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Sample records for co-infection genetic analyses

  1. Bacteria Facilitate Enteric Virus Co-infection of Mammalian Cells and Promote Genetic Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Mayer, Melinda J; Narbad, Arjan; Winter, Sebastian E; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2018-01-10

    RNA viruses exist in genetically diverse populations due to high levels of mutations, many of which reduce viral fitness. Interestingly, intestinal bacteria can promote infection of several mammalian enteric RNA viruses, but the mechanisms and consequences are unclear. We screened a panel of 41 bacterial strains as a platform to determine how different bacteria impact infection of poliovirus, a model enteric virus. Most bacterial strains, including those extracted from cecal contents of mice, bound poliovirus, with each bacterium binding multiple virions. Certain bacterial strains increased viral co-infection of mammalian cells even at a low virus-to-host cell ratio. Bacteria-mediated viral co-infection correlated with bacterial adherence to cells. Importantly, bacterial strains that induced viral co-infection facilitated genetic recombination between two different viruses, thereby removing deleterious mutations and restoring viral fitness. Thus, bacteria-virus interactions may increase viral fitness through viral recombination at initial sites of infection, potentially limiting abortive infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis in the general population of Granada and co-infections with Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Fernández-Parra, Jorge; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María; Stensvold, C Rune; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Jose

    2017-10-01

    Purulent or exudative genitourinary infections are a frequent cause of consultation in primary and specialized healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and co-infections with Candida spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis in vaginal secretion; and to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyse the genetic diversity of T. vaginalis strains. The samples were submitted for analysis (n=5230) to a third-level hospital in Granada (Southern Spain) between 2011 and 2014; eight T. vaginalis strains isolated during 2015 were randomly selected for MLST analysis. Culture and nucleic acid hybridization techniques were used to detect microorganisms in the samples. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 2.4 % between 2011 and 2014, being higher during the first few months of both 2011 and 2012. Among samples positive for T. vaginalis, co-infection with G. vaginalis was detected in 29 samples and co-infection with Candida spp. in 6, while co-infection with all three pathogens was observed in 3 samples. The only statistically significant between-year difference in co-infection rates was observed for T. vaginalis with G. vaginalis due to an elevated rate in 2011. MLST analysis results demonstrated a high genetic variability among strains circulating in our setting. These findings emphasize the need for the routine application of diagnostic procedures to avoid the spread of this sexually transmitted infection.

  3. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9: Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses’ strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1 and 9 (EHV-9 have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations.

  4. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

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    Ruben Pérez

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV, a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population and a major recombinant strain (86.7%. The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  5. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  6. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

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    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  7. Graphical models for genetic analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Sheehan, Nuala A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces graphical models as a natural environment in which to formulate and solve problems in genetics and related areas. Particular emphasis is given to the relationships among various local computation algorithms which have been developed within the hitherto mostly separate areas...... of graphical models and genetics. The potential of graphical models is explored and illustrated through a number of example applications where the genetic element is substantial or dominating....

  8. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS.

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    Amanda D Barbosa

    Full Text Available Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8% were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%, T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%, T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8% and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%. Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%, and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%. Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35% of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%. Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7% of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights

  9. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Gofton, Alexander W; Paparini, Andrea; Codello, Annachiara; Greay, Telleasha; Gillett, Amber; Warren, Kristin; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8%) were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%), T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%), T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8%) and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%). Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%), and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017) was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%). Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35%) of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%). Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7%) of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS) within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights on the

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  11. HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result of a lymphoproliferative disorder. In the context of HIV co-infection, lympho- cytosis has been described during early sero- conversion associated with CMV, as well as in HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection where CD4+ lymphocytosis can be caused by both a reactive or clonal expansion. Consequently, patients with untreated ...

  12. Genetic analyses for deciphering the status and role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 1. Genetic analyses for deciphering the status and role of photoperiodic and maturity genes in major Indian soybean cultivars. SANJAY GUPTA VIRENDER SINGH BHATIA GIRIRAJ KUMAWAT DEVSHREE THAKUR GOURAV SINGH RACHANA TRIPATHI GYANESH ...

  13. A review of multivariate analyses in imaging genetics

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    Jingyu eLiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging technology and molecular genetics provide the unique opportunity to investigate genetic influence on the variation of brain attributes. Since the year 2000, when the initial publication on brain imaging and genetics was released, imaging genetics has been a rapidly growing research approach with increasing publications every year. Several reviews have been offered to the research community focusing on various study designs. In addition to study design, analytic tools and their proper implementation are also critical to the success of a study. In this review, we survey recent publications using data from neuroimaging and genetics, focusing on methods capturing multivariate effects accommodating the large number of variables from both imaging data and genetic data. We group the analyses of genetic or genomic data into either a prior driven or data driven approach, including gene-set enrichment analysis, multifactor dimensionality reduction, principal component analysis, independent component analysis (ICA, and clustering. For the analyses of imaging data, ICA and extensions of ICA are the most widely used multivariate methods. Given detailed reviews of multivariate analyses of imaging data available elsewhere, we provide a brief summary here that includes a recently proposed method known as independent vector analysis. Finally, we review methods focused on bridging the imaging and genetic data by establishing multivariate and multiple genotype-phenotype associations, including sparse partial least squares, sparse canonical correlation analysis, sparse reduced rank regression and parallel ICA. These methods are designed to extract latent variables from both genetic and imaging data, which become new genotypes and phenotypes, and the links between the new genotype-phenotype pairs are maximized using different cost functions. The relationship between these methods along with their assumptions, advantages, and

  14. A weighted U statistic for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing

    2016-07-20

    Converging evidence suggests that common complex diseases with the same or similar clinical manifestations could have different underlying genetic etiologies. While current research interests have shifted toward uncovering rare variants and structural variations predisposing to human diseases, the impact of heterogeneity in genetic studies of complex diseases has been largely overlooked. Most of the existing statistical methods assume the disease under investigation has a homogeneous genetic effect and could, therefore, have low power if the disease undergoes heterogeneous pathophysiological and etiological processes. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneity-weighted U (HWU) method for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity. HWU can be applied to various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous) and is computationally efficient for high-dimensional genetic data. Through simulations, we showed the advantage of HWU when the underlying genetic etiology of a disease was heterogeneous, as well as the robustness of HWU against different model assumptions (e.g., phenotype distributions). Using HWU, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of nicotine dependence from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environments dataset. The genome-wide analysis of nearly one million genetic markers took 7h, identifying heterogeneous effects of two new genes (i.e., CYP3A5 and IKBKB) on nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. HCV Co-infection is Associated with Metabolic Abnormalities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3 shows results of simple linear regression of glucose and the cholesterol fractions against HCV co- infection status. HIV/HCV co infection predicted a statistically significant reduction in all the cholesterol containing fractions. No such relationship existed between the HCV co infection and glucose or triglycerides. The.

  16. Genetic analyses of bolting in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Wright, Kathryn; Thomson, Susan; Moya, Leire; Lee, Robyn; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John

    2014-03-01

    We present the first evidence for a QTL conditioning an adaptive trait in bulb onion, and the first linkage and population genetics analyses of candidate genes involved in photoperiod and vernalization physiology. Economic production of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) requires adaptation to photoperiod and temperature such that a bulb is formed in the first year and a flowering umbel in the second. 'Bolting', or premature flowering before bulb maturation, is an undesirable trait strongly selected against by breeders during adaptation of germplasm. To identify genome regions associated with adaptive traits we conducted linkage mapping and population genetic analyses of candidate genes, and QTL analysis of bolting using a low-density linkage map. We performed tagged amplicon sequencing of ten candidate genes, including the FT-like gene family, in eight diverse populations to identify polymorphisms and seek evidence of differentiation. Low nucleotide diversity and negative estimates of Tajima's D were observed for most genes, consistent with purifying selection. Significant population differentiation was observed only in AcFT2 and AcSOC1. Selective genotyping in a large 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150' F2 family revealed genome regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6 associated (LOD > 3) with bolting. Validation genotyping of two F2 families grown in two environments confirmed that a QTL on chromosome 1, which we designate AcBlt1, consistently conditions bolting susceptibility in this cross. The chromosome 3 region, which coincides with a functionally characterised acid invertase, was not associated with bolting in other environments, but showed significant association with bulb sucrose content in this and other mapping pedigrees. These putative QTL and candidate genes were placed on the onion map, enabling future comparative studies of adaptive traits.

  17. Genetic analyses for conformation traits in South African Jersey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JACO

    Genetic trends for conformation traits of the South African Holstein show that ... conformation traits can be used to improve stayability, fertility and disease resistance (Rogers et al., 1999; .... Genetic correlations among protein yield, productive.

  18. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  19. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  20. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three patie...

  1. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and their maternal parents. ... doubled haploid; genetic analysis; gene interaction; agronomic traits; seed ..... Han J. Q. and Liu H. L. 1993 Principal component analysis for main.

  2. gPGA: GPU Accelerated Population Genetics Analyses.

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    Chunbao Zhou

    Full Text Available The isolation with migration (IM model is important for studies in population genetics and phylogeography. IM program applies the IM model to genetic data drawn from a pair of closely related populations or species based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations of gene genealogies. But computational burden of IM program has placed limits on its application.With strong computational power, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU has been widely used in many fields. In this article, we present an effective implementation of IM program on one GPU based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, which we call gPGA.Compared with IM program, gPGA can achieve up to 52.30X speedup on one GPU. The evaluation results demonstrate that it allows datasets to be analyzed effectively and rapidly for research on divergence population genetics. The software is freely available with source code at https://github.com/chunbaozhou/gPGA.

  3. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  4. Genetic recombinational and physical linkage analyses on slash pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Doudrick

    1996-01-01

    Slash pine is native to the southeastern USA, but is commercially valuable world-wide as a timber-,fiber- and resin-producing species. Breeding objectives emphasize selection for fusiform rust disease resistance. Identification of markers linked to genetic factors conditioning specificity should expand our knowledge of disease development. Towards this end, random...

  5. Biodiversity analyses for risk assessment of genetically modified potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Dicke, Marcel; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the

  6. RESEARCH NOTE Genetic Analyses for Deciphering the Status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Precision breeding for developing varieties for a specific area would involve ... Presently India is the fifth largest soybean producing country after US, Brazil, ... Genetic analysis at E3 and E4 loci and assessment of effect of photoperiodic ... outsourced (Scigenom, Banglore) for Sanger sequencing of coding region of E1.

  7. Analysis of peculiarities of identification, diagnostics and course of tuberculosis in patients with tuberculosis/HIV co-infection

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    V. P. Melnyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to analyse dynamics of detection of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, to identify the main clinical forms of tuberculosis, the type of tuberculosis process and the structure of incidence of tuberculosis, to analyse dependence of a clinical form of tuberculosis on quantity of CD4 cells. Materials and methods. 155 patients with tuberculosis/HIV co-infection and 155 patients with tuberculosis without HIV infection were examined. All patients underwent general clinical examination, laboratory tests, X-ray, microbiological, histological studies (with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results. In all patients, co-infection was detected mainly by respiratory tuberculosis (in 73 % of HIV-positive and 89 % of HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, tuberculosis was more often detected by the passive way (81 %, and in HIV-negative patients – by the active way (78 %. 66.5 % of patients had HIV infection first, 21.3 % had the first tuberculosis, and 12.2 % had HIV infection and tuberculosis at the same time. In clinical forms in patients with HIV-infection, infiltrative and disseminated tuberculosis prevailed. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 70.3 % of patients, extrapulmonary – in 11 %, pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis – in 18.7 %. In 28.4 % of patients, immunodeficiency was detected with CD4 cells less than 100 in 1mm3, in 22.6 % of patients – 101–200 CD4 cells in 1 mm3, in 10.3 % in 201–300 CD4 in 1 mm3, in 14.8 % of patients – 301–500 CD4 in 1 mm3 and in 23.9 % ≥ 500 CD4 in 1 mm3. In 56.1 % of patients, first diagnosed tuberculosis was detected, 28.4 % had the relapse of tuberculosis, 7.7 % had tuberculosis after a previous ineffective treatment, 7.7 % had tuberculosis with treatment after the break. Bacterial excretion (by the scopic method was detected in 42.6 % of patients, by the bacteriological method – in 73.9 %, by the molecular-genetic method – in 93.2 %, typical

  8. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    allergy. Objectives To evaluate the effect of specific gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing contact allergy by a candidate gene approach. These included polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, -T1 and -P1 variants), the claudin-1 gene (CLDN1), and the filaggrin gene (FLG......) in particular. Methods Epidemiological genetic association studies were performed on a general Danish population. Participants were patch tested, answered a questionnaire on general health and were genotyped for GST, CLDN1 and FLG polymorphisms. Filaggrin’s nickel binding potential was evaluated biochemically...

  9. Predicting Avian Influenza Co-Infection with H5N1 and H9N2 in Northern Egypt

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    Sean G. Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human outbreaks with avian influenza have been, so far, constrained by poor viral adaptation to non-avian hosts. This could be overcome via co-infection, whereby two strains share genetic material, allowing new hybrid strains to emerge. Identifying areas where co-infection is most likely can help target spaces for increased surveillance. Ecological niche modeling using remotely-sensed data can be used for this purpose. H5N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are endemic in Egyptian poultry. From 2006 to 2015, over 20,000 poultry and wild birds were tested at farms and live bird markets. Using ecological niche modeling we identified environmental, behavioral, and population characteristics of H5N1 and H9N2 niches within Egypt. Niches differed markedly by subtype. The subtype niches were combined to model co-infection potential with known occurrences used for validation. The distance to live bird markets was a strong predictor of co-infection. Using only single-subtype influenza outbreaks and publicly available ecological data, we identified areas of co-infection potential with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC 0.991.

  10. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  11. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  12. Co-infection patterns of intestinal parasites in arboreal primates (proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates of South-East Asia remain under-studied concerning parasite epidemiology and co-infection patterns. Simultaneously, efforts in conservation demand knowledge of parasite abundance and biodiversity in threatened species. The Endangered proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, a primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, was investigated in the present study. Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to bachelor and harem groups of this folivorous colobine. Designed as a follow-up study, prevalence and co-infection status of intestinal parasites from N. larvatus in a protected area in Malaysian Borneo were analyzed from fecal samples using a flotation method. For the first time, the intestinal parasite co-infection patterns were examined using quantitative analyses. Overall, 92.3% of fecal samples (N = 652 were positive for helminth eggs. Five helminth groups were detected: (1 trichurids (82.7% prevalence including Trichuris spp. (82.1% and Anatrichosoma spp. (1.4%, (2 strongyles (58.9% including Trichostrongylus spp. (48.5% and Oesophagostomum/Ternidens spp. (22.8%, (3 Strongyloides fuelleborni (32.7%, (4 Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%, and (5 Enterobius spp. (5.5%. On average, an individual was co-infected with two different groups. Significant positive associations were found for co-infections of trichurids with strongyles and S. fuelleborni as well as S. fuelleborni with A. lumbricoides and strongyles. This study shows a high prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths with potential transmission pathways primarily related to soil and with zoonotic relevance in wild proboscis monkeys in their remaining natural habitats. Observed positive associations of trichurids with strongyles and Strongyloides spp. may result from the high prevalence of trichurids. Similarly, positive associations between Strongyloides and Ascaris were found, both of which typically occur predominantly in juvenile hosts

  13. Review of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and HIV Co-Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a review of pulmonary tuberculosis in pregnancy with special emphasis on co-infection with HIV and the situation in Sub Saharan Africa. PTB in conjunction with HIV has significantly impacted maternal morbidity, mortality and poor pregnancy outcomes in Sub Saharan Africa. Active tuberculosis is often asymptomatic ...

  14. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy...

  15. Consequences of symbiont co-infections for insect host phenyotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McLean, A. H. C.; Parker, B. J.; Hrček, Jan; Kavanagh, J. C.; Wellham, P. A. D.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2018), s. 478-488 ISSN 0021-8790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphids * co-infection * host-parasite interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2656.12705/epdf

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  17. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response.Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error.Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment.Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated for HCV. Though >90% of patients were male and

  18. Co-infections and Pathogenesis of KSHV-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhani eThakker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 is one of the several carcinogenic viruses that infect humans. KSHV infection has been implicated in the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, and multicentric Castleman’s Disease (MCD. While KSHV infection is necessary for the development of KSHV associated malignancies, it is not sufficient to induce tumoriegenesis. Evidently, other co-factors are essential for the progression of KSHV induced malignancies. One of the most important co-factors, necessary for the progression of KSHV induced tumors, is immune suppression that frequently arises during co-infection with HIV and also by other immune suppressants. In this mini-review, we discuss the roles of co-infection with HIV and other pathogens on KSHV infection and pathogenesis.

  19. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  20. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  1. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Do, T N; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are leading causes of disease and death in Vietnam, but TB/HIV disease trends and the profile of co-infected patients are poorly described. We examined national TB and HIV notification data to provide a geographic overview and describe relevant disease trends within Vietnam. We also compared the demographic and clinical profiles of TB patients with and without HIV infection. During the past 10 years (2005-2014) cumulative HIV case numbers and deaths increased to 298,151 and 71,332 respectively, but access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved and new infections and deaths declined. From 2011-2014 routine HIV testing of TB patients increased from 58.9% to 72.5% and of all TB patients diagnosed with HIV in 2014, 2,803 (72.4%) received ART. The number of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB cases enrolled for treatment increased almost 3-fold (578 to 1,532) from 2011-2014. The rate of HIV co-infection in MDR and non-MDR TB cases (51/1,532; 3.3% vs 3,774/100,555; 3.8%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) was similar in 2014. The care of TB/HIV co-infected patients have shown sustained improvement in Vietnam. Rising numbers of MDR-TB cases is a concern, but this is not "driven" by HIV co-infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between hepatitis B co-infection and elevated liver stiffness among HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Michael J; Mulenga, Lloyd; Siyunda, Alice; Musukuma, Kalo; Chilengi, Roma; Moore, Carolyn Bolton; Chi, Benjamin H; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    To describe liver disease epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Zambia. We recruited HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at antiretroviral therapy initiation at two facilities in Lusaka. Using vibration controlled transient elastography, we assessed liver stiffness, a surrogate for fibrosis/cirrhosis, and analysed liver stiffness measurements (LSM) according to established thresholds (>7.0 kPa for significant fibrosis and >11.0 kPa for cirrhosis). All participants underwent standardised screening for potential causes of liver disease including chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus co-infection, herbal medicine, and alcohol use. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with elevated liver stiffness. Among 798 HIV-infected patients, 651 had a valid LSM (median age, 34 years; 53% female). HBV co-infection (12%) and alcohol use disorders (41%) were common and hepatitis C virus co-infection (7.0 kPa (all P 11.0 kPa. Among HIV-HBV patients, those with elevated ALT and HBV viral load were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis than patients with normal markers of HBV activity. HBV co-infection was the most important risk factor for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and should be diagnosed early in HIV care to optimise treatment outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Phylogeographic analyses and genetic structure illustrate the complex evolutionary history of Phragmites australis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-05-01

    Genetic data suggest that three lineages of Phragmites australis are found in North America: the Native North American lineage, the Gulf Coast lineage, and the Invasive lineage. In Mexico, P. australis is a common species, but nothing is known about the distribution or ecology of these lineages. We examined the phylogeography of P. australis to analyze the current geographic distribution of genetic variation, demographic history, and dispersal patterns to better understand its evolutionary history in Mexico. We sampled 427 individuals from 28 populations. We used two noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA to estimate the levels of genetic variation and identified the genetic groups across the species' geographical range in Mexico. We compared the genealogical relationships among haplotypes with those previously reported. A hypothesis of demographic expansion was also tested for the Mexican P. australis lineages. We found 13 new haplotypes native to Mexico that might be undergoing an active process of expansion and diversification. Genealogical analyses provided evidence that two independent lineages of P. australis are present in Mexico. The invasive lineage was not detected with our sampling. Our estimates of population expansions in Mexico ranged from 0.202 to 0.726 mya. Phragmites australis is a native species that has been in Mexico for thousands of years. Genetic data suggest that climatic changes during the Pleistocene played an important role in the demographic expansion of the populations that constitute the different genetic groups of P. australis in Mexico. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Multicollinearity in spatial genetics: separating the wheat from the chaff using commonality analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, J G; Colyn, M; Legendre, X; Nimon, K F; Flamand, M C

    2015-01-01

    Direct gradient analyses in spatial genetics provide unique opportunities to describe the inherent complexity of genetic variation in wildlife species and are the object of many methodological developments. However, multicollinearity among explanatory variables is a systemic issue in multivariate regression analyses and is likely to cause serious difficulties in properly interpreting results of direct gradient analyses, with the risk of erroneous conclusions, misdirected research and inefficient or counterproductive conservation measures. Using simulated data sets along with linear and logistic regressions on distance matrices, we illustrate how commonality analysis (CA), a detailed variance-partitioning procedure that was recently introduced in the field of ecology, can be used to deal with nonindependence among spatial predictors. By decomposing model fit indices into unique and common (or shared) variance components, CA allows identifying the location and magnitude of multicollinearity, revealing spurious correlations and thus thoroughly improving the interpretation of multivariate regressions. Despite a few inherent limitations, especially in the case of resistance model optimization, this review highlights the great potential of CA to account for complex multicollinearity patterns in spatial genetics and identifies future applications and lines of research. We strongly urge spatial geneticists to systematically investigate commonalities when performing direct gradient analyses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  6. Thirty years of Alzheimer's disease genetics: the implications of systematic meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Lars; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2008-10-01

    The genetic underpinnings of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely elusive despite early successes in identifying three genes that cause early-onset familial AD (those that encode amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilins (PSEN1 and PSEN2)), and one genetic risk factor for late-onset AD (the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE)). A large number of studies that aimed to help uncover the remaining disease-related loci have been published in recent decades, collectively proposing or refuting the involvement of over 500 different gene candidates. Systematic meta-analyses of these studies currently highlight more than 20 loci that have modest but significant effects on AD risk. This Review discusses the putative pathogenetic roles and common biochemical pathways of some of the most genetically and biologically compelling of these potential AD risk factors.

  7. Clinical Perspectives of Genetic Analyses on Dyslipidemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    We have learned that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the cause of atherosclerosis from various aspects, including a single case with familial hypercholesterolemia, other cases with different types of Mendelian dyslipidemias, large-scale randomized controlled trials using LDL cholesterol lowering therapies, and Mendelian randomization studies using common as well as rare variants associated with LDL cholesterol levels. There is no doubt that determinations of genotypes in lipid-associated genes have contributed not only to the genetic diagnosis for Mendelian dyslipidemias but also to the discoveries of novel therapeutic targets. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that such genetic information could provide useful clues for the risk prediction as well as risk stratification in general and in particular population. We provide the current understanding of genetic analyses relating to plasma lipids and coronary artery disease. PMID:28250266

  8. Clinical indicators for bacterial co-infection in Ghanaian children with P. falciparum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available Differentiation of infectious causes in severely ill children is essential but challenging in sub- Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to determine clinical indicators that are able to identify bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children in rural Ghana. In total, 1,915 severely ill children below the age of 15 years were recruited at Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in Ghana between May 2007 and February 2011. In 771 (40% of the children malaria parasites were detected. This group was analyzed for indicators of bacterial co-infections using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses with 24 socio-economic variables, 16 terms describing medical history and anthropometrical information and 68 variables describing clinical symptoms. The variables were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In 46 (6.0% of the children with malaria infection, bacterial co-infection was detected. The most frequent pathogens were non-typhoid salmonellae (45.7%, followed by Streptococcus spp. (13.0%. Coughing, dehydration, splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukocytosis were positively associated with bacteremia. Domestic hygiene and exclusive breastfeeding is negatively associated with bacteremia. In cases of high parasitemia (>10,000/μl, a significant association with bacteremia was found for splenomegaly (OR 8.8; CI 1.6-48.9, dehydration (OR 18.2; CI 2.0-166.0 and coughing (OR 9.0; CI 0.7-118.6. In children with low parasitemia, associations with bacteremia were found for vomiting (OR 4.7; CI 1.4-15.8, severe anemia (OR 3.3; CI 1.0-11.1 and leukocytosis (OR 6.8 CI 1.9-24.2. Clinical signs of impaired microcirculation were negatively associated with bacteremia. Ceftriaxone achieved best coverage of isolated pathogens. The results demonstrate the limitation of clinical symptoms to determine bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children. Best clinical indicators are dependent on the

  9. The Autism Simplex Collection : an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brownfeld, Jessica M.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Bender, Patrick; Bernier, Raphael; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Freitag, Christine M.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods: In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection ...

  10. [Noonan syndrome can be diagnosed clinically and through molecular genetic analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Marie Krab; Jelsig, Anne Marie; Andersen, Helle; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2015-08-03

    Noonan syndrome is part of the group of RASopathies caused by germ line mutations in genes involved in the RAS/MAPK pathway. There is substantial phenotypic overlap among the RASopathies. Diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is often based on clinical features including dysmorphic facial features, short stature and congenital heart disease. Rapid advances in sequencing technology have made molecular genetic analyses a helpful tool in diagnosing and distinguishing Noonan syndrome from other RASopathies.

  11. Co-circulation and co-infections of all dengue virus serotypes in Hyderabad, India 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddadi, K; Gandikota, C; Jain, P K; Prasad, V S V; Venkataramana, M

    2017-09-01

    The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.

  12. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHODS......: A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized...... to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. RESULTS: Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly...

  13. Treatment of HBV and HDV co-infection using lamivudine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, E.

    2009-01-01

    To see effect of Lamivudine on sero conversion of HBeAg positive cases co infected with Delta hepatitis. Hepatitis B positive patients with deranged liver functions for 6 months were tested for HBeAg, HBV DNA and anti-Delta virus (HDV), using ELISA. Patients were divided into 2 groups, group 1: HBeAg, HBV DNA positive (wild type) but delta negative and group 2: HBeAg, HBV DNA positive (wild type) with delta positive. Lamivudine (100 mg) was advised to both groups till sero-conversion. Of 124 cases in year 1999-2005, 69 were in (Group 1), and 55 were in (Group 2). Eighty percent were males in both groups. ALT normalisation occurred in 75%, 24% cases within 6 months respectively. At the start of therapy mean HBeAg was 289+-189 in group 1 and 142+-160 in group 2. With treatment, the values did not change much till 12 months of therapy. The fall was significantly slow in delta positive cases. At 36 months 26 (38%) cases in group 1 and 9 (16.4%) cases in group 2 sero-converted. Nine cases in each group remained non-responders while 2 in each group relapsed. Wild type of HBV/HDV co-infected cases have a 16% chance of seroconversion which negates the concept that once infected with delta virus there is not much that can be done. (author)

  14. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto

    Full Text Available Some genetically modified (GM plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.

  15. Mobile Genome Express (MGE: A comprehensive automatic genetic analyses pipeline with a mobile device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hee Yoon

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to sequence whole exomes or genome. However, data analysis is still the biggest bottleneck for its wide implementation. Most laboratories still depend on manual procedures for data handling and analyses, which translates into a delay and decreased efficiency in the delivery of NGS results to doctors and patients. Thus, there is high demand for developing an automatic and an easy-to-use NGS data analyses system. We developed comprehensive, automatic genetic analyses controller named Mobile Genome Express (MGE that works in smartphones or other mobile devices. MGE can handle all the steps for genetic analyses, such as: sample information submission, sequencing run quality check from the sequencer, secured data transfer and results review. We sequenced an Actrometrix control DNA containing multiple proven human mutations using a targeted sequencing panel, and the whole analysis was managed by MGE, and its data reviewing program called ELECTRO. All steps were processed automatically except for the final sequencing review procedure with ELECTRO to confirm mutations. The data analysis process was completed within several hours. We confirmed the mutations that we have identified were consistent with our previous results obtained by using multi-step, manual pipelines.

  16. Mobile Genome Express (MGE): A comprehensive automatic genetic analyses pipeline with a mobile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jun-Hee; Kim, Thomas W; Mendez, Pedro; Jablons, David M; Kim, Il-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows to sequence whole exomes or genome. However, data analysis is still the biggest bottleneck for its wide implementation. Most laboratories still depend on manual procedures for data handling and analyses, which translates into a delay and decreased efficiency in the delivery of NGS results to doctors and patients. Thus, there is high demand for developing an automatic and an easy-to-use NGS data analyses system. We developed comprehensive, automatic genetic analyses controller named Mobile Genome Express (MGE) that works in smartphones or other mobile devices. MGE can handle all the steps for genetic analyses, such as: sample information submission, sequencing run quality check from the sequencer, secured data transfer and results review. We sequenced an Actrometrix control DNA containing multiple proven human mutations using a targeted sequencing panel, and the whole analysis was managed by MGE, and its data reviewing program called ELECTRO. All steps were processed automatically except for the final sequencing review procedure with ELECTRO to confirm mutations. The data analysis process was completed within several hours. We confirmed the mutations that we have identified were consistent with our previous results obtained by using multi-step, manual pipelines.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal low genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus from residential areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Lim, P E; Chen, C D; Lim, Y A L; Tan, T K; Norma-Rashid, Y; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-06-01

    The present study explored the intraspecific genetic diversity, dispersal patterns and phylogeographic relationships of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia using reference data available in GenBank in order to reveal this species' phylogenetic relationships. A statistical parsimony network of 70 taxa aligned as 624 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 685 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene revealed three haplotypes (A1-A3) and four haplotypes (B1-B4), respectively. The concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes with a total of 1309 characters revealed seven haplotypes (AB1-AB7). Analysis using tcs indicated that haplotype AB1 was the common ancestor and the most widespread haplotype in Malaysia. The genetic distance based on concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes ranged from 0.00076 to 0.00229. Sequence alignment of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Malaysia and other countries revealed four haplotypes (AA1-AA4) by the COI gene and nine haplotypes (BB1-BB9) by the COII gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Malaysian Cx. quinquefasciatus share the same genetic lineage as East African and Asian Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study has inferred the genetic lineages, dispersal patterns and hypothetical ancestral genotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

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    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  19. Chemometrical characterization of four italian rice varieties based on genetic and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Vincenzo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Tedeschi, Paola; Barile, Daniela; Cereti, Elisabetta; Maietti, Annalisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Martelli, Aldo; Arlorio, Marco

    2006-12-27

    This paper describes a method for achieving qualitative identification of four rice varieties from two different Italian regions. To estimate the presence of genetic diversity among the four rice varieties, we used polymerase chain reaction-randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) markers, and to elucidate whether a relationship exists between the ground and the specific characteristics of the product, we studied proximate composition, fatty acid composition, mineral content, and total antioxidant capacity. Using principal component analysis on genomic and compositional data, we were able to classify rice samples according to their variety and their district of production. This work also examined the discrimination ability of different parameters. It was found that genomic data give the best discrimination based on varieties, indicating that RAPD assays could be useful in discriminating among closely related species, while compositional analyses do not depend on the genetic characters only but are related to the production area.

