avary, K. Lee; Harper, John A.; Kappel, William M.; Rea, Ronald G.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas fields in Silurian carbonate and sandstone reservoirs in the Appalachian basin probably originated from one or more of the following source rocks: (1) Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, (2) Middle to Upper Devonian black shale, and (3) Lower to Upper Silurian shale and carbonate units. In this reconnaissance study, selected Silurian shale and carbonate rocks in the subsurface of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and Rock-Eval parameters to evaluate whether or not a Silurian total petroleum system exists in the Appalachian basin. A total of 308 samples were collected and analyzed for this investigation. Dark-gray to black shale and argillaceous carbonate intervals in the Salina Group (and equivalent units), Cabot Head Shale, Rochester Shale, Rose Hill Formation, Lockport Dolomite (or Group), and McKenzie Limestone (or Member) were prioritized for sampling and analysis.

  5. First report of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica parasitising a fish host in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvach Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of western tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris from the River Dyje (Czech Republic, Danube basin for metazoan parasites revealed the presence of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica Mühling, 1896 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae in both muscle tissue and the peritoneal cavity. This is the first time that tubenose gobies have been reported as an intermediate host for C. prussica, and the first time that C. prussica metacercariae have been registered parasitising fish hosts in the Czech Republic. Here, we describe the morphology of metacercariae and five-day preadults, cultivated in vitro, and discuss the importance of recently established, non-native species as suitable hosts for this parasite.

  6. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  7. Psychology Publication Issues in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEF ŠVANCARA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current situation and the view of psychology publication policy in Czech Republic. The presentation provided a platform for discussion. It summarized sixth-century progress in the development of scientific language. The current publication situation in Psychology in the Czech Republic was described. The present article reports on the journals: Czechoslovak Psychology (Prague in comparison with the journal Studia psychologica (Bratislava, about their impact factors and citation indexes; Psychology in Economical Practice; E-Psychologie; Psychology Today; two proceedings: Annales Psychologici (Brno and Varia psychologica (Olomouc; News of the Czech-Moravian Psychological Society. In the Czech Republic, there seems to be a wish for the enlargement of the publication policy tailored to European perspectives; this is the challenge.

  8. English in the Czech Republic: Linguists’ perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaderka, Petr; Prošek, Martin

    -, č. 28 (2014), s. 173-198 ISSN 0933-1883 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language situation * English as a global language * attitudes towards English * national language institution * sociolinguistics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  9. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  10. Export opportunities for Czech companies in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otta, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the theses is to analyze economic cooperation of Czech republic and Canada. There is a particular information about Canadian economical and political setting as well as local business environment. The theses places emphasis on how to help Czech exporters trading with Canada, and gives complete overview of opportunities for export, entrance to the market and helps to understand local business customs.

  11. The metamorphosis of the Czech animation industry

    OpenAIRE

    Joschko, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    The overthrow of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in 1989 led to an extensive transformation of many industries, including Czech cinematography and its famous animation sector. The aim of this research is to investigate how the development of Czech animation was impacted by the major post-1989 changes in production technology, political censorship and the economic transformation of animation studios. Although animation studies have begun to attract scholarly interest as a valid area o...

  12. Online Buying Behaviour In The Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pilík, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the Internet and its impact on online shopping behaviour of customers in the Czech Republic. A large part of Czech population has already shopped online. Customers view it as a quick and convenient shopping where they can save money. But what are the other factors that influence their shopping behaviour? This paper tries to find the answer to this question. Each customer is an individual therefore models of customer behaviour often cannot be generalized, particularly not ...

  13. Liquidity of Czech and Slovak commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Vodová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasized, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to evaluate comprehensively the liquidity positions of Czech and Slovak commercial banks via different liquidity ratios in the period of 2001–2010 and to find out whether the strategy for liquidity management differs by the size of the bank. We used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2001 to 2010 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech and Slovak banks. The sample includes significant part of Czech and Slovak banking sector (not only by the number of banks, but also by their share on total banking assets. We have calculated five different liquidity ratios for each bank in the sample. The results showed that liquidity of Czech banks has declined during last ten years. On the contrary, liquidity of Slovak banks fluctuated only slightly during the period 2001–2008. Bank liquidity has fallen due to the financial crisis in both countries; the impact is worse for Slovak banks. Both Czech and Slovak banks have become less liquid also as a result of increase in lending activity. Czech and Slovak banks have the same strategies how to insure against liquidity crises: big banks rely on the interbank market or on a liquidity assistance of the Lender of Last Resort, small and medium sized banks hold buffer of liquid assets.

  14. Market Power in the Czech Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řepková Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the market power in the Czech banking sector during the period 2000 2010. In order to measure the degree of market power in the Czech banking sector, the authors used the Lerner index, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index and the concentration ratio. The Lerner index is applied to data from 15 banks, which covers about 90% of the Czech banking market. The paper describes the theoretical framework of the competition, especially the Lerner index and measures of concentration. Authors also compute separate Lerner index for the Czech credit market and the Czech deposit market. The estimations of the Lerner index do not confirm either monopoly or perfect competition structure in the Czech banking sector over the period analyzed. The competition decreased in the period 2000-2005 which was affected by the decrease in the price of funds and capital. However, the competition increased in the period 2005-2010, and it was influenced by the increase in the price of funds and capital. From the value obtained from the Lerner index, it was found that the lowest competition was in the deposit market.

  15. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  16. Index map of cross sections through parts of the Appalachian basin (Kentucky, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia): Chapter E.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cross sections and three seismic profiles of regional extent through the subsurface of the Appalachian basin are presented in chapter E of this volume (fig. 1). These cross sections and seismic profiles are subdivided into four groups: (1) five restored cross sections through Cambrian and Ordovician rocks, (2) three restored cross sections through Lower and Upper (part) Silurian rocks, (3) two geologic (structural) cross sections through the entire preserved section of Paleozoic rocks, and (4) three seismic profiles through the entire preserved section of Paleozoic rocks.

  17. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  18. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Anna; Bukowska, Mirosława

    2015-03-01

    The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the susceptibility

  19. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  20. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Organic food market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Živělová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution provides partial results of the research focused on organic food, a product from organic farming. The total area of ecologically farmed areas in the Czech Republic permanently increases, however the offer of organic food is insufficient, in particular in view of their structure. Deficiency in organic food is being solved by imports. Distributors play an important role in the organic food market. In the Czech Republic the largest share from them is occupied by retail chains. Their share continues to grow to the detriment of other sales channels. One of the main factors affecting consumers’ interest in organic food is its price. The comparison of organic food prices and prices of conventional food in the selected retail chains, Globus Czech Republic, limited partnership, SPAR Czech business company Pte., Tesco Stores CZ JSC, AHOLD Czech Republic JSC, BILLA Pte., and in organic food and healthy nutrition stores showed significantly higher prices. The smallest difference in prices can be monitored in the milk and milk products. On the contrary, the largest difference is in fruits, vegetables, eggs and jams. However, the consumers’ awareness of organic food quality is at the same time increasing and the consumers are willing to pay for them a higher price.

  2. Basin-scale geology and hydrogeology of coalbed methane bearing strata in Rocky Mountain sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Regional-scale information is provided on various geological and hydrogeological conditions in sedimentary basins in Canada and the United States, with particular attention to the Alberta Basin. The Alberta Basin contains abundant coal resources, particularly in the Upper-Cretaceous-Tertiary succession of the Rocky Mountain foreland. Estimates of coalbed methane resources in the Alberta Basin are 300 to 540 Tcf. The hydrogeology of the coal-bearing strata and the effect of ground water flow on coalbed methane migration, accumulation, and producibility of coalbed methane is reviewed. 53 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Variations in concentrations and compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coals related to the coal rank and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, S; Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Achten, C; Sachsenhofer, R F; Schwarzbauer, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-10-01

    The release of unburnt coal particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause adverse impacts on the environment. This study assessed variations in the concentration and composition of PAHs in a set of fifty coal samples from eleven coal basins worldwide. The maximum PAH concentrations at high volatile bituminous rank were recorded in samples from a single basin. Considering the entire sample set, the highest PAH concentrations were in fact found outside of this rank range, suggesting that the maceral composition and thus the coal's origin also influenced PAH concentrations. The examination of the PAH compositions revealed that alkylated 2-3 ring PAHs remain dominant compounds irrespective of coal rank or origin. Multivariate analysis based on PAH and maceral content, bulk and maturity parameters allowed the recognition of seven groups with different rank and origin within the coal sample set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal reserves of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and principal lines of their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Golovin; M.I. Bychev; T.V. Moskalenko; G.I. Petrova; V.A. Mikheev [FGUP Institute for Fossil Fuels, Science-and-Technology Center for Integrated Processing of Solid Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has the largest reserves of lignites and coals in the Far East owing to three coal basins - Southern Yakutia, Lena, and Zyryanskii - in the republican territory and the eastern part of the Tunguska basin. Main deposits, their resources, clay type composition, and lines of use are discussed.

  5. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the. Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ...

  6. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  7. Flotoflocculation of coal by the application of Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecko, P.; Zelingerova, I.; Drobik, M. [Mining University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The papers deals with applications of flotoflocculation by yeast Rhodotorula glutinis on the samples of coal of the Frantisek pit in the Czech Republic. It was found from mineralogy analysis that these coal are of very good quality. In the paper two technologies are compared: classical flotation and flotoflocculation by yeast Rhodotorula glutinis. From the results it follows that flotoflocculation gives concentrates of better yield of good quality concentrate. And the combined technology consisting of one basic and one cleaning flotation gives saleable concentrates with ash contents under 7%. The best results were with application of Montanol as a collector. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Effects on prolific petroleum source rocks and major coal deposits caused by sea-level changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B.

    1979-02-08

    This paper compares global cycles of sea-level changes with the times at which coal and oil reserves were formed. Most important coal occurrences were formed in coastal or paralic basins. The age of major coal deposits is frequently correlated with periods of worldwide regression of the sea.

  9. Quantum GIS plugin for Czech cadastral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kratochvílová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Quantum GIS plugin for Czech cadastral data and its development. QGIS is a rapidly developing cross-platform desktop Geographic Information System (GIS released under the GNU GPL. QGIS is written in C++, and uses the Qt library. The plugin is developed in C++, too. The new plugin can work with Czech cadastral data in the new Czech cadastral exchange data format called VFK (or NVF. Data are accessed through VFK driver of the OGR library. The plugin should facilitate the work with cadastral data by easy search and presenting well arranged information. Information is displayed in the way similar to web applications, thus the control is friendly and familiar for users. The plugin supports interaction with map using QGIS functionality and it is able to export various cadastral reports. This paper provides ideas which can be generalized to develop QGIS plugin dealing with specific data.

  10. Highly qualified in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Čuhlová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the current situation of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic applying the ISCO qualification. Previous studies suggest that educational attainment has an important impact on labour market performance and national competitiveness. Data analyses approved that highly qualified workforce positively influences economic situation of the EU–15 Member States they work in. However, this hypothesis was disapproved for the EU–10+3 Member States joining the EU after 2004. The difference can be explained by the various stage in convergence process since some New Member States are still in transformation period. We positively appraise the significant growth of fraction of the highly qualified in the Czech Republic since 2004, especially in the major group Professionals involving the most qualified workforce. The same trend happened also for the highly qualified foreigners in the Czech Republic, however their attracting still remains a challenge.

  11. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  12. Family Enterprise in Czech Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades the family business enterprises of the first generation (generation of founders are more and more dominating in the category of today’s small and medium–sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The necessary legal background defining the legal relationships and rights of all participating persons was, however, limited to general provisions in the Commercial Code that has not solved many of the problems associated thereto. Only in 2012 the new Czech Civil Code, Act. No 89/2012 Coll., introduced the institute of family enterprise as completely new term in the Czech Civil law. The presented paper aims to analyse the key rules of this new legal regulation, focusing on significant aspects of the institute in the context of commercial law and family law, as well as, to highlight the potential weaknesses and gaps existing in the regulation.

  13. Czech young generation activities in nuclear training and education framework in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejkova, J.; Foral, S.; Varmuza, J.; Katovsky, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Czech Republic has a long tradition in nuclear power production. One third of Czech electricity production is generated in two nuclear power plants, Dukovany and Temelin, totaling six power reactors. There are also three non-power, research reactors: two zero power reactors for education and research support, and one material testing reactor (MTR) used mainly for radioisotopes production. One of zero power reactors is employed by the Czech Technical University in Prague for education and research purposes, other zero power reactor and MTR are situated at nuclear research complex in Rez. (Author)

  14. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  15. Sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected East Africa.

  16. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

  17. The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the socialist system at the beginning of the 1990s, the health situation in the Czech Republic has improved more rapidly than in other CEE countries. Mortality from circulatory diseases decreased significantly at higher ages. The recent decline in mortality is likely to be attributable to technical progress in medical treatment and less affected by the change in lifestyle. While the use of cardiovascular drugs and the number of operations of invasive heart-surgery considerably improved, smoking and alcohol consumption have somewhat augmented at the same time. The recent favourable turnover has currently brought the Czech Republic a little closer to the European average.

  18. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  19. The Gunnedah Basin - memoir of a last frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, N.Z. [NSW Department of Mineral Resources, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The Gunnedah Basin was one of a few sedimentary basins in New South Wales, Australia, which remained unexplored until recently. Results from recent explorations are discussed under the following headings: tectonics and structure; sedimentology and basin analysis; stratigraphy; resources (coal, and petroleum and gas); and documentation. 6 figs.

  20. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  1. Runoff changes in Czech headwater regions after deforestation induced by acid rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtele, J.; Buchtelova, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Koskova, R.