  20. Complete genome of a European hepatitis C virus subtype 1g isolate: phylogenetic and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria A; Saludes, Verónica; Martró, Elisa; Bargalló, Ana; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicent

    2008-06-05

    Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among genotypes and subtypes are more reliable when complete genome sequences (or at least the full coding region) are used; however, so far 31 of 80 confirmed or proposed subtypes have at least one complete genome available. Of these, 20 correspond to confirmed subtypes of epidemic interest. We present and analyse the first complete genome sequence of a HCV subtype 1g isolate. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses reveal that HCV-1g is the most divergent subtype among the HCV-1 confirmed subtypes. Potential genomic recombination events between genotypes or subtype 1 genomes were ruled out. We demonstrate phylogenetic congruence of previously deposited partial sequences of HCV-1g with respect to our sequence. In light of this, we propose changing the current status of its subtype-specific designation from provisional to confirmed.

  1. Complete genome of a European hepatitis C virus subtype 1g isolate: phylogenetic and genetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargalló Ana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among genotypes and subtypes are more reliable when complete genome sequences (or at least the full coding region are used; however, so far 31 of 80 confirmed or proposed subtypes have at least one complete genome available. Of these, 20 correspond to confirmed subtypes of epidemic interest. Results We present and analyse the first complete genome sequence of a HCV subtype 1g isolate. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses reveal that HCV-1g is the most divergent subtype among the HCV-1 confirmed subtypes. Potential genomic recombination events between genotypes or subtype 1 genomes were ruled out. We demonstrate phylogenetic congruence of previously deposited partial sequences of HCV-1g with respect to our sequence. Conclusion In light of this, we propose changing the current status of its subtype-specific designation from provisional to confirmed.

  2. Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

  3. Electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis strains from a Bengal tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Tegtmeyer

    Full Text Available Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5-6 µm and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections.

  4. Electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis strains from a Bengal tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L; Fox, James G; Berg, Douglas E; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5-6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections.

  5. Genetic analyses of partial egg production in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K; Zerehdaran, S; Barzanooni, B; Lotfi, E

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion. A model with second order of LP for fixed effects, second order of LP for additive genetic effects and third order of LP for permanent environmental effects (MTRR23) was found to be the best. 4. According to the MTRR23 model, direct heritability for EW increased from 0.26 in the second week to 0.53 in the sixth week of egg production, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.48 to 0.1. Direct heritability for EN was low, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.57 to 0.15 during the production period. 5. For each trait, estimated genetic correlations among weeks of egg production were high (from 0.85 to 0.98). Genetic correlations between EW and EN were low and negative for the first two weeks, but they were low and positive for the rest of the egg production period. 6. In conclusion, random regression models can be used effectively for analysing egg production traits in Japanese quail. Response to selection for increased egg weight would be higher at older ages because of its higher heritability and such a breeding program would have no negative genetic impact on egg production.

  6. Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Pistis, Giorgio; Steri, Maristella; Danjou, Fabrice; Kwong, Alan; Ortega del Vecchyo, Vicente Diego; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Pitzalis, Maristella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Tarrier, Brendan; Brennan, Christine; Uzzau, Sergio; Fuchsberger, Christian; Atzeni, Rossano; Reinier, Frederic; Berutti, Riccardo; Huang, Jie; Timpson, Nicholas J; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Malerba, Giovanni; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Kang, Hyun M.; Novembre, John; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2015-01-01

    We report ~17.6M genetic variants from whole-genome sequencing of 2,120 Sardinians; 22% are absent from prior sequencing-based compilations and enriched for predicted functional consequence. Furthermore, ~76K variants common in our sample (frequency >5%) are rare elsewhere (Genomes Project). We assessed the impact of these variants on circulating lipid levels and five inflammatory biomarkers. Fourteen signals, including two major new loci, were observed for lipid levels, and 19, including two novel loci, for inflammatory markers. New associations would be missed in analyses based on 1000 Genomes data, underlining the advantages of large-scale sequencing in this founder population. PMID:26366554

  7. High prevalence of co-infection between human papillomavirus (HPV) 51 and 52 in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Bolaños, Jazbet; Rivera-Domínguez, Jessica Alejandra; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel

    2017-08-08

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the genesis of cervical carcinoma. The co-infection among HPV genotypes is frequent, but the clinical significance is controversial; in Mexico, the prevalence and pattern of co-infection differ depending on the geographic area of study. We analyzed the mono- and co-infection prevalence of multiple HPV genotypes, as well as preferential interactions among them in a Mexico City sample population. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Cervical cytology samples from 1163 women and 166 urethral scraping samples of men were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. The detection of HPV infection was performed using the hybrid capture and the genotyping was by PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52). 36% of women were HPV-positive and the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 51, 52, 16, and 33 (42, 38, 37, and 34%, respectively). The prevalence of co-infection was higher (75.37%) than mono-infection in women HPV positives. All genotypes were co-infected with HPV 16, but the co-infection with 51-52 genotypes was the most frequent combination in all cases. The co-infection was very common; each HPV genotype showed different preferences for co-infection with other genotypes, HPV 51-52 co-infection was the most frequent. The HPV 16, 33, 51 and 52 were the most prevalent and are a public health concern to the Mexican population.

  8. Evolution of HBV S-gene in the backdrop of HDV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Samina; Abidi, Syed H; Azam, Zahid; Majid, Shahid; Khan, Saeed; Khanani, Muhammad R; Ali, Syed

    2018-04-16

    HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study. HBV DNA was extracted from patient sera and partial surface antigen gene was amplified from HBV genome using polymerase chain reaction. HBV S gene was sequenced from 49 mono-infected and 36 co-infected patients and analyzed to identify HBV genotypes and phylogenetic patterns. Subsequently, HBV S amino acid sequences were analyzed for mutational differences between sequences from mono- and co-infected patients. HBV genotype D was predominantly found in both mono-infected as well as co-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed the divergence of HBV sequences, between mono- and co-infected patients, into two distinct clusters. HBV S gene mutation analysis revealed certain mutations in HBV-HDV co-infected subjects to be distinct from those found in mono-infected patients. This might indicate the evolution of HBV S gene under selection pressures generated from HDV coinfection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic analyses of linear profiling data on 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Å; Eriksson, S

    2018-02-01

    A linear profiling protocol was introduced in 2013 at tests for 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses. In this protocol, traits are subjectively described on a nine-point linear scale from one biological extreme to the other. This complements the traditional scoring where horses are evaluated in relation to the breeding objective. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of the linear information for genetic evaluation. Data on 22 conformation traits, 17 movement traits, 14 jumping traits and one temperament trait from 3,410 horses tested between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using an animal model. For conformation traits, the heritabilities ranged from 0.10 for description of hock joint from behind to 0.52 for shape of the neck. For movement traits, the highest heritability (0.54) was estimated for elasticity in trot and the lowest (0.08) for energy in walk. The heritabilities for jumping traits ranged from 0.05 for the ability to focus on the assignment to 0.57 for scope. Genetic correlations between linear traits and corresponding traditionally scored traits were strong (-0.37 to in many cases <-0.9). The results show that the linear information is suitable for genetic evaluation and can be a useful tool for breeders. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed low genetic diversity in the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Devendra; Atkulwar, Ashwin; Farah, Sameera; Baig, Mumtaz

    2017-09-01

    The Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur, belonging to ass-like equid branch, inhabits the dry and arid desert of the Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. The E. h. khur is the sole survivor of Asiatic wild ass species/subspecies in South Asia. To provide first ever insights into the genetic diversity, phylogeny, and demography of the endangered Indian wild ass, we sampled 52 free-ranging individuals from the Little Rann of Kutch by using a non-invasive methodology. The sequencing of 230 bp in cytochrome b (Cyt b) and displacement loop (D-loop) region revealed that current ∼4000 extant population of Indian wild ass harbours low genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that E. h. khur, E. h. onager, and E. h. kulan belong to a single strict monophyletic clade. Therefore, we suggest the delimitation of the five E. hemionus subspecies in vogue to a single species E. hemionus. The application of molecular clock confirmed that the Asiatic wild ass had undergone diversification 0.65 Million years ago. Demographic measurements assessed using a Bayesian skyline plot demonstrated decline in the maternal effective population size of the Indian wild ass during different periods; these periods coincided with the origin and rise of the Indus civilization in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent during the Neolithic. In conclusion, maintaining high genetic diversity in the existing isolated population of 4000 Indian wild asses inhabiting the wild ass sanctuary is important compared with subspecies preservation alone.

  11. Will an "island" population of voles be recolonized if eradicated? Insights from molecular genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Ledig, David B.; Vander Heyden, Madeleine F.; Bennett, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We performed genetic analyses of Microtus longicaudus populations within the Crook Point Unit of the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge. A M. longicaudus population at Saddle Rock (located approx. 65 m off-shore from the Crook Point mainland) is suspected to be partially responsible for declines of a Leach's storm-petrel colony at this important nesting site. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate that Saddle Rock and Crook Point function as separate island and mainland populations despite their close proximity. In addition to genetic structure, we also observed reduced genetic diversity at Saddle Rock, suggesting that little individual movement occurs between populations. If local resource managers decide to perform an eradication at Saddle Rock, we conclude that immediate recolonization of the island by M. longicaudus would be unlikely. Because M. longicaudus is native to Oregon, we also consider the degree with which the differentiation of Saddle Rock signifies the presence of a unique entity that warrants conservation rather than eradication. ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  12. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Gisele Braziliano Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  13. Comprehensive research synopsis and systematic meta-analyses in Parkinson's disease genetics: The PDGene database.

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    Christina M Lill

    Full Text Available More than 800 published genetic association studies have implicated dozens of potential risk loci in Parkinson's disease (PD. To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a dedicated online resource, PDGene, that comprehensively collects and meta-analyzes all published studies in the field. A systematic literature screen of -27,000 articles yielded 828 eligible articles from which relevant data were extracted. In addition, individual-level data from three publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS were obtained and subjected to genotype imputation and analysis. Overall, we performed meta-analyses on more than seven million polymorphisms originating either from GWAS datasets and/or from smaller scale PD association studies. Meta-analyses on 147 SNPs were supplemented by unpublished GWAS data from up to 16,452 PD cases and 48,810 controls. Eleven loci showed genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8 association with disease risk: BST1, CCDC62/HIP1R, DGKQ/GAK, GBA, LRRK2, MAPT, MCCC1/LAMP3, PARK16, SNCA, STK39, and SYT11/RAB25. In addition, we identified novel evidence for genome-wide significant association with a polymorphism in ITGA8 (rs7077361, OR 0.88, P  =  1.3 × 10(-8. All meta-analysis results are freely available on a dedicated online database (www.pdgene.org, which is cross-linked with a customized track on the UCSC Genome Browser. Our study provides an exhaustive and up-to-date summary of the status of PD genetics research that can be readily scaled to include the results of future large-scale genetics projects, including next-generation sequencing studies.

  14. Testing Genetic Pleiotropy with GWAS Summary Statistics for Marginal and Conditional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangqing; Pan, Wei

    2017-12-01

    working independence model for robust inference. We provide numerical examples based on both simulated and real data, including two large lipid GWAS summary association datasets based on ∼100,000 and ∼189,000 samples, respectively, to demonstrate the difference between marginal and conditional analyses, as well as the effectiveness of our new approach. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 μm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm×3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%~60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation ofE. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity.

  16. Correlation and regression analyses of genetic effects for different types of cells in mammals under radiation and chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutskaya, N.G.; Mosseh, I.B.

    2006-01-01

    Data about genetic mutations under radiation and chemical treatment for different types of cells have been analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. Linear correlation between different genetic effects in sex cells and somatic cells have found. The results may be extrapolated on sex cells of human and mammals. (authors)

  17. Antibody isotype analysis of malaria-nematode co-infection: problems and solutions associated with cross-reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Andrea L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody isotype responses can be useful as indicators of immune bias during infection. In studies of parasite co-infection however, interpretation of immune bias is complicated by the occurrence of cross-reactive antibodies. To confidently attribute shifts in immune bias to the presence of a co-infecting parasite, we suggest practical approaches to account for antibody cross-reactivity. The potential for cross-reactive antibodies to influence disease outcome is also discussed. Results Utilising two murine models of malaria-helminth co-infection we analysed antibody responses of mice singly- or co-infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Litomosoides sigmodontis. We observed cross-reactive antibody responses that recognised antigens from both pathogens irrespective of whether crude parasite antigen preparations or purified recombinant proteins were used in ELISA. These responses were not apparent in control mice. The relative strength of cross-reactive versus antigen-specific responses was determined by calculating antibody titre. In addition, we analysed antibody binding to periodate-treated antigens, to distinguish responses targeted to protein versus carbohydrate moieties. Periodate treatment affected both antigen-specific and cross-reactive responses. For example, malaria-induced cross-reactive IgG1 responses were found to target the carbohydrate component of the helminth antigen, as they were not detected following periodate treatment. Interestingly, periodate treatment of recombinant malaria antigen Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 resulted in increased detection of antigen-specific IgG2a responses in malaria-infected mice. This suggests that glycosylation may have been masking protein epitopes and that periodate-treated MSP-119 may more closely reflect the natural non-glycosylated antigen seen during infection. Conclusions In order to utilize antibody isotypes as a measure of

  18. Molecular markers for analyses of intraspecific genetic diversity in the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Tait, Gabriella; Scolari, Francesca; Somboon, Pradya; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2015-03-28

    The dramatic worldwide expansion of Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) and its vector competence for numerous arboviruses represent a growing threat to public health security. Molecular markers are crucially needed for tracking the rapid spread of this mosquito and to obtain a deeper knowledge of population structure. This is a fundamental requirement for the development of strict monitoring protocols and for the improvement of sustainable control measures. Wild population samples from putative source areas and from newly colonised regions were analysed for variability at the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Moreover, a new set of 23 microsatellite markers (SSR) was developed. Sixteen of these SSRs were tested in an ancestral (Thailand) and two adventive Italian populations. Seventy-six ITS2 sequences representing 52 unique haplotypes were identified, and AMOVA indicated that most of their variation occurred within individuals (74.36%), while only about 8% was detected among populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance revealed that haplotype genetic similarity was not related to the geographic proximity of populations and the haplotype phylogeny clearly indicated that highly related sequences were distributed across populations from different geographical regions. The SSR markers displayed a high level of polymorphism both in the ancestral and in adventive populations, and F ST estimates suggested the absence of great differentiation. The ancestral nature of the Thai population was corroborated by its higher level of variability. The two types of genetic markers here implemented revealed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations and provide clues on the dispersion dynamics of this species. It appears that the diffusion of this mosquito does not conform to a progressive expansion from the native Asian source area, but to a relatively recent and chaotic propagule distribution mediated by human activities

  19. Bayesian analyses of genetic parameters for growth traits in Nellore cattle raised on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F B; Ferreira, J L; Lobo, R B; Rosa, G J M

    2017-07-06

    This study was carried out to investigate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for growth traits in beef cattle using a multi-trait model by Bayesian methods. Genetic and residual (co)variances and parameters were estimated for weights at standard ages of 120 (W120), 210 (W210), 365 (W365), and 450 days (W450), and for pre- and post-weaning daily weight gain (preWWG and postWWG) in Nellore cattle. Data were collected over 16 years (1993-2009), and all animals were raised on pasture in eight farms in the North of Brazil that participate in the National Association of Breeders and Researchers. Analyses were run by the Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampler. Additive direct heritabilities for W120, W210, W365, and W450 and for preWWG and postWWG were 0.28 ± 0.013, 0.32 ± 0.002, 0.31 ± 0.002, 0.50 ± 0.026, 0.61 ± 0.047, and 0.79 ± 0.055, respectively. The estimates of maternal heritability were 0.32 ± 0.012, 0.29 ± 0.004, 0.30 ± 0.005, 0.25 ± 0.015, 0.23 ± 0.017, and 0.22 ± 0.016, respectively, for W120, W210, W365, and W450 and for preWWG and postWWG. The estimates of genetic direct additive correlation among all traits were positive and ranged from 0.25 ± 0.03 (preWWG and postWWG) to 0.99 ± 0.00 (W210 and preWWG). The moderate to high estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for weights and daily weight gains at different ages is suggestive of genetic improvement in these traits by selection at an appropriate age. Maternal genetic effects seemed to be significant across the traits. When the focus is on direct and maternal effects, W210 seems to be a good criterium for the selection of Nellore cattle considering the importance of this breed as a major breed of beef cattle not only in Northern Brazil but all regions covered by tropical pastures. As in this study the genetic correlations among all traits were high, the selection based on weaning weight might be a good choice because at this age there are two important effects (maternal

  20. Co-Infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: Is Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H.; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  1. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  2. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal multiple species of Boa and independent origins of insular dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Corbin, Andrew B; Perry, Blair W; Andrew, Audra L; Pasquesi, Giulia I M; Smith, Eric N; Jezkova, Tereza; Boback, Scott M; Booth, Warren; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-09-01

    Boa is a Neotropical genus of snakes historically recognized as monotypic despite its expansive distribution. The distinct morphological traits and color patterns exhibited by these snakes, together with the wide diversity of ecosystems they inhabit, collectively suggest that the genus may represent multiple species. Morphological variation within Boa also includes instances of dwarfism observed in multiple offshore island populations. Despite this substantial diversity, the systematics of the genus Boa has received little attention until very recently. In this study we examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Boa populations using mitochondrial sequences and genome-wide SNP data obtained from RADseq. We analyzed these data at multiple geographic scales using a combination of phylogenetic inference (including coalescent-based species delimitation) and population genetic analyses. We identified extensive population structure across the range of the genus Boa and multiple lines of evidence for three widely-distributed clades roughly corresponding with the three primary land masses of the Western Hemisphere. We also find both mitochondrial and nuclear support for independent origins and parallel evolution of dwarfism on offshore island clusters in Belize and Cayos Cochinos Menor, Honduras. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A weighted U-statistic for genetic association analyses of sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Li, Ming; He, Zihuai; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga; Schaid, Daniel J; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    With advancements in next-generation sequencing technology, a massive amount of sequencing data is generated, which offers a great opportunity to comprehensively investigate the role of rare variants in the genetic etiology of complex diseases. Nevertheless, the high-dimensional sequencing data poses a great challenge for statistical analysis. The association analyses based on traditional statistical methods suffer substantial power loss because of the low frequency of genetic variants and the extremely high dimensionality of the data. We developed a Weighted U Sequencing test, referred to as WU-SEQ, for the high-dimensional association analysis of sequencing data. Based on a nonparametric U-statistic, WU-SEQ makes no assumption of the underlying disease model and phenotype distribution, and can be applied to a variety of phenotypes. Through simulation studies and an empirical study, we showed that WU-SEQ outperformed a commonly used sequence kernel association test (SKAT) method when the underlying assumptions were violated (e.g., the phenotype followed a heavy-tailed distribution). Even when the assumptions were satisfied, WU-SEQ still attained comparable performance to SKAT. Finally, we applied WU-SEQ to sequencing data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), and detected an association between ANGPTL 4 and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Genetic analyses of herding traits in the Border Collie using sheepdog trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storteig Horn, S; Steinheim, G; Fjerdingby Olsen, H; Gjerjordet, H F; Klemetsdal, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the data provided from sheepdog trials in Norway, estimate heritabilities, repeatabilities and genetic correlations for the traits included in the trial and make recommendations on how sheepdog trials best can be utilized in the breeding of Border Collies in Norway. The analyses were based on test results from sheepdog trials carried out in Norway from 1993 to 2012. A total of 45 732 records from 3841 Border Collies were available, but after quality assurance only a third was left. The results demonstrated little information in the data. Heritabilities varied between 0.010 and 0.056 with standard errors ranging from 0.010 to 0.023, while repeatabilities ranged from 0.041 to 0.286. There is a need to assure the quality of data to improve the information in the test results. We recommend adding new traits based on the Herding Trait Characterization scheme evaluated in Sweden, and on traits from the predatory motor pattern, regarded as common for all dogs. These new traits may be scored across the elements that make up the current trial system, which should be kept in place to stimulate participation in the genetic evaluation scheme. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Correlation of Klebsiella pneumoniae comparative genetic analyses with virulence profiles in a murine respiratory disease model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy A Fodah

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide importance and a significant contributor to multiple disease presentations associated with both nosocomial and community acquired disease. ATCC 43816 is a well-studied K. pneumoniae strain which is capable of causing an acute respiratory disease in surrogate animal models. In this study, we performed sequencing of the ATCC 43816 genome to support future efforts characterizing genetic elements required for disease. Furthermore, we performed comparative genetic analyses to the previously sequenced genomes from NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 to gain an understanding of the conservation of known virulence determinants amongst the three strains. We found that ATCC 43816 and NTUH-K2044 both possess the known virulence determinant for yersiniabactin, as well as a Type 4 secretion system (T4SS, CRISPR system, and an acetonin catabolism locus, all absent from MGH 78578. While both NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 are clinical isolates, little is known about the disease potential of these strains in cell culture and animal models. Thus, we also performed functional analyses in the murine macrophage cell lines RAW264.7 and J774A.1 and found that MGH 78578 (K52 serotype was internalized at higher levels than ATCC 43816 (K2 and NTUH-K2044 (K1, consistent with previous characterization of the antiphagocytic properties of K1 and K2 serotype capsules. We also examined the three K. pneumoniae strains in a novel BALB/c respiratory disease model and found that ATCC 43816 and NTUH-K2044 are highly virulent (LD50<100 CFU while MGH 78578 is relatively avirulent.

  6. Reflection on care in recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparello, Joel Zamora; Beyers, Carl; Por, Jitna

    Reflection is a skill that nurses are expected to practise to help them continually re-evaluate their personal effectiveness in problem solving. This skill is necessary when caring for patients who are experiencing the complex challenges linked to psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural changes associated with HIV infection and recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections (STC-I). The Johns model of structured reflection was used in the reflection described here to aid the critical thinking process in helping a nurse to manage and deliver up-to-date, effective care and to develop a strong nurse-patient therapeutic relationship. A holistic approach is key to delivering care to patients with recurrent STC-I. This involves taking a sexual health history and establishing the correct diagnosis, followed by the administration of pharmaceutical and psychotherapeutic treatments to facilitate psychosexual, psychosocial, and psychological changes. This article uses a reflective learning experience in caring for a patient with recurrent STC-I to give insights on psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural strategies. Used with a diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, these strategies can be put into nursing practice and enhance the quality of nursing care.

  7. Evolution of HBV S-gene in the backdrop of HDV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Samina; Abidi, Syed H; Azam, Zahid; Majid, Shahid; Khan, Saeed; Khanani, Muhammad R; Ali, Syed

    2018-04-12

    HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study. HBV DNA was extracted from patient sera and partial surface antigen gene was amplified from HBV genome using polymerase chain reaction. HBV S gene was sequenced from 49 mono-infected and 36 co-infected patients and analyzed to identify HBV genotypes and phylogenetic patterns. Subsequently, HBV S amino acid sequences were analyzed for mutational differences between sequences from mono- and co-infected patients. HBV genotype D was predominantly found in both mono-infected as well as co-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed the divergence of HBV sequences, between mono- and co-infected patients, into two distinct clusters. HBV S gene mutation analysis revealed certain mutations in HBV-HDV co-infected subjects to be distinct from those found in mono-infected patients. In this study, we found that HBV S gene sequences from mono- and co-infected patients exhibit distinct mutation profiles. This might indicate the evolution of HBV S gene under selection pressures generated from HDV coinfection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular genetic analyses of 300-year old skeletons from Auersperg tomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009 the archaeologists excavated five skeletons from a 17th-century archaeological site in Ljubljana. They were found in the side chapel of the church in the Franciscans monastery, which was the Auerspergs’ tomb. Beside the skeletons, the finds revealed a bronze bowl with the heart , and the name of Ferdinand II and the years of birth and death (1655–1706 engraved. In 2011, we were asked to identify those five skeletons. The skeletons were poorly preserved and bones degraded to small pieces. Fragments of femurs and teeth were preserved only in two skeletons, therefore for the remaining three the fragments of cranium were used for molecular genetic analyses.Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contamination, and ground them into powder. Prior to DNA isolation, bone or tooth powder was decalcified. DNA was purified in the Biorobot EZ1 device (Qiagen. Nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Short tandem repeat (STR typing of autosomal DNA was performed using Investigator ESSplex Kit (Qiagen, the NGM Kit (Applied Biosystems and the MiniFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. Typing of the Y-STRs was performed using the YFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. The two hypervariable regions HVI and HVII of the mtDNA were sequenced.Results: We were able to extract up to 10.7 ng DNA/g of tooth powder from Auersperg chapel archaeological site skeletal remains. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 300 years old. From one skeleton we obtained a complete male genetic profile of autosomal DNA, almost complete Y-STR haplotype, which enabled us to track the paternal line and mtDNA haplotype for HVI and HVII regions, which enabled us to track the maternal line. After comparing the profiles with elimination database, no match was found, and thus the authenticity of genetic profiles was confirmed.Conclusions: Now we are waiting for

  9. Co-infection of Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) and Streptococcus iniae in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Richey, Christine; Stevens, Brittany; Yun, Susan; Kenelty, Kirsten; Reichley, Stephen; Griffin, Matt; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Camus, Al

    2017-03-30

    A mortality event in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson, 1836) sub-adults was investigated. After transfer between farms, high mortality was observed in fish, associated with back arching, abnormal swimming, and ulcerative skin lesions. Necropsy of moribund individuals revealed hemorrhagic ascites and petechial hemorrhages in the coelomic peritoneum and serosa of internal organs. Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) was isolated from external tissue samples, then identified and genotyped by sequencing of the terminase and polymerase genes. In addition, Streptococcus iniae was recovered from internal organs of affected fish. Histologic changes were limited to interstitial hematopoietic areas of the kidney and consisted of small foci of necrosis accompanied by fibrin deposition, minimal inflammatory response, and small numbers of bacterial cocci compatible with streptococci. Identity was confirmed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB genes. Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated a genetic profile distinct from S. iniae isolates recovered from previous outbreaks in wild and cultured fish in North America, South America, and the Caribbean. Although the isolates were resistant to white sturgeon complement in serum killing assays, in vivo challenges failed to fulfill Koch's postulates. However, the clinical presentation, coupled with consistent recovery of S. iniae and AciHV-2 from moribund fish, suggests viral and bacterial co-infection were the proximate cause of death. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of AciHV-2 and S. iniae co-infection in cultured white sturgeon.

  10. Genetic Analyses of a Three Generation Family Segregating Hirschsprung Disease and Iris Heterochromia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cui

    Full Text Available We present the genetic analyses conducted on a three-generation family (14 individuals with three members affected with isolated-Hirschsprung disease (HSCR and one with HSCR and heterochromia iridum (syndromic-HSCR, a phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (WS4. WS4 is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the skin, eyes and/or hair, sensorineural deafness and HSCR. None of the members had sensorineural deafness. The family was screened for copy number variations (CNVs using Illumina-HumanOmni2.5-Beadchip and for coding sequence mutations in WS4 genes (EDN3, EDNRB, or SOX10 and in the main HSCR gene (RET. Confocal microscopy and immunoblotting were used to assess the functional impact of the mutations. A heterozygous A/G transition in EDNRB was identified in 4 affected and 3 unaffected individuals. While in EDNRB isoforms 1 and 2 (cellular receptor the transition results in the abolishment of translation initiation (M1V, in isoform 3 (only in the cytosol the replacement occurs at Met91 (M91V and is predicted benign. Another heterozygous transition (c.-248G/A; -predicted to affect translation efficiency- in the 5'-untranslated region of EDN3 (EDNRB ligand was detected in all affected individuals but not in healthy carriers of the EDNRB mutation. Also, a de novo CNVs encompassing DACH1 was identified in the patient with heterochromia iridum and HSCR Since the EDNRB and EDN3 variants only coexist in affected individuals, HSCR could be due to the joint effect of mutations in genes of the same pathway. Iris heterochromia could be due to an independent genetic event and would account for the additional phenotype within the family.

  11. Comprehensive analyses of imprinted differentially methylated regions reveal epigenetic and genetic characteristics in hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumbajan, Janette Mareska; Aoki, Shigehisa; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Hata, Kenichiro; Saji, Tsutomu; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Soejima, Hidenobu; Joh, Keiichiro; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Souzaki, Ryota; Mitsui, Kazumasa; Higashimoto, Ken; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Harada, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant methylation at imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in human 11p15.5 has been reported in many tumors including hepatoblastoma. However, the methylation status of imprinted DMRs in imprinted loci scattered through the human genome has not been analyzed yet in any tumors. The methylation statuses of 33 imprinted DMRs were analyzed in 12 hepatoblastomas and adjacent normal liver tissue by MALDI-TOF MS and pyrosequencing. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and copy number abnormalities were investigated with DNA polymorphisms. Among 33 DMRs analyzed, 18 showed aberrant methylation in at least 1 tumor. There was large deviation in the incidence of aberrant methylation among the DMRs. KvDMR1 and IGF2-DMR0 were the most frequently hypomethylated DMRs. INPP5Fv2-DMR and RB1-DMR were hypermethylated with high frequencies. Hypomethylation was observed at certain DMRs not only in tumors but also in a small number of adjacent histologically normal liver tissue, whereas hypermethylation was observed only in tumor samples. The methylation levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) did not show large differences between tumor tissue and normal liver controls. Chromosomal abnormalities were also found in some tumors. 11p15.5 and 20q13.3 loci showed the frequent occurrence of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Our analyses revealed tumor-specific aberrant hypermethylation at some imprinted DMRs in 12 hepatoblastomas with additional suggestion for the possibility of hypomethylation prior to tumor development. Some loci showed both genetic and epigenetic alterations with high frequencies. These findings will aid in understanding the development of hepatoblastoma

  12. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  14. Effect of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection on sperm quality in young heterosexual men with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Mondaini, Nicola; D'Elia, Carolina; Meacci, Francesca; Migno, Serena; Malossini, Gianni; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) co-infection on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, in a large cohort of young heterosexual male patients with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms. Patients with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms, attending the same centre for sexually transmitted diseases from January 2005 and December 2010, were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent clinical and instrumental examination, microbiological cultures for common bacteria, DNA extraction, mucosal and serum antibodies evaluation for Ct, specific tests for HPV and semen analysis. The semen variables analysed were: volume; pH; sperm concentration; motility; and morphology. Subjects were subdivided in two groups: group A, patients with Ct infection alone and group B, patients with Ct and HPV co-infection. The main outcome measurement was the effect of Ct and HPV co-infection on the semen variables examined. Of 3050 screened patients, 1003 were enrolled (32.9%) in the study. A total of 716 (71.3%) patients were allocated to group A, and 287 (28.7%) to group B. Significant differences between the two groups were reported in terms of percentage of motile sperm (degrees of freedom [df] = 1001; t-test = 11.85; P prostatitis-related symptoms attributable to Ct infection, co-infection with HPV has a significant role in decreasing male fertility, in particular with regard to sperm motility and morphology. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  15. Integrating genetic data and population viability analyses for the identification of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations and management units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    present a novel approach, integrating genetic, life-history and demographic data to identify populations and management units in southern Scandinavian harbour seals. First, 15 microsatellite markers and model- and distance-based genetic clustering methods were used to determine the population genetic...... structure in harbour seals. Second, we used harbour seal demographic and life-history data to conduct population viability analyses (PVAs) in the VORTEX simulation model in order to determine whether the inferred genetic units could be classified as management units according to Lowe and Allendorf's (2010......, and that the combined use of genetic data and PVAs constitute a promising approach for delineating populations and management units. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. Systems genetics of obesity in an F2 pig model by genome-wide association, genetic network and pathway analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Pant, Sameer Dinkar; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-01-01

    .g. metabolic processes. WISH networks based on genotypic correlations allowed further identification of various gene ontology terms and pathways related to obesity and related traits, which were not identified by the GWA study. In conclusion, this is the first study to develop a (genetic) obesity index...... investigations focusing on single genetic variants have achieved limited success, and the importance of including genetic interactions is becoming evident. Here, the aim was to perform an integrative genomic analysis in an F2 pig resource population that was constructed with an aim to maximize genetic variation...... of obesity-related phenotypes and genotyped using the 60K SNP chip. Firstly, Genome Wide Association (GWA) analysis was performed on the Obesity Index to locate candidate genomic regions that were further validated using combined Linkage Disequilibrium Linkage Analysis and investigated by evaluation...

  17. TAXONOMY AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PANGASIIDAE, ASIAN CATFISHES, BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangasiids are economically important riverine catfishes generally residing in freshwater from the Indian subcontinent to the Indonesian Archipelago. The systematics of this family are still poorly known. Consequently, lack of such basic information impedes the understanding of the biology of the Pangasiids and the study of their aquaculture potential as well as improvement of seed production and growth performance. The objectives of the present study are to clarify phylogeny of this family based on a biometric analysis and molecular evidence using 12S ribosomal mtDNA on the total of 1070 specimens. The study revealed that 28 species are recognised as valid in Pangasiidae. Four genera are also recognized as Helicophagus Bleeker 1858, Pangasianodon Chevey 1930, Pteropangasius Fowler 1937, and Pangasius Valenciennes 1840 instead of two as reported by previous workers. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recognised genera, and genetic relationships among taxa. Overall, trees from the different analyses show similar topologies and confirm the hypothesis derived from geological history, palaeontology, and similar models in other taxa of fishes from the same area. The oldest genus may already have existed when the Asian mainland was still connected to the islands in the southern part about 20 million years ago.

  18. From sexless to sexy: Why it is time for human genetics to consider and report analyses of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew S; Smith, Phillip H; McKee, Sherry A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct and report such analyses. Our recommendation is to run stratified analyses by sex no matter the sample size or the result and report the findings. Summary statistics from stratified analyses are helpful for meta-analyses, and patterns of sex-dependent associations may be hidden in a combined dataset. In the age of declining sequencing costs, large consortia efforts, and a number of useful control samples, it is now time for the field of human genetics to appropriately include sex in the design, analysis, and reporting of results.

  19. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY FEATURES OF HBV/HDV CO-INFECTION IN KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious health problems in the world are hepatotropic viruses that cause chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B virus is distributed globally; around 5% of the carriers are also infected with hepatitis delta virus. Co-infection or superinfection of hepatitis viruses B and D significantly associated with a much more severe liver disease, compared with infection only hepatitis B virus. However, examination of hepatitis virus B carriers for the presence of hepatitis D virus in most regions of the world is not mandatory. It should be noted that the complete genotype mapping of viruses hepatitis B and D isolated on the territory of the CIS and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there is not yet, despite the constantly ongoing works devoted genotyping hepatotropic virus in the territory of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries. Due to the fact that one of the prospective ways of spreading viruses is the “labor migration” the inhabitants of Central Asia in other countries, including the Russian Federation, there is a need to pay attention to the situation of viral hepatitis in the region. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of genetic variants and characteristics of molecular epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis co-infection B + D in Kyrgyzstan. The study involved 30 plasma samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and D from different regions of Kyrgyzstan. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates showed that among patients examined HBV identified only D genotype. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicated that among the examined patients with chronic viral hepatitis B revealed only genotype D. It is shown prevalence of HBV subtype D1 (73.34% compared to the HBV subtype D2 (3.33% and D3 (23.33%. Revealed HDV genotype I with highly variable region of the gene encoding the delta antigen. The high similarity of some isolates with strains specific to neighboring

  20. Factors Associated with Survival of HIV/HBV Co-infected Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HBV co-infected patients. The study used data from TASO Uganda. Patients who registered with the organization between 2005 and 2010 were followed to determine their survival. The covariates of study were age, education level, number of ...

  1. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Isache

    2016-01-01

    HTLV and HIV share the same routes of transmission and the same tropism for T-lymphocytes. Co-infection occurs probably more frequently than we are aware, since testing for HTLV is not routinely performed in outpatient HIV clinics.

  2. Survival of HIV-TB co-infected adult patients under ART in Ambo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Objectives: To estimate the survival of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients and to identify predictors of survival based on data obtained from Ambo .... done using SPSS, SAS, and STATA software. ..... Control Program Manual, Fourth Edition. Addis.

  3. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia.Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot.Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15-23%, I: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20-32%, I: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7-17%, I: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6-11%, I: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14-1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed the I value remained high implying

  4. Mutational analyses of molecularly cloned satellite tobacco mosaic virus during serial passage in plants: Evidence for hotspots of genetic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The high level of genetic diversity and rapid evolution of viral RNA genomes are well documented, but few studies have characterized the rate and nature of ongoing genetic change over time under controlled experimental conditions, especially in plant hosts. The RNA genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was used as an effective model for such studies because of advantageous features of its genome structure and because the extant genetic heterogeneity of STMV has been characterized previously. In the present study, the process of genetic change over time was studied by monitoring multiple serial passage lines of STMV populations for changes in their consensus sequences. A total of 42 passage lines were initiated by inoculation of tobacco plants with a helper tobamovirus and one of four STMV RNA inocula that were transcribed from full-length infectious STMV clones or extracted from purified STMV type strain virions. Ten serial passages were carried out for each line and the consensus genotypes of progeny STMV populations were assessed for genetic change by RNase protection analyses of the entire 1,059-nt STMV genome. Three different types of genetic change were observed, including the fixation of novel mutations in 9 of 42 lines, mutation at the major heterogeneity site near nt 751 in 5 of the 19 lines inoculated with a single genotype, and selection of a single major genotype in 6 of the 23 lines inoculated with mixed genotypes. Sequence analyses showed that the majority of mutations were single base substitutions. The distribution of mutation sites included three clusters in which mutations occurred at or very near the same site, suggesting hot spots of genetic change in the STMV genome. The diversity of genetic changes in sibling lines is clear evidence for the important role of chance and random sampling events in the process of genetic diversification of STMV virus populations.

  5. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Flores Ortega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.

  6. Viral hepatitis as co-infection. Of the past to the present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic virus hepatitises and tuberculosis are widespread in the population as monoinfections that is caused by action of biological, social and economic factors of risk. The presented materials of the epidemiological analysis testify to growth of incidence of co-infections, active involvement in epidemic process, lethality increase. For the prevention of formation of co-infections expediently early identification of cases these diseases, adequate treatment of HVG and tuberculosis for the purpose of the prevention of the epidemic situation.

  7. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ariadna Flores; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Muñoz, Raúl Fajardo; Hernández, Israel Quijano

    This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Copy number variation of Fc gamma receptor genes in HIV-infected and HIV-tuberculosis co-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R Machado

    Full Text Available AIDS, caused by the retrovirus HIV, remains the largest cause of morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa yet almost all genetic studies have focused on cohorts from Western countries. HIV shows high co-morbidity with tuberculosis (TB, as HIV stimulates the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB. Recent clinical trials suggest that an effective anti-HIV response correlates with non-neutralising antibodies. Given that Fcγ receptors are critical in mediating the non-neutralising effects of antibodies, analysis of the extensive variation at Fcγ receptor genes is important. Single nucleotide variation and copy number variation (CNV of Fcγ receptor genes affects the expression profile, activatory/inhibitory balance, and IgG affinity of the Fcγ receptor repertoire of each individual. In this study we investigated whether CNV of FCGR2C, FCGR3A and FCGR3B as well as the HNA1 allotype of FCGR3B is associated with HIV load, response to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and co-infection with TB. We confirmed an effect of TB-co-infection status on HIV load and response to HAART, but no conclusive effect of the genetic variants we tested. We observed a small effect, in Ethiopians, of FCGR3B copy number, where deletion was more frequent in HIV-TB co-infected patients than those infected with HIV alone.

  9. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

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    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  10. Molecular epidemiology of co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adult patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudi, Ian; Iijima, Sayuki; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Murakami, Shuko; Isogawa, Masanori; Hachiya, Atsuko; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the genetic characteristics of both viruses among pre-HIV-treatment patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. This cross-sectional survey involved 176 remnant plasma samples collected from consenting HIV patients (median age 35 [18-74]) between June and September 2014. HBV seromarkers were determined by high-sensitivity chemiluminescence assays. Molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted on the basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and S regions of HBV, as well as part of the HIV pol region. Of the 176 participants (65.7% female), 19 (10.8%) were positive for HBsAg (median 0.033 IU/ml (IQR 0.01-415). The HBsAg incidence was higher in men than women (P = 0.009). HBsAg-positive subjects had lower median CD4 counts (P = 0.016). HBV DNA was detectable in 12 HBsAg-positive samples (median 3.36 log cp/ml (2.86-4.51), seven being amplified and sequenced. All isolates were subgenotype A1 without HBV drug resistance mutations but each had at least one BCP/PC mutation. PreS deletion mutants and small S antigen variants M133I/T and D144G were identified. Of the 164 HIV isolates successfully genotyped, 163 (99.4%) were HIV-1 subtype C and only one was HIV-1 subtype F1. Sixteen (9.8%) had at least one drug resistance mutation, predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-related mutations, observed mostly among female participants. This study shows that co-infection with HBV is present among HIV patients enrolling into HIV care in Zimbabwe, suggesting that HBV screening and monitoring programmes be strengthened in this context. J. Med. Virol. 89:257-266, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira; Ogwang, Brenda A; Namegabe, Edmond Ntabe; Mbasa, Ndemo; Kabunga, Deka Kambale; Karafuli, Kambale

    2013-09-01

    HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB) are major contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The two diseases have been described as a harmful synergy as they are biologically and epidemiologically linked. Control of TB/HIV co-infection is an integral and most challenging part of both national TB and national HIV control programmes, especially in contexts of instability where health systems are suffering from political and social strife. This study aimed at assessing the provision of HIV/TB co-infection services in health facilities in the conflict-ridden region of Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey of health facilities that provide either HIV or TB services or both was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which was analysed using descriptive statistics. Eighty facilities were identified, of which 64 facilities were publicly owned. TB care was more available than HIV care (in 61% vs. 9% of facilities). Twenty-three facilities (29%) offered services to co-infected patients. TB/HIV co-infection rates among patients were unknown in 82% of the facilities. Only 19 facilities (24%) reported some coordination with and support from concerned diseases' control programmes. HIV and TB services are largely fragmented, indicating imbalances and poor coordination by disease control programmes. HIV and TB control appear not to be the focus of health interventions in this crisis affected region, despite the high risks of TB and HIV infection in the setting. Comprehensive public health response to this setting calls for reforms that promote joint TB/HIV co-infection control, including improved leadership by the HIV programmes that accuse weaknesses in this conflict-ridden region.

  12. TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthollet Bwira Kaboru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB are major contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The two diseases have been described as a harmful synergy as they are biologically and epidemiologically linked. Control of TB/HIV co-infection is an integral and most challenging part of both national TB and national HIV control programmes, especially in contexts of instability where health systems are suffering from political and social strife. This study aimed at assessing the provision of HIV/TB co-infection services in health facilities in the conflict-ridden region of Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods A cross-sectional survey of health facilities that provide either HIV or TB services or both was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Eighty facilities were identified, of which 64 facilities were publicly owned. TB care was more available than HIV care (in 61% vs. 9% of facilities. Twenty-three facilities (29% offered services to co-infected patients. TB/HIV co-infection rates among patients were unknown in 82% of the facilities. Only 19 facilities (24% reported some coordination with and support from concerned diseases’ control programmes. HIV and TB services are largely fragmented, indicating imbalances and poor coordination by disease control programmes. Conclusion HIV and TB control appear not to be the focus of health interventions in this crisis affected region, despite the high risks of TB and HIV infection in the setting. Comprehensive public health response to this setting calls for reforms that promote joint TB/HIV co-infection control, including improved leadership by the HIV programmes that accuse weaknesses in this conflict-ridden region.

  13. A new automated assign and analysing method for high-resolution rotationally resolved spectra using genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, W.L.; Schmitt, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical technique that has recently been developed to automatically assign and fit high-resolution spectra. The method makes use of genetic algorithms (GA). The current algorithm is compared with previously used analysing methods. The general features of the GA and its

  14. The role of host genetic factors in respiratory tract infectious diseases: systematic review, meta-analyses and field synopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patarčić, Inga; Gelemanović, Andrea; Kirin, Mirna; Kolčić, Ivana; Theodoratou, Evropi; Baillie, Kenneth J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Polašek, Ozren

    2015-01-01

    Host genetic factors have frequently been implicated in respiratory infectious diseases, often with inconsistent results in replication studies. We identified 386 studies from the total of 24,823 studies identified in a systematic search of four bibliographic databases. We performed meta-analyses of

  15. Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chelsea P.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), and the rate of co-infection has been increasing over the last decade. HIV and syphilis co-infection is particularly challenging because the infections interact synergistically thereby increasing the risk of acquisition and transmission as well as accelerating disease progression. Areas Covered This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of HIV and syphilis co-infection among MSM. Expert Commentary Research does not support a different syphilis treatment for co-infected individuals; however, co-infection may warrant a recommendation for antiretroviral therapy. In order to reverse the epidemic of syphilis and HIV co-infection, there needs to be greater awareness, improved cultural sensitivity among health care providers, improved access to preventative services and increased screening for syphilis and HIV. PMID:27626361

  16. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

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    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  17. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown.Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels.Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine.

  18. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfang; Dong, Huimin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine.

  19. Genetic Diversity among Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii Strains Revealed by Allozyme and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demezas, David H.; Reardon, Terry B.; Watson, John M.; Gibson, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were used to examine the genetic diversity of a collection of 18 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, 1 R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, and 2 R. meliloti strains. Allozyme analysis at 28 loci revealed 16 electrophoretic types. The mean genetic distance between electrophoretic types of R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti was 0.83. Within R. leguminosarum, the single strain of bv. viciae differed at an average of 0.65 from strains of bv. trifolii, while electrophoretic types of bv. trifolii differed at a range of 0.23 to 0.62. Analysis of RFLPs around two chromosomal DNA probes also delineated 16 unique RFLP patterns and yielded genetic diversity similar to that revealed by the allozyme data. Analysis of RFLPs around three Sym (symbiotic) plasmid-derived probes demonstrated that the Sym plasmids reflect genetic divergence similar to that of their bacterial hosts. The large genetic distances between many strains precluded reliable estimates of their genetic relationships. PMID:16348600

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm co-infection: spatial distribution and determinants in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chammartin, Frédérique; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-01-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection risk and to investigate determinants of co-infection in Preah Vihear Province, North Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in 60 villages of Preah Vihear Province. Diagnosis was performed on two stool samples, using combined Baermann technique and Koga agar culture plate for S. stercoralis and Kato-Katz technique for hookworm. Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were used to assess demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural determinants of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection and to predict co-infection risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2576 participants included in the study, 48.6% and 49.0% were infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm, respectively; 43.8% of the cases were co-infections. Females, preschool aged children, adults aged 19-49 years, and participants who reported regularly defecating in toilets, systematically boiling drinking water and having been treated with anthelmintic drugs had lower odds of co-infection. While S. stercoralis infection risk did not appear to be spatially structured, hookworm mono-infection and co-infection exhibited spatial correlation at about 20 km. Co-infection risk was positively associated with longer walking distances to a health centre and exhibited a small clustering tendency. The association was only partly explained by climatic variables, suggesting a role for underlying factors, such as

  1. Immune responses induced by co-infection with Capillaria hepatica in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E-K; Lee, S-H; Goo, T W; Quan, F-S

    2018-07-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria hepatica are zoonotic parasites that mainly infect the liver and cause serious liver disorders. However, immunological parameters induced by co-infection with these parasites remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, we investigated immunological profiles induced by co-infection with C. hepatica (CH) in C. sinensis (CS)-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were infected primarily with 50 metacercariae of C. sinensis; 4 weeks later, they were subsequently infected with 1000 infective C. hepatica eggs. Significantly higher levels of C. sinensis- or C. hepatica-specific IgG antibodies were found in the sera of rats. Interestingly, no cross-reacting antibody was observed between C. sinensis and C. hepatica infections. Significantly raised eosinophil levels were found in the blood of C. sinensis/C. hepatica co-infected rats (CS + CH) compared to the blood of rats infected singly with C. sinensis. Co-infected rats showed significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production compared to a single C. sinensis infection. The worm burden of C. sinensis was significantly reduced in co-infected rats compared to the single C. sinensis infection. These results indicate that the eosinophils, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production induced by subsequent infection with C. hepatica in C. sinensis-infected rats might contribute to the observed C. sinensis worm reduction.

  2. Simulation, prediction, and genetic analyses of daily methane emissions in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brügemann, K; Simianer, H; König, S

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an approach combining phenotypes from novel traits, deterministic equations from cattle nutrition, and stochastic simulation techniques from animal breeding to generate test-day methane emissions (MEm) of dairy cows. Data included test-day production traits (milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen), conformation traits (wither height, hip width, body condition score), female fertility traits (days open, calving interval, stillbirth), and health traits (clinical mastitis) from 961 first lactation Brown Swiss cows kept on 41 low-input farms in Switzerland. Test-day MEm were predicted based on the traits from the current data set and 2 deterministic prediction equations, resulting in the traits labeled MEm1 and MEm2. Stochastic simulations were used to assign individual concentrate intake in dependency of farm-type specifications (requirement when calculating MEm2). Genetic parameters for MEm1 and MEm2 were estimated using random regression models. Predicted MEm had moderate heritabilities over lactation and ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, with highest heritabilities around DIM 100. Genetic correlations between MEm1 and MEm2 ranged between 0.91 and 0.94. Antagonistic genetic correlations in the range from 0.70 to 0.92 were found for the associations between MEm2 and milk yield. Genetic correlations between MEm with days open and with calving interval increased from 0.10 at the beginning to 0.90 at the end of lactation. Genetic relationships between MEm2 and stillbirth were negative (0 to -0.24) from the beginning to the peak phase of lactation. Positive genetic relationships in the range from 0.02 to 0.49 were found between MEm2 with clinical mastitis. Interpretation of genetic (co)variance components should also consider the limitations when using data generated by prediction equations. Prediction functions only describe that part of MEm which is dependent on the factors and effects included in the function. With high

  3. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy

  4. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Schmaal, Lianne; van Tol, Marie-Jose

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  5. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kahn, René S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Macqueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  6. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in

  7. Assessment of RAPD Markers to Analyse the Genetic Diversity among Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Raza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity estimation among different species is an important tool for genetic improvement to maximize the yield, desirable quality, wider adaptation, pest and insect resistance that ultimately boosting traditional plant breeding methods. The most efficient way of diversity estimation is application of molecular markers. In this study, twenty random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers were utilized to estimate the genetic diversity between ten sunflower genotypes. Overall 227 bands were amplified by 20 primers with an average of 11.35 bands per primer. RAPD data showed 86.34% polymorophic bands and 13.65% of monomorophic bands. Genetic similarity was ranged from 50.22% to 87.22%. The lowest similarity (50.22% was observed between FH-352 and FH-359 and the maximum similarity 87.22% was observed between A-23 and G-46. Polymorphic information content (PIC values were varying from 0.05 to 0.12 with a mean of 0.09. Cluster analysis based on RAPD results displayed two major distinct groups 1 and 2. Group-2 contains FH-352 which was the most diverse genotype, while group-1 consists of few sub groups with all other genotypes. Ample diversity was found in all the genotypes. Present study reveals novel information about sunflower genome which can be used in future studies for sunflower improvement.

  8. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana = [Genetische analyse van de zaadontwikkeling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon - Kloosterziel, K.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection

  9. Integrating genetic, transcriptional, and functional analyses to identify 5 novel genes for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinner, Moritz F; Tucker, Nathan R; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects >30 million individuals worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and death. AF is highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for the arrhythmia remains incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify new AF-re...

  10. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  11. Advances in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Guofang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are transmitted through the same pathways. Therefore, the incidence of HBV in the HIV-infected population is higher than that in the healthy population, and is more obvious in China given the high HBV prevalence in the country. HIV and HBV co-infection can accelerate the disease process of HBV. Moreover, the incidence of cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is higher in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV than in patients infected HBV alone. When treating patients co-infected with HIV and HBV for HBV infection alone, care should be taken to avoid the induction of HIV resistance. HBV should be considered during drug selection for anti-retroviral treatment. Furthermore, the effective HBV treatment should be retained if anti-retroviral drugs require changing.

  12. Marshes as "Mountain Tops": Genetic Analyses of the Critically Endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Crisley; Gibbs, H Lisle; Costa, Mariellen C; Del-Rio, Glaucia; Silveira, Luís F; Wasko, Adriane P; Francisco, Mercival R

    2015-01-01

    Small populations of endangered species can be impacted by genetic processes such as drift and inbreeding that reduce population viability. As such, conservation genetic analyses that assess population levels of genetic variation and levels of gene flow can provide important information for managing threatened species. The São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a recently-described and critically endangered bird from São Paulo State (Brazil) whose total estimated population is around 250-300 individuals, distributed in only 15 isolated marshes around São Paulo metropolitan region. We used microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the population genetic characteristics of the three largest remaining populations of this species all within 60 km of each other. We detected a high and significant genetic structure between all populations (overall FST = 0.103) which is comparable to the highest levels of differentiation ever documented for birds, (e.g., endangered birds found in isolated populations on the tops of African mountains), but also evidence for first-generation immigrants, likely from small local unsampled populations. Effective population sizes were small (between 28.8-99.9 individuals) yet there are high levels of genetic variability within populations and no evidence for inbreeding. Conservation implications of this work are that the high levels of genetic structure suggests that translocations between populations need to be carefully considered in light of possible local adaptation and that remaining populations of these birds should be managed as conservation units that contain both main populations studied here but also small outlying populations which may be a source of immigrants.

  13. Prevalence of Candida co-infection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava; Charles, Mv Pravin; Noyal, Mariya Joseph; Sivaraman, Umadevi; Kumar, Shailesh; Easow, Joshy M

    2013-01-01

    Candida species are emerging as a potentially pathogenic fungus in patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases. The synergistic growth promoting association of Candida and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has raised increased concern for studying the various Candida spp . and its significance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients during current years. This study was undertaken with the objective of discovering the prevalence of co-infection caused by different Candida species in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum Ziehl-Neelsen staining were included in the study. Candida co-infection was confirmed using the Kahanpaa et al. criteria. Candida species were identified using gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and HiCrome Candida Agar. Candida co-infection was observed in 30 (40%) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Candida albicans was the most common isolate observed in 50% of the patients with co-infection, followed by C. tropicalis (20%) and C. glabrata (20%). Candida co-infection was found in 62.5% of female patients, while it was observed in only 29.4% of the male patients (P value 0.0133). Mean ± SD age of the patients with C. glabrata infection was 65.83 ± 3.19, while the mean ± SD age of the patients with other Candida infections was 43.25 ± 20.44 (P value 0.0138). Many patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have co-infection with Candida spp. The prevalence of non-albicans Candida species is increasing and may be associated with inadequate response to anti-tubercular drugs. C. glabrata infection has a strong association with old age.

  14. Analysis of a summary network of co-infection in humans reveals that parasites interact most via shared resources

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Emily C; Pedersen, Amy B; Fenton, Andy; Petchey, Owen L

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species (viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa or fungi) is commonplace. Most reports show co-infected humans to have worse health than those with single infections. However, we have little understanding of how co-infecting parasites interact within human hosts. We used data from over 300 published studies to construct a network that offers the first broad indications of how groups of co-infecting parasites tend to interact. The network had three l...

  15. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Blois

    Full Text Available Torque teno viruses (TTVs are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a and 1b (TTSuV1b are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b, has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721, being 62.3% (449/721, 60.6% (437/721, and 11.5% (83/721 the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%. Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  16. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sylvain; Mallus, Francesca; Liciardi, Manuele; Pilo, Cristian; Camboni, Tania; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Manzin, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a) and 1b (TTSuV1b) are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b), has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a) into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721), being 62.3% (449/721), 60.6% (437/721), and 11.5% (83/721) the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%). Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  17. A Report on Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Dystrophies by Targeted Genetic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Gudiseva, Harini V; Kishaba, Kameron T; Suk, John J; Verma, Rohan; Tadimeti, Keerti; Thorson, John A; Ayyagari, Radha

    2017-02-01

    To test the utility of targeted sequencing as a method of clinical molecular testing in patients diagnosed with inherited retinal degeneration (IRD). After genetic counseling, peripheral blood was drawn from 188 probands and 36 carriers of IRD. Single gene testing was performed on each patient in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) certified laboratory. DNA was isolated, and all exons in the gene of interest were analyzed along with 20 base pairs of flanking intronic sequence. Genetic testing was most often performed on ABCA4, CTRP5, ELOV4, BEST1, CRB1, and PRPH2. Pathogenicity of novel sequence changes was predicted by PolyPhen2 and sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT). Of the 225 genetic tests performed, 150 were for recessive IRD, and 75 were for dominant IRD. A positive molecular diagnosis was made in 70 (59%) of probands with recessive IRD and 19 (26%) probands with dominant IRD. Analysis confirmed 12 (34%) of individuals as carriers of familial mutations associated with IRD. Thirty-two novel variants were identified; among these, 17 sequence changes in four genes were predicted to be possibly or probably damaging including: ABCA4 (14), BEST1 (2), PRPH2 (1), and TIMP3 (1). Targeted analysis of clinically suspected genes in 225 subjects resulted in a positive molecular diagnosis in 26% of patients with dominant IRD and 59% of patients with recessive IRD. Novel damaging mutations were identified in four genes. Single gene screening is not an ideal method for diagnostic testing given the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among IRD cases. High-throughput sequencing of all genes associated with retinal degeneration may be more efficient for molecular diagnosis.

  18. Comparative Genetic Analyses of Human Rhinovirus C (HRV-C) Complete Genome from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Yam Sim; Chan, Yoke Fun; Jafar, Faizatul Lela; Othman, Norlijah; Chee, Hui Yee

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus-C (HRV-C) has been implicated in more severe illnesses than HRV-A and HRV-B, however, the limited number of HRV-C complete genomes (complete 5′ and 3′ non-coding region and open reading frame sequences) has hindered the in-depth genetic study of this virus. This study aimed to sequence seven complete HRV-C genomes from Malaysia and compare their genetic characteristics with the 18 published HRV-Cs. Seven Malaysian HRV-C complete genomes were obtained with newly redesigned primers. The seven genomes were classified as HRV-C6, C12, C22, C23, C26, C42, and pat16 based on the VP4/VP2 and VP1 pairwise distance threshold classification. Five of the seven Malaysian isolates, namely, 3430-MY-10/C22, 8713-MY-10/C23, 8097-MY-11/C26, 1570-MY-10/C42, and 7383-MY-10/pat16 are the first newly sequenced complete HRV-C genomes. All seven Malaysian isolates genomes displayed nucleotide similarity of 63–81% among themselves and 63–96% with other HRV-Cs. Malaysian HRV-Cs had similar putative immunogenic sites, putative receptor utilization and potential antiviral sites as other HRV-Cs. The genomic features of Malaysian isolates were similar to those of other HRV-Cs. Negative selections were frequently detected in HRV-Cs complete coding sequences indicating that these sequences were under functional constraint. The present study showed that HRV-Cs from Malaysia have diverse genetic sequences but share conserved genomic features with other HRV-Cs. This genetic information could provide further aid in the understanding of HRV-C infection. PMID:27199901

  19. Genetic analyses of nonfluorescent root mutants induced by mutagenesis in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonfluorescent root mutants in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are useful as markers in genetic studies and in tissue culture research. Our objective was to obtain mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutants and to conduct genetic studies with them. Thirteen nonfluorescent mutants were detected among 154016 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with six mutagens. One of these mutants, derived from Williams treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to any of the known (standard) nonfluorescent spontaneous mutants. This is the first mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutant in soybean. It was assigned Genetic Type Collection no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5 fr5. The fr5 allele was not located on trisomics A, B, or C and was not linked to five chlorophyll-deficient mutants (y9, y11, y12, y13, and y20-k2) or flower color mutant w1. The remaining nonfluorescent root mutants were at the same loci as known spontaneous mutants; i.e., four had the fr1 allele, five had the fr2 allele, and three had the fr4 allele

  20. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul M; Stein, Jason L; Medland, Sarah E; Hibar, Derrek P; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C; Andreassen, Ole A; Apostolova, Liana G; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Brohawn, David G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cantor, Rita M; Carless, Melanie A; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chang, Kiki D; Ching, Christopher R K; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J; de Geus, Eco J C; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z; Gollub, Randy L; Grabe, Hans J; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Göring, Harald H H; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N; Haukvik, Unn K; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Hwang, Kristy S; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G; Kahn, René S; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B J; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lee, Phil H; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W J; Macqueen, Glenda M; Malt, Ulrik F; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Moses, Eric K; Mueller, Bryon A; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peterson, Charles P; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L; Roffman, Joshua L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G; Schork, Andrew J; Schulz, S Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soares, Jair C; Sponheim, Scott R; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M; Steen, Vidar M; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G M; van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Veltman, Dick J; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whalley, Heather C; Whelan, Christopher D; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R; Freimer, Nelson B; Lawrence, Natalia S; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.