    2003-04-01

    Tendencies in water regime resulting from land-use change represent an important subject for research and in the region of so called Black Triangle at the borders of Czech Republic, Germany and Poland urgent practical problem. Namely extensive deforestation in Czech hilly basins induced by acid rains, which appeared in seventies and eighties, requires attention. Discussions among professionals and public, sometimes having emotional character, took place after large floods on the rivers Odra and Morava in 1997 and in Vltava and Elbe river basins in August 2002. The influence of deforestation induced by acid rains in the Central Europe has been considered as important contribution to disastrous character of floods. Simulations of rainfall-runoff process in several catchments and experimental basins in two distinct headwater regions along German borders, with different extent of deforestation have been carried out using daily time series up to 40 years long. The outputs of two hydrological models of different structure have been compared in these investigations: - the conceptual model SAC-SMA - Sacramento soil moisture accounting - physically based 1- D model BROOK´90 The differences between observed and simulated discharge, which could show the tendencies in the runoff have been followed. They indicate increase of runoff after deforestation.

  2. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  3. Foreign Controlled Companies in the Czech Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drahomíra Dubská

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes infl ux of foreign direct investment into the Czech Republic from the territorial point of view and partly from the perspective of receiving branches. However, it is primarily focused on impacts of this infl ux, i.e. creation of an institutional sub-sector of foreign controlled companies. They operate mainlyin the sector of non-fi nancial corporations and dominate in sector of fi nancial institutions in the Czech Republic. This analysis is concentrated on the weight of foreign controlled companies on the performance and income characteristics of these two sectors and Czech economy as a whole, as well. Development of output, intermediate consumption and gross value added is used for non-financial foreign controlled companies as the performance characteristics and then profi ts and paid-out wages as the income characteristics. Problem oftaxes paid by these companies to the state budget is mentioned and development of their investment in fixed assets, as well. Financial foreign controlled companies are viewed in terms of their proportion of total assets, loans and deposits, capital and reserves and capital adequacy ratio. Finally, impact of foreign direct investment on employment and gross value added in branches of economy is analyzed and double-tracking in industry is identified. Conclusion summarizes benefits and negative effects of the foreign controlled companies in the Czech Republic within their existing presence in 1995–2009.

  4. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  5. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  6. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  7. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  8. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Lower Gondwana coals of India - paleobotany, petrology and genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navale, G.K.B.

    1984-01-01

    The beginning of coal formation in the Lower Gondwana in India coincided, more or less, with the waning of the Late Palaeozoic Ice Age. Geological and palaeobotanical evidence suggest that temperate conditions existing at the time in Peninsular India were responsible for the develoment of a special flora dominated by Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and allied groups. Transformations in the vegetal material during diagenesis and categenesis, as inferred from biopetrological and rank investigations, reveal that the coal seams of the Karharbari Formation (basal portion of Lower Gondwana coals) experienced high oxidation resulting in excessive fusinization, probably due to rapid sedimentation, shallow basin condition and extensive microbiological action. It has also been surmized that the geothermal gradient during Lower Gondwana sedimentation was low throughout and that the coal seams attained only low rank. However, in the Damodar and Satpura Gondwana basins, where igneous intrusions occurred during the later phase of Lower Gondwana sedimentation, the rank of coal seams increased abnormally. 14 refs.

  12. Microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  13. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  14. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  16. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  17. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  18. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeš Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  19. Transparency of Shareholders in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Šedová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recodification of commercial and civil law in the Czech Republic has resulted in a new concept for the legislation relating to securities. Significant changes have also been made to the legislation covering shares. The new legislation concerns not only the actual form of shares, but also their circulation. The aim of this article is to highlight the most important changes in the legislation relating to bearer shares, especially bearer shares in paper form, and to assess these changes from the viewpoint of their impact on the transparency of joint stock companies and uncontrolled circulation of shares. This assessment will be based on an appraisal of the importance of bearer shares for capital business in the Czech Republic and the effects the new legislation is expected to bring about. The article will also consider possible alternatives in the behavior of shareholders (investors who prefer to remain anonymous.

  20. POPULATION STUDIES OF CZECH HUCUL HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vostrá Vydrová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Population studies were carried out analysis Czech Hucul breed based on pedigree information of animals registered in the Studbook. Pedigree records collected from the year 1834 to 2013 comprised information on 9455 animals used in the analyses. The pedigree depth of the analysed individuals was up to 19 generations. The mean value of inbreeding coefficient was 5.35% (with maximum value 30%. The proportion of inbreed animals was high (98%. The average rate of inbreeding in the reference population was lower than 1%, and the respective estimates of effective population sizes were 54. The presented paper is indicating that genetic diversity in the Czech Hucul breeds is still relatively high and conservation programs should be continued.

  1. Rate of Failure of Czech Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Family business is becoming a promising area of research in post-socialist countries, including the Czech Republic. Stability belongs to frequently cited properties of family firms. The goal of this article is to test the hypothesis whether family firms tend to have a lower rate of failure than their non-family counterparts. Using a sample of 1148 family and 5972 non-family firms in the Czech Republic, we find that there is no significant relationship between family involvement and rate of failure. A possible greater stability of family businesses is not necessarily linked with a lower rate of bankruptcy. We also discuss possible reasons and policy implications.

  2. Punning Wordplay in Czech Advertising Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Sládková

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This account of punning wordplay in Czech advertising discourse draws on the recent popularity of pun and the research, for which the theory of lexical priming provides lexico-grammatical framework. The corpus-based evidence of combinatorial behaviour of linguistic features, and the processes behind reinterpretations and sense selections aid an analysis of the reasons why many pun attempts failed to achieve the desired effect, and at the same time explain which features are successful in generating amusement in Czech puns. The processes of relexicalisation and reworking were observed in a considerable number of instances in older and more recent advertising puns, the sources of ambiguity identified, and puns were compared, contrasted and classified. At the same time a shift from reliance on one ambiguous feature to employing multiple psycholinguistic phenomena and their combinations has been identified.

  3. [Palliative care in Czech Republic in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Ondřej; Kabelka, Ladislav; Loučka, Martin

    In the Czech Republic more than 70,000 patients with chronic incurable diseases need palliative care each year. In 50,000 this need is manageable in the context of general palliative care, 20,000 patients would greatly benefited from specialized palliative care. Most chronically ill patients (> 60 %) died in acute or post acute inpatient health care facilities. Here s the availability and quality of palliative care varies substantially. Inpatient hospices provide end of life palliative care to less than 3000 patients each year. Outpatient and mobile specialized palliative care services are available only to a few hundreds of patients.In the year 2016 palliative care at the appropriate professional level ("state of art") is not a generally available and guaranteed within Czech health care and social system. We perceive an urgent need for the systematic development of general and specialized palliative care at the level of education, healthcare organization and the development of new health and social services.

  4. Customer Loyalty Measurement at Czech Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vykydal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available All organizations certified against the ISO 9001 requirements must also measure customer satisfaction. But customer loyalty represents quality management system maturity on higher level of objectivity. An purpose of the article is bring set of information on current state analysis of customer loyalty measurement at Czech companies. Principal methodology of this analysis was special field survey and our research too. Results of special research performed through focus groups, based on risk analysis in the field of quality management principles implementation, are presented there as a part of findings. The another important findings show that customer loyalty measurement is mostly underestimated or ignored at Czech organizations. Main reasons of such state are also described. As well as: the first proposal of original methodology how to measure three fundamental types of customer loyalty - advocasy, purchasing and retention loyalty is also included to this article.

  5. Integrating ICT into teaching czech language

    OpenAIRE

    Bušová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation thesis is to describe the necessary conditions and possibilities of integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) into teaching Czech language and literature. Modern information and communication technologies are part of daily life of students and teachers. As especially teachers are involved into implementation of ICT into the education process, this thesis is focused on the issue from teachers point of view. The theoretical part of the thesis int...

  6. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  7. Costing methods utilization in Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Popesko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the research of the different types of product costing methods utilization in Czech enterprises performed in the years of 2004, 2007 and 2009. Results of individual surveys are compared, in order to prove the expected tendencies of higher usage of modern costing methods such as Activity-Based Costing, in recent years. First part of the paper refers to previous studies of the enterprise cost structure presented by other authors and illustrates the most import...

  8. The Evidence Base of Czech Health Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Klusáček; Marie Klusáčková

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence base of health policy in the Czech Republic. It focuses on articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. It builds on a quantitative analysis of articles published between 2005 and 2010 in scholarly journals in the fields of social science, management and administration, public health and other relevant fields. The main finding is that almost half of the 161 articles with potential use for health policy were published in a single journal, Zdravotn...

  9. Floods and migration in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, R.; Kelman, I.; Duží, B. (Barbora)

    2015-01-01

    Residents’ strategies are generally aimed at either protection from or adaptation to flooding. Large-scale migration from the floodplains of rivers has not been seriously considered, even in high-risk zones. The Czech Republic is of particular interest in the European context due to several recent flooding disasters which were national emergencies, including in 1997, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2013. Weather extremes and climate variability are not the sole causes of floods in Central Europe. Ot...

  10. Fairtrade tea on the Czech market

    OpenAIRE

    RYSOVÁ, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is describe the situation of fairtrade products on the Czech market and define production standards for tea small producers and traders. In theoretical part there are described basic information about tea, system of fair trade and fair trade tea. Practical part is focused on consumer buying behaviour of fair trade tea and exploration of offered assortment of fair trade products in retail chains.

  11. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  12. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  13. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN CZECH HAFLINGER HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Vostrý

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger as a small moutain horse breed originated from the South Tyrol district as a cross of Alpen Mountain breeds with Araber. This breed was expanding to Czech Republic during the last 25 years. The aim of this study was to analyse genetic diversity within the population using microsatellite markers. A total of 95 alleles have been detected. The highest frequency 88.18% showed allele 101 (HTG 6. The heterosigosity varied from 0.25 (HTG 6 to 0.84 (VHL 20, genetic diversity reached 0.6–0.8. The heterozygosity of the whole population studied is FIS= -0.013. The average effective number of allele per locus was 2.93 with standard deviation 1.54, with minimal and maximal level 1.30 and 7.83, respectively. Average polymorphism information content per locus was 0.608 with standard derivation 0.146, with minimal and maximal level 0.208 and 0.824, respectively. The results showed that breeding program of Czech Haflinger is optimal, including optimized mating strategies. The diversity of the population Czech Haflinger, based on a small number of microsatellites, seems to be sufficient.

  14. Performance factors of Czech brewing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and subsequently quantify the intensity of relation between selected value drivers of Czech brewing industry companies and thus answer the question of what the significance level of partial indicators influencing the economic value added in the Czech brewing industry is. The aim was achieved by construction and application of multifactorial model for value generators explanation, which represents a synthesis of the INFA model and performance system Balanced Scorecard. The features typical for the first part of the model are algorithmized relations and financial character of the elements, while in the second with non-financial elements the ability of algorithmization is lost and the connection are defined solely on the basis of causality. This inconsistency also implied the difference in the character of analysis results. The proposed model made it possible to identify the most significant generators of value in the Czech brewing industry and it thus became an important guideline for brewery management. The results of the analysis offer a comprehensive overview of the most important value generators and thus enable the company managers to attain the goals of the owners more effectively.

  15. Health tourism in a Czech health spa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, Amy R

    2011-04-01

    This paper is about the changing shape of health tourism in a Czech spa town. The research focuses on balneotherapy as a traditional Czech healing technique, which involves complex drinking and bathing therapies, as it is increasingly being incorporated into the development of a Czech health tourism industry. Today, the health tourism industry in Mariánske Lázne is attempting to 'harmoniously' combine three elements--balneology, travel and business activities. One detects subtle shifts and consequent incongruities as doctors struggle for control over the medical portion of spa hotels. At the same time, marketing groups are creating new packages for a general clientele, and the implementation of these new packages de-medicalizes balneotherapy. Related to the issue of the doctor's authority in the spa, the changes occurring with the privatization of tourism entails the entrance of 'tourists' to Mariánske Lázne who are not necessarily seeking spa treatment but who are still staying at spa hotels. There is a general consensus among spa doctors and employees that balneotherapy has become commodified. Thus, while balneotherapy remains a traditional form of therapy, the commercial context in which it exists has created a new form of health tourism.

  16. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  17. Arion alpinus Pollonera, 1887 in the Czech Republic (Gastropoda: Arionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Dvořák

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the pulmonate land snail Arion alpinus in the Czech Republic are presented and the European distribution and ecology of this species are discussed. A. alpinus occurs in forest ecosystems in the southern part of the Czech Republic at the margin of its continuous distribution range. Both externally and anatomically the Czech Republican specimens strongly resemble A. alpinus from neighbouring countries. Identification was confirmed by DNA analysis.

  18. CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF CZECH CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.

  19. Music stations in czech TV broadcasting and their presenters

    OpenAIRE

    Klementová, Ema

    2013-01-01

    This thesis compares two significant music televisions in Czech television broadcasting, MTV and TV Óčko. Also it describes the development and history of the first American music television MTV and also it provides a view to some similar features of the development of the American MTV and the development of the Czech music televisions. Both Czech music televisions are also compared in terms of the program structure. The practical part of this thesis is based on interviews with four presenter...

  20. Didactics of specific languages - comparison of teaching Czech and Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Youngmo

    2016-01-01

    In my bachelor's work I would like to talk about didactics of specific languages, meaning Czech and Korean. I would like to show development of these languages and point out their differences. From general didactics, which shows principles of these languages, I would like to get to differences between Czech and Korean languages in terms of learning. Show problems, which students have with learning these languages and with my own experience I would like to optimize education process for Czech ...

  1. The effect of coal bed dewatering and partial oxidation on biogenic methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Harris, Steve H.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Orem, William H.; Clark, Arthur C.; Corum, Margo D.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal formation dewatering at a site in the Powder River Basin was associated with enhanced potential for secondary biogenic methane determined by using a bioassay. We hypothesized that dewatering can stimulate microbial activity and increase the bioavailability of coal. We analyzed one dewatered and two water-saturated coals to examine possible ways in which dewatering influences coal bed natural gas biogenesis by looking at differences with respect to the native coal microbial community, coal-methane organic intermediates, and residual coal oxidation potential. Microbial biomass did not increase in response to dewatering. Small Subunit rRNA sequences retrieved from all coals sampled represented members from genera known to be aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic. A Bray Curtis similarity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in water-saturated coals were more similar to each other than to the dewatered coal, suggesting an effect of dewatering. There was a higher incidence of long chain and volatile fatty acid intermediates in incubations of the dewatered coal compared to the water-saturated coals, and this could either be due to differences in microbial enzymatic activities or to chemical oxidation of the coal associated with O2 exposure. Dilute H2O2 treatment of two fractions of structural coal (kerogen and bitumen + kerogen) was used as a proxy for chemical oxidation by O2. The dewatered coal had a low residual oxidation potential compared to the water-saturated coals. Oxidation with 5% H2O2 did increase the bioavailability of structural coal, and the increase in residual oxidation potential in the water saturated coals was approximately equivalent to the higher methanogenic potential measured in the dewatered coal. Evidence from this study supports the idea that coal bed dewatering could stimulate biogenic methanogenesis through partial oxidation of the structural organics in coal once anaerobic conditions are restored.

  2. BRAIN DRAIN – BRAIN GAIN: SLOVAK STUDENTS AT CZECH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.

  3. Coal resources, reserves and peak coal production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its large endowment of coal resources, recent studies have indicated that United States coal production is destined to reach a maximum and begin an irreversible decline sometime during the middle of the current century. However, studies and assessments illustrating coal reserve data essential for making accurate forecasts of United States coal production have not been compiled on a national basis. As a result, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the accuracy of the production forecasts. A very large percentage of the coal mined in the United States comes from a few large-scale mines (mega-mines) in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Reported reserves at these mines do not account for future potential reserves or for future development of technology that may make coal classified currently as resources into reserves in the future. In order to maintain United States coal production at or near current levels for an extended period of time, existing mines will eventually have to increase their recoverable reserves and/or new large-scale mines will have to be opened elsewhere. Accordingly, in order to facilitate energy planning for the United States, this paper suggests that probabilistic assessments of the remaining coal reserves in the country would improve long range forecasts of coal production. As it is in United States coal assessment projects currently being conducted, a major priority of probabilistic assessments would be to identify the numbers and sizes of remaining large blocks of coal capable of supporting large-scale mining operations for extended periods of time and to conduct economic evaluations of those resources.

  4. Czech multicenter research database of severe COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotna B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Barbora Novotna,1 Vladimir Koblizek,1 Jaromir Zatloukal,2 Marek Plutinsky,3 Karel Hejduk,4 Zuzana Zbozinkova,4 Jiri Jarkovsky,4 Ondrej Sobotik,5 Tomas Dvorak,6 Petr Safranek71Department of Pneumology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, 2Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital, Masaryk University, Brno, 4Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, 5Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Praha, 6Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Bulovka, Praha, 7Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital, Charles University, Plzen, the Czech RepublicPurpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been recognized as a heterogeneous, multiple organ system-affecting disorder. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD places emphasis on symptom and exacerbation management. The aim of this study is examine the course of COPD and its impact on morbidity and all-cause mortality of patients, with respect to individual phenotypes and GOLD categories. This study will also evaluate COPD real-life patient care in the Czech Republic.Patients and methods: The Czech Multicentre Research Database of COPD is projected to last for 5 years, with the aim of enrolling 1,000 patients. This is a multicenter, observational, and prospective study of patients with severe COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second ≤60%. Every consecutive patient, who fulfils the inclusion criteria, is asked to participate in the study. Patient recruitment is done on the basis of signed informed consent. The study was approved by the Multicentre Ethical Committee in Brno, Czech Republic.Results: The objective of this paper was to outline the methodology of this study.Conclusion: The establishment of the

  5. Coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  6. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  7. Total Scanning Fluorescence Characteristics of Coals and Implication to Coal Rank Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjia Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Scanning Fluorescence (TSF, as a kind of new fluorescence technique, has great significance and wide application in identifying hydrocarbon inclusions of reservoirs, hydrocarbon migration pathways and palaeo-current oil-water interfaces. Total scanning fluorescence (TSF is characterized by high efficiency, requiring low sample amount and high accuracy. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro is one of significant parameters for determining coal ranks, it cannot only reflect coalification features, but also provide a favorable indicator for coal ranks. In order to establish a relationship between vitrinite reflectance (Ro and the characteristic parameters derived from total scanning fluorescence (TSF, fourteen coal samples (coal powder without separating macerals collected from Qinshui basin and Huaibei coalfield are tested by TSF technique and vitrinite reflectance (oil immersion, respectively. It shows that TSF parameters are related to vitrinite reflectance value, although TSF parameters and fluorescence intensity of coals differ in Qinshui basin and Huaibei coalfield. Research indicates that more factors should be taken into consideration for coal sample TSF testing in the future so as to obtain an empirical formula relationship between Ro and TSF parameters.

  8. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  9. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  10. A STUDY ON THE GRINDABILITY OF SERBIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslava D Stojiljković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia are making considerable efforts and even more considerable investments, not only to maintain electricity production at maximum design levels, but even to additionally increase the power output of existing generating units. Capacities of mills used in pulverized coal preparation are identified as one of the main constraints to achieving maximum mill plant capacity, while coal grindability is seen as one of the factors that directly affect capacities of the coal mills utilized in thermal power plants. The paper presents results of experimental investigation conducted for the purpose of determining Hardgrove grindability index of coal. The investigation was conducted in accordance with ISO 5074 and included analysis of approximately 70 coal samples taken from the open pit mine of Kolubara coal basin. Research results obtained indicate that coal rich in mineral matter and thus, of lower heating value is characterized by higher grindability index. Therefore, analyses presented in the paper suggest that characteristics of solid fuels analyzed in the research investigation conducted are such that the use coals less rich in mineral matter i. e. coals characterized by lower grindability index will cause coal mills to operate at reduced capacity. This fact should be taken into account when considering a potential for electricity production increase.

  11. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  12. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  13. Steam coal forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This quarterly forecasting service provides a short-term analysis and predictions of the international steam coal trade. Sections are entitled: market review; world steam coal at a glance; economics/foreign exchange; demand (reviewing the main purchasing companies country-by-country); supply (country-by-country information on the main producers of steam coal); and freight. A subscription to Steam Coal Forecaster provides: a monthly PDF of McCloskey's Steam Coal Forecaster sent by email; access to database of stories in Steam Coal Forecaster via the search function; and online access to the latest issue of Steam Coal.

  14. Undeclared Work in the Czech Republic and its Implications for the Czech Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.

  15. Liquidity Risk Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Vodová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has shown that a liquidity risk plays an important role in the current developed financial system. One of the efficient tools of liquidity risk management is stress testing which can show banks their potential vulnerability to liquidity shocks. The aim of this paper is therefore to measure the liquidity risk sensitivity of Czech commercial banks and to find out the most severe scenario and the most vulnerable bank. Our sample included significant part of the Czech banking sector; we used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2000 to 2011 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech banks. We have evaluated liquidity risk of each bank in the sample via six different liquidity ratios. Then we stressed these baseline values in three stress scenarios: run on a bank (simulated by a 20% withdrawal of deposits, confidence crisis on the interbank market (simulated by a withdrawal of 20% of interbank deposits and use of committed loans by counterparties (simulated by a 5% increase of loans provided to nonbank clients. We measured the impact of all scenarios by relative change of liquidity ratios. The impact of modelled liquidity shocks differs among scenarios. The most serious liquidity problems would be caused by the first scenario – run on a bank. The negative influence of third scenario (use of committed loans is less severe. The confidence crisis on the interbank market would not affect bank liquidity at all. The results also show that the severity of the impact of all scenarios worsens in periods of financial distress. We have also found that large and medium sized banks are most vulnerable to liquidity shocks, mainly to massive deposit withdrawals.

  16. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  17. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  18. [Prolegomenon of the Czech pharmacognosy: 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opletal, Lubomír

    2013-04-01

    The paper analyzes the basic features of the development of pharmacognosy as the oldest profile subject of pharmacy primarily in Europe during the 20th century. Historical consequences of its development are declared, which should create the basis for its embedment, new content and tasks in Czech pharmacy of the 21st century, especially in education at Czech universities.

  19. Czech Participation in the INTEGRAL Satellite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ESA INTEGRAL satellite, launched in October 2002, is the first astrophysical satellite of the European Space Agency ESA with Czech participation. The results of the first 7 years of investigations of various scientific targets e.g. cataclysmic variables, blazars, X-ray sources, and GRBs with the ESA INTEGRAL satellite with Czech participation are briefly presented and discussed.

  20. Informatization of Financial Administration of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Myslikovjan, David

    2013-01-01

    Informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic Thesis deals with informatization in Financial administration of Czech Republic. Especially, it is focused on informatization of internal processes of the organization: Payments, invoicing, asset management, electronic document and record management system, circulation of accounting documents and the advantages and disadvantages consequent informatization of these areas. Informatization evaluation is conducted by a questionnaire su...

  1. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  2. Pricing Electric Power in the Czech Republic and in Selected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazegue Pavelková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on state intervention in the pricing of electricity from renewable power sources in the Czech Republic when compared with the pricing in the Slovak Republic, Germany, France and Italy. In these countries the state intervention is implemented in different forms, but the critical part of the price is regulated everywhere by the state. The price of electricity is determined by its production costs, which depend on the source from which electricity is produced. The highest cost of electricity is required to generate renewable energy, particularly solar power, while the lowest costs of power are associated with its production by coal-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants. However, hydroelectric power plants attain clearly the lowest cost for generating electricity. State intervention includes supporting power generation from renewable power sources by guaranteeing purchase prices.

  3. Results of coalbed-methane drilling, Meadowfill Landfill, Harrison County, West Virginia: Chapter G.4 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Fedorko, Nick; Grady, William C.; Eble, Cortland F.; Schuller, William A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded drilling of a borehole (39.33889°N., 80.26542°W.) to evaluate the potential of enhanced coalbed-methane production from unminable Pennsylvanian coal beds at the Meadowfill Landfill near Bridgeport, Harrison County, W. Va. The drilling commenced on June 17, 2004, and was completed on July 1, 2004. The total depth of the borehole was 1,081 feet (ft) and contained 1,053.95 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, and 27.05 ft of Mississippian strata.

  4. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  5. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  6. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  7. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  8. Measured and Inferred Bedrock Faults in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (frifaultu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital line representation of measured and inferred bedrock faults in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin, Colorado. This file was created as...

  9. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Family therapy in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvala, Vladislav; Trapkova, Ludmila; Novak, Tomas; Lattova, Zuzana

    2012-04-01

    Political, economic and cultural transformations in the Czech Republic after 1989 were reflected in a number of demographic indicators, including those that characterize family behaviour. The main features of these changes are declining birth and marriage rates, postponement of first marriage and first birth ages, and a growing proportion of children born outside of marriage. These changes are comparable to those that have taken place in western Europe since the 1960s; however, some of them are abrupt and cause rapid shift in the family structure. Over the last two decades, significant changes have also occurred in the organization of family therapy. Earlier less coordinated activities underwent institutionalization, and guidelines for training and supervision were established. Family therapy in the Czech Republic is covered by a national organization, the Society of Family Therapy (SOFT). Standards of training and supervision correspond to European standards. The problem remains the lack of support for family therapy from state institutions, especially in the health service. There are only a few healthcare facilities providing family therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders or chronic somatic diseases. The capacity of these centres is substantially inadequate.

  11. Czech Singles in the Market of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klepek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with specific characteristics of “Czech singles” with emphasis on services area. First, paper determinates the theoretical concept of services marketing in the first chapter. The major part of paper is devoted to primary marketing research. For purpose of collecting data, the method of questioning (combination of off‑line and on‑line approach was chosen. The questionnaire was given to 390 respondents living in the Czech Republic. The data were analysed by SPSS software. Results showed dissimilarities in leisure time activities based on different level of education and income as well as within the gender and age category and city, where particular single person live. Females spend more leisure time on cultural events, home activities as well as shopping and caring for appearance. They also engage with friends as a form of leisure time activity more than males. Educated singles travel more and attend more cultural events and at the same time, they educate themselves more often and do sports much regularly. We also found no relationship between income and shopping as a leisure time activity. This paper describes only a partial output of the primary marketing research with focus on the leisure time spending for the defined segment.

  12. Process Segmentation Typology in Czech Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucek David

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes process segmentation typology during business process management implementation in Czech companies. Process typology is important for a manager’s overview of process orientation as well as for a manager’s general understanding of business process management. This article provides insight into a process-oriented organizational structure. The first part analyzes process segmentation typology itself as well as some original results of quantitative research evaluating process segmentation typology in the specific context of Czech company strategies. Widespread data collection was carried out in 2006 and 2013. The analysis of this data showed that managers have more options regarding process segmentation and its selection. In terms of practicality and ease of use, the most frequently used method of process segmentation (managerial, main, and supportive stems directly from the requirements of ISO 9001. Because of ISO 9001:2015, managers must now apply risk planning in relation to the selection of processes that are subjected to process management activities. It is for this fundamental reason that this article focuses on process segmentation typology.