  1. Analyses of fixed effects for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test day records in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Anang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Season, rainfall, day of rain, temperature, humidity, year and farm are fixed effects, which have been reported to influence milk yield. Those factors are often linked together to contribute to the variation of milk production. This research is addressed to study the fixed effect factors, including lactation curve, which should be considered for genetic evaluation of milk yield based on test day records of dairy cattle. The data were taken from four different farms, which were PT. Taurus Dairy Farm, BPPT Cikole, Bandang Dairy Farm, and BBPTU Baturraden. In total of 16806 test day records were evaluated, consisting of 9,302 at first and 7,504 at second lactation, respectively. The results indicated that fixed effects were very specific and the influences had different patterns for each farm. Consequently, in a genetic evaluation, these factors such as lactation, temperature, year, day of rain, and humidity need to be evaluated first. Ali-Schaeffer curve represented the most appropriate curve to use in the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Indonesia.

  2. First molecular detection of co-infection of honey bee viruses in asymptomatic Bombus atratus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ. Reynaldi

    Full Text Available Pollination is critical for food production and has the particularity of linking natural ecosystems with agricultural production systems. Recently, losses of bumblebee species have been reported worldwide. In this study, samples from a commercial exploitation of bumblebees of Argentina with a recent history of deaths were studied using a multiplex PCR for the detection of the honey bee viruses most frequently detected in South America. All samples analysed were positive for co-infections with Deformed wing virus, Black queen cell virus and Sacbrood virus. This is the first report of infection of Bombus atratus with honey bee viruses. A better understanding of viral infections in bumblebees and of the epidemiology of viruses could be of great importance as bumblebees can serve as possible viral reservoirs, resulting in pathogen spillover towards honey bees and native bumblebees.

  3. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions.

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    Linda Munson

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five "silent" CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer. As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality

  4. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A; Kock, Richard; Mlengeya, Titus; Roelke, Melody E; Dubovi, Edward; Summers, Brian; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Packer, Craig

    2008-06-25

    Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five "silent" CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality events may become

  5. Climate Extremes Promote Fatal Co-Infections during Canine Distemper Epidemics in African Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A.; Kock, Richard; Mlengeya, Titus; Roelke, Melody E.; Dubovi, Edward; Summers, Brian; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Packer, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five “silent” CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality events may

  6. La Co - Infection Paludisme - Salmonellose Une Realite Dans La Ville De Bukavu The Co - Infection Malaria - Salmonellose The Reality In Bukavu Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulumeoderhwa Balamba Ghislain Md Ombeni Bashwira Luc Md

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the area with stable tramission malaria and salmonellose cause death of many senible group children and mather also consomation of family badget prevision. The stady of co-infection paludisme-salmonellose has been done since january 2014 till december 2015 at the Hospital center of Nyamugo in bukavu city. The stady stand for to determine the prevalence of this pathological association malaria-salmonellose in the urban environment of the East of Republic democratic of the Congo. The method consisted of deducting capular and intravenous blood and test it of all the patients who have been consulted at the hospital during that period. A total of 7515 patients have been recorded so 1070 cases of co-infection malaria-salmonellose confirmed so 14.23.other diagnostics concerned only malaria confirmed with 1621 so 21.57 and the salmonellose confirmed with 1058 so 14.07 Other diagnostics may be 50.01. The co-infection malaria-salmonellose is a reality in our town and it can cause the death any time. The clinical signes of malaria- salmonellose association are almost similar to those of malaria due to that the persons who are in charge of treating people should make a systematic diagnostics for well being of the patients.The above ages are concerned and are touched by the malaria-salmonellose association therefor a significativedifference exist among the age of 10 to 1924.67 and the tranch above 800.9t6.524 p0.0001. The co-infection malaria-salmonellose is a great reality for Bukavu town. Resume Dans les zones transmission stable le paludisme et la salmonellose sont particulirement redoutable chez certains groupe cibles notamment les enfants et les femmes en ceintes. Les signes cliniques et les complications varient en fonction des conditions locales de transmission. Cette etude qui sest effectue au Centre Hospitalier de Nyamugo ville de bukavu de janvier 2014 decembre 2015 a consiste determiner la prevalence de la co-infection en milieu urbain lEst de

  7. Genetic architecture and bottleneck analyses of Salem Black goat breed based on microsatellite markers

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    A. K. Thiruvenkadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Salem Black goat population for genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stakeholders. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 50 unrelated Salem Black goats with typical phenotypic features in several villages in the breeding tract and the genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Salem Black goat was done using 25 microsatellite markers as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. The basic measures of genetic variation were computed using bioinformatic software. To evaluate the Salem Black goats for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM, stepwise mutation model (SMM and two-phase model (TPM and the observed gene diversity (He and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. Results: The study revealed that the observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH10, ILSTS008 to 17 (BM64444 with a total of 213 alleles and mean of 10.14±0.83 alleles across loci. The overall observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, inbreeding estimate and polymorphism information content values were 0.631±0.041, 0.820±0.024, 0.233±0.044 and 0.786±0.023 respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The average observed gene diversities (He pooled over different markers was 0.829±0.024 and the average expected gene diversities under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 0.769±0.026, 0.808±0.024 and 0.837±0.020 respectively. The number of loci found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 18, 17 and 12 respectively. Conclusion: All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed

  8. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia. Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot. Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15–23%, I2: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20–32%, I2: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7–17%, I2: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6–11%, I2: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93–2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14–1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: −0.47, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed

  9. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation.812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline.Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007.One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  10. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp, calmodulin (633 bp, glutamine synthetase (711 bp, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp, yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  11. GSEVM v.2: MCMC software to analyse genetically structured environmental variance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Garcia, M; Sorensen, D

    2010-01-01

    This note provides a description of software that allows to fit Bayesian genetically structured variance models using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The gsevm v.2 program was written in Fortran 90. The DOS and Unix executable programs, the user's guide, and some example files are freely available...... for research purposes at http://www.bdporc.irta.es/estudis.jsp. The main feature of the program is to compute Monte Carlo estimates of marginal posterior distributions of parameters of interest. The program is quite flexible, allowing the user to fit a variety of linear models at the level of the mean...

  12. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-10-05

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco.

  13. Evaluation of Kalman filters and genetic algorithms for delayed-neutron nondestructive assay data analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Forsmann, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile/fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several areas of nuclear applications, including international and domestic safeguards, radioactive waste characterization, and nuclear facility operations. An analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of identifying the masses of individual fissionable isotopes from a cumulative delayed-neutron signal resulting form the neutron irradiation of several uranium and plutonium isotopes. The feasibility of two separate data-processing techniques was studied: Kalman filtering and genetic algorithms. The basis of each technique is reviewed, and the structure of the algorithms as applied to the delayed-neutron analysis problem is presented. The results of parametric studies performed using several variants of the algorithms are presented. The effect of including additional constraining information such as additional measurements and known relative isotopic concentration is discussed. The parametric studies were conducted using simulated delayed-neutron data representative of the cumulative delayed-neutron response following irradiation of a sample containing 238 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu. The results show that by processing delayed-neutron data representative of two significantly different fissile/fertile fission ratios, both Kalman filters and genetic algorithms are capable of yielding reasonably accurate estimates of the mass of individual isotopes contained in a given assay sample

  14. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravi Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  15. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  16. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in North-central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Musa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: TB/HIV co-infection is common in our population with substantial number of persons sfrf declining HIV screening. The cure rate for TB in this cohort is poor. Further studies are suggested to trul. address the poor treatment outcome.

  17. TB and HIV co-infection: when to start antiretroviral therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... HIV and TB treatment in co-infected patients is a critical one. Previously, TB ... Indications for ART are based on an assessment of individual risk- benefit analysis of ..... An HIV test was positive, a lumbar puncture was acellular ...

  18. Hepatitis B and C viruses co-infection with Human Immodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and two (102) HIV infected patients at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, were screened for markers of HBV and HCV in order to determine the prevalences of co-infection, and were compared to those in blood donors. The diagnosis of HIV infection was made on the basis of reactivity with two ...

  19. Malaria and Hepatitis B co-infection in patients with febrile illnesses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are co-endemic throughout much of the tropical and sub-Saharan Africa and both present major threat to public health. A study on the prevalence of HBV and Malaria co-infection was carried out on 200 patients presenting with fever at the General Outpatient Department ...

  20. Seroprevalence of HBV and HIV co-infection in children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 4 December 2013 ... Conclusion: HIV/HBV co-infection rates in our children are comparable to ... improved survival due to the success of highly active ... the patients had an average of three adherence ... Negative. Positive c d. 4 c o u n t (c e lls. /u. L. ) Graphs by hepatitis B virus status.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis is one of the world's most common causes of death in the era of Human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection. Methods: Hospital based retrospective studies were conducted among adult ...

  2. Incidence of malaria/typhoid co-infection among adult population in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-infection was higher in females than males and use of herbal medicine for treatment was common. Efforts should be made to improve on the living conditions of the people of Unwana and also, there should be public enlightenment on the preventive and control measures of the two diseases. Since both diseases have ...

  3. Frequency of hepatitis B and C co-infection in chronic liver disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV ...

  4. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in a tertiary health facility in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. ... This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. HIV and TB co-infection in South Sudan: a three year retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dual HIV/TB co-infection is in Africa in which one-third ... HIV and TB rates. A high commercial sex workers presence in the towns. •. [10]. .... but lower than prevalences found in studies conducted .... A retrospective cohort study in South African.

  6. Frequency of Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in Chronic Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg ...

  7. Impact of Tuberculosis Co-Infection on the Level of PCV in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been documented that HIV causes anemia in HIV infected patients. One of the commonest opportunistic infection in HIV patients is TB, and this has also been documented to cause anemia. In Nigeria, several cases of HIV and TB co-infections have been diagnosed. This study was carried out to determine ...

  8. Genotypes of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 co-infected individuals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are the major causes of liver disease worldwide. Co-infections with HBV and HCV have turned out to be increasingly very common among people living with HIV, leading to a major public health concern. Objective: To determine HBV and HCV diversity among HIV infected ...

  9. Zika, dengue, and chikungunya co-infection in a pregnant woman from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer E. Villamil-Gómez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with a triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are described. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 to 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according to the standard guidelines for the management of Zika virus-infected pregnant women.

  10. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particu...

  11. Treatment outcome of Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . TB is a reemerging disease linked with HIV infections. It is necessary to compare the treatment outcome of patients with only Tuberculosis with those with HIV/AIDs co-infection. This study will also provide baseline information on treatment ...

  12. Application of optimal control strategies to HIV-malaria co-infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati; Windarto; Hanif, Lathifah

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of HIV and malaria co-infection transmission dynamics. Optimal control strategies such as malaria preventive, anti-malaria and antiretroviral (ARV) treatments are considered into the model to reduce the co-infection. First, we studied the existence and stability of equilibria of the presented model without control variables. The model has four equilibria, namely the disease-free equilibrium, the HIV endemic equilibrium, the malaria endemic equilibrium, and the co-infection equilibrium. We also obtain two basic reproduction ratios corresponding to the diseases. It was found that the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable whenever their respective basic reproduction numbers are less than one. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the dominant factor controlling the transmission. sic reproduction numbers are less than one. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the dominant factor controlling the transmission. Then, the optimal control theory for the model was derived analytically by using Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations of the optimal control strategies are also performed to illustrate the results. From the numerical results, we conclude that the best strategy is to combine the malaria prevention and ARV treatments in order to reduce malaria and HIV co-infection populations.

  13. Semi-Analytic Solution of HIV and TB Co-Infection Model BOLARIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    HIV/TB co-infection is the most powerful known risk factor for ... homotopy transform to generate a convergent series solution of ... the boundary of the domain Ω. The operator A can be divided into two parts L and N, where L is the linear part,.

  14. Oxidative stress pattern in hepatitis C patients co-infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress pattern in hepatitis C patients co-infected with schistosomiasis. ... Supporting the view that oxidative damage plays a role in chronic HCV infection, also TNF-α establishes a positive auto regulatory loop that can amplify the inflammatory response and lead to chronic inflammation. More evidence indicates that ...

  15. Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Mbarara Hospital ... and its associated factors have not been studied in these patients in Uganda. ... Methods: A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative data ...

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis – malaria co-infections : Epidemiological, immunological and parasitological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, E.

    2017-01-01

    Concomitant infections by multiple pathogen species represent a serious threat to human health. Affecting over a billion people worldwide, co-infections are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, and a powerful driver of pathogen evolution. Their clinical and pathological spectrum

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of ART, patients whose marital status was single were significant predictors for ..... Table 1 Summary result of TB/HIV co-infection vs. socio-demographic, economic and clinical, and risk .... persons are younger than married persons and have a.

  18. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +60 1116689774, E-mail: usuba5050@yahoo.com. Abstract. This case reports bacterial co-infection in a dead albino python (Python bivittatus). The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ.

  19. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  20. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis are increasing public health problem in eastern region of country. A large number of clinical cases of leishmaniasis and tuberculosis have been reported in Sudan. Such type of co-infections lead to decreased host ’s immune system. This is a case report of 48 years old male with visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis. He arrived at hospital with complaints of fever with rigor, abdominal pain, weakness, loss of appetite, yellowish discoloration of urine and sclerosis at lower back. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed the presence of Leishmania donovani bodies (2+. His treatment was initiated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (inj. Fungizone 15 infusions on alternate days with 5% dextrose. He had 20 years past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. His chest X-ray showed increased bronchovascular marking encysted pleural effusion on lower segment of right lung. Ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pleural fluid for protein, sugar, lactate dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, cell type and cell count. Cytological reports confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy (four drug regimen: rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutal, and pyrazinamide was started. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis is a real threat in developing countries. There is a need of cost effective diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for these co-infections.

  1. Longitudinal changes in telomere length and associated genetic parameters in dairy cattle analysed using random regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise A Seeker

    Full Text Available Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1 characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2 estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3 investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan. RLTL measurements were analysed using Legendre polynomials in a random regression model to describe TL profiles and genetic variance over age. The analyses were based on 1,328 repeated RLTL measurements of 308 female Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. A quadratic Legendre polynomial was fitted to the fixed effect of age in months and to the random effect of the animal identity. Changes in RLTL, heritability and within-trait genetic correlation along the age trajectory were calculated and illustrated. At a population level, the relationship between RLTL and age was described by a positive quadratic function. Individuals varied significantly regarding the direction and amount of RLTL change over life. The heritability of RLTL ranged from 0.36 to 0.47 (SE = 0.05-0.08 and remained statistically unchanged over time. The genetic correlation of RLTL at birth with measurements later in life decreased with the time interval between samplings from near unity to 0.69, indicating that TL later in life might be regulated by different genes than TL early in life. Even though animals differed in their RLTL profiles significantly, those differences were not correlated with productive lifespan (p = 0.954.

  2. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  3. Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicosia Rosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. Methods Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV, bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by strand displacement amplification (SDA and the other microorganisms were detected by conventional methods. Results In this cross-sectional study on 857 enrolled outpatients, statistical analyses revealed a significant association of HPV with C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (at high density detection, whereas no correlation was found between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis, Streptococcus agalactiae, yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated only in a few cases both in HPV positive and negative women and no patient was infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Conclusion Although bacterial vaginosis was not significantly associated with HPV, it was more common among the HPV positive women. A significant association between HPV and C. trachomatis was found and interestingly also with U. urealyticum but only at a high colonization rate. These data suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganisms which may have synergistic pathological effects.

  4. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE...

  5. Subtypes of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Japan based on genetic and functional analyses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Nagai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL is a rare disease of infancy or early childhood. To clarify the incidence and subtypes of FHL in Japan, we performed genetic and functional analyses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs in Japanese patients with FHL. DESIGN AND METHODS: Among the Japanese children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH registered at our laboratory, those with more than one of the following findings were eligible for study entry under a diagnosis of FHL: positive for known genetic mutations, a family history of HLH, and impaired CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Mutations of the newly identified causative gene for FHL5, STXBP2, and the cytotoxicity and degranulation activity of CTLs in FHL patients, were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 31 FHL patients who satisfied the above criteria, PRF1 mutation was detected in 17 (FHL2 and UNC13D mutation was in 10 (FHL3. In 2 other patients, 3 novel mutations of STXBP2 gene were confirmed (FHL5. Finally, the remaining 2 were classified as having FHL with unknown genetic mutations. In all FHL patients, CTL-mediated cytotoxicity was low or deficient, and degranulation activity was also low or absent except FHL2 patients. In 2 patients with unknown genetic mutations, the cytotoxicity and degranulation activity of CTLs appeared to be deficient in one patient and moderately impaired in the other. CONCLUSIONS: FHL can be diagnosed and classified on the basis of CTL-mediated cytotoxicity, degranulation activity, and genetic analysis. Based on the data obtained from functional analysis of CTLs, other unknown gene(s responsible for FHL remain to be identified.

  6. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Malaria and helminth co-infection and nutritional status of febrile patients in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Animut, Abebe; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-02-01

    Because the mechanisms by which Plasmodium and helminth parasites affect nutritional status are different, these parasites likely have additive effects when they co-exist in a host. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of undernutrition in patients infected with either Plasmodium or helminths and those co-infected with the two types of parasites. Acute febrile patients suspected of having malaria who attended the outpatient clinic at Dore Bafeno Health Center between December 2010 and February 2011 were examined for Plasmodium parasites using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears and for helminths using the thick Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined using anthropometric indices generated from height and weight measurements. Of the 702 patients examined, 34.5% were infected with helminths alone, 12.3% were infected with Plasmodium alone, and 19.4% co-infected with Plasmodium and intestinal helminths. Out of the patients examined, 44.9% were undernourished. The prevalence of undernutrition was not significantly different between those patients not infected with Plasmodium or helminth species and those infected with Plasmodium or helminth species. The differences in the odds of undernutrition were also not significant between patients who were co-infected with different Plasmodium and helminth species and those with single infections with Plasmodium or helminth species in our multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for the confounding effects of age and sex. The prevalence of undernutrition was comparable in patients infected with Plasmodium or helminths alone and those co-infected with Plasmodium and helminths in Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. However, further studies are needed in areas of intense transmission where both parasites are endemic to elucidate whether the impact of Plasmodium and helminth co-infection on undernutrition is additive or multiplicative. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for

  8. Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutailler, Sara; Valiente Moro, Claire; Vaumourin, Elise; Michelet, Lorraine; Tran, Florence Hélène; Devillers, Elodie; Cosson, Jean-François; Gasqui, Patrick; Van, Van Tran; Mavingui, Patrick; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts. A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens. Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens, opening new

  9. Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moutailler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts.A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites, by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens.Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens

  10. Psychiatric disorders, HIV infection and HIV/hepatitis co-infection in the correctional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, J G; Paar, D P; Wu, H; Giordano, T P; Murray, O; Raimer, B G; Avery, E N; Diamond, P M; Pulvino, J S

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and depression have long been associated with risk behaviors for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The US prison population is reported to have elevated rates of HIV, hepatitis and most psychiatric disorders. This study examined the association of six major psychiatric disorders with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV co-infection and HIV/HBV co-infection in one of the nation's largest prison populations. The study population consisted of 370,511 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2006. Information on medical conditions and sociodemographic factors was obtained from an institution-wide electronic medical information system. Offenders diagnosed with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV, HIV/HBV and all HIV combined exhibited elevated rates of major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, non-schizophrenic psychotic disorder and any psychiatric disorder. In comparison to offenders with HIV mono-infection, those with HIV/HCV co-infection had an elevated prevalence of any psychiatric disorder. This cross-sectional study's finding of positive associations between psychiatric disease and both HIV infection and hepatitis co-infection among Texas prison inmates holds both clinical and public health relevance. It will be important for future investigations to examine the extent to which psychiatric disorders serve as a barrier to medical care, communication with clinicians and adherence to prescribed medical regimens among both HIV-mono-infected and HIV/hepatitis-co-infected inmates.

  11. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-07-08

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study.

  12. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.

  13. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  14. Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection: policy and epidemiology in 25 countries in the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Olsen, M; Ditiu, L

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection.......The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection....

  15. Genetic and functional analyses demonstrate a role for abnormal glycinergic signaling in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorge, M; Fassier, C; Le Corronc, H; Potey, A; Bai, J; De Gois, S; Delaby, E; Assouline, B; Guinchat, V; Devillard, F; Delorme, R; Nygren, G; Råstam, M; Meier, J C; Otani, S; Cheval, H; James, V M; Topf, M; Dear, T N; Gillberg, C; Leboyer, M; Giros, B; Gautron, S; Hazan, J; Harvey, R J; Legendre, P; Betancur, C

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies of rare structural and sequence variants have identified hundreds of loci involved in ASD, but our knowledge of the overall genetic architecture and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains incomplete. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult nervous system but exert an excitatory action in immature neurons. GlyRs containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the embryonic brain, where they promote cortical interneuron migration and the generation of excitatory projection neurons. We previously identified a rare microdeletion of the X-linked gene GLRA2, encoding the GlyR α2 subunit, in a boy with autism. The microdeletion removes the terminal exons of the gene (GLRA2(Δex8-9)). Here, we sequenced 400 males with ASD and identified one de novo missense mutation, p.R153Q, absent from controls. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that the GLRA2(Δex8)(-)(9) protein failed to localize to the cell membrane, while the R153Q mutation impaired surface expression and markedly reduced sensitivity to glycine. Very recently, an additional de novo missense mutation (p.N136S) was reported in a boy with ASD, and we show that this mutation also reduced cell-surface expression and glycine sensitivity. Targeted glra2 knockdown in zebrafish induced severe axon-branching defects, rescued by injection of wild type but not GLRA2(Δex8-9) or R153Q transcripts, providing further evidence for their loss-of-function effect. Glra2 knockout mice exhibited deficits in object recognition memory and impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results implicate GLRA2 in non-syndromic ASD, unveil a novel role for GLRA2 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and link altered glycinergic signaling to social and cognitive

  16. Characterizing genetic diversity of contemporary pacific chickens using mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Needham Dancause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary

  17. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  18. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD. The authors conducted a GWAS in 2,723 cases (1,310 with OCD, 834 with Tourette's syndrome, 579 with OCD plus Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics), 5,667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels (expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10(-4)), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, Tourette's syndrome had a smaller, nonsignificant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that Tourette's syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct

  19. Clinical predictors of dengue fever co-infected with leptospirosis among patients admitted for dengue fever - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Jeyanthi; Chan, Shie-Yien; Ng, Min-Wern; Khaw, Yam-Sim; Ching, Siew-Mooi; Mat-Nor, Lailatul Akmar; Ahmad-Najimudin, Naematul Ain; Chee, Hui-Yee

    2017-06-28

    Dengue and leptospirosis infections are currently two major endemics in Malaysia. Owing to the overlapping clinical symptoms between both the diseases, frequent misdiagnosis and confusion of treatment occurs. As a solution, the present work initiated a pilot study to investigate the incidence related to co-infection of leptospirosis among dengue patients. This enables the identification of more parameters to predict the occurrence of co-infection. Two hundred sixty eight serum specimens collected from patients that were diagnosed for dengue fever were confirmed for dengue virus serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were extracted from the hospital database to identify patients with confirmed leptospirosis infection among the dengue patients. Thus, frequency of co-infection was calculated and association of the dataset with dengue-leptospirosis co-infection was statistically determined. The frequency of dengue co-infection with leptospirosis was 4.1%. Male has higher preponderance of developing the co-infection and end result of shock as clinical symptom is more likely present among co-infected cases. It is also noteworthy that, DENV 1 is the common dengue serotype among all cases identified as dengue-leptospirosis co-infection in this study. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis among dengue infected patients has posed the need to precisely identify the presence of co-infection for the betterment of treatment without mistakenly ruling out either one of them. Thus, anticipating the possible clinical symptoms and laboratory results of dengue-leptospirosis co-infection is essential.

  20. Pleiotropic Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Studies Discover Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases may result from shared biological mechanisms in intrinsic processes of aging. Genetic effects on age-related diseases are often modulated by environmental factors due to their little contribution to fitness or are mediated through certain endophenotypes. Identification of genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on both common complex diseases and endophenotypes may reveal potential conflicting evolutionary pressures and deliver new insights into shared genetic contribution to healthspan and lifespan. Here, we performed pleiotropic meta-analyses of genetic variants using five NIH-funded datasets by integrating univariate summary statistics for age-related diseases and endophenotypes. We investigated three groups of traits: (1 endophenotypes such as blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids, hematocrit, and body mass index, (2 time-to-event outcomes such as the age-at-onset of diabetes mellitus (DM, cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs, and (3 both combined. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identify seven novel genome-wide significant loci (< 5e-08, out of which five are low-frequency variants. Specifically, from Group 2, we find rs7632505 on 3q21.1 in SEMA5B, rs460976 on 21q22.3 (1 kb from TMPRSS2 and rs12420422 on 11q24.1 predominantly associated with a variety of CVDs, rs4905014 in ITPK1 associated with stroke and heart failure, rs7081476 on 10p12.1 in ANKRD26 associated with multiple diseases including DM, CVDs, and NDs. From Group 3, we find rs8082812 on 18p11.22 and rs1869717 on 4q31.3 associated with both endophenotypes and CVDs. Our follow-up analyses show that rs7632505, rs4905014, and rs8082812 have age-dependent effects on coronary heart disease or stroke. Functional annotation suggests that most of these SNPs are within regulatory regions or DNase clusters and in linkage disequilibrium with expression quantitative trait loci, implying their potential regulatory

  1. Comparative analyses of Legionella species identifies genetic features of strains causing Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valero, Laura; Rusniok, Christophe; Rolando, Monica; Neou, Mario; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Demirtas, Jasmin; Rouy, Zoe; Moore, Robert J; Chen, Honglei; Petty, Nicola K; Jarraud, Sophie; Etienne, Jerome; Steinert, Michael; Heuner, Klaus; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Médigue, Claudine; Glöckner, Gernot; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The genus Legionella comprises over 60 species. However, L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae alone cause over 95% of Legionnaires’ disease. To identify the genetic bases underlying the different capacities to cause disease we sequenced and compared the genomes of L. micdadei, L. hackeliae and L. fallonii (LLAP10), which are all rarely isolated from humans. We show that these Legionella species possess different virulence capacities in amoeba and macrophages, correlating with their occurrence in humans. Our comparative analysis of 11 Legionella genomes belonging to five species reveals highly heterogeneous genome content with over 60% representing species-specific genes; these comprise a complete prophage in L. micdadei, the first ever identified in a Legionella genome. Mobile elements are abundant in Legionella genomes; many encode type IV secretion systems for conjugative transfer, pointing to their importance for adaptation of the genus. The Dot/Icm secretion system is conserved, although the core set of substrates is small, as only 24 out of over 300 described Dot/Icm effector genes are present in all Legionella species. We also identified new eukaryotic motifs including thaumatin, synaptobrevin or clathrin/coatomer adaptine like domains. Legionella genomes are highly dynamic due to a large mobilome mainly comprising type IV secretion systems, while a minority of core substrates is shared among the diverse species. Eukaryotic like proteins and motifs remain a hallmark of the genus Legionella. Key factors such as proteins involved in oxygen binding, iron storage, host membrane transport and certain Dot/Icm substrates are specific features of disease-related strains.

  2. A whole genome analyses of genetic variants in two Kelantan Malay individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Juhari, Wan Khairunnisa; Md Tamrin, Nur Aida; Mat Daud, Mohd Hanif Ridzuan; Isa, Hatin Wan; Mohd Nasir, Nurfazreen; Maran, Sathiya; Abdul Rajab, Nur Shafawati; Ahmad Amin Noordin, Khairul Bariah; Nik Hassan, Nik Norliza; Tearle, Rick; Razali, Rozaimi; Merican, Amir Feisal; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2014-12-01

    The sequencing of two members of the Royal Kelantan Malay family genomes will provide insights on the Kelantan Malay whole genome sequences. The two Kelantan Malay genomes were analyzed for the SNP markers associated with thalassemia and Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection was reported to be low prevalence in the north-east as compared to the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia and beta-thalassemia was known to be one of the most common inherited and genetic disorder in Malaysia. By combining SNP information from literatures, GWAS study and NCBI ClinVar, 18 unique SNPs were selected for further analysis. From these 18 SNPs, 10 SNPs came from previous study of Helicobacter pylori infection among Malay patients, 6 SNPs were from NCBI ClinVar and 2 SNPs from GWAS studies. The analysis reveals that both Royal Kelantan Malay genomes shared all the 10 SNPs identified by Maran (Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs) genotypic profiling of Malay patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in Kelantan, 2011) and one SNP from GWAS study. In addition, the analysis also reveals that both Royal Kelantan Malay genomes shared 3 SNP markers; HBG1 (rs1061234), HBB (rs1609812) and BCL11A (rs766432) where all three markers were associated with beta-thalassemia. Our findings suggest that the Royal Kelantan Malays carry the SNPs which are associated with protection to Helicobacter pylori infection. In addition they also carry SNPs which are associated with beta-thalassemia. These findings are in line with the findings by other researchers who conducted studies on thalassemia and Helicobacter pylori infection in the non-royal Malay population.