  13. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIS Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1 In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia. Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%, B. balcanica (24%, B. parasita (18% and B. hexodonta (6%. In 2003, only a single crayfish was found bearing branchiobdellidans (5 specimens of B. parasita only in the same locality. No branchiobdellidans on O. limosus have been confirmed since. (2 A flooded sandpit Lhota near Brandýs nad Labem is the only Czech locality where the settlement of Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia on an O. limosus body was recorded. The crayfish lost the bivalves by moulting in summer; new mussels had settled by late summer and early autumn. (3 Females of the fish louse Argulus cf. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura lay egg-strings on any hard substrate, including the crayfish exoskeleton. Such egg-masses were found on up to 65% of O. limosus specimens in the above-mentioned sandpit. (4 Bryozoan colonies of Plumatella repens were found twice on crayfish in the rivers Elbe (Labe and Cidlina.

  15. Visitors Satisfaction Measurement in Czech Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sadílek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with describing the method of satisfaction measurement as a one of marketing techniques used for detecting visitors’ satisfaction in tourist regions in the Czech Republic. In the treatise, we try to analyse visitors’ satisfaction with the twenty four partial factors affecting total satisfaction. In the theoretical part of the paper, there are described methodological approaches to satisfaction measurement and presented various methods for satisfaction measurement with focus on the Satisfaction Pyramid method which is also used in the field part. Other presented methods are Customer Satisfaction Index, European Customer Satisfaction Model, Importance-Satisfaction Matrix, SERVQUAL Concept and KANO Model. Data have been collected all over the Czech Republic in years 2010 and 2011 twice every year. In the field part there are presented calculations of data and described total satisfaction, Satisfaction Index and partial satisfactions as well as level of satisfaction by tourist regions and correlations between partial satisfactions and total satisfaction which refers to importance of partial factors. Most important factors affecting total satisfaction are public transport, sport equipment, shopping possibilities, children attractions, orientation signage and free time programs.

  16. The business environment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comparison of the business environment in 2004 and 2010. The aim of this paper is to compare opinions of managers of small and medium – sized enterprises on opportunities and threats of external environment and on strengths and weaknesses of internal environment after the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, in 2004 and now in 2010.The basic sources of information were 70 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2004 by students of combined form of study, who work in management functions on medium or basic managerial levels and 228 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2010. 77 % of managers from analyzed enterprises identified the integration of the Czech Republic into the EU as an opportunity in 2004 and only 33 % of managers from analyzed enterprises in 2010. The competition as the most important threat was reported in both groups of respondents. Namely 64 % of managers in 2004 and even 82 % of managers in 2010.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, MSM 6215648904.

  17. Basis of economic analysis of Czech firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When looking for connections between particular business’s activities, theory of financial management uses pyramidal system of indicators. The effectiveness of this tool is based on the appropriate choice of the top indicator. Its decomposition enables to manage firm’s processes from the bottommost organizational levels to the main firm’s mission with respect to the connections between par­ti­cu­lar processes. The aim of this paper was to identify appropriate indicator, which corresponds with creation of firm’s value and design its decomposition. To measure creation of firm’s value it is nowadays very popular to use indicator Economic Value Added (EVA. Though from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric, the results of some empirical studies do not support this claim. That is why the information content of EVA was controlled in the concrete conditions of Czech Economy within this article. The results showed eligibility of using EVA in Czech firms and enabled to choose it as the top indicator in the pyramidal system. Ambition of further research is to design a complex of indicators offering a comprehensive economic view on the firm’s per­for­man­ce.

  18. Investigation of Adsorbed Gases Content in Coal Beds in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadadinovic, J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the gas fraction in coal beds in Bosnia & Herzegovina has been performed systematically since 1988. Gas in coal beds can be present in free or adsorbed form, and dissolved in water. Methods of investigation are based on the direct approach, according to which the gas fraction is determined in the undisturbed coal bed.The quantity of the adsorbed and free gas in the coal bed is directly proportional to the gas pressure. Dependence is hyperbolic. The quantity of the free gas in mining conditions is being determined by measurement of the desorption index (Δp2. The desorption index for the Srednjobosanski coal basin ranges to 1571 Pa, and the free gas pressure in this coal basin amounts up to 3.75 MPa. The desorption index for coal beds in “Kreka” and “Banoviće” coal basins has negative values, which means that the free gas fraction within the coal beds is negligible, while separation of adsorbed gases is diffuse. The free gas pressure in the mentioned coal basins is below 0.1 MPa. Adsorbed gases within the coal are connected by physical adsorption according to Langmuir’s isothermal adsorption curve. Langmuir’s quantities, for coal bed conditions, ranges as follows: am from 0.826 to 9.52 m3 t–1 pcs, and b from 6.65 10–3 to 0.247 MPa–1. Adsorbed gas within Miocene coal beds contains methane in amounts of 1.49 m3 t–1 čus CH4 andcarbon(IVoxide in amounts of 0.15 m3 t–1 čus CO2. Adsorbed gas within Pliocene coal beds, without methane, dominant is content of carbon(IVoxide.The investigation of the gas content in coal beds of BiH conducted in this article reveal that the coal beds primarily contain methane, while others hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, propane, propene and butane are present sporadically in fraction below φ/10–6. Based on the investigation results conducted in this article, simple mathematical forms were obtained for quick calculation of the free gas quantity by measurement of the

  19. Coal desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  20. Energy efficiency and steam coal transport over long distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stala-Szlugaj Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is one of the most important energy sources in the world. Its main consumers are the energy sector (with a 37-46% share in the years 1990-2014; 1.12-2.34 billion toe and industry (24-27%; 0.78-1.38 billion toe. Diversified distribution of coal deposits in the world in relation to its consumers means that it has to be transported over often very long distances. The global coal trade is dominated by maritime transport (90-94% in the years 2004-2014, and the share of transport by land is relatively smaller. The aim of the article was to calculate the index describing what part of the energy contained in the coal transported on a particular route is consumed by the train carrying it. Due to the dominant position of the Russian Federation in imports of coal to Poland, it was assumed that coal will be imported by rail from Kuzbass (Russia's largest coal basin. As a result of the calculation, it was found that the rate of energy consumption for transport of imported coal will be somewhere in the range of 9.22-15.26%. In the case of deliveries of hard coal from Polish producers to the power plants the calculated rate changes within the range of 0.55-0.58%.

  1. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  2. Sunrise coal, an innovative New Indiana player continues to grow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-07-15

    Sunrise Coal LLC's Carliste (Indiana) underground mine began development in 2006. Today, the room and pillar operation has grown to a 3 million tpy four unit continuous miner mine. Its coal has low (0.06%) chlorine level and is now being purchased to blend down high chlorine in Illinois Basin coal. The article describes the mining operation and equipment traces the growth of the company, founded in the 1970s by Row and Steve Laswell, emphasizing its focus on employee safety. 5 photos.

  3. Combined chemical and microbiological removal of organic sulfur from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaelian, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate techniques for chemically converting the sulfur containing organic compounds in coal to compounds that can be treated microbiologically to remove the organically bound sulfur. The goal is to achieve an economically feasible mild chemical oxidation of the organic sulfur in a representative Illinois Basin coal by converting the sulfur to sulfoxides and sulfones; the carbon sulfur bond in the sulfoxides and sulfones would then be broken microbiologically and the sulfur removed from the coal as sulfate.

  4. Coal-bed methane water: effects on soil properties and camelina productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year the production of coal-bed natural gas in the Powder River Basin results in the discharge of large amounts of coal-bed methane water (CBMW) in Wyoming; however, no sustainable disposal methods for CBMW are currently available. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential to ...

  5. Organic wastes and the industrial technologies of their coprocessing with coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Buchtele

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of solid waste in the Czech Republic was a round 40 Mt in 2000 – 2002 yearly. The organic compounds in the municipal waste (plastics, polymers, paper, wood, textile and in the agricultural and forest waste (biomass are mainly burned and partially landfilled. New industrial waste processes and their heat conversion in mixtures with coal allow an economical and energetically a more efficient utilization. They also open the way to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals.

  6. The Scenarios of Social Policy Development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Svatošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to create scenarios of possible development of social policy in the Czech Republic and evaluate the probability of each scenario. Based on the literature review and scenario method, three scenarios are created (scenario of a positive development, scenario of a negative development, and explorative scenario, which are compared with the current state of Czech social policy and which evaluate the possible development of Czech social policy in the period up to 2050. For the implementation of scenarios, basic factors that influence the development of Czech social policy are identified. The complementary research methods are creative methods brainstorming and mind mapping, modelling, an intuitive method of estimating trends and decision-making method of scoring. The research shows that the Czech social policy system is threatened without accepting the strategic and conceptual social policy solutions. The probability of the scenario of negative development (critical scenario of Czech social policy is more than ninety percent. This scenario is based on a deep economic crisis, the collapse of the entire system of social policy and great social unrest. The created scenarios are useful for actors of social policy which can reverse the negative development of Czech social policy.

  7. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  8. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  9. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  10. QTL mapping for production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejickova, J; Stipkova, M; Sahana, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find QTL for milk production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, and 23 where QTL were previously identified in other dairy cattle populations. Sixteen grandsire families were genotyped for 38 microsatellite markers on the selected...... of milk production in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle....... associated with milk production traits appeared on other studied chromosomes (BTA6, BTA7, BTA11, and BTA23). This first QTL search on five chromosomes in Czech Fleckvieh population showed several suggestive QTL that can be promising for further studies and contribute to better understanding of genetics...

  11. Selected English-Czech False Friends and Their Use in the Works of Some Czech Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Raušer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves mainly for practical study purposes and focuses on selected vocabulary taken from various Internet sources and subsequently put into wrong contexts by some Czech students of English at an institute of tertiary education, where the paper’s author is currently employed at the Department of Foreign Languages. When assessing the students’ oral presentations and submitted term papers, he very often encounters expressions the students borrow from English, yet incorrectly interpret as their semantic equivalents in the Czech language. Using these specifically opposing vocabularies, commonly referred to as “false friends”, account for repeatedly occurring mistakes made by the above students, who find some of these words confusing, displeasing and difficult to comprehend. Based on his subjective judgement and experience, the author selected several examples of such words in order to point out their particular discrepancies on applying them to both the English and Czech languages. By doing so, the author believes the students will avoid making mistakes, when searching and/or using their online references.

  12. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    subsurface geology, geochemical characteristics and reserve estimation of the coal and oil shale deposits of Delbi-Moye Basin. AMOCO (1988). Shigute Geleta ..... as barriers to river flows either as a constraint on lateral migration or by damming the flow water to form lakes (Alexander and Leeder, 1987). The depocenter of ...

  13. Coal terminal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Malaysia is building the necessary infrastructure to cope with an increasing demand for electricity. Its restructured energy policy has led to construction of the 2,100 MW Manjung coal-fired power plant in the state of Perak, for which coal has to be imported via the new Lekiv Bulk Terminal (LBT) adjacent to the plant. Contracts for the LBC and the TNBJ coal stockyard were awarded to the Koch Consortium. The article describes equipment for handling and storing coal. 4 photos.

  14. Educational mismatch in the Czech Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysíková Martina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Educational mismatch in labour markets is a phenomenon that has been widely analysed, mainly with respect to rising concerns about a possible oversupply of graduates. Like most European countries, the Czech Republic has experienced a boom in tertiary education in the last decade. The incidence and determinants of over- and undereducation vary substantially depending both on the mismatch measurement approach and the data source applied. Educational mismatch is also reflected in wage levels: overeducated workers have lower wages and undereducated workers have higher wages than workers with the same education whose jobs match their education level. Second, overeducated workers earn more and undereducated workers earn less than their co-workers with exactly the required level of education. The effects are qualitatively the same regardless of the data source and measurement approach applied, but their sizes differ slightly.

  15. Desulphurisation of waste gases in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svrèek Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the decreasing sulphur dioxide emission in the Czech Republic. In 1991 a new Cean Air Act has been accepted. Emission limit values based on the best available technology not entailing cost. All sources of pollution will have to comply the emission limit values up to December 31, 1998 at the latest. At the present time the last units in the power plants and heating plants are under construction, many of them are on the scale. The prevailing system is the wet limestone technology producing gypsum. Differences in the installed systems, in particular power plants, are described. In a lesser extent the wet dry lime technology will be used. Old boilers are replaced by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. At the end of the paper the proposal of the amendment to the Europe Union Directive 608/87 EEC, is discussed. Differences in the systems in the particular power plants are described.

  16. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. Congress of Slovak and Czech Osteologists: International Exchange of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuprinenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Key highlights of reports of scientists from USA, Austria, Switzerland and Ukraine, that were presented in the Congress of Slovak and Czech Osteologists (8-10 of September, 2016, Zilina, Slovakia are described in this report.

  18. [Tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic 2003-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, J; Krejbich, F

    2008-01-01

    Authors compared the situation in tuberculosis among foreigners in the Czech Republic during the years 2003-2006. Foreigners participated in 13.0-14.2% of total notified tuberculosis cases during this period. Proportion of smear positive cases among foreigners in this period grew up from 32.8% to 40.8%. The proportion of active case finding of tuberculosis cases among foreigners declined from 36.0% to 15.4%. At the same time foreigners formed an important part in drug resistance of TB-strains in the Czech Republic. 50% of MDR-TB cases were detected in foreigners. In 20 MDR-TB cases notified in the years 2003-2006 10 were detected in foreigners. If the number of immigrants from countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis to the Czech Republic increases the control of TB in the Czech Republic could be negatively influenced.

  19. Written communication and teaching of the czech language for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Toufarová, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    In her thesis the author looks at written communication in teaching Czech for foreigners. The theoretical part gives an account of theoretical foundations, such as synchronic and diachronic approaches to the language situation (worldwide, in Europe and especially in the Czech Republic) and language education, including introduction to communicative methods. Furthermore, the author describes individual component parts of the language education (means of expression and communication skills), wi...

  20. The Perception of the PUMA Brand in the Czech Market

    OpenAIRE

    Martínková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    The ambition of this master thesis is to provide a deeper insight into a marketing strategy of the multinational company PUMA applied in the Czech Republic. Specifically, the thesis includes a survey of customers designed to examine the perception of the PUMA brand in the Czech market within the target group of people from 16 to 26 years old. One of the essential requirements of this thesis is to provide a very important theoretical background of the marketing field, explaining the basic mark...

  1. Board games used for teaching Czech in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Klára

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this diploma thesis is to make a contribution to discussion about suitability of using board games in education and to confirm that making use of board games is a valid didactical method used for teaching Czech language. Theoretical part is focused on play and game, making use of games in education, board games, their characteristics, categories, types and utilization in education. Following chapters explore advantages and disadvantages of using board games for teaching Czech ...

  2. Constructivism in Czech Language Teaching at Higher-Secondary School

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpáník, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation explores the opportunities and limits of implementing constructivist elements into Czech language education. While in didactics of mathematics and sciences the perspective of constructivism has been dynamically developing, in language didactics it is an area which has not been satisfactorily dealt with. The effectiveness of a designed constructivist teaching strategy in contrast with a traditional one has been tested on a selected part of content matter of Czech syntax (relat...

  3. Comparison of Intercultural Competence of Czech and Japanese University Students.

    OpenAIRE

    Škrábová, Michala

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical part of this Ph.D. thesis deals with the latest findings about intercultural communication and with important intercultural theories focused on two examined countries: the Czech Republic and Japan. It compares Czech and Japanese ways of thinking and behaviors using theory of cultural standards. An overview of current intercultural competence theories is followed by a description of specifics of intercultural competence and of possible ways of developing it. The theoretical part of...

  4. Statistical Results of Activities Categorization in Czech Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová J.; Urbancová H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, to identify and correctly adjust the individual components of the business model is an important strategic device for every entrepreneur. This paper (preliminary study) deals with different types of business models applied to the sector of small and medium-size farms in the Czech Republic. The main objective was to identify and categorize activities undertaken by Czech farmers into homogeneous clusters and offer recommendations on possible business model mo...

  5. Interdisciplinary Approach for Assessment of Continental River Flood Risk: A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiyama, Tomoki; Kwak, Youngjoo; Ledvinka, Ondřej; Iwami, Yoichi; Danhelka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In this research, GIS-based hydrological model-driven approach produces the distribution of continent-level flood risk based on national-level GIS data. In order to reveal flood hazard, exposure, and vulnerability in a large river basin, the system employs the simplified model such as GFiD2M (Global Flood inundation Depth 2-dimension Model) to calculate the differential inundation depth and the economic loss by pixel-based statistical processing, considering climate and socioeconomic scenarios, the representative concentration pathways emissions and the shared socioeconomic pathways, despite current limitations of data collections and poor data availability. We need new approaches to seek the possibility of its national-scale application, so that the framework can bring (1) improved flood inundation map (i.e., discharge, depth, velocity) using rainfall runoff inundation model, based on the in-situ data (rain-gauge and water level), validated with Earth Observation data, i.e., MODIS, (2) advanced flood forecasting using radar and satellite observed rainfall for national-level operational hydrological observations, (3) potential economic impact with the effect of flood hazard and risk under climate and socioeconomic changes based on rainfall from general circulation model. The preliminary examinations showed the better possibility of a nation-wide application for integrated flood risk management. At the same time, the hazard and risk model were also validated against event-based flood inundation of a national-level flood in the Czech Republic. Within the Czech Republic, although radar rainfall data have been used in operational hydrology for some time, there are also other products capable of warning us about the potential risk of floods. For instance, images from Europe's Sentinel satellites have not been evaluated for their use in Czech hydrology. This research is at the very beginning of a validation and its evaluation, focusing mainly on heavy rainfall and

  6. Hydrogeochemistry and coal-associated bacterial populations from a methanogenic coal bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Ritter, Daniel J.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Clark, Arthur C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Vinson, David S.; Orem, William H.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic coalbed methane (CBM), a microbially-generated source of natural gas trapped within coal beds, is an important energy resource in many countries. Specific bacterial populations and enzymes involved in coal degradation, the potential rate-limiting step of CBM formation, are relatively unknown. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established a field site, (Birney test site), in an undeveloped area of the Powder River Basin (PRB), with four wells completed in the Flowers-Goodale coal bed, one in the overlying sandstone formation, and four in overlying and underlying coal beds (Knoblach, Nance, and Terret). The nine wells were positioned to characterize the hydraulic conductivity of the Flowers-Goodale coal bed and were selectively cored to investigate the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology associated with CBM production at the Birney test site. Aquifer-test results indicated the Flowers-Goodale coal bed, in a zone from about 112 to 120 m below land surface at the test site, had very low hydraulic conductivity (0.005 m/d) compared to other PRB coal beds examined. Consistent with microbial methanogenesis, groundwater in the coal bed and overlying sandstone contain dissolved methane (46 mg/L average) with low δ13C values (−67‰ average), high alkalinity values (22 meq/kg average), relatively positive δ13C-DIC values (4‰ average), and no detectable higher chain hydrocarbons, NO3−, or SO42−. Bioassay methane production was greatest at the upper interface of the Flowers-Goodale coal bed near the overlying sandstone. Pyrotag analysis identified Aeribacillus as a dominant in situbacterial community member in the coal near the sandstone and statistical analysis indicated Actinobacteria predominated coal core samples compared to claystone or sandstone cores. These bacteria, which previously have been correlated with hydrocarbon-containing environments such as oil reservoirs, have demonstrated the ability to produce biosurfactants to break down

  7. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc–arc (continent collision occurred during the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a flourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and nonmarine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  8. Interactive program system for application of modern evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hoňková

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution methodical procedures of modeling and assessing of coal deposits, applied in the frame of the solution of the (Grant Agency of the Czech Republic project No 105/03/1417 entitled „Interactive program system for application of modern methods of evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions“, are presented. The development of the computer technology as well as the new results in the domain of scientific geoinformatics have enabled an application of new modeling procedures and subsequent assessing of coal seams. Above all, the procedures in the sphere of the statistical data processing, geostatistics, selection and the application of a proper interpolation method, the graphic elaboration of maps and the 3D visualization of modeled coal seams and further procedures facilitating the selection of in-seam balanced thickness as well as identifying and correlating of coal seams are concerned. The program system formed in this way is conceived for applying to all types of coal deposits occurring in the Czech Republic.

  9. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  10. ONCE GRAND, NOW FORGOTTEN: WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE SUPERHIGH-ORGANIC-SULPHUR RAŠA COAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Medunić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Istrian coal mines, located in the eastern part of the Istrian Peninsula (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia had by far the most important and economically the most valuable deposits of the anthracite coal reserves in Croatia since the 18th century until the year 1999, when their excavation and use in the coal-fired power plant Plomin ceased. The coal is found within the Palaeocene Kozina limestone beds. Four coal basins, Karojba, Sveti Martin, Pićan, and the Labin basin, hosted seven coal mines, e.g. Tupljak, Potpićan, Kozljak, Štrmac, Raša, Ripenda, and Krapan. The coal has been generally known under the name of Raša coal. It is exceptional in world terms due to its high content of organic sulphur, which can be up to 14%. Herewithin, this paper reviews Croatian scientific publications devoted to various aspects of Raša coal, along with the most important publications on either similar coals or relevant subjects worldwide. A brief introduction deals with the role of coal in electricity production, and the history of coal mining in Istria. The following chapter summarises current knowledge of the coal sulphur geochemistry, with several examples of high-sulphur coals from India and China. It is followed by the geological, geochemical, and physical characterisation of Raša coal. Since perturbations to ecosystems caused by coal combustion have been documented in numerous papers from a number of countries, Croatian studies carried out to determine the impact of Raša coal combustion on the local environment are also presented.

  11. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  12. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    2009 Palaeoenvironment of Seam I in the Marathousa Lignite Mine, Megalopolis Basin. (Southern Greece); International Journal of Coal Geology 78 233-248. Suárez-Ruiz I, Jimenez A, Iglesias J, Laggoun-Defarge F and Pradot J G 1994 Influence of. Resinite on Huminite Properties; Energy &Fuels 8 1417-1424. Sun S and ...

  13. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  14. Drilling into an active mofette: pilot-hole study of the impact of CO2-rich mantle-derived fluids on the geo–bio interaction in the western Eger Rift (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bussert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life in the continental deep biosphere is closely linked to geodynamic processes, yet this interaction is poorly studied. The Cheb Basin in the western Eger Rift (Czech Republic is an ideal place for such a study because it displays almost permanent seismic activity along active faults with earthquake swarms up to ML 4.5 and intense degassing of mantle-derived CO2 in conduits that show up at the surface in form of mofettes. We hypothesize that microbial life is significantly accelerated in active fault zones and in CO2 conduits, due to increased fluid and substrate flow. To test this hypothesis, pilot hole HJB-1 was drilled in spring 2016 at the major mofette of the Hartoušov mofette field, after extensive pre-drill surveys to optimize the well location. After drilling through a thin caprock-like structure at 78.5 m, a CO2 blowout occurred indicating a CO2 reservoir in the underlying sandy clay. A pumping test revealed the presence of mineral water dominated by Na+, Ca2+, HCO3−, SO42− (Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type having a temperature of 18.6 °C and a conductivity of 6760 µS cm−1. The high content of sulfate (1470 mg L−1 is typical of Carlsbad Spa mineral waters. The hole penetrated about 90 m of Cenozoic sediments and reached a final depth of 108.50 m in Palaeozoic schists. Core recovery was about 85 %. The cored sediments are mudstones with minor carbonates, sandstones and lignite coals that were deposited in a lacustrine environment. Deformation structures and alteration features are abundant in the core. Ongoing studies will show if they result from the flow of CO2-rich fluids or not.

  15. Drilling into an active mofette: pilot-hole study of the impact of CO2-rich mantle-derived fluids on the geo-bio interaction in the western Eger Rift (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert, Robert; Kämpf, Horst; Flechsig, Christina; Hesse, Katja; Nickschick, Tobias; Liu, Qi; Umlauft, Josefine; Vylita, Tomáš; Wagner, Dirk; Wonik, Thomas; Estrella Flores, Hortencia; Alawi, Mashal

    2017-11-01

    Microbial life in the continental deep biosphere is closely linked to geodynamic processes, yet this interaction is poorly studied. The Cheb Basin in the western Eger Rift (Czech Republic) is an ideal place for such a study because it displays almost permanent seismic activity along active faults with earthquake swarms up to ML 4.5 and intense degassing of mantle-derived CO2 in conduits that show up at the surface in form of mofettes. We hypothesize that microbial life is significantly accelerated in active fault zones and in CO2 conduits, due to increased fluid and substrate flow. To test this hypothesis, pilot hole HJB-1 was drilled in spring 2016 at the major mofette of the Hartoušov mofette field, after extensive pre-drill surveys to optimize the well location. After drilling through a thin caprock-like structure at 78.5 m, a CO2 blowout occurred indicating a CO2 reservoir in the underlying sandy clay. A pumping test revealed the presence of mineral water dominated by Na+, Ca2+, HCO3-, SO42- (Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type) having a temperature of 18.6 °C and a conductivity of 6760 µS cm-1. The high content of sulfate (1470 mg L-1) is typical of Carlsbad Spa mineral waters. The hole penetrated about 90 m of Cenozoic sediments and reached a final depth of 108.50 m in Palaeozoic schists. Core recovery was about 85 %. The cored sediments are mudstones with minor carbonates, sandstones and lignite coals that were deposited in a lacustrine environment. Deformation structures and alteration features are abundant in the core. Ongoing studies will show if they result from the flow of CO2-rich fluids or not.

  16. Effects of coal strip mining on stream water quality and biology, southwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuste, L.A.; Meyer, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Strip mining for coal in southwestern Washington may be affecting the water quality of streams. To investigate these possible effects, five streams were selected for study of water quality in each of the two coal bearing areas: the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, and Kelso-Castle Rock coal area. In the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, three of the streams have drainage basins in which mines are active. Water in streams that drain unmined basins is typical of western Washington streams and is characterized as a mixed water because calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions predominate. A change in anionic composition from bicarbonate to sulfate in streams draining mined areas was not sufficient to change the general water composition and thus make the streams acidic. The largest downstream changes in water quality in both mined and unmined drainage basins were observed during summer low-flow conditions, when minimal dilution, increased water temperatures, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations occurred. High dissolved solids were found in the mined drainage basins during this period. High concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were present in the bottom sediments of the mined basins. Moderate concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, and zinc were also found in the bottom sediments of a few unmined basins. Streams with substrates of gravel-cobble or gravel-coarse sand had the most diverse benthic fauna and a higher number of ubiquitous taxa than streams with sand-silt substrates, which had the most dissimilar fauna. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were rare at the site most affected by mining. The erosion potential of a basin appears to be related to the average basin slope and the amount of forested areas. Strip mining for coal in steep basins may lead to massive movements of unconsolidated spoils after vegetal cover is removed if the land disturbed is graded to pre-mining slopes. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Results of coalbed-methane drilling, Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia: Chapter G.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Fedorko, Nick; Warwick, Peter D.; Grady, William C.; Britton, James Q.; Schuller, William A.; Crangle, Robert D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded drilling of a borehole (39.64378°N., 80.04376°W.) to evaluate the potential for coalbed-methane and carbon-dioxide sequestration at Mylan Park, a public park in Monongalia County, W. Va. The total depth of the borehole was 2,525 feet (ft) and contained 1,483.41 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, 739.67 ft of Mississippian strata, and 301.93 ft of Devonian strata.