  3. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Walkup, John; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G.M.; Yao, Yin; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. Here, we report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS and OCD in 2723 cases (1310 with OCD, 834 with TS, 579 with OCD plus TS/chronic tics (CT)), 5667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. Although no individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels, i.e. expression quantitative loci (eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10−4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, TS had a smaller, non-significant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and TS/CT were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that TS and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of TS and OCD. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring TS/CT may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared to OCD alone. PMID:25158072

  4. Genetic and morphological analyses of Gracilaria firma and G. changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), the commercially important agarophytes in western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Poh-Kheng; Lin, Showe-Mei; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Hurtado, Anicia Q; Phang, Siew-Moi; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sun, Zhongmin

    2017-01-01

    Many studies classifying Gracilaria species for the exploitation of agarophytes and the development of the agar industry were conducted before the prevalence of molecular tools, resulting in the description of many species based solely on their morphology. Gracilaria firma and G. changii are among the commercially important agarophytes from the western Pacific; both feature branches with basal constrictions that taper toward acute apices. In this study, we contrasted the morpho-anatomical circumscriptions of the two traditionally described species with molecular data from samples that included representatives of G. changii collected from its type locality. Concerted molecular analyses using the rbcL and cox1 gene sequences, coupled with morphological observations of the collections from the western Pacific, revealed no inherent differences to support the treatment of the two entities as distinct taxa. We propose merging G. changii (a later synonym) into G. firma and recognize G. firma based on thallus branches with abrupt basal constrictions that gradually taper toward acute (or sometimes broken) apices, cystocarps consisting of small gonimoblast cells and inconspicuous multinucleate tubular nutritive cells issuing from gonimoblasts extending into the inner pericarp at the cystocarp floor, as well as deep spermatangial conceptacles of the verrucosa-type. The validation of specimens under different names as a single genetic species is useful to allow communication and knowledge transfer among groups from different fields. This study also revealed considerably low number of haplotypes and nucleotide diversity with apparent phylogeographic patterns for G. firma in the region. Populations from the Philippines and Taiwan were divergent from each other as well as from the populations from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam. Establishment of baseline data on the genetic diversity of this commercially important agarophyte is relevant in the context of cultivation

  5. Factors associated with HIV and HBV co-infection in Northern Thailand

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    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors associated with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV co-infection in Northern Thailand. Methods: We tested 355 newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody by using immunochromatographic and ELISA methods. Cases were positive for one or more of the HBV markers and controls were negative for all HBV markers. All study subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire to identify the associations between variables. We used logistic regression model to evaluate the associations between demographic and behavioral variables and HIV/HBV co-infection. Results: A total of 41 cases and 83 controls were suitable to analyze in the study. Among them, 15.0% were males, 40.3% were 30–39 years old, 62.9% were married, 18.6% were illiterate and 89.5% were employed. Besides, 26 cases (23.4% had a history of a blood transfusion, 12.9% had a history of jaundice, 29.0% had a CD4 cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm3, 0.8% were intravenous drug user, 29.8% tattooed, 64.5% had a body piercing, 12.1% were commercial sex workers, 11.3% had first sexual intercourse at age ≤ 15 years old, 6.5% were homosexual, and no one had a history of HBV vaccination. After controlling for all possible confounder factors in the multiple logistic regression model, we found two factors associated with HIV/ HBV co-infection: number of years in school and CD4 cell count. Subjects with no education were more likely to have HIV/HBV co-infection, which was 7.07 times (odds ratio = 7.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.77–28.24 greater than those with 7 years of education group. Subjects with CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 were less likely to have HIV/HBV co-infection than those with a CD count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 (odds ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.13–0.94. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that having a good education and having a good immune status are a protective factor of HIV

  6. Hepatitis C virus cure does not impact kidney function decline in HIV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carmine; Saeed, Sahar; Cox, Joseph; Vachon, Marie-Louise; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie; Walmsley, Sharon L; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, M John; Hull, Mark; Moodie, Erica E M; Klein, Marina B

    2018-03-27

    To examine the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) and illicit (injection and noninjection) drug use on kidney function among hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV co-infected individuals. Longitudinal observational cohort study of HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Data from 1631 patients enrolled in the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort between 2003 and 2016 were analyzed. Patients who achieved SVR were matched 1 : 2 with chronically infected patients using time-dependent propensity scores. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to model differences in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between chronic HCV-infected patients and those achieving SVR. The relationship between illicit drug use and eGFR was explored in patients who achieved SVR. We identified 384 co-infected patients who achieved SVR (53% treated with interferon-free antiviral regimens) and 768 propensity-score matched patients with chronic HCV infection. Most patients were men (78%) and white (87%), with a median age of 51 years (interquartile range: 45-56). During 1767 person-years of follow-up, 4041 eGFR measurements were available for analysis. Annual rates of decline in eGFR were similar between patients with SVR [-1.32 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.75 to -0.90] and chronic infection [-1.19 (ml/min per 1.73 m) per year, 95% CI -1.55 to -0.84]. Among SVR patients, recent injection cocaine use was associated with rapid eGFR decline [-2.16 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% CI -4.17 to -0.16]. SVR did not reduce the rate of kidney function decline among HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease in co-infection may not be related to persistent HCV replication but to ongoing injection cocaine use.

  7. Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jessica A; Epps, Clinton W; Jeffress, Mackenzie R; Ray, Chris; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Schwalm, Donelle

    2016-09-01

    Landscape connectivity is essential for maintaining viable populations, particularly for species restricted to fragmented habitats or naturally arrayed in metapopulations and facing rapid climate change. The importance of assessing both structural connectivity (physical distribution of favorable habitat patches) and functional connectivity (how species move among habitat patches) for managing such species is well understood. However, the degree to which functional connectivity for a species varies among landscapes, and the resulting implications for conservation, have rarely been assessed. We used a landscape genetics approach to evaluate resistance to gene flow and, thus, to determine how landscape and climate-related variables influence gene flow for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in eight federally managed sites in the western United States. We used empirically derived, individual-based landscape resistance models in conjunction with predictive occupancy models to generate patch-based network models describing functional landscape connectivity. Metareplication across landscapes enabled identification of limiting factors for dispersal that would not otherwise have been apparent. Despite the cool microclimates characteristic of pika habitat, south-facing aspects consistently represented higher resistance to movement, supporting the previous hypothesis that exposure to relatively high temperatures may limit dispersal in American pikas. We found that other barriers to dispersal included areas with a high degree of topographic relief, such as cliffs and ravines, as well as streams and distances greater than 1-4 km depending on the site. Using the empirically derived network models of habitat patch connectivity, we identified habitat patches that were likely disproportionately important for maintaining functional connectivity, areas in which habitat appeared fragmented, and locations that could be targeted for management actions to improve functional connectivity

  8. Evolutionary genetic analyses of MEF2C gene: implications for learning and memory in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Arasappa, Rashmi; Rao, Naren P

    2013-02-01

    MEF2C facilitates context-dependent fear conditioning (CFC) which is a salient aspect of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. CFC might have played a crucial role in human evolution because of its advantageous influence on survival of species. In this study, we analyzed 23 orthologous mammalian gene sequences of MEF2C gene to examine the evidence for positive selection on this gene in Homo sapiens using Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) and HyPhy software. Both PAML Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) and HyPhy Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL) analyses supported significant positive selection on 4 codon sites in H. sapiens. Also, haplotter analysis revealed significant ongoing positive selection on this gene in Central European population. The study findings suggest that adaptive selective pressure on this gene might have influenced human evolution. Further research on this gene might unravel the potential role of this gene in learning and memory as well as its pathogenetic effect in certain hippocampal disorders with evolutionary basis like schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. P. vivax malaria and dengue fever co-infection: a cross-sectional study in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa M L Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity.A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011 in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1% presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37% dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8% were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected, deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected, hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected.In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group.

  10. P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Siqueira, André M.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Souza, Marcela S.; Gimaque, João B.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Melo, Gisely C.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011) in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1%) presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37%) dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8%) were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected), deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected), hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected). Conclusions/Significance In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients) and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients) should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group. PMID:25340346

  11. Co-infection tuberculose et VIH: Hausse des CD4 avec le traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION: L'administration parallèle d'antituberculeux et d'antirétroviraux chez nos patients co-infectés par la tuberculose et le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) nous a fait observer près de 25 % d'hépatites toxiques conduisant à l'arrêt de tous traitements. Nous avons ainsi dû mener ce travail en ...

  12. HBV and HIV co-infection: Prevalence and clinical outcomes in tertiary care hospital Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Ali; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Soo, Chow Ting; Khan, Kashifullah

    2016-03-01

    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of Food Insecurity on Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-HCV Co-infected People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibibula, Wusiman; Cox, Joseph; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Moodie, Erica E M; Naimi, Ashley I; McLinden, Taylor; Klein, Marina B; Brassard, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) is associated with depressive symptoms among HIV mono-infected people. Our objective was to examine to what extent this association holds among HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected people. We used data from a prospective cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected people in Canada. FI was measured using the ten-item adult scale of Health Canada's Household Food Security Survey Module and was classified into three categories: food secure, moderate FI, and severe FI. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and was classified into absence or presence of depressive symptoms. FI, depressive symptoms, and other covariates were updated every 6 months. The association between FI and depressive symptoms was assessed using a stabilized inverse probability weighted marginal structural model. The study sample included 725 HIV-HCV co-infected people with 1973 person-visits over 3 years of follow up. At baseline, 23% of participants experienced moderate food insecurity, 34% experienced severe food insecurity and 52% had depressive symptoms. People experiencing moderate FI had 1.63 times (95% CI 1.44-1.86) the risk of having depressive symptoms and people experiencing severe FI had 2.01 times (95% CI 1.79-2.25) the risk of having depressive symptoms compared to people who were food secure. FI is a risk factor for developing depressive symptoms among HIV-HCV co-infected people. Food supplementation, psychosocial support and counseling may improve patient health outcomes.

  14. Microbial translocation is correlated with HIV evolution in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.

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    Jean-Jacques Tudesq

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP were used. Clinical, biological and immunological characteristics of the population were studied in order to correlate them with the intensity of the MT. We demonstrate that indirect markers of MT, LBP and CD14s, and a marker of intestinal permeability (I-FABP are significantly higher in HIV-HCV co-infected patients than in healthy controls (17.0 vs 2.6 μg/mL, p < 0.001; 1901.7 vs 1255.0 ng/mL, p = 0.018; 478.3 vs 248.1 pg/mL, p < 0.001, respectively, while a direct marker of MT (16S rDNA copies is not different between these two populations. However, plasma 16S rDNA was significantly higher in co-infected patients with long-standing HIV infections (RGM = 1.47 per 10 years, CI95% = [1.04:2.06], p = 0.03. Our findings show that in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, plasma 16S rDNA levels, directly reflecting MT, seem to be linked to the duration of HIV infection, while elevated levels of LBP and sCD14 reflect only a persistence of immune activation. The levels of these markers were not correlated with HCV evolution.

  15. Hypovitaminosis D increases TB co-infection risk on HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Y. A. A. A.; Sukmawati, D. D.; Utama, S. M.; Somia, I. K. A.; Merati, T. P.

    2018-03-01

    Tuberculosis is causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with HIV. Hypovitaminosis D, a defective cell-mediated immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been extensively described in HIV patients, but studies assessing the role of vitamin D in TB-HIV co-infection are lacking. We, therefore, conducted a 1:1 pair- matched case-control study to verify hypovitaminosis D possible risk factor of TB- HIV co- infection. Consecutive HIV patients starting ARV and sex, age and CD4 cell count matched were by recruiting. Tuberculosis has confirmed by thepresence of acid-fast bacilli in sputum or mycobacterium detected in specimens culture/Gene Xpert/PCR. Vitamin D levels were by measuring direct chemiluminescent immunoassay on a LIAISON®25OH analyzer. The study comprised 25 cases and 25 controls, median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D3 serum concentration were 19.80 (12.15-27.45) ng/mL in cases and 33.30 (27.2-39.4) ng/mL in controls (PHIV patients.(OR 26.154 (90% CI: 4.371-156.541); p HIV co-infection.

  16. Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

  17. Involvement of Hookworm Co-Infection in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Podoconiosis: Possible Immunological Mechanism

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    Damilare O. Famakinde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is an endemic, non-infectious, geochemical and non-filarial inflammatory cause of tropical elephantiasis. The immunology of podoconiosis is not yet expressly understood. In spite of this, co-infection and co-morbidity with the infectious, soil-transmitted hookworm disease that causes iron deficiency anemia has been found to be predominant among affected individuals living in co-endemic settings, thus creating a more complex immunological interplay that still has not been investigated. Although deworming and iron-rich nutrient supplementation have been suggested in podoconiosis patients living under resource-poor conditions, and it is thought that hookworm infection may help to suppress inflammatory responses, the undisputed link that exists between a non-infectious and an infectious disease may create a scenario whereby during a co-infection, treatment of one exacerbates the other disease condition or is dampened by the debilitation caused by the other. In this paper, we elaborate on the immunopathogenesis of podoconiosis and examine the possible immunological dynamics of hookworm co-infection in the immunopathology of podoconiosis, with a view toward improved management of the disease that will facilitate its feasible elimination.

  18. Depression in HIV and HCV co-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the differences in the prevalence of depression and presence of depressive symptoms between HIV/HCV co-infection, HIV mono-infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection. A systematic electronic search of bibliographic databases was performed to locate articles published from the earliest available online until December 2014. Outcomes of depression were based on clinical interviews and validated self-reported measures of depression/depressive symptoms. Of the 188 records initially screened, 29 articles were included in the descriptive systematic review and six were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic results indicated that, as measured by self-reported measures of depression, HIV/HCV co-infected patients were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms than either HIV (SMD = .24, 95% CI: .03-.46, p = .02) or HCV mono-infected (SMD = .55, 95% CI: .17-.94, p = .005) patients. The variability of the results of the reviewed studies, largely dependent on the samples' characteristics and the methods of assessment of depression, suggests that a clear interpretation of how depression outcomes are affected by the presence of HIV/HCV co-infection is still needed. Failing to diagnose depression or to early screen depressive symptoms may have a significant impact on patients' overall functioning and compromise treatments' outcomes.

  19. Genetic and Cytological Analyses of the Natural Variation of Seed Number per Pod in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

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    Yuhua Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed number is one of the key traits related to plant evolution/domestication and crop improvement/breeding. In rapeseed germplasm, the seed number per pod (SNPP shows a very wide variation from several to nearly 30; however, the underlying causations/mechanisms for this variation are poorly known. In the current study, the genetic and cytological bases for the natural variation of SNPP in rapeseed was firstly and systematically investigated using the representative four high-SNPP and five low-SNPP lines. The results of self- or cross-pollination experiment between the high- and low-SNPP lines showed that the natural variation of SNPP was mainly controlled by maternal effect (mean = 0.79, followed by paternal effect (mean = 0.21. Analysis of the data using diploid seed embryo–cytoplasmic–maternal model further showed that the maternal genotype, embryo, and cytoplasm effects, respectively, explained 47.6, 35.2, and 7.5% of the genetic variance. In addition, the analysis of combining ability showed that for the SNPP of hybrid F1 was mainly determined by the general combining ability of parents (63.0%, followed by special combining ability of parental combination (37.0%. More importantly, the cytological observation showed that the SNPP difference between the high- and low-SNPP lines was attributable to the accumulative differences in its components. Of which, the number of ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules to be fertilized, and the proportion of fertilized ovules to develop into seeds accounted for 30.7, 18.2, 7.1, and 43.9%, respectively. The accordant results of both genetic and cytological analyses provide solid evidences and systematic insights to further understand the mechanisms underlying the natural variation of SNPP, which will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars in rapeseed.

  20. Hiv/hbv, hiv/hcv and hiv/htlv-1 co infection among injecting drug user patients hospitalized at the infectious disease ward of a training hospital in iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Etemadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for HBV, HCV and HTLV-I co-infection in the Iranian HIV positive Injecting Drug Users (IDU) patients admitted in hospital. Analyses were based on 154 male IDU patients admitted in Infectious disease ward of Razi Hospital, Ahwaz, Iran, from April 2001 to March 2003. All of them had been tested for HIV infection (Elisa-antibody and Western blot), HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody and HTLV-1 antibody. One hundred and four patients (67.53%) were identified as HIV infected. Among HIV infected, HB surface antigen, HCV antibody and HTLV-I antibody were positive in 44.23% and 74.04% and 16.33% patients respectively. HCV/HBV/HIV and HCV/HBV/HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection were 20.20% and 8.65% respectively. Co-infection with HBV or HCV or HTLV-1 is common among hospitalized HIV-infected IDU patients in the region of study. HIV disease outcomes appear to be adversely affected by HBV/HCV/HTLV-I co-infection, so identification of these viral infections is recommended as routine tests for this population. (author)

  1. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  2. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  3. Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from the SMART study showed that HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons with impaired liver function are at increased risk of death following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of fibrosis and ART interruption...... on levels of biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected persons in the SMART study. STUDY DESIGN: All HIV/HCV co-infected persons with stored plasma at study entry and at six months of follow-up were included (N=362). D-dimer, IL-6, sCD14 and hepatic...

  4. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98%) had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%). Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%), E. canis in two (4%), and H. canis in one (2%) out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%), November (27%), December (20%), February (13%) and March (9%). Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50%) out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9%) included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum

  5. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado João

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98% had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%. Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%, E. canis in two (4%, and H. canis in one (2% out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%, November (27%, December (20%, February (13% and March (9%. Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50% out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9% included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected

  6. Association between canine leishmaniosis and Ehrlichia canis co-infection: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Soutter, Francesca; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Carver, Scott; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L. infantum on peripheral blood) and clinically healthy, ideally breed-, sex- and age-matched, control dogs (negative qPCR and ELISA antibody for L. infantum on peripheral blood) from Paphos, Cyprus. We obtained demographic data and all dogs underwent PCR on EDTA-blood extracted DNA for haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp., with DNA sequencing to identify infecting species. We used logistic regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the risk of VBP infections between ClinL cases and controls. From the 50 enrolled dogs with ClinL, DNA was detected in 24 (48%) for Hepatozoon spp., 14 (28%) for Mycoplasma haemocanis, 6 (12%) for Ehrlichia canis and 2 (4%) for Anaplasma platys. In the 92 enrolled control dogs, DNA was detected in 41 (45%) for Hepatozoon spp., 18 (20%) for M. haemocanis, 1 (1%) for E. canis and 3 (3%) for A. platys. No Babesia spp. or "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" DNA was detected in any dog. No statistical differences were found between the ClinL and controls regarding age, sex, breed, lifestyle and use of ectoparasitic prevention. A significant association between ClinL and E. canis infection (OR = 12.4, 95% CI: 1.5-106.0, P = 0.022) was found compared to controls by multivariate logistic regression. This association was confirmed using SEM, which further identified that younger dogs were more likely to be infected with each of Hepatozoon spp. and M. haemocanis, and dogs with Hepatozoon spp. were more likely to

  7. Genital prevalence of HPV types and co-infection in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos P. Freire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HPV infection is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease and there is evidence of the relationship of HPV infection and the development of genital warts, penile intraepitelial neoplasia, invasive penile carcinoma and cervical cancer. However, there is sparse data regarding the prevalence of HPV types and co-infection of different HPV types among men. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HPV subtypes infections and rates of co-infection among men. Materials and Methods: 366 men were evaluated from March to October 2010. Men were referred to our institution for HPV diagnostic evaluation based on the following criteria: 1. presence of a genital wart; 2. presence of an atypical genital lesion; 3. absence of symptoms and a partner with a HPV diagnosis; 4. absence of symptoms and a desire to undergo a full STD diagnostic evaluation. Genital samples were collected from the urethra, penile shaft, scrotum and anus with Digene® collection and preservation kit and submitted to HPV genotype microarray detection (Papillocheck®. All men were tested for the low-risk HPV types 6-11-40-42-43-44 and for the high-risk HPV types 16-18-31-33-35-39-45-51-52-53-56-58-59-66-68-70-73-82. Results: Of the 366 men, 11 were tested inconclusive and were excluded from the analysis. 256 men (72.1% of the men from the cohort referred to our institution tested positive with genotype micro-array detection and 99 tested negative. The most prevalent HPV-subtypes in the studied population were 6, 42, 51 and 16. Co-infection was found in 153 men. Of those, 70 (19.7% had a co-infection by 2 types, 37 (10.4% by 3 types; 33 men (9.2% by 4 types; 8 men (2.2% by 5 types; 1 man (0.3% by 6 types; 1 man (0.3% by 7 types; 2 men (0.6% by 8 types and 1 man (0.3% by 9 types. Conclusion: The most frequent HPV types were 6, 16, 42 and 51. Co-infection was found in 59% of our patients. This information is vital to drive future public health policies including massive

  8. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  9. Gene Set Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies on 49 Quantitative Traits Measured in a Single Genetic Epidemiology Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr < 0.05. Pairwise comparison of the traits in terms of the semantic similarity in their GO sets revealed surprising cases where phenotypically uncorrelated traits showed high similarity in terms of biological pathways. For example, the pH level was related to 7 other traits that showed low phenotypic correlations with it. A literature survey implies that these traits may be regulated partly by common pathways that involve neuronal or nerve systems.

  10. Population genetic analyses are consistent with the introduction of Ceramium secundatum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Meghann R; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    During ongoing DNA barcode (COI-5P) surveys of the macroalgal flora along the northwest Atlantic coast, we discovered a population of Ceramium secundatum in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. This species is regarded as common and widespread in the northeast Atlantic, ranging from Norway to Morocco, but until now has not been reported from the western Atlantic. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. secundatum may be introduced to Narragansett Bay: (1) despite extensive collecting, specimens have only been obtained from a limited geographic range in the northwest Atlantic; (2) three other nonindigenous seaweed species are reportedly introduced in this region, which is thought to be a consequence of shipping; and (3) this species is introduced to South Africa and New Zealand. To investigate this suspected introduction, we applied population genetic analyses (using the cox2-3 spacer) to compare the Narragansett Bay C. secundatum population to native populations in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Collectively, analyses of biogeographical and molecular data indicate that C. secundatum is likely introduced to Narragansett Bay. The implications of this discovery are discussed.

  11. Cause-specific excess mortality in siblings of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, AB; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals is associated with 3- to 4-fold higher mortality among these patients' siblings, compared with siblings of mono-infected HIV-patients or population controls. This indicates that risk factors shared by family members partially...... account for the excess mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. We aimed to explore the causes of death contributing to the excess sibling mortality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved causes of death from the Danish National Registry of Deaths and estimated cause-specific excess mortality...... rates (EMR) for siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals (n = 436) and siblings of HIV mono-infected individuals (n = 1837) compared with siblings of population controls (n = 281,221). Siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 3.03 (95% CI, 1.56-4.50) per 1,000 person...

  12. Prospective use of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor to screen TB co-infected with HIV patient among TB patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yudani Mardining Raras

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Plasma suPAR level of TB patients co-infected with HIV showed significantly difference from that of TB-AFB(+ patients suggested its potential to screen the TB/HIV among pulmonary TB-AFB(+ patients.

  13. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort.......The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort....

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Prabha; Khan, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have several important similarities including worldwide distribution, hepato-tropism, similar modes of transmission and the ability to induce chronic infection that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since both viruses are individually known to cause the pathologies mentioned above, co-infection with both HBV and HCV would be expected to be linked with higher morbidity as well as mortality and impact healthcare resource utilisation. Precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection would be needed to formulate policy decisions and plan communal health interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aims to understand the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in India based on the available literature. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary studies reporting the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, Google SCHOLAR, Medline, Cochrane Library, WHO reports, Indian and International journals online. All online searches were conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect statistical software. Thirty studies published between 2000 and 2016 conducted across six regions of India were included in this review. The pooled HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence rate across the thirty studies was 1.89% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.2%-2.4%). A high heterogeneity was observed between prevalence estimates. The HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence in different subgroups varied from 0.02% (95% CI = 0.0019%-0.090%) to 3.2% (95% CI = 1.3%-5.9%). The pooled prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India was found to be 1.89%. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in chronic liver patients, followed by HIV-positive patients, and then followed by persons who inject drugs and kidney disease patients.

  15. Increased intrahepatic apoptosis but reduced immune activation in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Thompson, Alexander J; Boyd, Alison; Matthews, Gail V; Locarnini, Stephen A; Slavin, John; Desmond, Paul V; Lewin, Sharon R

    2011-01-14

    to determine if intrahepatic immune activation is increased in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients compared to HBV mono-infected patients and whether this reduced following HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-HBV co-infected patients. : Case-control observational study. we examined liver biopsies for markers of T-cell and monocyte infiltration and activation, natural killer cells, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation (staining for alpha smooth muscle actin) and apoptosis [using terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)] in treatment-naive Asian HIV-HBV co-infected (n = 16) and HBV mono-infected patients matched for age and HBV e-antigen status (n = 16). Liver biopsies from a subset of co-infected patients (n = 15) were also compared prior to and following 48 weeks of HBV-active ART. HIV-HBV co-infected patients had a median CD4 T-cell count of 25 cells/microl and lower alanine aminotransferase levels than HBV mono-infected patients (P = 0.03). In HIV-HBV co-infected patients, hepatocyte apoptosis was increased (P = 0.04) but there were fewer intrahepatic CD4 and CD8 T cells (P < 0.001), lower activation of intrahepatic T cells, Kupffer cells and HSC (P = 0.002, 0.008 and < 0.001, respectively). Following ART, there was a significant decrease in intrahepatic HBsAg staining (P = 0.04) and Kupffer cell activation (P = 0.003). we found no evidence of increased intrahepatic mononuclear and HSC activation in this cohort of HIV-HBV co-infected individuals with advanced immune suppression. An increase in intra-hepatic apoptosis in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals may potentially contribute to accelerated fibrosis in this setting. 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Syphilis and HIV/Syphilis Co-infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Isabel; Johnson, Ayesha; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    There is a reemergence of syphilis in the Latin American and Caribbean region. There is also very little information about HIV/Syphilis co-infection and its determinants. The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections (STIs), in particular syphilis infection and HIV/Syphilis co-infection, as well as to estimate the prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a city with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 291 adult MSM. Questions included knowledge about STIs and their sexual practices. Blood samples were taken from participants to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. In this population, the prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 4.8%, while the prevalence of syphilis as mono-infection was 6.5%. Participants who had syphilis mono-infection and HIV/syphilis co-infection were older. Men who had multiple partners and those who were forced to have sex had increased odds of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. A high prevalence of syphilis and self-reported STI was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. Co-infections are a cause for concern when treating a secondary infection in a person who is immunocompromised. These data suggest that specific knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among MSM are associated with increased odds of STIs (including HIV/syphilis co-infections) in this region of Ecuador.

  18. Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV co-infection in Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenekwe, C C; Ukibe, N; Meludu, S C; Ifeanyi, M; Ezeani, M; Onochie, A; Ofiaeli, N; Aboh, N; Ilika, A

    2008-06-01

    The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective. Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i) Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45); and (ii) HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57). Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations. The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in 'Malaria-HIV co-infection group' compared with 'HIV infection group' (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05). A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p < 0.05) while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = - 0.388; p < 0.05) and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = -0.362; p < 0.05) in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group. In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.

  19. Food Insecurity in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-infected Individuals in Canada: The Importance of Co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Joseph; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; McLinden, Taylor; Moodie, Erica E M; Anema, Aranka; Rollet-Kurhajec, Kathleen C; Paradis, Gilles; Rourke, Sean B; Walmsley, Sharon L; Klein, Marina B

    2017-03-01

    While research has begun addressing food insecurity (FI) in HIV-positive populations, knowledge regarding FI among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is limited. This exploratory study examines sociodemographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with FI in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals in Canada. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Food Security and HIV-HCV Co-infection Study of the Canadian Co-infection Cohort collected between November 2012-June 2014 at 15 health centres. FI was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module and classified using Health Canada criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess factors associated with FI. Among 525 participants, 59 % experienced FI at their first study visit (baseline). Protective factors associated with FI (p food (aOR: 5.23, 95 % CI: 2.53, 10.81), and recent experiences of depressive symptoms (aOR: 2.11, 95 % CI: 1.48, 3.01). FI is common in this co-infected population. Engagement of co-infected individuals in substance use treatments, harm reduction programs, and mental health services may mitigate FI in this vulnerable subset of the HIV-positive population.

  20. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the varroa sensitive hygienic trait in Russian honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Holloway, Beth; Frake, Amanda M; Rinderer, Thomas E; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2014-01-01

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB) and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an "actual brood removal assay" that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL) to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25). Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa) out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock.

  2. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the varroa sensitive hygienic trait in Russian honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Kirrane

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH, provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an "actual brood removal assay" that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25. Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock.

  3. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa

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    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and eosinophils were also analysed. Lymphocyte activation markers (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38 and CD71 were determined. Non parametric statistics were used to describe differences in the variables between the subgroups. Results Helminth prevalence ranged between 40%-60%. Four distinct subgroups of were identified, and this included egg positive/high Ascaris-specific IgE (egg+IgEhi, egg positive/low IgE (egg+IgElo, egg negative/high IgE (egg-IgEhi and egg negative/low IgE (egg-IgElo individuals. The egg+IgEhi subgroup displayed lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, (low CD4+ counts in HIV- group, high viral load (in HIV+ group, and an activated lymphocyte profile. High Ascaris IgE subgroups (egg+IgEhi and egg-IgEhi had eosinophilia, highest viral loads, and lower CD4+ counts in the HIV- group. Egg excretion and low IgE (egg+IgElo status demonstrated a modified Th2 immune profile with a relatively competent response to HIV. Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high

  4. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV co-infection and risk factors analysis in Tripoli-Libya.

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    Mohamed A Daw

    Full Text Available In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population.A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay.A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20-40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection.HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.

  5. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  6. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV Co-Infection and Risk Factors Analysis in Tripoli-Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A.; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. Methods A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20–40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. Conclusion HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned. PMID:24936655

  7. Assessing the impact of feline immunodeficiency virus and bovine tuberculosis co-infection in African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; Keet, D F; Rutten, V P M G; Heesterbeek, J A P; Nielen, M

    2012-10-22

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease that was introduced relatively recently into the Kruger National Park (KNP) lion population. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(ple)) is thought to have been endemic in lions for a much longer time. In humans, co-infection between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus increases disease burden. If BTB were to reach high levels of prevalence in lions, and if similar worsening effects would exist between FIV(ple) and BTB as for their human equivalents, this could pose a lion conservation problem. We collected data on lions in KNP from 1993 to 2008 for spatio-temporal analysis of both FIV(ple) and BTB, and to assess whether a similar relationship between the two diseases exists in lions. We found that BTB prevalence in the south was higher than in the north (72 versus 19% over the total study period) and increased over time in the northern part of the KNP (0-41%). No significant spatio-temporal differences were seen for FIV(ple) in the study period, in agreement with the presumed endemic state of the infection. Both infections affected haematology and blood chemistry values, FIV(ple) in a more pronounced way than BTB. The effect of co-infection on these values, however, was always less than additive. Though a large proportion (31%) of the lions was co-infected with FIV(ple) and M. bovis, there was no evidence for a synergistic relation as in their human counterparts. Whether this results from different immunopathogeneses remains to be determined.

  8. Gammaherpesvirus Co-infection with Malaria Suppresses Anti-parasitic Humoral Immunity.

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    Caline G Matar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to non-cerebral severe malaria is estimated to occur within 1-2 infections in areas of endemic transmission for Plasmodium falciparum. Yet, nearly 20% of infected children die annually as a result of severe malaria. Multiple risk factors are postulated to exacerbate malarial disease, one being co-infections with other pathogens. Children living in Sub-Saharan Africa are seropositive for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV by the age of 6 months. This timing overlaps with the waning of protective maternal antibodies and susceptibility to primary Plasmodium infection. However, the impact of acute EBV infection on the generation of anti-malarial immunity is unknown. Using well established mouse models of infection, we show here that acute, but not latent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection suppresses the anti-malarial humoral response to a secondary malaria infection. Importantly, this resulted in the transformation of a non-lethal P. yoelii XNL infection into a lethal one; an outcome that is correlated with a defect in the maintenance of germinal center B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh cells in the spleen. Furthermore, we have identified the MHV68 M2 protein as an important virus encoded protein that can: (i suppress anti-MHV68 humoral responses during acute MHV68 infection; and (ii plays a critical role in the observed suppression of anti-malarial humoral responses in the setting of co-infection. Notably, co-infection with an M2-null mutant MHV68 eliminates lethality of P. yoelii XNL. Collectively, our data demonstrates that an acute gammaherpesvirus infection can negatively impact the development of an anti-malarial immune response. This suggests that acute infection with EBV should be investigated as a risk factor for non-cerebral severe malaria in young children living in areas endemic for Plasmodium transmission.