  18. Application of EREP, LANDSAT, and aircraft image data to environmental problems related to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R.; Wier, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were used to study coal mining sites within the Eastern Interior Coal Basin (Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky), the Appalachian Coal Basin (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania) and the anthracite coal basins of northeastern Pennsylvania. Remote sensor data evaluated during these studies were acquired by LANDSAT, Skylab and both high and low altitude aircraft. Airborne sensors included multispectral scanners, multiband cameras and standard mapping cameras loaded with panchromatic, color and color infrared films. The research conducted in these areas is a useful prerequisite to the development of an operational monitoring system that can be peridically employed to supply state and federal regulatory agencies with supportive data. Further research, however, must be undertaken to systematically examine those mining processes and features that can be monitored cost effectively using remote sensors and for determining what combination of sensors and ground sampling processes provide the optimum combination for an operational system.

  19. Phase transformations in synthesis technologies and sorption properties of zeolites from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Котова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were identified of the experiment conditions on physical and chemical properties of the end product. It is demonstrated that synthesizing zeolites from fly ash is the first stage of forming ceramic materials (ceramic membranes, which defines the fundamental character (importance of that area of studies. It was for the first time that sorption and structural characteristics and cation-exchange properties of fly ash from the Pechora basin coals were studied with respect to, Ba2+ and Sr2+.

  20. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  1. Changes in the parameter 'b' of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution in regions of the Upper Silesia coal basin characterized by seismic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinski, J.; Syrek, B. (Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Katowice (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    Discusses feasibility of using variations of the frequency-magnitude relation for mining tremors in rock burst forecasting in black coal mines in Upper Silesia. Five areas of increased seismic activity in Upper Silesia were characterized: the Bytom, Kazimierz, Jejkowice and Ziemowice synclines and the main syncline. It was assumed that the Richter-Gutenberg frequency-magnitude value 'b' is a physical value that fluctuates prior to intensive seismic events. Calculation of the 'b' value by the Aki-Utsu method is described and its values are given for 4 areas in Upper Silesia characterized by the highest seismic activity in the period from 1977 to 1986. Evaluations showed that the level and variations of the 'b' parameter characterized rock burst hazards in large areas. The 'b' parameter if calculated for small regions (e.g. a longwall face) could also be used for forecasting rock bursts in individual coal mines. 15 refs.

  2. Assessment of contaminants associated with coal bed methane-produced water and its suitability for wetland creation or enhancement projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Extraction of methane gas from coal seams has become a significant energy source in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. In Wyoming, coalbed methane (CBM)...

  3. Influencing youth entrepreneuship in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fantová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the possible solutions to the pan-European problem of youth unemployment. The objective of the research was to identify differences between male and female entrepreneurs in their opinions of entrepreneurship of young people. We wanted to find out whether male and female entrepreneurs would recommend young people to do business and what factors in their opinion can influence the fact whether young people start business. To collect data, we used a questionnaire sent to entrepreneurs from the whole Czech Republic. The most important barrier identified by entrepreneurs was frequently amended legislation, complexity of administration, poor enforceability of law and a lack of funds. The most important incentives of young people according to entrepreneurs is particularly the vision of opportunities in business. Another important incentive is becoming more independent. Statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found in the barrier related to the personal knowledge of an unsuccessful entrepreneur and in the incentive of the necessity to start business due to the lack of a job. Sufficient funding and possessing business premises were factors in which statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found, too. This research emphasises factors which women and men can find important in making a decision on starting business or being employed.

  4. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  5. Theory and practice of coal flotation in the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhovtyuk, G.V.; Liber, L.A.; Polotskii, V.A.; Tyurnikova, V.I.

    1980-07-01

    This paper discusses problems of black coal flotation and new flotation reagents and equipment in various Soviet coal basins. AAR-1 and AAR-2 apolar aromatized reagents, produced from natural oil, are characterized. In comparison to reagents used until now, AAR contain 3 to 4 times more active aromatic hydrocarbons. Using AAR reagents in flotation of low rank coals characterized by high ash content and low flotation capacity brings about significant increase in concentrate yield. AAR reagents are nontoxic and their production is not expensive. Applying surface-active agents to improve efficiency of flotation reagents is also discussed. Lotos, Kristall and Aina surface-active agents and their efficiency in 6 coal preparation plants are evaluated. Results are given in a table. New flotation machines are described. Among others, the FPPM-20 double chamber counterflow flotation machine is characterized: chamber volume 40 m3, capacity 800 m3 of slurry per hour and 80 to 120 t/h of flotation concentrate.

  6. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  7. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  8. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  9. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  10. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  11. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  12. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  13. [The age of formation of Czech clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sváb, J

    2002-11-22

    Era of Emperor Francis Joseph I is said to be a golden age for the Czech nation. It can be found in numerous panegyric articles to any jubilee of the emperor's rule. What was formally dictated by respect brought by education and by the system of the Greek and Roman tradition adopted in Austria in Middle Ages, seams to be valid today as most of the contemporary technical and economical progress roots within those days. The Czech cultures namely music and art reached international acknowledgement. Though with difficulties, Czech achieved in education and in science as a full-fledged language. After the year 1848 an average citizen was entitled to such freedom as never before. Technical, economical and cultural progress enabled real ascent of the Czech society and its social differentiation. In sixties, after the Austria-Hungary Alignment, Hapsburg government undertook no serious restrains. Such development was nothing unusual. Similar one underwent after the period of storms all European societies from south to north and form west to east. They brought ideas of the French revolution and years 1848/1849 are therefore called "the spring of European nations". In all countries where revolutionary ideas were represented and various countermeasures were accepted, governments were forced to accept temporary arrangements (in Austrian monarchy it was the promise of constitution, language compromise etc.). Nevertheless, in the second half of the 19th century the most important condition for further revival was the long period of peace and stability of international relations. The internal stability of the Austrian monarchy was achieved for long time by the Austria-Hungary Alignment in 1867. After the lost battle at Hradec Kralove in summer 1866 it became clear that contemporary centralistic organization of the state, balancing between absolutism and constitutionalism is not further tenable. Years long pressure of patriotic forces in the parliament brought about division of the

  14. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  15. Fate(s) of injected CO2 in a coal-bearing formation, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.

    2013-01-01

    Coal beds are one of the most promising reservoirs for geologic carbon dioxide (CO₂) sequestration, as CO₂ can strongly adsorb onto organic matter and displace methane; however, little is known about the long-term fate of CO₂ sequestered in coal beds. The "2800' sand" of the Olla oil field is a coal-bearing, oil and gas-producing reservoir of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana. In the 1980s, this field, specifically the 2800' sand, was flooded with CO₂ in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, with 9.0×10⁷m³ of CO₂ remaining in the 2800' sand after injection ceased. This study utilized isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine from reservoirs located stratigraphically above, below and within the 2800' sand to determine the fate of the remaining EOR-CO₂, examining the possibilities of CO₂ migration, dissolution, mineral trapping, gas-phase trapping, and sorption to coal beds, while also testing a previous hypothesis that EOR-CO₂ may have been converted by microbes (CO₂-reducing methanogens) into methane, creating a microbial "hotspot". Reservoirs stratigraphically-comparable to the 2800' sand, but located in adjacent oil fields across a 90-km transect were sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. The source field for the EOR-CO₂, the Black Lake Field, was also sampled to establish the δ¹³C-CO₂ value of the injected gas (0.9‰ +/- 0.9‰). Four samples collected from the Olla 2800' sand produced CO₂-rich gas with δ¹³C-CO₂ values (average 9.9‰) much lower than average (pre-injection) conditions (+15.9‰, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field) and at much higher CO₂ concentrations (24.9 mole %) than average (7.6 mole %, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field), suggesting the presence of EOR-CO₂ and gas-phase trapping as

  16. Key Sustainability Performance Indicator Analysis for Czech Breweries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kasem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability performance can be said to be an ability of an organization to remain productive over time and hold on to its potential for maintaining long-term profitability. Since the brewery sector is one of the most important and leading markets in the foodstuff industry of the Czech Republic, this study depicts the Czech breweries’ formal entry into sustainability reporting and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an efficiency level evaluation which would represent the level of corporate performance of Czech breweries. For this reason, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is introduced. In order to apply it, we utilize a set of key performance indicators (KPIs based on two international standard frameworks: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and its GRI 4 guidelines, and the guideline KPIs for ESG 3.0, which was published by the DVFA Society. Four sustainability dimensions (economic, environmental, social and governance are covered, making it thus possible to adequately evaluate sustainability performance in Czech breweries. The main output is not only the efficiency score of the company but also the input weights. These weights are used to determine the contribution of particular criteria to the breweries’ achieved score. According to the achieved efficiency results for Czech breweries, the percentage of women supervising the company does not affect the sustainability performance.

  17. Relationship of reverse logistics and marketing communication in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Milichovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper deals with question if the final customers are interested in reverse logistics in marketing campaigns, acceptable in the market of Czech Republic. methodology/methods: Paper is based on primary research, on which participated final consumers in Czech Republic through the questionnaire survey. Results of the paper are based on testing of dependence between individual variables by Pearson chi-square test. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to show relationship of marketing communication and reverse logistics, and their correlation. Findings: Main result of research provide relationship between marketing communication tools and reverse activity. The research was aimed at random chosen group of 585 people in the Czech Republic. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market. conclusions: The primary research provides possible approaches for companies in communication green services to final consumers. Limitation for this research because of the chosen sample. Own data for primary research was gained only in Czech Republic.

  18. Droughts in the Czech Lands: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights main results of the InterDrought project (2013-2015), which includes several Czech universities and research institutes, and also shows overview of multidisciplinary scientific monograph on drought. The basic data sources consisting of instrumental, documentary, tree-ring and satellite data are presented. Selected drought indices (SPI, SPEI, Z-index and PDSI) calculated from homogenised Czech temperature and precipitation series are used to describe spatial and temporal variability of droughts in the Czech Lands for the 1804-2010 period including selection of drought extreme episodes and their detail description with respect to meteorological and synoptic patterns and impacts as well. Analysis of droughts prior 1804 is based on documentary data and oak tree-ring widths used for compilation of 500-year Czech drought chronology. The occurrence of extreme droughts is further analysed with respect to sea-level pressure patterns in the Atlantic-European area, climate forcings and changes in land-use. Examples of agricultural and hydrological droughts are mentioned. High resolution soil moisture models are used to estimate drought trends in last five decades as well as estimate future development of droughts in the Czech Republic. Overview represented by this paper will be complemented by several individual detail studies of other InterDrought Team members.

  19. Doing Business in Czech Republic after Accession to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Litva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: European Union can be considered as a full integration process including political, safety, social or economic aspects. Economic integration is process of interconnection otherwise separated national markets (by removal of economic borders. This assumes removal of all obstacles (in economy, trade, tax, administration or industrial area and establishment of common rules for market competition. Basic benefit of economic integration is occurrences of real or potential competitiveness effects. Methodology/methods: European integration influenced number of factors of business environment mainly in area of legislation, taxes, public competition or harmonization of norms which can result in overall Czech Republic competitiveness abroad. In these papers have been used DB and GCI indexes and their subsequent indicators to analyze competitiveness and business environment in CR. Scientific aim: The aim of this article is research on impact of European integration on business environment and competitiveness of Czech Republic. Findings: Growing DTF trend for DB index since 2004 shows improvement of business environment after accession to the EU in contrast with non- EU members (Switzerland, Norway which remains flat. The biggest benefit for Czech business environment seems to be trade liberalization as Czech companies were able to compete successfully at foreign markets. On the other hand, according to GCI remains biggest challenge non- effective bureaucracy, tax regulation, corruption, political instability and low business sophistication. Conclusions: Czech Republic should focus, consistently with Lisbon strategy, on qualification of labour forces, increase o

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  1. Coal data base - thesaurus 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The thesaurus contains the vocabulary used to index the Coal Data Base maintained by IEA Coal Research Technical Information Service. The Data Base contains indexed and abstracted references to publicly-available literature covering all aspects of the coal industry. The subject areas covered include: economics and management, reserves and exploration, mining, preparation, transport and handling, coal properties and constitution, processing and conversion, combustion, waste management, environ mental aspects, coal products, and health and safety. The indexing terms are used in the preparation of the annual subject index to Coal Abstracts and should be useful in searching other data bases for material relevant to the coal industry. (Available from IEA Coal Research)

  2. Formation of a complex of management decisions on the reduction of environmental pollution during the development of coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gibesova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of environmental pollution in the conditions of high dust content in the air during the development of coal mines in the territory of the Czech Republic are considered. A mechanism for making managerial decisions was developed using an integrated approach using the new technological process Nastup Tušimice (DNT aimed at eliminating pollutant emissions and managing workers in dusty conditions in mining operations. The recommendations of active and passive measures aimed at reducing dustiness in the process of coal mining have also been developed.