  9. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  10. Co-infection of HIV and HBV in voluntary counseling and testing center in Abidjan

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    Kouassi-M ’Bengue A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV and immune deficiency virus (HIV among clients consulting at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (VCT Center of the Institut Pasteur de C ôte d ’Ivoire (IPCI. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2010 at the VCT of IPCI. All clients attending the VCT of IPCI for HIV test after having signed the informed consent form were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from the clients after an interview. Then the rapid tests for screening of HIV infection (Determine HIV 1/2 of Abbott and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2, Bio-Rad were performed. As for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg test, it was performed using ELISA test system using Monolisa HBsAg Ultra-Bio-Rad. Results: Of 278 samples analyzed, 30 were positive to antibody against HIV-1, giving a seroprevalence of about 10.8%, and 35 were positive to HBsAg, giving a seroprevalence of 12.6%. As for co-infection of HIV and HBV, it was 7/278 cases about 2.5%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that co-infection of HBV and HIV is relatively low among clients consulting at the VCT of the IPCI. Serological surveillance should be systematic in various HIV testing centers in the country. The use of rapid tests for detection of HBsAg allows a lot of tests to be realized. However, the choice of these tests depends on the evaluation results in reference laboratories and situation on ground.

  11. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  12. Syphilis and HIV prevalence and associated factors to their co-infection, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses prevalence among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Riedel, David J; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2017-07-28

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and share modes of transmission. These infections are generally more prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs). This is a cross-sectional study conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda in 2015. Venue-Day-Time (VDT) sampling method was used in recruiting participants. HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV testing were performed. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were computed. In total, 1978 FSWs were recruited. The majority (58.5%) was aged between 20 and 29 years old. Up to 63.9% of FSWs were single, 62.3% attained primary school, and 68.0% had no additional occupation beside sex work. Almost all FSWs (81.2%) had children. The majority of FSWs (68.4%) were venue-based, and most (53.5%) had spent less than five years in sex work. The overall prevalence of syphilis was 51.1%; it was 2.5% for HBV, 1.4% for HCV, 42.9% for HIV and 27.4% for syphilis/HIV co-infection. The prevalence of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis + HIV co-infection was increasing with age and decreasing with the level of education. A positive association with syphilis/HIV co-infection was found in: 25 years and older (aOR = 1.82 [95% CI:1.33-2.50]), having had a genital sore in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.34 [95% CI:1.05-1.71]), and having HBsAg-positive test (aOR = 2.09 [1.08-4.08]). The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and HIV/syphilis co-infection are very high among FSWs in Rwanda. A strong, specific prevention program for FSWs and to avert HIV infection and other STIs transmission to their clients is needed.

  13. CD4 lymphocyte dynamics in Tanzanian pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aase B.; Range, Nyagosya; Changalucha, John

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time has previously been divergently reported and only in small study populations with short or no follow-up. METHODS: CD4 counts were assessed from time of diagnosis till the end of TB treatment in a cohort...... of pulmonary TB patients with and without HIV co-infection and compared with cross-sectional data on age- and sex-matched non-TB controls from the same area. RESULTS: Of 1605 study participants, 1250 were PTB patients and 355 were non-TB controls. At baseline, HIV was associated with 246 (95% CI: 203; 279...

  14. Co-infection of turkeys with Escherichia coli (O78) and H6N1 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sajid; Delverdier, Maxence; Delpont, Mattias; Belkasmi, Sakhia F Z; Teillaud, Angélique; Bleuart, Céline; Pardo, Isabelle; El Houadfi, Mohammed; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Ducatez, Mariette F

    2018-03-28

    Respiratory diseases are responsible for major economic losses in poultry farms. While in most cases a single pathogen is not alone responsible for the clinical outcome, the impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in turkeys. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between Escherichia coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV, H6N1), in the turkey model. Four-week-old commercial turkeys were inoculated with either H6N1, O78 or both agents simultaneously or three days apart. We have established an experimental infection model of turkeys using aerosolization that better mimics field infections. Birds were observed clinically and swabbed on a daily basis. Necropsies were performed at 4 and 14 days post single or dual inoculation and followed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Combined LPAIV/E. coli infections resulted in more severe clinical signs, were associated with higher mortality and respiratory organ lesions (mucous or fibrinous exudative material in lungs and air sacs), in comparison with the groups given single infections (P  0.05) respiratory signs were observed in turkeys of the E. coli followed by H6N1 inoculated group. Microscopic lesions and immunohistochemical staining supported clinical and macroscopic findings. Efficient virus and bacteria replication was observed in all inoculated groups. E. coli and H6N1 thus exercise an additive or synergistic pathogenic effect in the reproduction of respiratory disease.

  15. The Limitations of Behavior-Genetic Analyses: Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article takes issue with the behavior-genetic analysis of parenting style presented by M. McGue, I. Elkins, B. Walden, and W. G. Iacono. The author argues that the attribution of their findings to inherited genetic effects was without basis because McGue et al. never indicated how those genetic effects manifested themselves. Instead, McGue et…

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from eggplant by mycelial compatibility, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR analyses

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    Fatih Mehmet Tok

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and pathogenicity/virulence among 60 eggplant Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected from six different geographic regions of Turkey were analysed using mycelial compatibility groupings (MCGs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR polymorphism. By MCG tests, the isolates were classified into 22 groups. Out of 22 MCGs, 36% were represented each by a single isolate. The isolates showed great variability for virulence regardless of MCG and geographic origin. Based on the results of RAPD and SSR analyses, 60 S. sclerotiorum isolates representing 22 MCGs were grouped in 2 and 3 distinct clusters, respectively. Analyses using RAPD and SSR markers illustrated that cluster groupings or genetic distance of S. sclerotiorum populations from eggplant were not distinctly relative to the MCG, geographical origin and virulence diversity. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of genetic composition and suggested the occurrence of clonal and sexual reproduction of S. sclerotiorum on eggplant in the areas surveyed.

  17. A DNA microarray-based methylation-sensitive (MS)-AFLP hybridization method for genetic and epigenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F; Yamamoto, M

    2004-07-01

    We previously developed a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting technique named the Methylation Sensitive (MS)-AFLP method, which permits comparative genome-wide scanning of methylation status with a manageable number of fingerprinting experiments. The technique uses the methylation sensitive restriction enzyme NotI in the context of the existing Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) method. Here we report the successful conversion of this gel electrophoresis-based DNA fingerprinting technique into a DNA microarray hybridization technique (DNA Microarray MS-AFLP). By performing a total of 30 (15 x 2 reciprocal labeling) DNA Microarray MS-AFLP hybridization experiments on genomic DNA from two breast and three prostate cancer cell lines in all pairwise combinations, and Southern hybridization experiments using more than 100 different probes, we have demonstrated that the DNA Microarray MS-AFLP is a reliable method for genetic and epigenetic analyses. No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of differences between the breast-prostate hybridization experiments and the breast-breast or prostate-prostate comparisons.

  18. Genetic and molecular analyses of UV radiation-induced mutations in the fem-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, P S; De Wilde, D; Dwarakanath, V N [Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-06-01

    The utility of a new target gene (fem-3) is described for investigating the molecular nature of mutagenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. As a principal attribute, this system allows for the selection, maintenance and molecular analysis of any type of mutation that disrupts the gene, including deletions. In this study, 86 mutant strains were isolated, of which 79 proved to have mutations in fem-3. Twenty of these originally tested as homozygous inviable. Homozygous inviability was expected, as Stewart and coworkers had previously observed that, unlike in other organisms, most UV radiation-induced mutations in C. elegans are chromosomal rearrangements of deficiencies (Mutat. Res 249, 37-54, 1991). However, additional data, including Southern blot analyses on 49 of the strains, indicated that most of the UV radiation-induced fem-3 mutations were not deficiencies, as originally inferred from their homozygous inviability. Instead, the lethals were most likely ``coincident mutations`` in linked, essential genes that were concomitantly induced. As such, they were lost owing to genetic recombination during stock maintenance. As in mammalian cells, yeast and bacteria, the frequency of coincident mutations was much higher than would be predicted by chance. (Author).

  19. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  20. Epidemiological profile of patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS in Northeast, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Garcia, João Victor de Sousa; Guimarães, Helaine Dias; Arcos, Gelson Farias; Santos, Augusto Viana Arouche; Paixão, Pedro Viana da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Galvão, Carolina de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. We conducted an observational and analytical study of patients with VL followed in a Reference Service in the State of Maranhão, Brazil from 2007-2013. In total 126 patients were enrolled, of which 61 (48.4%) were co-infected with HIV/AIDS. There were more males among those with HIV/AIDS (85.2%, P>0.05) or with VL only (81.5%, P>0.05). These findings significantly differed based on age group (PHIV/AIDS co-infection, respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and splenomegaly significantly differed between the two groups (P=0.0014 and P=0.019, respectively). The myelogram parasitic examination was used most frequently among those with HIV/AIDS (91.8%), followed by those with VL only (69.2%). VL recurrences and mortality were significantly higher in the HIV/AIDS co-infected patients (PHIV/AIDS co-infection were mostly adult men. Diarrhea was more frequent in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, whereas splenomegaly was more common in patients with VL only. In the group of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, there was a higher rate of VL recurrence and mortality.

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  2. Chronic hepatitis C infection and liver disease in HIV co-infected patients in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Nicolas; Yunihastuti, Evy; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Boettiger, David; Widhani, Alvina; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Huy, Bui Vu; Omar, Sharifah Faridah binti Syed; Sanityoso, Andri; Chittmittrapap, Salyavit; Dung, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Pillai, Veena; Suwan-Ampai, Tuangporn; Law, Matthew; Sohn, Annette H.; Matthews, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV co-infected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV-RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT, and liver fibrosis (FibroScan®) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centers in South East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi, and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7–42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325–614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. A high proportion of HIV-HCV co-infected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (>=F2). PMID:27917597

  3. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Sarman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors. RESULTS: The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001). Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients, the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus co-infections in these patients at the earliest. PMID:17106941

  4. Enhanced protection against Clonorchis sinensis induced by co-infection with Trichinella spiralis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, K-B; Kim, S-S; Lee, S-H; Lee, H-S; Joo, K-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, Y-S; Zheng, S; Quan, F-S

    2014-10-01

    Although co-infection with multiple parasites is a frequent occurrence, changes in the humoral immune response against a pre-existing parasite induced as a result of a subsequent parasitic infection remain undetermined. Here, we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate antibody responses, cytokine production and enhanced resistance in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley) upon Trichinella spiralis infection. Higher levels of C. sinensis-specific IgG and IgA were elicited upon T. spiralis infection, and these levels remained higher than in rats infected with C. sinensis alone. Upon subsequent infection with T. spiralis, IgG antibodies against C. sinensis appeared to be rapidly boosted at day 3, and IgA antibodies were boosted at day 7. Challenge infection of C. sinensis-infected rats with T. spiralis induced substantial mucosal IgG and IgA responses in the liver and intestine and increases in antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow. Subsequent infection also appeared to confer effective control of liver C. sinensis loads, resulting in enhanced resistance. Memory B cells generated in response to C. sinensis infection were rapidly amplified into antibody-secreting cells upon T. spiralis infection. These results indicate that enhanced C. sinensis clearance induced by co-infection is associated with systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pancreatic involvement in co-infection visceral leishmaniasis and HIV: histological and ultrastructural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEHTER Ethel Zimberg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in the co-infection of HIV and Leishmania is rarely reported. We report the case of an HIV-infected adult man co-infected with a disseminated form of leishmaniasis involving the liver, lymph nodes, spleen and, as a feature reported for the first time in the English literature, the pancreas. Light microscopy showed amastigote forms of Leishmania in pancreatic macrophages and immunohistochemical staining revealed antigens for Leishmania and also for HIV p24. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis revealed severe acinar atrophy, decreased zymogen granules in the acinar cytoplasm and also nuclear abnormalities such as pyknosis, hyperchromatism and thickened chromatin. These findings might correspond to the histologic pattern of protein-energy malnutrition in the pancreas as shown in our previous study in pancreas with AIDS and no Leishmania. In this particular case, the protein-energy malnutrition may be due to cirrhosis, or, Leishmania or HIV infection or all mixed. We believe that this case represents the morphologic substratum of the protein energy malnutrition in pancreas induced by the HIV infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate these issues.

  6. A Mathematical Model Of Dengue-Chikungunya Co-Infection In A Closed Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, Dipo; Ria Agustin, Maya

    2018-03-01

    Dengue disease has been a major health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries since the early 1900s. On the other hand, according to a 2017 WHO fact sheet, Chikungunya was detected in the first outbreak in 1952 in Tanzania and has continued increasing until now in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Both these diseases are vector-borne diseases which are spread by the same mosquito, i.e. the female Aedes aegypti. According to the WHO report, there is a great possibility that humans and mosquitos might be infected by dengue and chikungunya at the same time. Here in this article, a mathematical model approach will be used to understand the spread of dengue and chikungunya in a closed population. A model is developed as a nine-dimensional deterministic ordinary differential equation. Equilibrium points and their local stability are analyzed analytically and numerically. We find that the basic reproduction number, the endemic indicator, is given by the maximum of three different basic reproduction numbers of a complete system, i.e. basic reproduction numbers for dengue, chikungunya and for co-infection between dengue and chikungunya. We find that the basic reproduction number for the co-infection sub-system dominates other basic reproduction numbers whenever it is larger than one. Some numerical simulations are provided to confirm these analytical results.

  7. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  8. How Genes Modulate Patterns of Aging-Related Changes on the Way to 100: Biodemographic Models and Methods in Genetic Analyses of Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Anatoliy I.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Wu, Deqing; Arbeeva, Liubov; Kulminski, Alexander; Kulminskaya, Irina; Akushevich, Igor; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective To clarify mechanisms of genetic regulation of human aging and longevity traits, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these traits have been performed. However, the results of these analyses did not meet expectations of the researchers. Most detected genetic associations have not reached a genome-wide level of statistical significance, and suffered from the lack of replication in the studies of independent populations. The reasons for slow progress in this research area include low efficiency of statistical methods used in data analyses, genetic heterogeneity of aging and longevity related traits, possibility of pleiotropic (e.g., age dependent) effects of genetic variants on such traits, underestimation of the effects of (i) mortality selection in genetically heterogeneous cohorts, (ii) external factors and differences in genetic backgrounds of individuals in the populations under study, the weakness of conceptual biological framework that does not fully account for above mentioned factors. One more limitation of conducted studies is that they did not fully realize the potential of longitudinal data that allow for evaluating how genetic influences on life span are mediated by physiological variables and other biomarkers during the life course. The objective of this paper is to address these issues. Data and Methods We performed GWAS of human life span using different subsets of data from the original Framingham Heart Study cohort corresponding to different quality control (QC) procedures and used one subset of selected genetic variants for further analyses. We used simulation study to show that approach to combining data improves the quality of GWAS. We used FHS longitudinal data to compare average age trajectories of physiological variables in carriers and non-carriers of selected genetic variants. We used stochastic process model of human mortality and aging to investigate genetic influence on hidden biomarkers of aging

  9. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4 + T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4 + T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4 + T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Analyses Indicate High Diversity, Expansive Population Growth and High Genetic Connectivity of Vent Copepods (Dirivultidae) across Different Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Sabine; Stuckas, Heiko; Kihara, Terue C; Laurent, Stefan; Kodami, Sahar; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Communities in spatially fragmented deep-sea hydrothermal vents rich in polymetallic sulfides could soon face major disturbance events due to deep-sea mineral mining, such that unraveling patterns of gene flow between hydrothermal vent populations will be an important step in the development of conservation policies. Indeed, the time required by deep-sea populations to recover following habitat perturbations depends both on the direction of gene flow and the number of migrants available for re-colonization after disturbance. In this study we compare nine dirivultid copepod species across various geological settings. We analyze partial nucleotide sequences of the mtCOI gene and use divergence estimates (FST) and haplotype networks to infer intraspecific population connectivity between vent sites. Furthermore, we evaluate contrasting scenarios of demographic population expansion/decline versus constant population size (using, for example, Tajima's D). Our results indicate high diversity, population expansion and high connectivity of all copepod populations in all oceans. For example, haplotype diversity values range from 0.89 to 1 and FST values range from 0.001 to 0.11 for Stygiopontius species from the Central Indian Ridge, Mid Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise, and Eastern Lau Spreading Center. We suggest that great abundance and high site occupancy by these species favor high genetic diversity. Two scenarios both showed similarly high connectivity: fast spreading centers with little distance between vent fields and slow spreading centers with greater distance between fields. This unexpected result may be due to some distinct frequency of natural disturbance events, or to aspects of individual life histories that affect realized rates of dispersal. However, our statistical performance analyses showed that at least 100 genomic regions should be sequenced to ensure accurate estimates of migration rate. Our demography parameters demonstrate that dirivultid

  11. Mouse and human genetic analyses associate kalirin with ventral striatal activation during impulsivity and with alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda ePeña-Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. To investigate genetic associations with impulsivity and initiation of drug taking, we took a two-step approach. First, we identified genes whose expression level in prefrontal cortex, striatum and accumbens were associated with impulsive behaviour in the 5-choice serial reaction time task across 10 BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI mouse strains and their progenitor C57BL/6J and DBA2/J strains. Behavioural data were correlated with regional gene expression using GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org, to identify 44 genes whose probability of association with impulsivity exceeded a false discovery rate of <0.05. We then interrogated the IMAGEN database of 1423 adolescents for potential associations of SNPs in human homologues of those genes identified in the mouse study, with brain activation during impulsive performance in the Monetary Incentive Delay task, and with novelty seeking scores from the Temperament and Character Inventory, as well as alcohol-experience. There was a significant overall association between the human homologues of impulsivity-related genes and percentage of premature responses in the MID task and with fMRI BOLD-response in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. In contrast, no significant association was found between the polygenic scores and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Univariate association analyses revealed that the G allele (major of the intronic SNP rs6438839 in the KALRN gene was significantly associated with increased VS activation. Additionally, the A-allele (minor of KALRN intronic SNP rs4634050, belonging to the same haplotype block, was associated with increased frequency of binge drinking.

  12. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variation in growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and foliar N concentration in Picea mariana: analyses from a half-diallel mating design using field-grown trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Dudley A. Huber; John E. Major

    1999-01-01

    The authors performed genetic analyses of growth, carbon isotope discrimination (?13C), and foliar N concentration using a half-diallel subset of a 7 × 7 complete diallel planted on three sites ranging in water availability. Trees were 22 years old. Heritabilities; general and...

  14. Genome Analyses of Icelandic Strains of Sulfolobus islandicus, Model Organisms for Genetic and Virus-Host Interaction Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Li; Brügger, Kim; Liu, Chao

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of two Sulfolobus islandicus strains obtained from Icelandic solfataras were sequenced and analyzed. Strain REY15A is a host for a versatile genetic toolbox. It exhibits a genome of minimal size, is stable genetically, and is easy to grow and manipulate. Strain HVE10/4 shows a broad h...

  15. Genetic analyses of historic and modern marbled murrelets suggest decoupling of migration and gene flow after habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Zachariah Peery; Laurie A. Hall; Sellas. Anna; Steven R. Beissinger; Craig Moritz; Martine Berube; Martin G. Raphael; S. Kim Nelson; Richard T. Golightly; Laura McFarlane-Tranquilla; Scott H. Newman; Per J. Palsboll

    2009-01-01

    The dispersal of individuals among fragmented populations is generally thought to prevent genetic and demographic isolation, and ultimately reduce extinction risk. In this study, we show that a century of reduction in coastal old-growth forests, as well as a number of other environmental factors, has probably resulted in the genetic divergence of marbled murrelets (...

  16. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Turley (Patrick); M. Nivard (Michel); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); J. Derringer; J. Gratten (Jacob); J.J. Lee (James J.); Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer); Buchwald, J. (Jadwiga); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis C.); Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A); Garfield, V. (Victoria); Geisel, M.H. (Marie Henrike); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); R. Karlsson (Robert); Der Laan, S.W. (Sander Wvan); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Liu, T. (Tian); Matteson, L. (Lindsay); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); CMinica, C. (Camelia); MNolte, I. (Ilja); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); Y. Qian (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); R. Rawal (R.); A. Realo; Rueedi, R. (Rico); Schmidt, B. (Börge); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E. Stergiakouli (Evangelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); MWillems, S. (Sara); Zhao, W. (Wei); L.C. Study (LifeLines Cohort); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); Cherney, S. (Samantha); Cox, S.R. (Simon R); G. Davies (Gail); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); J. Ding (Jun); N. Direk (Nese); Eibich, P. (Peter); R. Emeny (Rebecca); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); J.D. Faul; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); C. Gieger (Christian); Gupta, R. (Richa); T.B. Harris (Tamara); J.M. Harris (Juliette); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); Karhunen, V. (Ville); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kumari (Meena); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Franke (Lude); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); Koini, M. (Marisa); A. Loukola (Anu); P. Marques-Vidal; G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M. Mosing (Miriam); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); Pulkki-R'back, L. (Laura); L. Quaye (Lydia); R'ikkönen, K. (Katri); I. Rudan (Igor); R. Scott (Rodney); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A.R. Sutin; Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); Vinkhuyze, A.E. (Anna E.); L. Yu (Lei); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Snieder (Harold); Chang, S.-C. (Shun-Chiao); F. Cucca (Francesco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); U. Bültmann (Ute); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); Hartman, C.A. (Catharine A); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.A. Hinds (David A.); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); Keltikangas-J'rvinen, L. (Liisa); P. Kraft (Peter); Kubzansky, L.D. (Laura D.); Lehtim'ki, T. (Terho); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Mills (Melinda); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); R. Plomin (Robert); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Power (Christopher); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Svento (Rauli); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); DSpector, T. (Tim); Steptoe, A. (Andrew); A. Terracciano; A.R. Thurik (Roy); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, G.G. (Gert G.); D.R. Weir (David); J. Yang (Joanna); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); M. Johannesson (Magnus); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Esko, T. (T'nu); R.F. Krueger; J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); M. Bartels (Meike); D. Cesarini (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data.

  17. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  18. Genetic diversity analyses of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on Morus alba and Agave sisalana based on RAPD and ISSR molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hui Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 23 Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates on Morus alba and 6 isolates on Agave sisalana in Guangxi province, China, was studied by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Results of two molecular markers showed that the average percentage of polymorphic loci of all isolates was more than 93%. Both dendrograms of two molecular markers showed obvious relationship between groups and the geographical locations where those strains were collected, among which, the 23 isolates on M. alba were divided into 4 populations and the 6 isolates on A. sisalana were separated as a independent population. The average genetic identity and genetic distance of 5 populations were 0.7215, 0.3284 and 0.7915, 0.2347, respectively, which indicated that the genetic identity was high and the genetic distance was short in the 5 populations. Average value of the gene diversity index (H and the Shannon’s information index (I of 29 isolates were significantly higher than 5 populations which showed that genetic diversity of those isolates was richer than the populations and the degree of genetic differentiation of the isolates was higher. The Gst and Nm of 29 isolates were 0.4411, 0.6335 and 0.4756, 0.5513, respectively, which showed that the genetic diversity was rich in those isolates.

  19. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, A.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; de Neve, J.E.; Turley, P.; Nivard, M.G.; Fontana, M.A.; Meddens, S.F.W.; Karlsson Linnér, R.; Rietveld, C.A.; Derringer, J.; de Vlaming, R.; Minica, C.C.; Hottenga, J.J.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Medland, S.E.; Meyer, M.N.; Pickrell, J.K.; Esko, T.; Krueger, R.F.; Beauchamp, J.; Koellinger, P.D.; Benjamin, D.J.; Bartels, M.; Cesarini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  20. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among non-commercial men who have sex with men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Luo, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Tu, Dan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yumao; Lan, Lina; Hong, Fuchang; Yang, Tubao; Feng, Tiejian

    2017-01-18

    Although HIV and syphilis co-infection has been frequently observed in men who have sex with men (MSM), only few studies have focused on it. Different subgroups of MSM might exhibit heterogeneous HIV and syphilis risk profiles, indicating that interventions for HIV and HIV-related co-infections may vary with different subgroups of MSM. However, no previous study has investigated HIV and syphilis co-infection among non-commercial MSM (ncMSM) attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among ncMSM attending an STD clinic in Shenzhen, China. NcMSM attending the STD clinic of Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control were recruited in this cross-sectional study every Monday between March 2013 and August 2015 using a site based convenience sampling method. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviors and HIV-related knowledge. Blood samples were collected to perform HIV and syphilis tests. Totally 533 participants were enrolled in this study and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection among them was 13.13%. Multivariable analyses indicated that having lived in Shenzhen for less than one year (aOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.30-6.05), having first anal sexual intercourse before the age of 18 (aOR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.89), having 3 to 5 anal sexual partners in the past six months (aOR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.19-5.40), playing exclusively receptive (aOR = 6.87, 95% CI = 3.02-15.61) or both insertive and receptive (aOR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.64-8.09) roles in anal sexual intercourse and not always using condom in anal sexual intercourse (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.08-4.19) were associated risk factors for HIV and syphilis co-infection, relative to the non-infected ncMSM. Compared with the mono-infected ncMSM, associated risk factors for the co-infection

  1. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity. PMID:28732017

  2. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajebe, Fitsumbrhan; Getahun, Mulusew; Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew; Kropf, Pascale

    2017-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity.

  4. Cause-specific excess mortality in siblings of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals is associated with 3- to 4-fold higher mortality among these patients' siblings, compared with siblings of mono-infected HIV-patients or population controls. This indicates that risk factors shared by family members partially...... account for the excess mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. We aimed to explore the causes of death contributing to the excess sibling mortality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved causes of death from the Danish National Registry of Deaths and estimated cause-specific excess mortality......-years, compared with siblings of matched population controls. Substance abuse-related deaths contributed most to the elevated mortality among siblings [EMR = 2.25 (1.09-3.40)] followed by unnatural deaths [EMR = 0.67 (-0.05-1.39)]. No siblings of HIV/HCV co-infected patients had a liver-related diagnosis...

  5. Leishmania infantum and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in a patient with hemophagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Gaifer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a rare case of a 27-year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia. This case of HLH associated with visceral leishmaniasis and EBV co-infection raises the question about the significance of EBV in patients with HLH. The treatment of actual etiological agent can lead to complete cure while using current recommend chemotherapy for HLH-related EBV in a patient with hidden infection may have deleterious effects.

  6. Short communication, Co-infection with feline and canine parvovirus in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Battilani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses.

  7. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  8. Enterovirus co-infections and onychomadesis after hand, foot, and mouth disease, Spain, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria A; González-Candelas, Fernando; Valero, Ana; Córdoba, Juan; Salazar, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a common disease caused by enteroviruses (EVs), usually affects children. Clustered and sporadic HFMD cases, followed by onychomadesis (nail shedding), occurred during summer and fall 2008 in Valencia, Spain. Fecal samples from onychomadesis patients, who did or did not have previous HFMD, and from healthy children exposed to onychomadesis patients tested positive for EV. The complete viral protein 1 capsid gene sequence was obtained for typing and phylogenetic analysis. Two EV serotypes, coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1), were mainly detected as a monoinfection or co-infection in a childcare center where an onychomadesis outbreak occurred. On the basis of our results, and detection of CVB1 in 2 other contemporary onychomadesis outbreaks in childcare centers in Spain, we propose that mixed infection of an EV serotype that causes HFMD, plus the serotype CVB1, could explain the emergence after HFMD of onychomadesis, a rare and late complication.

  9. A network model for the propagation of Hepatitis C with HIV co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucit, Arnaud; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2017-05-01

    We define and examine a model of epidemic propagation for a virus such as Hepatitis C (with HIV co-infection) on a network of networks, namely the network of French urban areas. One network level is that of the individual interactions inside each urban area. The second level is that of the areas themselves, linked by individuals travelling between these areas and potentially helping the epidemic spread from one city to another. We choose to encode the second level of the network as extra, special nodes in the first level. We observe that such an encoding leads to sensible results in terms of the extent and speed of propagation of an epidemic, depending on its source point.

  10. Co-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos Rogério; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Calchi, Ana Cláudia; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Medeiros, Vitor Brasil; Ximenes, Poliana Araújo; Lelis, Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha; Meireles, Maria Vanuza Nunes de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP) as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in blood samples from two out of three sampled cats. Both cats positive for multiple FVBP did not show hematological and biochemical abnormalities. The present work emphasizes the need for molecular confirmation of co-infection by multiple FVBP in cats presenting non-specific clinical signs and inclusions resembling hemoparasites in blood smears.

  11. Co-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of several feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. In fact, with the exception of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas, FVBP in cats has not been clearly determined in Brazil yet. The present study aimed at identifying, by using molecular methods, the presence of FVBP in three cats showing non-specific clinical signs and inclusions suggestive of hemoparasites in blood smears. Cytauxzoon felis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in blood samples from two out of three sampled cats. Both cats positive for multiple FVBP did not show hematological and biochemical abnormalities. The present work emphasizes the need for molecular confirmation of co-infection by multiple FVBP in cats presenting non-specific clinical signs and inclusions resembling hemoparasites in blood smears.

  12. Association between depressive symptoms, CD4 count and HIV viral suppression among HIV-HCV co-infected people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibibula, Wusiman; Cox, Joseph; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Moodie, Erica E M; Anema, Aranka; Klein, Marina B; Brassard, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with poor HIV viral control and immune recovery among people living with HIV. However, no prior studies assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV). While people with HIV only and those with HIV-HCV co-infection share many characteristics, co-infected people may become more susceptible to the effects of depressive symptoms on health outcomes. We assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-HCV in Canada using data from the Food Security & HIV-HCV Sub-Study (FS Sub-Study) of the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort (CCC). Stabilized inverse probability weighted marginal structural model was used to account for potential time-varying confounders. A total of 725 participants were enrolled between 2012 and 2015. At baseline, 52% of participants reported depressive symptoms, 75% had undetectable HIV viral load, and median CD4 count was 466 (IQR 300-665). People experiencing depressive symptoms had 1.32 times (95% CI: 1.07, 1.63) the risk of having detectable HIV viral load, but had comparable CD4 count to people who did not experience depressive symptoms (fold change of CD4 = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.03). Presence of depressive symptoms is a risk factor for incomplete short-term HIV viral suppression among people co-infected with HIV-HCV. Therefore, depressive symptoms screening and related counseling may improve HIV related health outcomes and reduce HIV transmission.