  3. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  4. [About Cryptophthalmos (2nd Czech Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásný, J; Čakrtová, M; Kletenský, J; Novák, V; Šach, J

    To get acquainted with the 2nd Czech study about cryptophthamos and with self-surgical methods. The boy with unilateral complete cryptophthalmos of left eye was treated from 2 to 20 years. The girls was treated from 4 month to 5 year yet for right abortive cryptophthalmos with microblepharon and left complete type still waiting for solutions.Surgical methods and results: Authors present a surgical procedures for correction of the upper and lower eyelids and ocular anomalies both patients studied. Successful reconstruction of palpebral fissure took place in several stages at the boy. The surgical procedure gradually contained: the insertion of gradually increased convex concave circular-shaped implant (silicone ruber) due a modeling of palpebral fissure, an enucleation of rudimentary eye, a reconstruction of bottom palpebral fissure by retro-auricular skin graf and a releasing of the lower transitory fold by the cul-de-sac method. An adequate depth of palpebral fissure to allow perfect position of an aesthetic protesis. Enucleated eye was atypically shaped, remiding partly sand-glass clock. The cornea was replaced by thick fibrous membrane, the iris and the lens were not revealed. Gliomatic retina was detached nearly totaly and the optic nerv was rudimental. The repairing the upper lid coloboma of girl by a lid rotation flap reconstruction using the inferior eyelid was performed at the age 17 month. Corneal dermoid simultaneously removed (histologically verified). Upper conjunctival fornix was formed using the spherical covering foil (silicone rubber) before and after the reconstruction of the lid. Plastic reconstructions required the need for patient access without trying immediate effect. An important role played silicone rubber implants (elastomer medical grade) which used temporarily. cryptophthalmos, microblepharon, relief surgery, silicon ruber implants.

  5. Possibilities and Conditions for water tourism-development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Němečková, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on water tourism in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and conditions for the development of water tourism in the Czech Republic. There were conducted analyses of water tours, water tourism development opportunities, own research, which focuses on the behavior of water tourism in the Czech Republic.Water tourism in the Czech Republic lags behind its potential and has potential for the future development.

  6. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Stock Market of the Czech Republic and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Titizov, Toško

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of the financial crisis on stock market of the Czech Republic and Spain. We employ BEKK-GARCH model in order to study volatility spillovers and transmissions from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The multivariate GARCH models results show statistically significant, but relatively small, almost irrelevant volatility spillovers from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The Czech stock market exhibit...

  7. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogeology and stress regime of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary coal-bearing strata in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Michael, K. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

    2002-10-01

    The hydrogeology of formation waters and coal permeability depend on the stress regime of coal-bearing strata. These factors are important for evaluating the potential of strata for production of coal bed methane (CBM). The geology of the Belly River Group, Edmonton Group, Wapiti Group, Scollard Formation, and Paskapoo Formation in the Alberta Basin is described. The permeabilities of coal seams, associated stresses, formation water flow, and water chemistry are discussed with reference to the regions that appear most suitable for coal bed methane production. Coal thickness, rank, and gas content measurements should be considered, as well, when applying these considerations to identification of Alberta sites that are most suitable for CBM exploration and production. 43 figs., 1 tab., 85 refs.

  9. Production and Logistics Performance of Czech and Slovak Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polakova Veronika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issues of production and logistics performance of Czech and Slovak companies. The goal of the research was to analyze logistic processes, methods of industrial engineering, methods and evaluation of manufacturing, software tools utilized for measurement and management of performance, which are currently applied in manufacturing companies in the Czech and Slovak Republic. This analysis was done with the utilization of qualitativeresearch conducted in 80 selected manufacturing companies in 2009. The results are compared in the continuity with the conclusions from previous researches on manufacturing and logistic factors of the competitiveness of Czech industrial manufacturers carried out during the period 2000-2001 in the framework of the research project of the Faculty of Economics and Management completed in 2004.

  10. BIGGEST CZECH BANKS IN THE MIRROR OF ANNUAL REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav PAVLAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Paper is to characterise and analyse the biggest Czech banks Annual reports (ARs. Since 2004, the behaviour of Czech banks has been changing, as can be seen – inter alia - from the big banks´ financial statements and annual reports. During the period of 2007 – 2013 the implementation of IFRS continued and its impact on the institutional structure of banking is visible. From the point of view of banks, annual reports present not only the financial results, but they serve as an important instrument of competition and marketing as well. Comparative analysis of the three Czech leading banks gives a picture of their specific features as reflected in their annual statements.

  11. Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepková Vodová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.

  12. Determinants of the Profitability in the Czech Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Palečková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the banking profitability determinants of the Czech commercial banks during the period 2004-2014. For estimation of banking profitability we used three common measures, namely the Return on Assets, Return on Equity and Net Interest Margin. We estimated twelve determinants of banking performance. The effect of the determinants of banking profitability is estimated using panel data analysis. The data set is consists of seventeen commercial banks in the Czech Republic. The results show that the profitability was positively influenced by the bank’s size, capitalization, credit risk, level of concentration, ownership structure and bank’s market share. Number of branches of the bank had the negative impact on ROA and ROE. on the other hand, the variables Gross Domestic Product, interest rate, liquidity risk, riskiness of bank’s portfolio and affiliation with financial conglomerate have not got the significant influence on profitability of the Czech commercial banks.

  13. Intraday and intraweek trade anomalies on the Czech stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Deev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines intraday and intraweek market returns on the Czech stock market for the search of time and seasonal anomalies in its activities during the last ten years. Existence or absence of anomalies indicates the efficiency of the market. A group of regression models and GARCH (1,1 model is used for the analysis of daily and high frequency data of the PX index. Time varying nature of market seasonalities is revealed with the Czech equity market having implications for changing efficiency over the studied period, when the Czech Republic’s accession to the EU implied the increase in efficiency and the global financial crisis led to opposite results and regularities, which are not yet fully overcomed. Additionally, significant hour-of-the-day effect (open jump effect in the index returns is established.

  14. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  15. Migration Behaviour of Strontium in Czech Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Baborova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with sorption and diffusion behaviour of strontium in Czech bentonite B75. The study is a part of a research on reactive transport of radioactive contaminants in barrier materials of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic. Series of sorption and diffusion experiments with Sr and non-activated Ca bentonite B75 produced in the Czech Republic were performed in two background solutions (CaCl2 and NaCl. On the basis of sorption batch experiments the kinetics of strontium sorption on bentonite was assessed and the sorption isotherms for various experimental conditions were obtained. As a result of performed diffusion experiments the parameters of diffusion (i.e. effective diffusion coefficient De and apparent diffusion coefficient Da were determined. The observed discrepancies between sorption characteristics obtained from the sorption and diffusion experiments are discussed.

  16. Training of academic writing: improving competitiveness of Czech universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education across Europe” has reached its final phase. We have collected lots of data reflecting facts and opinions about plagiarism and related areas. Training of academic writing is one of important means for plagiarism prevention.The paper compares levels of training of academic writing between the Czech republic and the rest of Europe. The answers in a questionnaire survey dealing with plagiarism and training of academic writing will be compared and analysed. According to these answers, best practices in European higher education institutions will be identified, and gaps in the Czech institutions will be described. Removing gaps than poses a step to improve the competitiveness of the Czech higher education institutions.

  17. Specifics of the Internationalization Process of Czech Engineering SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define the specifics of the internationalization process of Czech engineering small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Based on primary data collection among Czech engineering SMEs there were defined the main motives of the internationalization. There were also identified the factors subjectively considered by SMEs as the key success factors of the internationalization process. Attention was also paid to subjectively perceived risk factors of the internationalization process and to the issue of risk management in the internationalization process, while it was investigated whether the risk management affects the intensity of export of Czech engineering SMEs. Data were collected via electronic questionnaire surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. In total 194 respondents (engineering SMEs filled the questionnaires. The obtained data were processed on the basis of descriptive statistics. Moreover hypothesis testing was performed.

  18. Czech Foreign Trade with Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pohlová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.

  19. Czech Churches and Religious Groups on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Sidibe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the churches and religious groups which are present online in the Czech Republic. Czech cybersociety is very large and advanced. The established church is the Roman Catholic Church. Its online presence is aimed at both the members and the general public. The website is well-maintained and comprehensive. One of the new religious groups which challenge the established church is controversial Religious Society of the Witnesses of Jehovah. Their website is essentially global and operates in the same form in several hundred languages. It is professional, attractive and interactive. The International Society of Krishna Consciousness in the Czech Republic appeal to a more intellectual and alternative life-style seeking audience by providing education and a wide range of activities.

  20. A study of solutions to emission abatements at the industrial co-generation plant in Semtin, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starup, A. (Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark))

    1993-01-01

    In September 1992 Danish Power Consultant (ELSAMPROJEKT A/S) completed a pilot study of solutions to emission abatements at the Semtin Cogeneration Plant, located near Pardubice in the Czech Republic. New Czech emission standards approach the EC directives and force large industrial companies, which have their own source of thermal energy and electricity production, to consider alternative ways of complying with the emission standards. Uncertain conditions with respect to long-term investments make it very difficult for the industry to make decisions about future concepts. Consequently, some industrial power plants have decided to rehabilitate the existing units in order to justify the rather large investment in a flue-gas cleaning plant and the continued burning of domestic lignite. Others, such as the management of the Semtin Power Plant, have considered the possibility of converting some of the existing boilers to the use of imported hard-coal of a quality which allows them to operate without desulphurization equipment. 2 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: An indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkova, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Benatska 8, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: conkova@chmi.cz; Kubiznakova, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute, Na Sabatce 17, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kubiznakova@chmi.cz

    2008-10-15

    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was found at the Kosetice EMEP 'background pollution' site. Changes in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.11) lead to lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic.

  2. Coals of Greece: distribution, quality and reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, C.; Koukouzas, N. [Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Energy Resources

    1995-08-01

    Greek coals occur in a number of sedimentary basins and range in age from Eocene to Quaternary. The petrographic data indicate a wide variation in petrographic and chemical composition. The rank ranges from the transition zone peat-lignite to subbituminous. Lignite constitutes the most abundant type of coal in Greece and the most important of the Greek lignite deposits formed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene in shallow lakes and marshes of closed intramontaine basins. The proved lignite reserves are currently estimated at 6750 MT, excluding the 4300 Mm{sup 3} of Philipi peat in Macedonia. There, 58% (about 3900 Mt) is considered to be economically recoverable. The probable and possible reserves are estimated to be of the order of 4000 Mt. The Kozane-Ptolemais-Amynteo-Florian basins in Macedonia contain most (about 64%) of the nation`s coal resources. These lignites, which are all already being exploited, have a very low calorific value (at Ptolemais-Amynteo, 1400 kcal/kg; at Megalopolis, 900 kcal/kg) and high ash and low sulphur contents. The lignite production for 1992 was over 54 Mt. The greatest centres of lignite production are in Macedonia, at the opencast mines of Ptolemais and Amynteo, and in Peloponnesus, at the opencast mine of Negalopolis. The vast majority (98%) of the extracted lignite is used for electricity generation and feeds power plants which have a total capacity of 4533 MW. The lignite-based power plants accounts for more than 72% of the total electricity generation of the country. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  4. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  5. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  6. Management of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.M. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Stockpile management is an important part of the coal handling process from mine to customer. Virtually all coal producers and consumers make use of stockpiles at their facilities, either to serve as a buffer between material delivery and processing or to enable coal blending to meet quality requirements. This report begins by examining why stockpiles are employed. The stacking and reclaiming of piles, and the reduction of noise arising from the handling equipment is then discussed, along with stockpile automation and management. Good sampling and analysis procedures are essential for coal quality management. Sampling systems, representative samples and on-line analysis are described. Stock auditing to reconcile the amount of coal in the stockpiles is also covered. Coals are susceptible to weathering and atmospheric oxidation during storage in open-air piles. Properties and processes affected by coal oxidation and weathering, including heating value losses, handleability, cleaning, combustion and coking are examined. Spontaneous combustion poses safety, environmental, economic and handling problems if it becomes established in stockpiles. Factors affecting spontaneous combustion are discussed with the emphasis on prevention, detection and control. Stockyard operators are under constant social and political pressures to improve the environmental acceptability of their operations. Thus the control, prevention, and monitoring of fugitive dust emissions, and the composition, collection and treatment of stockpile runoff are addressed. The prevention and control of flowslides is also covered. Experience has shown that with good stockpile design and management, most coals can be safely stored in an environmentally acceptable way. 187 refs., 41 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Biostimulators from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, L.V.

    1984-04-01

    A report is presented on a meeting of the Bureau of the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR on chemistry of fossil fuels held on 21-22 November 1983 in Moscow. Papers delivered during the meeting are evaluated. Chemistry of black and brown coal from the USSR was analyzed. Chemical coal properties which are of particular significance for coal use as an agricultural fertilizer (biostimulator of plant growth) were investigated. Brown and black coal with the highest oxidation level used as a fuel by power plants could be used for production of fertilizers with a high content of humic acids. Tests carried out in the USSR in various climatic zones (in the North and in Central Asia) showed that biostimulators from coal improved plant growth, reduced ripening period, increased crops, improved physical properties of soils (prevented moisture losses). Utilizing selected wastes from coal processing for production of biostimulators was also discussed. Methods for coal preparation for biostimulant production (crushing, screening, chemical processing) were evaluated. Prospects of biostimulator use in land reclamation were discussed.

  8. Coal for the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    With reserves of 7 billion t of coal, Colombia is the world's fourth-largest exporter of bituminous coal and has the potential to grow further. The paper discusses current production and the future potential of the La Guajira reserves with Carbones del Cerrejon Ltd., Colombia. 1 ref.

  9. Biodesulphurisation of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Prayuenyong, P.

    2001-01-01

    The emission of sulphur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes of an environmental problem known as acid rain. Biodesulphurisation technology applied as a method to remove sulphur before coal combustion was investigated in this work. The desulphurisation abilities of three specific bacterial strains including Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8, R. erythropolis X309 and Shewanella putrefaciens strain NCIMB 8...

  10. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  11. Electrolysis of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, K.E.; Tran, T.; Swinkels, D.

    1984-01-01

    The major aims of the project were: to verify early reports of the American workers and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept of electrolysis of coal slurries; investigate reaction mechanisms and the stoichiometry; measure the reducing power and oxidation kinetics of selected Australian coals; investigate some process variables, and demonstrate an electrolysis cell with practical electrode geometry.

  12. Flash floods in June and July 2009 in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercl, Petr; Danhelka, Jan; Tyl, Radovan

    2010-05-01

    Several flash floods occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic during the last decade of June and beginning of July 2009. These events caused vast economic damage and unfortunately there were also 15 fatalities. The complete evaluation of flash floods from the point of view of its meteorological cause, hydrological development and impacts was done under the responsibility of Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) coordinated this project. The results of the project contain several concrete proposals to reduce the threat of flash floods in the Czech Republic. The proposals were focused on possible future improvements of CHMI forecasting service activities including all other parts of Flood prevention and protection system in the Czech Republic. The synoptic cause of floods was the extraordinary long (12 days is longest in more than 60 years history) presence of eastern cyclonic situation over the Central Europe bringing warm, moist and unstable air masses from Mediterranean and Black Sea area. Very intensive thunderstorms accompanied by torrential rain occurred almost daily. Storm cells were organized in train effect and crossed repeatedly the same places within several hours. The extremity of the flood events was also influenced by soil saturation due to daily occurrence of rainstorms. The peak flows exceeded significantly 100-year of recurrence time in many sites. The observed and mainly unobserved catchments were affected. The detailed fields of rainfall amounts were gained from the adjusted meteorological radar observation. All of the available rainfall measurements at the climatological and rain gage stations were used for the adjustment. Hydraulic and rainfall-runoff models were used to evaluate the hydrological response. It was proved again, that the outputs from currently used meteorological forecasting models are not sufficient for a reliable local forecast of the strong convective storms and their

  13. CZECH FLUID SULFOCALCIC ASH AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Skvara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfocalcic ash is formed during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in the presence of limestone. It differs from classical fly ash by its composition and properties. Sulfocalcic ash contains free CaO, CaSO₄ and partially sintered aluminosilicates. In contact with water, it produces Ca(OH₂, expansive ettringite and a small amount of the CSH phase. There is little information about these ashes in the literature. At present, the possibility of using fluid sulfocalcic ashes is quite limited because of the formation of expansive ettringite. More research in the field of sulfocalcic ashes is a necessity because increasing quantities of this product are rejected by the energy-generation industry.

  14. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its

  15. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  16. Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of 206Pb/207Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: 206Pb/207Pb = 1.168-1.198 in mosses; 206Pb/207Pb = 1.167-1.215 in soils and 206Pb/207Pb = 1.158-1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg-1 to 13.8 mg kg-1). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources.

  17. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The African continent contains approximately 5 percent of the world's proven recoverable reserves of coal (World Energy Council, 2007). Energy consumption in Africa is projected to grow at an annual rate of 2.3 percent from 2004 through 2030, while average consumption in first-world nations is expected to rise at 1.4 percent annually (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Coal reserves will undoubtedly continue to be part of Africa's energy portfolio as it grows in the future. A review of academic and industrial literature indicates that 27 nations in Africa contain coal-bearing rock. South Africa accounts for 96 percent of Africa's total proven recoverable coal reserves, ranking it sixth in the world. This report is a digital compilation of information on Africa's coal-bearing geology found in the literature and is intended to be used in small scale spatial investigations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and as a visual aid for the discussion of Africa's coal resources. Many maps of African coal resources often include points for mine locations or regional scale polygons with generalized borders depicting basin edges. Point locations are detailed but provide no information regarding extent, and generalized polygons do not have sufficient detail. In this dataset, the polygons are representative of the actual coal-bearing lithology both in location and regional extent. Existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital geology datasets provide the majority of the base geologic polygons. Polygons for the coal-bearing localities were clipped from the base geology that represented the age and extent of the coal deposit as indicated in the literature. Where the 1:5,000,000-scale geology base layer's ages conflicted with those in the publications, polygons were generated directly from the regional African coal maps (1:500,000 scale, approximately) in the published material. In these cases, coal-bearing polygons were clipped to the literature's indicated coal

  18. The Czech Tea Profession and the Phenomenon of Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...

  19. Media education in primary schools in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junová Iva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with realization of Media Education in Primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study introduction addresses the mass media influence on children’s and the youth’s socialization and gives reasons for the necessity of media education. There is a development of media education, mentioned in the text, followed by the description of an actual situation of media education in the Czech Republic. Another chapter depicts challenges that accompany the media education’s execution at schools. The contribution presents the output of the media education survey in schools that was done by analysing documents and interviewing primary school teachers.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Generators in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Lapčík

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes author´s experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of wind generators. The introductorypart of paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic in frame of fulfilling the European Union´s limits in branch ofrenewable energy resources utilization. Next part of paper deals with analysis of impacts of wind generators on the environment.The final part of paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process (pursuant to the ActNo. 100/2001 Coll. in the field of wind power in the Czech Republic.

  1. Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Szakácsová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People who arrive by air in the Czech Republic claiming asylum are transferred to a ‘reception centre’ at Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport. Although they are deprived of their liberty, have limited access to fresh air and to the internet, and are only allowed to use a payphone, asylum seekers at the centre are not treated as criminals and detainees report that conditions in the reception centre are moderately good. However, there are some significant problems in the Czech Republic’s current practice of detaining applicants for international protection.

  2. Migrants' health and access to healthcare in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Dobiásová, Karolina

    2011-09-01

    The article is dealing with current state of Czech health policy in relation to migration. Overall migration information, available data on migrants' health status as well as accessibility of healthcare are provided. Some health risks connected with migration are mentioned and discussed. Authors concluded that the most urgent problem of Czech health policy in relation to migrants remains the insufficient guarantee of legal entitlement to health care. This concerns a large group of migrants with long-term residence, since the current legal regulation is disadvantageous to migrants coming from countries outside the EU.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  4. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. [The origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology and of Czech cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widimský, J

    2013-06-01

    The paper presents the origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology on the one hand, and the origins of Czech cardiology on the other. The Czech Society of Cardiology is the third oldest in the world (after the American and German Societies). It was founded in 1929 by Prof. Libenský. As early as in 1933, the Society organised the first international congress of cardiologists in Prague, which was attended by 200 doctors, out of which 50 were from abroad. The most participants came from France and Poland. Other participants came from England, Argentina, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Romania, Spain and Switzerland. The worldwide importance of this congress is apparent from the fact that both the World Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology (EKS) were founded after World War II in the years 1950 and 1952, i.e. almost 20 years after the first international congress of cardiology in Prague. In 1964, the Fourth Congress of European Society of Cardiology was held in Prague with the participation of 1,500 specialists from 31 countries and chaired by Prof. Pavel Lukl, the later president of EKS (1964- 1968). The paper also presents the work of our specialists in WHO and the history of the international journal Cor et Vasa issued by the Avicenum publishing house in Prague in English and Russian in the years 1958- 1992. An important role in the development of our cardiology was played by certain departments and clinics. In 1951, the Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ÚCHOK) was founded in PrahaKrč, thanks to the initiative of MU Dr. František Kriegl, the Deputy Minister of Health. Its first director was Klement Weber, who published, as early as in 1929, a monograph on arrhythmias -  50 years earlier than arrhythmias started to be at the centre of attention of cardiologists. Klement Weber was one of the doctors of President T. G. Masaryk during his serious disease towards the end of his life. Jan Brod was the deputy of Klement Weber in the

  7. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  8. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  9. The Middle Miocene Yallourn coal seam - The last coal in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R.; Wallace, M.W.; Gallagher, S.J.; Wagstaff, B.E.; Chung, Li [School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne (Australia); Cartwright, I. [Earth Sciences Department, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Blackburn, D.T. [David Blackburn Environmental Pty. Ltd. 4 Egmont Terrace Erindale SA 5066 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    The 100-m thick Middle Miocene Yallourn brown coal seam was the last of the major Latrobe Valley Group seams to form in the Gippsland Basin (southeastern Australia) and the final major coal to form in Australia. Coal deposition coincided with the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. During this warm period of relatively high sea-levels, high water tables and relatively high subsidence rates, a 565 km{sup 2} area of alternating eutrophic and ombrogenous peat swamp developed at the western end of the Latrobe Valley to form the Yallourn Seam. Stratigraphic units of the seam contain a high sclerophyll plant component and abundant charcoal, suggesting seasonal dry periods alternated with wet warm conditions characterised by abundant rushes and dense kauri forests. Iron content in parts of the Yallourn Seam is relatively high, and a strong correlation exists between the iron distribution and the abundance of proteoid roots (mainly Proteaceae) - an indicator of seasonal dry periods. The contemporaneous carbonates of the Wuk Wuk Marl were deposited in a high-productivity, upwelling, warmer water (subtropical) environment. A new carbon isotope profile at 1 m intervals through the Yallourn Seam shows a poor relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes and coal colour, but some correlation with Gymnosperm abundance. The {delta}{sup 13}C record also correlates well with long-term secular changes in climate, the presence of global carbon maxima CM2-CM4, and with the deep-sea {delta}{sup 13}C marine organic record. Thick coal seam development ended near the end of the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. The termination of coal seam deposition in Latrobe Valley was primarily the result of tectonic compression, uplift and development of adjacent highland relief, and erosion at the end of the Miocene. (author)

  10. Ownership Principle in the Foreign Trade Statistics: Czech Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rojíček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a small open economy, which is vitally dependent on its export performance. In the period after EU accession the intensity of international cooperation grew rapidly in all the Central European countries, which is mostly the result of the huge FDI inflow at the beginning of the decade. In this context onesignificant problem for the Czech Republic and some other countries of the region appeared: the valuation of the trade flows based on the cross-border measuring overestimates the country’s trade balance in comparison with its value added created. This is the case of trade declared by non-resident units, which is more and more common within the European Union. This phenomenon is even enhanced by strategic geographical location of the Czech Republic, which is an important factor explaining why a lot of this “quasi-transit” trade is beingoperated. The revision of the foreign trade data, which aim is to follow more consistently the ownership approach, significantly changes the picture of the Czech economy, specifically the role of external demand to the economic growth.

  11. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  12. Well-being in a Czech population sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well - being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  13. Comparative Advertising in the Czech Republic: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative advertising had been traditionally banned in most EU countries and was allowed by the European law just relatively recently. That is why in the EU this form of advertising is relatively new, as opposed to the situation in the US, where comparative advertising has been widely used and well accepted by consumers for decades. The literature has been silent on the topic of the effectiveness of comparative advertising in the Czech Republic, as well as in other Central and Eastern European countries. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of comparative advertising campaigns in the Czech Republic. Using an online survey with 160 Czech respondents, we found that the attitude towards comparative advertising is rather positive in the Czech Republic. We also identified that the gender of the recipient influences the general perception of comparative advertising. On the other hand, the age of the recipient does not seem to be a moderator of the attitude towards comparative advertising, in general. The results also do not signal any impact of the gender and the age of the recipient on the change of the perception of any of the brands involved in the campaign. Managerial implications target mainly marketing and advertising managers responsible for Central European markets.

  14. Trends in Medically Attended Injuries in Czech Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwok; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; Pavelka, Jan; Hamřík, Zdeněk; Molcho, Michal; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Due to the importance of surveillance of injuries and accidents in the Czech Republic, the purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of injuries of Czech adolescents between 2002 and 2014. Adolescents (N=20,038) from the Czech Republic, that took part in the 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 HBSC study, reported the frequency of medically attended injuries in the past 12 months. Repeated binary logistic regressions with different years as reference categories were performed. Less than half (44.7%) of all Czech adolescents reported they had experienced at least one medically attended injuries in the past 12 months, with boys experiencing more injuries than girls (pinjuries were more common in older adolescents. Fewer boys reported injury in 2014 when compared to 2002 (OR, CI: 0.81, 0.72-0.90), there was also a significant decrease in injuries among girls between 2014 and 2006 (OR, CI: 0.77, 0.69-0.86). The trend was not linear amongst boys. Along with improved safety promotion education, the rate of injuries decreased among adolescents between the years 2002 and 2014.

  15. [Cross-border healthcare in European Union and Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barták, Miroslav; Rogalewicz, Vladimír; Jílková, Jiřina; Jeřábková, Silvie

    Currently, the cross-border healthcare still represents a marginal part of the Czech healthcare system's performance, though. Compared to the total healthcare expenditures in the Czech Republic that accounted for CZK 299.9 billion in 2014, the costs of the treatment provided to Czech patients abroad constitute mere 0.27%, and the (subsequently refunded) costs of the treatment provided to foreign patients in the Czech Republic 0.24%.Although data on changes in the volume and reimbursements of healthcare due to the Directive 2011/24/EU have not been published yet, we can expect rather evolutionary than revolutionary development of cross-border healthcare volumes. Taking into account all available data, we can conclude that the cross-border healthcare, as specified by the directive currently in force, is important in our conditions above all in relation to our neighbours, i. e. Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland.Key words: cross-border healthcare, patient mobility, international reimbursements EU health policy, Directive 2011/24/EU.

  16. Monetary transmission and the financial sector in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, T.; Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2012), s. 135-155 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : transmission mechanism * monetary policy * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Customer service on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlík, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to compare the quality of customer service between the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. The mystery shopping method is used as the source of data for the comparative analysis.

  18. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  19. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  20. Green ICT drivers and inhibitors perceived by the Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing negative ICT impacts, a number of Green ICT initiatives have been raised. This article presents selected results of a survey conducted in the Czech SMEs that show which drivers and inhibitors influence Green ICT diffusion. First, drivers and inhibitors of Green ICT diffusion are established. Then, the survey results are discussed.