  13. Epidemiological patterns of mortality due to visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS co-infection is an emerging health problem with high case fatality. This study presents the epidemiological and clinical aspects of deaths related to VL-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil. This was a nationwide population-based study based on mortality data obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We included all deaths between 2000 and 2011 (about 12.5 million), and analyzed those in which VL and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in the same death certificate. VL and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in 272 deaths. HIV/AIDS was the underlying cause in 59.6% (162/272) of deaths by VL-HIV/AIDS co-infection, and VL the underlying cause in 39.3% (107/272). Predominating characteristics were: male gender (79.0%, 215/272), age 30-39 years (41.0%, 111/271), brown race/color (61.6%, 159/258) and residence in the Northeast region (47.4%, 129/272). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.13 deaths/1 000 000 inhabitants. Deaths were distributed in 20 of 27 Brazilian states. There was an increasing trend of mortality (annual percent change: 16.4%). Infectious/parasitic (58.8%) and respiratory (51.1%) diseases/disorders, particularly sepsis, respiratory failure and pneumonia, were most commonly associated with deaths related to this co-infection. VL-HIV/AIDS co-infection is an increasing public health problem in Brazil. The systematic description of the epidemiological characteristics and magnitude of mortality related to VL-HIV/AIDS co-infection reflects the need to intensify control measures and disease surveillance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intestinal helminth co-infection and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2017-01-13

    Helminths affect the outcome of tuberculosis by shifting cell mediated immune response to humoral and by total suppression of the host immune system. On the reverse, Mycobacterium infection favors immune escape of helminths. Therefore assessing helminth co-infection rate and predisposing factors in tuberculosis patients is mandatory to set strategies for better case management. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal helminths among pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January to August, 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to capture data about socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and possible risk factors for intestinal helminth infections. Height and weight were measured to calculate body-mass index. Appropriate amount of stool was collected and processed by direct saline and formol-ether concentration techniques following standard protocols. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A total of 213 (57.3% male and 42.7% female) pulmonary tuberculosis patients were participated in the study. The overall co-infection rate of intestinal parasites was 26.3%. The infection rate of intestinal helminths account 24.4% and that of intestinal protozoa was 6.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted the highest frequency of 11.3%. Living in rural residence (AOR = 3.175, 95% CI: 1.102-9.153, p = 0.032), Eating vegetables/ fruits without washing or peeling off (AOR = 2.208, 95% CI: 1.030-4.733, p = 0.042) and having body-mass index intestinal helminth infection. The infection rate by intestinal helminths was 24.4%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent helminth. Residence, habit of washing vegetables/fruits before use and body-mass index were associated factors with intestinal helminthiasis. Therefore health care providers should screen and treat TB patients for intestinal helminthiasis in order to ensure good prognosis.

  15. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Keller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae. Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the "reptarenavirome" of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental "reptarenavirome". We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring.

  16. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.

  17. Hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Mbituyumuremyi, Aimable; Remera, Eric; Malamba, Samuel S; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-02-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a pandemic causing disease; more than 185 million people are infected worldwide. An HCV antibody (Ab) prevalence of 6.0% was estimated in Central African countries. The study aimed at providing HCV prevalence estimates among pregnant women in Rwanda. HCV surveillance through antibody screening test among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was performed in 30 HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Rwanda. Among 12,903 pregnant women tested at antenatal clinics, 335 (2.6% [95% Confidence Interval 2.32-2.87]) tested positive for HCV Ab. The prevalence of HCV Ab in women aged 25-49 years was 2.8% compared to 2.4% in women aged 15-24 years (aOR = 1.3; [1.05-1.59]); This proportion was 2.7% [2.37-2.94] in pregnant women in engaged in non-salaried employment compared to 1.2% [0.24-2.14] in those engaged in salaried employment (aOR = 3.2; [1.60-6.58]). The proportion of HCV Ab-positive co-infected with HIV was estimated at 3.9% (13 cases). Women in urban residence were more likely to be associated with HCV-infection (OR = 1.3; 95%CI [1.0-1.6]) compared to those living in rural setting. HCV is a public health problem in pregnant women in Rwanda. Few pregnant women were co-infected with HCV and HIV. Living in urban setting was more likely to associate pregnant women with HCV infection.

  18. Hepatitis B surface antigen concentrations in patients with HIV/HBV co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jaroszewicz

    Full Text Available HBsAg clearance is associated with clinical cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Quantification of HBsAg may help to predict HBsAg clearance during the natural course of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy. Most studies investigating quantitative HBsAg were performed in HBV mono-infected patients. However, the immune status is considered to be important for HBsAg decline and subsequent HBsAg loss. HIV co-infection unfavorably influences the course of chronic hepatitis B. In this cross-sectional study we investigated quantitative HBsAg in 173 HBV/HIV co-infected patients from 6 centers and evaluated the importance of immunodeficiency and antiretroviral therapy. We also compared 46 untreated HIV/HBV infected patients with 46 well-matched HBV mono-infected patients. HBsAg levels correlated with CD4 T-cell count and were higher in patients with more advanced HIV CDC stage. Patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART including nucleos(tide analogues active against HBV demonstrated significant lower HBsAg levels compared to untreated patients. Importantly, HBsAg levels were significantly lower in patients who had a stronger increase between nadir CD4 and current CD4 T-cell count during cART. Untreated HIV/HBV patients demonstrated higher HBsAg levels than HBV mono-infected patients despite similar HBV DNA levels. In conclusion, HBsAg decline is dependent on an effective immune status. Restoration of CD4 T-cells during treatment with cART including nucleos(tide analogues seems to be important for HBsAg decrease and subsequent HBsAg loss.

  19. Genomic variability associated with the presence of occult hepatitis B virus in HIV co-infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. M.; Welge, J. A.; Shire, N. J.; Rouster, S. D.; Shata, M. T.; Sherman, K. E.; Blackard, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (O-HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBV DNA+/HBsAg−) in the serum. Although O-HBV is more prevalent during HBV/HIV co-infection, analysis of HBV mutations in co-infected patients is limited. In this preliminary study, HBV PreSurface (PreS) and surface (S) regions were amplified from 33 HIV-positive patient serum samples − 27 chronic HBV (C-HBV) and six O-HBV infections. HBV genotype was determin...

  20. Genetic Targets of Acute Toluene Inhalation in Drosophila melanogaster: DGRP activity, overlapping human orthologs, pathway analyses, GWAS results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We used the Drosophila Genetics Reference Panel (DGRP), a collection of ~200 homozygous lines of fruit flies whose genomes have been sequenced. We quantified...

  1. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniete; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Gruenblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Restrepo, Sandra C. Mesa; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlo N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosario, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Duarte, Ana V. Valencia; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Routeau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  2. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a

  3. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113700644; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  4. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, D.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Scharf, J.M.; Neale, B.M.; Davis, L.K.; Gamazon, E.R.; Derks, E.M.; Evans, P.; Edlund, C.K.; Crane, J.; Osiecki, L.; Gallagher, P.; Gerber, G.; Haddad, S.; Illmann, C.; McGrath, L.M.; Mayerfeld, C.; Arepalli, S.; Barlassina, C.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D.W.; Bloch, M.H.; Brentani, H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.D.; Cappi, C.; Silgado, J.C.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Cook, E.H.; Cookson, M.R.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Cusi, D.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Dion, Y.; Eapen, V.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.; Fournier, E.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Gilbert, D.L.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grunblatt, E.; Hardy, J.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.J.; Herrera, L.D.; Hezel, D.M.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.Y.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lupoli, S.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; Manunta, P.; Marconi, M.; McCracken, J.T.; Restrepo, S.C.M.; Moessner, R.; Moorjani, P.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Nurmi, E.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R. A.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Pato, C.N.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Smit, J.H.; Posthuma, D.; Cox, N.J.; Pauls, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identi fication of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  5. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Heutink, Peter; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  6. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  7. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel; Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); Derringer, J.; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J.; Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); Vlaming, Ronald; SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associ...

  8. Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul natural co-infection in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.A. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports a co-infection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti received at the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies of the State University of Ceará, Brazil. The bird presented diarrhea, leg paralysis and anorexia, and died shortly after. Necropsy was then performed and samples from lung, kidney, liver and intestine were collected for microbiological and histopathological analyses. Escherichia coli was isolated from cloacal swab, lung and kidney samples. Salmonella ser. Saintpaul was identified in liver and spleen samples. Escherichia coli isolates were tested for the presence of eight diagnostic genes for diarrheagenic pathotypes (STEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC with conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. EAEC was detected in the lung and kidney, and STEC in the intestine. In conclusion, Columbina talpacoti is susceptible to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul infection, which may have public health implications.

  9. SOLiD™ sequencing of genomes of clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani from India confirm leptomonas co-infection and raise some key questions.

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    Neeloo Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Known as 'neglected disease' because relatively little effort has been applied to finding cures, leishmaniasis kills more than 150,000 people every year and debilitates millions more. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also called Kala Azar (KA or black fever in India, claims around 20,000 lives every year. Whole genome analysis presents an excellent means to identify new targets for drugs, vaccine and diagnostics development, and also provide an avenue into the biological basis of parasite virulence in the L. donovani complex prevalent in India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our presently described study, the next generation SOLiD™ platform was successfully utilized for the first time to carry out whole genome sequencing of L. donovani clinical isolates from India. We report the exceptional occurrence of insect trypanosomatids in clinical cases of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala Azar patients in India. We confirm with whole genome sequencing analysis data that isolates which were sequenced from Kala Azar (visceral leishmaniasis cases were genetically related to Leptomonas. The co-infection in splenic aspirate of these patients with a species of Leptomonas and how likely is it that the infection might be pathogenic, are key questions which need to be investigated. We discuss our results in the context of some important probable hypothesis in this article. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our intriguing results of unusual cases of Kala Azar found to be most similar to Leptomonas species put forth important clinical implications for the treatment of Kala Azar in India. Leptomonas have been shown to be highly susceptible to several standard leishmaniacides in vitro. There is very little divergence among these two species viz. Leishmania sp. and L. seymouri, in terms of genomic sequence and organization. A more extensive perception of the phenomenon of co-infection needs to be addressed from molecular pathogenesis and eco

  10. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  12. Analyses between Reproductive Behaviour, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. reveal an adaptive significance for hemiclonality

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    Geethu Elizabath Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and

  13. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends

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    Mauricélia da Silveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract: Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths, 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0, with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  14. The effect of parasitic co-infections on immune responses in Gabon : particular emphasis on malaria and helminths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateba, Ngoa U.

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis aimed at increasing our understanding of the effect of helminths on Plasmodium spp. immune response in co-infected individuals living in endemic countries. It presents data from studies conducted in rural and semi urban areas of Lambaréné (Gabon) where the burden of

  15. Analysis of IAV Replication and Co-infection Dynamics by a Versatile RNA Viral Genome Labeling Method

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    Dan Dou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome delivery to the proper cellular compartment for transcription and replication is a primary goal of viruses. However, methods for analyzing viral genome localization and differentiating genomes with high identity are lacking, making it difficult to investigate entry-related processes and co-examine heterogeneous RNA viral populations. Here, we present an RNA labeling approach for single-cell analysis of RNA viral replication and co-infection dynamics in situ, which uses the versatility of padlock probes. We applied this method to identify influenza A virus (IAV infections in cells and lung tissue with single-nucleotide specificity and to classify entry and replication stages by gene segment localization. Extending the classification strategy to co-infections of IAVs with single-nucleotide variations, we found that the dependence on intracellular trafficking places a time restriction on secondary co-infections necessary for genome reassortment. Altogether, these data demonstrate how RNA viral genome labeling can help dissect entry and co-infections.

  16. Hepatitis B, C virus co-infection and behavioral risks in HIV-positive patients in southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, M.J.; Moghaddam, S.D.; Abasi, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors and frequency of hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Control of Diseases Centre of Kerman Medical University, southern Iran, between May and December 2011. Demographic features and history of high-risk behaviours were evaluated in 165 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen tests were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of the 165 patients, 136 (82.4%) were male and 29 (17.6%) were female. The mean age of the subjects was 40.4+-9 years. Positive hepatitis C antibody was found in 122 (73.9%) and positive hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 6 (3.6%). Frequency of all three viruses co-infection was 3 (1.8%). History of imprisonment (OR= 17.5; 95% CI: 7.1-43.1) and drug injection addiction (OR= 15.3; 95% CI: 6.4-36.1) were the most significant risk factors involved in hepatitis C virus co-infection. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection was high and it was strongly related to history of imprisonment and drug injection addiction. (author)

  17. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

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    Siwalee Rattanapunya

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  18. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bondoukwé, Noé Patrick; Kendjo, Eric; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Koumba Lengongo, Jeanne Vanessa; Offouga Mbouoronde, Christelle; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Touré, Fousseyni; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine

    2018-01-30

    Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections. Intestinal parasitic infections (61.1%), including intestinal protozoa (56.7%) and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (22.2%), predominated, whereas Plasmodium falciparum (18.8%), Loa loa (4.7%), and Mansonella perstans (1.1%) were less prevalent. Filariasis and STHs were mainly found in rural settlements, whereas a higher plasmodial infection prevalence rate was observed in the periurban area. The most common IPI was blastocystosis (48.6%), followed by ascaridiasis (13.7%), trichuriasis (11.8%), amoebiasis (9.3%), giardiasis (4.8%), and strongyloidiasis (3.7%). Hookworm was detected in one adult from rural Dienga. Adults had a higher prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and STHs, whereas Giardia duodenalis was more frequently observed among children aged below 5 years (P < 0.01). The polyparasitism rate was 41.5%, with 7.0% Plasmodium-IPIs and 1.8% Plasmodium-STH co-infections. The multivariate analysis showed that living in a suburban area, belonging to the age group of 5-15 years, having none or a secondary education, or having an open body water close to home were significant risk factors for malaria (P ≤ 0.01). For STH infections, identified risk factors were drinking untreated water and living in a rural area (P ≤ 0.04). No significant predictors were identified for IPIs and malaria-IPI co-infection. This study reports a high prevalence of IPIs and intestinal protozoa, but a low rate of malaria-IPI co-infections in the study sites

  20. Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Varghese, Bhanumati; Mansoor, Homa; Cox, Helen S.; Ladomirska, Joanna; Saranchuk, Peter; Da Silva, Esdras; Khan, Samsuddin; Paryani, Roma; Udwadia, Zarir; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Reid, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. Methods Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE. Results Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen. Conclusions AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays

  1. Genetic characterisation of populations of the critically endangered Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara, Serranidae from the Northern Brazilian coast through analyses of mtDNA

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    Gláucia C. Silva-Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara is one of the most endangered species of fish of the subfamily Epinephelinae. Slow to develop and mature, and dependent on mangrove habitats for breeding, the species also suffers intense harvesting, which has reduced drastically in numbers in many areas. To contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of E. itajara populations, we conducted a molecular genetics study of the species, focusing on populations from the Northern Brazilian coast. The mtDNA control region (D-loop of 116 individuals from five localities (Bragança, Ajuruteua, Parnaíba, Fortaleza and Natal was analysed, and a sequence of 499 base pairs identified. Analyses of the sequences indicated that genetic variability was generally lower in E. itajara than in other endangered species of the genus. AMOVA found no significant grouping structure among the populations. Nested Clade Analysis revealed a significant association between genetic variability and geographic distribution among only three populations (Ajuruteua, Parnaíba and Natal. Genetic diversity was higher in populations from the Amazon region, which may be related to the better conservation of mangrove habitats in this area. Therefore, the present study could be used for the implementation of conservation and management measures in order to protect and consolidate these populations.

  2. Prevalence, features and risk factors for malaria co-infections amongst visceral leishmaniasis patients from Amudat Hospital, Uganda.

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    Erika van den Bogaart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Due to geographic overlap of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis (VL, co-infections may exist but have been poorly investigated. To describe prevalence, features and risk factors for VL-malaria co-infections, a case-control analysis was conducted on data collected at Amudat Hospital, Uganda (2000-2006 by Médecins sans Frontières. Cases were identified as patients with laboratory-confirmed VL and malaria at hospital admission or during hospitalization; controls were VL patients with negative malaria smears. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between patients' characteristics and the occurrence of the co-infection. RESULTS: Of 2414 patients with confirmed VL, 450 (19% were positively diagnosed with concomitant malaria. Most co-infected patients were males, residing in Kenya (69%. While young age was identified by multivariate analysis as a risk factor for concurrent VL and malaria, particularly the age groups 0-4 (odds ratio (OR: 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.52-3.92 and 5-9 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.45-3-45, mild (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.88 and moderate (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.27-0.77 anemia negatively correlated with the co-morbidity. VL patients harboring skin infections were nearly three times less likely to have the co-infection (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17-0.72, as highlighted by the multivariate model. Anorexia was slightly more frequent among co-infected patients (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.96-3.03. The in-hospital case-fatality rate did not significantly differ between cases and controls, being 2.7% and 3.1% respectively (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.46-1.63. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent malaria represents a common condition among young VL patients living in the Pokot region of Kenya and Uganda. Although these co-morbidities did not result in a poorer prognosis, possibly due to early detection of malaria, a positive trend towards more severe symptoms was identified, indicating that routine

  3. No significant effect of cannabis use on the count and percentage of circulating CD4 T-cells in HIV-HCV co-infected patients (ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Fabienne; Lions, Caroline; Rosenthal, Eric; Roux, Perrine; Sogni, Philippe; Wittkop, Linda; Protopopescu, Camelia; Spire, Bruno; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Dabis, François; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    Despite cannabis use being very common in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), its effect on these patients' immune systems remains undocumented. Documenting the potential effect of cannabis use on HIV immunological markers would help caregivers make more targeted health recommendations to co-infected patients. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cannabis use and peripheral blood CD4 T-cell measures in co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Cannabis use was assessed using annual self-administered questionnaires in 955 patients (2386 visits) enrolled in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort. The effect of cannabis use on circulating CD4 T-cell count and percentage was estimated using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations. Sensitivity analyses were conducted after excluding visits where (i) tobacco use and (ii) smoking >=10 tobacco cigarettes/day were reported. At the first visit, 48% of patients reported cannabis use during the previous four weeks, and 58% of these patients also smoked ≥10 tobacco cigarettes/day. After multiple adjustment, cannabis use was not significantly associated with either circulating CD4 T-cell count [model coefficient (95% confidence interval): 0.27 (-0.07; 0.62), P = 0.12] or percentage [-0.04 (-0.45; 0.36), P = 0.83]. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Findings show no evidence for a negative effect of cannabis use on circulating CD4 T-cell counts/percentages in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. In-depth immunological studies are needed to document whether cannabis has a harmful effect on CD4 levels in lungs and on cells' functional properties. [Marcellin F, Lions C, Rosenthal E, Roux P, Sogni P, Wittkop L, Protopopescu C, Spire B, Salmon-Ceron D, Dabis F, Carrieri MP, HEPAVIH ANRS CO13 Study Group. No significant effect of cannabis use on the count and percentage of circulating CD4 T-cells in HIV-HCV co-infected patients

  4. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  5. Genome-wide association analyses identify new risk variants and the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Wouter; Shatunov, Aleksey; Dekker, Annelot M; McLaughlin, Russell L; Diekstra, Frank P; Pulit, Sara L; van der Spek, Rick A A; Võsa, Urmo; de Jong, Simone; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Fogh, Isabella; van Doormaal, Perry Tc; Tazelaar, Gijs H P; Koppers, Max; Blokhuis, Anna M; Sproviero, William; Jones, Ashley R; Kenna, Kevin P; van Eijk, Kristel R; Harschnitz, Oliver; Schellevis, Raymond D; Brands, William J; Medic, Jelena; Menelaou, Androniki; Vajda, Alice; Ticozzi, Nicola; Lin, Kuang; Rogelj, Boris; Vrabec, Katarina; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka; Koritnik, Blaž; Zidar, Janez; Leonardis, Lea; Grošelj, Leja Dolenc; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; de Carvalho, Mamede; Pinto, Susana; Mora, Jesus S; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Polak, Meraida; Chandran, Siddharthan; Colville, Shuna; Swingler, Robert; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W; Pittman, Alan; Sidle, Katie; Fratta, Pietro; Malaspina, Andrea; Topp, Simon; Petri, Susanne; Abdulla, Susanne; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Meyer, Thomas; Ophoff, Roel A.; Staats, Kim A; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Trojanowski, John Q; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Basak, A Nazli; Tunca, Ceren; Hamzeiy, Hamid; Parman, Yesim; Meitinger, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Andres, Christian R; Maurel, Cindy; Bensimon, Gilbert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Brice, Alexis; Payan, Christine A M; Saker-Delye, Safaa; Dürr, Alexandra; Wood, Nicholas W; Tittmann, Lukas; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Amouyel, Philippe; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Curtis, Charles; Blauw, Hylke M; van der Kooi, Anneke J; de Visser, Marianne; Goris, An; Weber, Markus; Shaw, Christopher E; Smith, Bradley N; Pansarasa, Orietta; Cereda, Cristina; Del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Bertolin, Cinzia; Sorarù, Gianni; Mazzini, Letizia; Pensato, Viviana; Gellera, Cinzia; Tiloca, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Brunetti, Maura; Arcuti, Simona; Capozzo, Rosa; Zecca, Chiara; Lunetta, Christian; Penco, Silvana; Riva, Nilo; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Muller, Bernard; Stuit, Robbert Jan; Blair, Ian; Zhang, Katharine; McCann, Emily P; Fifita, Jennifer A; Nicholson, Garth A; Rowe, Dominic B; Pamphlett, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witte, Otto W; Ringer, Thomas; Prell, Tino; Stubendorff, Beatrice; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Leigh, P Nigel; Casale, Federico; Chio, Adriano; Beghi, Ettore; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Tortelli, Rosanna; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Powell, John; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Franke, Lude; Pers, Tune H; Brown, Robert H; Glass, Jonathan D; Landers, John E; Hardiman, Orla; Andersen, Peter M; Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Silani, Vincenzo; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; de Bakker, Paul I W; van Es, Michael A; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Lewis, Cathryn M; Breen, Gerome; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H

    To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577

  6. Genome-wide association analyses identify new risk variants and the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Wouter; Shatunov, Aleksey; Dekker, Annelot M.; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Diekstra, Frank P.; Pulit, Sara L.; van der Spek, Rick A. A.; Võsa, Urmo; de Jong, Simone; Robinson, Matthew R.; Yang, Jian; Fogh, Isabella; van Doormaal, Perry Tc; Tazelaar, Gijs H. P.; Koppers, Max; Blokhuis, Anna M.; Sproviero, William; Jones, Ashley R.; Kenna, Kevin P.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Harschnitz, Oliver; Schellevis, Raymond D.; Brands, William J.; Medic, Jelena; Menelaou, Androniki; Vajda, Alice; Ticozzi, Nicola; Lin, Kuang; Rogelj, Boris; Vrabec, Katarina; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka; Koritnik, Blaž; Zidar, Janez; Leonardis, Lea; Grošelj, Leja Dolenc; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; de Carvalho, Mamede; Pinto, Susana; Mora, Jesus S.; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Polak, Meraida; Chandran, Siddharthan; Colville, Shuna; Swingler, Robert; Morrison, Karen E.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W.; Pittman, Alan; Sidle, Katie; Fratta, Pietro; Malaspina, Andrea; Topp, Simon; Petri, Susanne; Abdulla, Susanne; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Meyer, Thomas; Ophoff, Roel A.; Staats, Kim A.; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Basak, A. Nazli; Tunca, Ceren; Hamzeiy, Hamid; Parman, Yesim; Meitinger, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Andres, Christian R.; Maurel, Cindy; Bensimon, Gilbert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Brice, Alexis; Payan, Christine A. M.; Saker-Delye, Safaa; Dürr, Alexandra; Wood, Nicholas W.; Tittmann, Lukas; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Amouyel, Philippe; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Curtis, Charles; Blauw, Hylke M.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; Goris, An; Weber, Markus; Shaw, Christopher E.; Smith, Bradley N.; Pansarasa, Orietta; Cereda, Cristina; del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P.; D'alfonso, Sandra; Bertolin, Cinzia; Sorarù, Gianni; Mazzini, Letizia; Pensato, Viviana; Gellera, Cinzia; Tiloca, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Brunetti, Maura; Arcuti, Simona; Capozzo, Rosa; Zecca, Chiara; Lunetta, Christian; Penco, Silvana; Riva, Nilo; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Muller, Bernard; Stuit, Robbert Jan; Blair, Ian; Zhang, Katharine; McCann, Emily P.; Fifita, Jennifer A.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Rowe, Dominic B.; Pamphlett, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Grosskreutz, Julian; Witte, Otto W.; Ringer, Thomas; Prell, Tino; Stubendorff, Beatrice; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Casale, Federico; Chio, Adriano; Beghi, Ettore; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Tortelli, Rosanna; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Powell, John; Ludolph, Albert C.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Robberecht, Wim; van Damme, Philip; Franke, Lude; Pers, Tune H.; Brown, Robert H.; Glass, Jonathan D.; Landers, John E.; Hardiman, Orla; Andersen, Peter M.; Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Silani, Vincenzo; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; van Es, Michael A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Breen, Gerome; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577

  7. Classical genetic analyses of responses to nicotine and ethanol in crosses derived from long- and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1992-04-01

    A classical (Mendelian) genetic analysis of responses to ethanol and nicotine was conducted in crosses derived from mouse lines which were selectively bred for differential duration of loss of the righting response (sleep-time) after ethanol. Dose-response curves for these mice, the long- and short-sleep mouse lines, as well as the derived F1, F2 and backcross (F1 x long-sleep and F1 x short-sleep) generations were generated for several measures of nicotine and ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol sensitivity was assessed using the sleep-time measure. Nicotine sensitivity was tested using a battery of behavioral and physiological tests which included measures of seizure activity, respiration rate, acoustic startle response, Y-maze activities (both crossing and rearing activities), heart rate and body temperature. The inheritance of sensitivities to both of these agents appears to be polygenic and inheritance can be explained primarily by additive genetic effects with some epistasis. Sensitivity to the ethanol sleep-time measure was genetically correlated with sensitivity to both nicotine-induced hypothermia and seizures; the correlation was greater between sleep-time and hypothermia. These data indicate that there is overlap in the genetic regulation of sensitivity to both ethanol and nicotine as measured by some, but not all, tests.

  8. Associations of Fitness, Physical Activity, Strength, and Genetic Risk With Cardiovascular Disease: Longitudinal Analyses in the UK Biobank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Emmi; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ingelsson, Erik

    2018-04-09

    Background -Observational studies have shown inverse associations among fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about these associations in individuals with elevated genetic susceptibility for these diseases. Methods -We estimated associations of grip strength, objective and subjective physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a large cohort of 502635 individuals from the UK Biobank (median follow-up, 6.1 years; interquartile range, 5.4-6.8 years). Then we further examined these associations in individuals with different genetic burden by stratifying individuals based on their genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation. We compared disease risk among individuals in different tertiles of fitness, physical activity, and genetic risk using lowest tertiles as reference. Results -Grip strength, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed inverse associations with incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease: hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77- 0.81; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74, per SD change, respectively; atrial fibrillation: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73- 0.76; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.95; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65, per SD change, respectively). Higher grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation in each genetic risk score group ( P trend fitness were associated with 49% lower risk for coronary heart disease (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69) and 60% lower risk for atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.40; 95%, CI 0.30-0.55) among individuals at high genetic risk for these diseases. Conclusions - Fitness and physical activity demonstrated inverse associations with incident cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in individuals with elevated genetic risk for these diseases.

  9. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey X Xu

    Full Text Available HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  11. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse Mengistu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febrile patients were diagnosed for malaria. 458 Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were used for identification of Plasmodium species and Stool samples prepared using Kato-Katz technique were used to examine for intestinal helminths. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using a portable spectrophotometer (Hemocue HB 201. Anthropometry-based nutritional assessment of the study participants was done by measuring body weight to the nearest 0.1 kg and height to the nearest 0.1 cm. Findings 458 of the total febrile patients were positive for malaria. Co infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites is associated with significantly (p Plasmodium parasites. And this difference was also significant for haemoglobin concentration (F = 10.18, p = 0.002, in which patients co infected with Plasmodium and helminth parasites showed lower mean haemoglobin concentration. More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. However the statistics for the difference is not significant. Conclusion Malaria and soil-transmitted helminthiasis obviously contribute to anaemia and low weight status and these conditions are more pronounced in individuals concurrently infected with malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities.

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  13. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  14. The impact of HIV-1 co-infection on long-term mortality in patients with hepatitis C: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, L H; Jepsen, P; Skinhøj, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of HIV co-infection on mortality in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: From a nationwide Danish database of HCV-infected patients, we identified individuals diagnosed with HCV subsequent to an HIV diagnosis. For each co-infected patient...

  15. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  16. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

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    Jian Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO. Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8 region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4 and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6 but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059. No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  17. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  18. Bayesian estimation and use of high-throughput remote sensing indices for quantitative genetic analyses of leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Leong, Wen Fung; An, Nan; Brock, Marcus T; Rubin, Matthew J; Welch, Stephen; Weinig, Cynthia

    2018-02-01

    We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits. We describe the growth trajectories of leaves using novel Bayesian function-valued trait (FVT) modeling approaches in Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines raised in heterogeneous field settings. While frequentist approaches estimate parameter values by treating each experimental replicate discretely, Bayesian models can utilize information in the global dataset, potentially leading to more robust trait estimation. We illustrate this principle by estimating growth asymptotes in the face of missing data and comparing heritabilities of growth trajectory parameters estimated by Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Using pseudo-Bayes factors, we compare the performance of an initial Bayesian logistic growth model and a model that incorporates carbon assimilation (A max ) as a cofactor, thus statistically accounting for genotypic differences in carbon resources. We further evaluate two remotely sensed spectroradiometric indices, photochemical reflectance (pri2) and MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (mtci) as covariates in lieu of A max , because these two indices were genetically correlated with A max across years and treatments yet allow much higher throughput compared to direct leaf-level gas-exchange measurements. For leaf lengths in uncrowded settings, including A max improves model fit over the initial model. The mtci and pri2 indices also outperform direct A max measurements. Of particular

  19. Genetic analyses of the NF1 gene in Turkish neurofibromatosis type I patients and definition of three novel variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusal SD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1 is a multi systemic autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder predisposing patients to have benign and/or malignant lesions predominantly of the skin, nervous system and bone. Loss of function mutations or deletions of the NF1 gene is responsible for NF1 disease. Involvement of various pathogenic variants, the size of the gene and presence of pseudogenes makes it difficult to analyze. We aimed to report the results of 2 years of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and next generation sequencing (NGS for genetic diagnosis of NF1 applied at our genetic diagnosis center. The MLPA, semiconductor sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed in genomic DNA samples from 24 unrelated patients and their affected family members referred to our center suspected of having NF1. In total, three novel and 12 known pathogenic variants and a whole gene deletion were determined. We suggest that next generation sequencing is a practical tool for genetic analysis of NF1. Deletion/duplication analysis with MLPA may also be helpful for patients clinically diagnosed to carry NF1 but do not have a detectable mutation in NGS.

  20. Case report of canine co-infection with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Stefanovska Jovana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine leishmaniasis (CanL due to Leishmania infantum and canine monocytic ehrilichiosis (CME due to Ehrlichia canis are common diseases with zoonotic potential in the Mediterranean area. Their prevalence in R. Macedonia as a neighboring Mediterranean county is expected. In both diseases similar clinical symptoms can be manifested in dogs such as: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, epistaxis, fever, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, ocular signs. This case report present an atypical case of 11 year old female Samoyed with starting single clinical symptom epistaxys. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed the presence only of CanL, which was diagnosed using indirect immunofluorescence method and ELISA. First laboratory findings showed normal hematological and renal profiles. Dog was put on a treatment with Allopurinol (20mg/kg, p/o for at least 9 months. Termination of the therapy after 6 months brought a numerous clinical symptoms involving weakness, dehydration, pale mucous membranes lost pupilar reflex, uremic breath and biochemical parameters revealed a renal failure. Using a commercial ELISA kit Ehrlichia canis as a co infection was diagnosed. Most probably the second infectious agent was induced in the past 6 months, causing more severe pathological effects than CanL infection alone.

  1. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection.

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    Dominik Rückerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2 similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell.

  2. The Use of Synbiotics to Prevent IMNV and Vibrio harveyi Co-Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNI OKTAVIANA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on viral immune responses and bacterial co-infection, of different feeding frequencies of a synbiotic supplemented diet given to Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei. A synbiotic-supplemented diet was formulated from probiotic Vibrio alginolitycus SKT-bR and prebiotics from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. oligosaccharide. Pacific white shrimp were fed with synbiotic diet at different frequencies, i.e. daily (P1, twice a week (P2, and once a week (P3 for a 30 day pre-challenge test. After the 30 day feeding period, the shrimps were challenged by intramuscular injection of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV and Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that shrimp treated with a synbiotic-supplemented diet showed significantly higher growth performance than control groups (P<0.05. Shrimp treated under regime P1 showed the highest values for phenoloxidase (PO and respiratory burst (RB parameters compared to shrimp given with other treatments. Following the challenge test, higher survival rate were seen in the P1 treatment group, in comparison to the positive control, and the P1 treatment group showed the highest values in total haemocyte count (THC, PO, and RB.

  3. A necrotic lung ball caused by co-infection with Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toshinobu Yokoyama, Jun Sasaki, Keita Matsumoto, Chie Koga, Yusuke Ito, Yoichiro Kaku, Morihiro Tajiri, Hiroki Natori, Masashi HirokawaDivision of Respirology, Neurology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, JapanIntroduction: A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.Case report: A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT of the chest. The patient was treated with ß-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan and serum ß-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by co-infection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.Conclusion: A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.Keywords: lung ball, necrotic lung ball, Candida, Streptococcus pneumoniae

  4. Metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in St Kilda Soay sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2008-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep.

  5. Towards systems genetic analyses in barley: Integration of phenotypic, expression and genotype data into GeneNetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druka Arnis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical genetical genomics experiment results in four separate data sets; genotype, gene expression, higher-order phenotypic data and metadata that describe the protocols, processing and the array platform. Used in concert, these data sets provide the opportunity to perform genetic analysis at a systems level. Their predictive power is largely determined by the gene expression dataset where tens of millions of data points can be generated using currently available mRNA profiling technologies. Such large, multidimensional data sets often have value beyond that extracted during their initial analysis and interpretation, particularly if conducted on widely distributed reference genetic materials. Besides quality and scale, access to the data is of primary importance as accessibility potentially allows the extraction of considerable added value from the same primary dataset by the wider research community. Although the number of genetical genomics experiments in different plant species is rapidly increasing, none to date has been presented in a form that allows quick and efficient on-line testing for possible associations between genes, loci and traits of interest by an entire research community. Description Using a reference population of 150 recombinant doubled haploid barley lines we generated novel phenotypic, mRNA abundance and SNP-based genotyping data sets, added them to a considerable volume of legacy trait data and entered them into the GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. GeneNetwork is a unified on-line analytical environment that enables the user to test genetic hypotheses about how component traits, such as mRNA abundance, may interact to condition more complex biological phenotypes (higher-order traits. Here we describe these barley data sets and demonstrate some of the functionalities GeneNetwork provides as an easily accessible and integrated analytical environment for exploring them. Conclusion By

  6. Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmaco)genetic analyses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Trompet, Stella

    2011-10-06

    Abstract Background The PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE) is a genome wide association study in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at risk for vascular disease (PROSPER) that investigates the genetic variation responsible for the individual variation in drug response to pravastatin. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol in general by 30%, however not in all subjects. Moreover, clinical response is highly variable and adverse effects occur in a minority of patients. In this report we first describe the rationale of the PROSPER\\/PHASE project and second show that the PROSPER\\/PHASE study can be used to study pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Methods The genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using the Illumina 660K-Quad beadchips following manufacturer\\'s instructions. After a stringent quality control 557,192 SNPs in 5,244 subjects were available for analysis. To maximize the availability of genetic data and coverage of the genome, imputation up to 2.5 million autosomal CEPH HapMap SNPs was performed with MACH imputation software. The GWAS for LDL-cholesterol is assessed with an additive linear regression model in PROBABEL software, adjusted for age, sex, and country of origin to account for population stratification. Results Forty-two SNPs reached the GWAS significant threshold of p = 5.0e-08 in 5 genomic loci (APOE\\/APOC1; LDLR; FADS2\\/FEN1; HMGCR; PSRC1\\/CELSR5). The top SNP (rs445925, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 2.8e-30 is located within the APOC1 gene and near the APOE gene. The second top SNP (rs6511720, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 5.22e-15 is located within the LDLR gene. All 5 genomic loci were previously associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, no novel loci were identified. Replication in WOSCOPS and CARE confirmed our results. Conclusion With the GWAS in the PROSPER\\/PHASE study we confirm the previously found genetic associations with LDL-cholesterol levels. With this proof

  7. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  8. Forensic and population genetic analyses of Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis typed with the Yfiler® Plus PCR amplification kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Buchard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    (®) in the same individuals. Forensic and population genetic parameters were estimated for Yfiler(®) Plus. Yfiler(®) Plus had a higher power of discrimination than Yfiler(®) in all three populations. Compared to Yfiler(®), Yfiler(®) Plus offers increased power of discrimination, which is obviously an advantage...... in crime case investigations. However, the inclusion of seven RM Y-STRs in Yfiler(®) Plus makes it less attractive for relationship testing because of the relatively high combined mutation rate, approximately 15%....

  9. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Using trajectory analyses to refine phenotype for genetic association: conduct problems and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T; Boardman, Jason D; Gelhorn, Heather L; Smolen, Andrew; Corley, Robin P; Huizinga, David; Menard, Scott; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Conduct disorder is a serious, relatively common disorder of childhood and adolescence. Findings from genetic association studies searching for genetic determinants of the liability toward such behaviors have been inconsistent. One possible explanation for differential results is that most studies define phenotype from a single assessment; for many adolescents conduct problems decrease in severity over time, whereas for others such behaviors persist. Therefore, longitudinal datasets offer the opportunity to refine phenotype. We used Caucasians that were first assessed during adolescence from the National Youth Survey Family Study. Nine waves of data were used to create latent growth trajectories and test for associations between trajectory class and 5HTTLPR genotype. For the full sample, 5HTTLPR was not associated with conduct problem phenotypes. However, the short (s) allele was associated with chronic conduct problems in females; a nominally significant sex by 5HTTLPR genotype interaction was noted. Longitudinal studies provide unique opportunities for phenotypic refinement and such techniques, with large samples, may be useful for phenotypic definition with other study designs, such as whole genome association studies.

  11. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and…

  12. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  13. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  14. Neospora caninum and Ehrlichia canis co-infection in a dog with meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, Itamar; Baneth, Gad; Salant, Harold; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Berkowitz, Asaf; Shamir, Merav; Chai, Orit

    2018-06-01

    An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented for acute, progressive weakness and ataxia, inappetence, and weight loss. The patient was mentally normal, but nonambulatory, with a right head tilt, right positional ventral strabismus, and slight head tremors. A neurologic lesion was localized to the cerebellum and right brainstem. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly increased protein concentration and mixed pleocytosis, with eosinophil predominance (44%), intracytoplasmic inclusions within eosinophils, consistent with Ehrlichia canis (E canis) morulae, and Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) or Neospora caninum (N caninum) tachyzoites within eosinophils and monocytes. A serum indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was positive for N caninum (titer 1:12 800) and negative for T gondii. Both blood and CSF PCR results were N caninum- and E canis-positive and T gondii- and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-negative, and blood PCR, but not CSF PCR, was Hepatozoon canis-positive. The dog was treated for 30 days with clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, doxycycline, prednisone, and cephalosporin, but did not improve neurologically, and was euthanized. Brain histopathology showed moderate multifocal, subacute meningoencephalitis with necrosis and gliosis. The neurologic disease was mostly attributed to central nervous system (CNS) neosporosis, with the possible contribution of ehrlichiosis, which was likely a manifestation of blood-brain barrier disruption. Hepatozoonosis was probably a result or cause of underlying immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNSN caninum and E canis co-infection detected by both CSF PCR and cytology and E canis morulae identified within CSF eosinophils. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  16. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  17. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Spitz dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  18. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  19. First evidence of Anaplasma platys and Hepatozoon canis co-infection in a dog from Romania--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Turcitu, Mihai A; Stefanache, Mircea; Tamba, Paula; Barbuceanu, Florica; Chitimia, Lidia

    2013-06-01

    Anaplasma platys was first identified and described in North America as a Rickettsia-like, platelet-specific organism in dogs with infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia. In Europe, A. platys has so far mainly been described for some Mediterranean countries. Here, we describe a case of A. platys infection in a dog from Romania, confirmed by PCR. Additionally, the dog had a co-infection with Hepatozoon canis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of A. platys infection in Romania and the first case of a co-infection with A. platys and H. canis altogether. Both pathogens should be considered as possible disease agents in dogs suffering from disease associated with tick bite in south-eastern Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Impact of HIV/HBV infection and HIV/HBV co-infection on outcomes of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Cheng, W T; Zhou, Y B; Jiang, Q W

    2017-06-10

    Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary.

  1. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  2. Genetic influences on political ideologies: twin analyses of 19 measures of political ideologies from five democracies and genome-wide findings from three populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Medland, Sarah E; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarsson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Christopher T; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey A; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-05-01

    Almost 40 years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30 and 60% of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we present results from original analyses of a combined sample of over 12,000 twins pairs, ascertained from nine different studies conducted in five democracies, sampled over the course of four decades. We provide evidence that genetic factors play a role in the formation of political ideology, regardless of how ideology is measured, the era, or the population sampled. The only exception is a question that explicitly uses the phrase "Left-Right". We then present results from one of the first genome-wide association studies on political ideology using data from three samples: a 1990 Australian sample involving 6,894 individuals from 3,516 families; a 2008 Australian sample of 1,160 related individuals from 635 families and a 2010 Swedish sample involving 3,334 individuals from 2,607 families. No polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggests that political ideology constitutes a fundamental aspect of one's genetically informed psychological disposition, but as Fisher proposed long ago, genetic influences on complex traits will be composed of thousands of markers of very small effects and it will require extremely large samples to have enough power in order to identify specific polymorphisms related to complex social traits.

  3. Genetic Influences on Political Ideologies: Twin Analyses of 19 Measures of Political Ideologies from Five Democracies and Genome-Wide Findings from Three Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Medland, Sarah E.; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarrson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Chris; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30-60% of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we present results from original analyses of a combined sample of over 12,000 twins pairs, ascertained from nine different studies conducted in five democracies, sampled over the course of four decades. We provide evidence that genetic factors play a role in the formation of political ideology, regardless of how ideology is measured, the era, or the population sampled. The only exception is a question that explicitly uses the phrase “Left-Right”. We then present results from one of the first genome-wide association studies on political ideology using data from three samples: a 1990 Australian sample involving 6,894 individuals from 3,516 families; a 2008 Australian sample of 1,160 related individuals from 635 families and a 2010 Swedish sample involving 3,334 individuals from 2,607 families. No polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggests that political ideology constitutes a fundamental aspect of one’s genetically informed psychological disposition, but as Fisher proposed long ago, genetic influences on complex traits will be composed of thousands of markers of very small effects and it will require extremely large samples to have enough power in order to identify specific polymorphisms related to complex social traits. PMID:24569950

  4. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  5. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.

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    Claire S Leblond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls. We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4% patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5% controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70. In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013. Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.

  6. Genetic and codon usage bias analyses of polymerase genes of equine influenza virus and its relation to evolution.

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    Bera, Bidhan Ch; Virmani, Nitin; Kumar, Naveen; Anand, Taruna; Pavulraj, S; Rash, Adam; Elton, Debra; Rash, Nicola; Bhatia, Sandeep; Sood, Richa; Singh, Raj Kumar; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath

    2017-08-23

    Equine influenza is a major health problem of equines worldwide. The polymerase genes of influenza virus have key roles in virus replication, transcription, transmission between hosts and pathogenesis. Hence, the comprehensive genetic and codon usage bias of polymerase genes of equine influenza virus (EIV) were analyzed to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary relationships in a novel perspective. The group - specific consensus amino acid substitutions were identified in all polymerase genes of EIVs that led to divergence of EIVs into various clades. The consistent amino acid changes were also detected in the Florida clade 2 EIVs circulating in Europe and Asia since 2007. To study the codon usage patterns, a total of 281,324 codons of polymerase genes of EIV H3N8 isolates from 1963 to 2015 were systemically analyzed. The polymerase genes of EIVs exhibit a weak codon usage bias. The ENc-GC3s and Neutrality plots indicated that natural selection is the major influencing factor of codon usage bias, and that the impact of mutation pressure is comparatively minor. The methods for estimating host imposed translation pressure suggested that the polymerase acidic (PA) gene seems to be under less translational pressure compared to polymerase basic 1 (PB1) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes. The multivariate statistical analysis of polymerase genes divided EIVs into four evolutionary diverged clusters - Pre-divergent, Eurasian, Florida sub-lineage 1 and 2. Various lineage specific amino acid substitutions observed in all polymerase genes of EIVs and especially, clade 2 EIVs underwent major variations which led to the emergence of a phylogenetically distinct group of EIVs originating from Richmond/1/07. The codon usage bias was low in all the polymerase genes of EIVs that was influenced by the multiple factors such as the nucleotide compositions, mutation pressure, aromaticity and hydropathicity. However, natural selection was the major influencing factor in defining the

  7. Co-Infection of Mosquitoes with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses Reveals Modulation of the Replication of Both Viruses in Midguts and Salivary Glands of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

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    Le Coupanec, Alain; Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stéphane; Roux, Pascal; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Morales-Vargas, Ronald; Enguehard, Margot; Lavillette, Dimitri; Missé, Dorothée; Choumet, Valérie

    2017-08-04

    Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases in humans and animals. Chikungunya-affected areas often overlap with dengue-endemic areas. Concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been detected in travelers returning from regions of endemicity. CHIKV and DENV co-infected Aedes albopictus have also been collected in the vicinity of co-infected human cases, emphasizing the need to study co-infections in mosquitoes. We thus aimed to study the pathogen-pathogen interaction involved in these co-infections in DENV/CHIKV co-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In mono-infections, we detected CHIKV antigens as early as 4 days post-virus exposure in both the midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG), whereas we detected DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) antigens from day 5 post-virus exposure in MG and day 10 post-virus exposure in SG. Identical infection rates were observed for singly and co-infected mosquitoes, and facilitation of the replication of both viruses at various times post-viral exposure. We observed a higher replication for DENV-2 in SG of co-infected mosquitoes. We showed that mixed CHIKV and DENV infection facilitated viral replication in Ae. aegypti . The outcome of these mixed infections must be further studied to increase our understanding of pathogen-pathogen interactions in host cells.

  8. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

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    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  9. Epstein Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.

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    María G Cárdenas-Mondragón

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation.333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN and none polymorphonuclear (PMN cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0 and PMN (PR 7.2 cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection.Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious lesions later in life.

  10. Lay beliefs of TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Frich Jan C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about lay beliefs of etiology, transmission and treatment of TB, and lay perceptions of the relationship between TB and HIV is important for understanding patients' health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. We conducted a study to explore lay beliefs about TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 15 TB/HIV co-infected patients and 9 health professionals and focus group discussions with 14 co-infected patients in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. We found that a predominant lay belief was that TB was caused by exposure to cold. Excessive sun exposure, exposure to mud, smoking, alcohol, khat and inadequate food intake were also reported as causes for TB. Such beliefs initially led to self-treatment. The majority of patients were aware of an association between TB and HIV. Some reported that TB could transform into HIV, while others said that the body could be weakened by HIV and become more susceptible to illnesses such as TB. Some patients classified TB as either HIV-related or non-HIV-related, and weight loss was a hallmark for HIV-related TB. The majority of patients believed that people in the community knew that there was an association between TB and HIV, and some feared that this would predispose them to HIV-related stigma. Conclusion There is a need for culturally sensitive information and educational efforts to address misperceptions about TB and HIV. Health professionals should provide information about causes and treatment of TB and HIV to co-infected patients.

  11. A high prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 co-infections in cervical biopsies from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sheile Pinheiro de; Costa, Ana Carla Marques da; Barcellos, Regina Bones; Medeiros, Rubia Marília de; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da; Rossetti, Maria Lucia

    2018-04-24

    HPV types 16 and 18 were studied in paraffin-fixed cervical biopsy collected in southern Brazil. HPV 16, HPV 18 and co-infection HPV 16/18 were identified in 10/57 (17.5%), 4/57 (7%) and in 43/57 (75.4%) samples, respectively. Southern Brazil has one of the highest prevalence rates of HPV 16/18 reported. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the transcripts associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV

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    Yue Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV influences the outcome and natural disease progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. While the majority of HCV mono-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected subjects develop chronic HCV infection, 20–46% of mono- and co-infected subjects spontaneously clear HCV infection. The mechanism underlying viral clearance is not clearly understood. Analysis of differential cellular gene expression (mRNA between HIV-infected patients with persistent HCV infection or spontaneous clearance could provide a unique opportunity to decipher the mechanism of HCV clearance. Methods Plasma RNA from HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV was sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. The sequencing results were analyzed to identify transcripts that are associated with HCV clearance by measuring differential gene expression in HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV. Results We have identified plasma mRNA, the levels of which are significantly elevated (at least 5 fold, False Discovery Rate (FDR <0.05 before HCV infection in subjects who cleared HCV compared to those who remained chronically infected. Upon further analysis of these differentially expressed genes, before and after HCV infection, we found that before HCV infection 12 genes were uniquely upregulated in the clearance group compared to the chronically infected group. Importantly, a number of these 12 genes and their upstream regulators (such as CCL3, IL17D, LBP, SOCS3, NFKBIL1, IRF are associated with innate immune response functions. Conclusions These results suggest that subjects who spontaneously clear HCV may express these unique genes associated with innate immune functions.

  13. Co-infection with HIV associated with reduced vulnerability to symptoms of depression during antiviral treatment for hepatitis C.

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    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Harrison, Neil; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard

    2017-07-01

    In this prospective study, we examined new-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and the differential expression of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 HCV mono-infected and 40 HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating pegylated interferon-based treatment, including protease inhibitor therapy. The semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) was used to assess MDD. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of the total sample, 60 patients (34.9%) developed SCID-I defined MDD during antiviral treatment. The proportion of HCV mono- and HIV/HCV patients developing MDD during treatment was not significantly different (37.9% vs. 25%; p=0.185). In both groups, there was a significant increase in HAMD total score from baseline to week 4, and a significant decrease between week 24 and 6 months post-treatment cessation. The greatest increase was observed in the symptoms of the neurovegetative syndrome. HCV mono-infected patients reported higher scores than co-infected patients, particularly impaired activity and somatic symptoms, but the differences were only significant at week 12. The finding that co-infected patients appear less vulnerable to the development of depressive symptoms during HCV treatment than HCV mono-infected patients warrants further exploration, including a thorough analysis of the biological and psychosocial factors associated with this emergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

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    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  15. Altered immune responses in rhesus macaques co-infected with SIV and Plasmodium cynomolgi: an animal model for coincident AIDS and relapsing malaria.

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    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dual epidemics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium and HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia present a significant risk for co-infection in these overlapping endemic regions. Recent studies of HIV/Plasmodium falciparum co-infection have reported significant interactions of these pathogens, including more rapid CD4+ T cell loss, increased viral load, increased immunosuppression, and increased episodes of clinical malaria. Here, we describe a novel rhesus macaque model for co-infection that supports and expands upon findings in human co-infection studies and can be used to identify interactions between these two pathogens.Five rhesus macaques were infected with P. cynomolgi and, following three parasite relapses, with SIV. Compared to macaques infected with SIV alone, co-infected animals had, as a group, decreased survival time and more rapid declines in markers for SIV progression, including peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios. The naïve CD4+ T cell pool of the co-infected animals was depleted more rapidly than animals infected with SIV alone. The co-infected animals also failed to generate proliferative responses to parasitemia by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as B cells while also having a less robust anti-parasite and altered anti-SIV antibody response.These data suggest that infection with both SIV and Plasmodium enhances SIV-induced disease progression and impairs the anti-Plasmodium immune response. These data support findings in HIV/Plasmodium co-infection studies. This animal model can be used to further define impacts of lentivirus and Plasmodium co-infection and guide public health and therapeutic interventions.

  16. Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

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    Dorit Schleinitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. The BMPR2 locus has been suggested as target of recent selection in human populations. We hypothesized that BMPR2 might have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity.Evolutionary analyses (dN/dS, Fst, iHS were conducted in vertebrates and human populations. BMPR2 mRNA expression was measured in 190 paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The gene was sequenced in 48 DNA samples. Nine representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for subsequent association studies on quantitative traits related to obesity in 1830 German Caucasians. An independent cohort of 925 Sorbs was used for replication. Finally, relation of genotypes to mRNA in fat was examined.The evolutionary analyses indicated signatures of selection on the BMPR2 locus. BMPR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased both in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 37 overweight (BMI>25 and 30 kg/m² compared with 44 lean subjects (BMI< 25 kg/m² (P<0.001. In a case-control study including lean and obese subjects, two intronic SNPs (rs6717924, rs13426118 were associated with obesity (adjusted P<0.05. Combined analyses including the initial cohort and the Sorbs confirmed a consistent effect for rs6717924 (combined P = 0.01 on obesity. Moreover, rs6717924 was associated with higher BMPR2 mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue.Combined BMPR2 genotype-phenotype-mRNA expression data as well as evolutionary aspects suggest a role of BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

  17. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  18. Identification of Nitrogen Consumption Genetic Variants in Yeast Through QTL Mapping and Bulk Segregant RNA-Seq Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Francisco A; Brice, Claire; Molinet, Jennifer; Tisné, Sebastién; Abarca, Valentina; Tapia, Sebastián M; Oporto, Christian; García, Verónica; Liti, Gianni; Martínez, Claudio

    2017-06-07

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for wine must fermentation. In this process, nitrogen represents a limiting nutrient and its scarcity results in important economic losses for the wine industry. Yeast isolates use different strategies to grow in poor nitrogen environments and their genomic plasticity enables adaptation to multiple habitats through improvements in nitrogen consumption. Here, we used a highly recombinant S. cerevisiae multi-parent population (SGRP-4X) derived from the intercross of four parental strains of different origins to identify new genetic variants responsible for nitrogen consumption differences during wine fermentation. Analysis of 165 fully sequenced F12 segregants allowed us to map 26 QTL in narrow intervals for 14 amino acid sources and ammonium, the majority of which represent genomic regions previously unmapped for these traits. To complement this strategy, we performed Bulk segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq) analysis in segregants exhibiting extremely high and low ammonium consumption levels. This identified several QTL overlapping differentially expressed genes and refined the gene candidate search. Based on these approaches, we were able to validate ARO1 , PDC1 , CPS1 , ASI2 , LYP1 , and ALP1 allelic variants underlying nitrogen consumption differences between strains, providing evidence of many genes with small phenotypic effects. Altogether, these variants significantly shape yeast nitrogen consumption with important implications for evolution, ecological, and quantitative genomics. Copyright © 2017 Cubillos et al.

  19. Genetic association analyses implicate aberrant regulation of innate and adaptive immunity genes in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Deborah S Cunninghame; Pinder, Christopher L; Tombleson, Philip; Behrens, Timothy W; Martín, Javier; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Chen, Lingyan; Replogle, Joseph; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars; Graham, Robert R; Wither, Joan E; Rioux, John D; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Vyse, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease characterized by loss of immune tolerance to nuclear and cell surface antigens. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) had modest sample sizes, reducing their scope and reliability. Our study comprised 7,219 cases and 15,991 controls of European ancestry: a new GWAS, meta-analysis with a published GWAS and a replication study. We have mapped 43 susceptibility loci, including 10 novel associations. Assisted by dense genome coverage, imputation provided evidence for missense variants underpinning associations in eight genes. Other likely causal genes were established by examining associated alleles for cis-acting eQTL effects in a range of ex vivo immune cells. We found an over-representation (n=16) of transcription factors among SLE susceptibility genes. This supports the view that aberrantly regulated gene expression networks in multiple cell types in both the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the risk of developing SLE. PMID:26502338

  20. Identification of Nitrogen Consumption Genetic Variants in Yeast Through QTL Mapping and Bulk Segregant RNA-Seq Analyses

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    Francisco A. Cubillos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for wine must fermentation. In this process, nitrogen represents a limiting nutrient and its scarcity results in important economic losses for the wine industry. Yeast isolates use different strategies to grow in poor nitrogen environments and their genomic plasticity enables adaptation to multiple habitats through improvements in nitrogen consumption. Here, we used a highly recombinant S. cerevisiae multi-parent population (SGRP-4X derived from the intercross of four parental strains of different origins to identify new genetic variants responsible for nitrogen consumption differences during wine fermentation. Analysis of 165 fully sequenced F12 segregants allowed us to map 26 QTL in narrow intervals for 14 amino acid sources and ammonium, the majority of which represent genomic regions previously unmapped for these traits. To complement this strategy, we performed Bulk segregant RNA-seq (BSR-seq analysis in segregants exhibiting extremely high and low ammonium consumption levels. This identified several QTL overlapping differentially expressed genes and refined the gene candidate search. Based on these approaches, we were able to validate ARO1, PDC1, CPS1, ASI2, LYP1, and ALP1 allelic variants underlying nitrogen consumption differences between strains, providing evidence of many genes with small phenotypic effects. Altogether, these variants significantly shape yeast nitrogen consumption with important implications for evolution, ecological, and quantitative genomics.

  1. Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border: Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.

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    Rubens Alex de Oliveira Menezes

    Full Text Available Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality of Amapá, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears, haemoglobin dosage by an automated method and coproparasitology by the Hoffman and Faust methods. The anti-PvMSP-119 IgG antibodies in the plasma were evaluated using ELISA and Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2, and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine counts were performed by flow cytometry. The participants were grouped into those that were monoinfected with vivax malaria (M, vivax malaria-enteroparasite co-infected (CI, monoinfected with enteroparasite (E and endemic controls (EC, who were negative for both diseases. 441 individuals were included and grouped according to their infection status: [M 6.9% (30/441], [Cl 26.5% (117/441], [E 32.4% (143/441] and [EC 34.2% (151/441]. Males prevailed among the (M 77% (23/30 and (CI 60% (70/117 groups. There was a difference in haemoglobin levels among the different groups under study for [EC-E], [EC-Cl], [E-M] and [Cl-M], with (p < 0.01. Anaemia was expressed as a percentage between individuals [CI-EC (p < 0.05]. In terms of parasitaemia, there were differences for the groups [CI-M (p < 0.05]. Anti-PvMSP-119 antibodies were detected in 51.2% (226/441 of the population. The level of cytokines evaluation revealed a large variation in TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations in the co-infected group. In this study we did not observe any influence of coinfection on the acquisition of IgG antibodies against PvMSP119, as well as on the profile of the cytokines that characterize the Th1 and Th2 patterns. However, co-infection increased TNF-α and IL-10

  2. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

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    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  3. Genetic and Morphological Analyses Demonstrate That Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) Is Likely to Be a Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Camila S.; Costa-Silva, Guilherme J.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Schizolecis is a monotypic genus of Siluriformes widely distributed throughout isolated coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. Previous studies have shown that fish groups found in isolated river basins tend to differentiate over time in the absence of gene flow, resulting in allopatric speciation. In this study, we used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI with the analysis of the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) for single locus species delimitation, and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of external morphology to test the hypothesis that Schizolecis guntheri is a complex of species. We analyzed 94 samples of S. guntheri for GMYC and ABGD, and 82 samples for PCA from 22 coastal rivers draining to the Atlantic in southeastern Brazil from the Paraná State to the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. As a result, the GMYC model and the ABGD delimited five operational taxonomy units (OTUs – a nomenclature referred to in the present study of the possible new species delimited for the genetic analysis), a much higher number compared to the traditional alfa taxonomy that only recognizes S. guntheri across the isolated coastal rivers of Brazil. Furthermore, the PCA analysis suggests that S. guntheri is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including dorsal-fin spine length, pectoral-fin spine length, pelvic-fin spine length, lower caudal-fin spine length, caudal peduncle depth, anal width and mandibular ramus length. However, no exclusive character was found among the isolated populations that could be used to describe a new species of Schizolecis. Therefore, we can conclude, based on our results of PCA contrasting with the results of GMYC and ABGD, that S. guntheri represents a complex of species. PMID:29552028

  4. Genetic and Morphological Analyses Demonstrate That Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) Is Likely to Be a Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Camila S; Costa-Silva, Guilherme J; Roxo, Fábio F; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Schizolecis is a monotypic genus of Siluriformes widely distributed throughout isolated coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. Previous studies have shown that fish groups found in isolated river basins tend to differentiate over time in the absence of gene flow, resulting in allopatric speciation. In this study, we used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI with the analysis of the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) for single locus species delimitation, and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of external morphology to test the hypothesis that Schizolecis guntheri is a complex of species. We analyzed 94 samples of S. guntheri for GMYC and ABGD, and 82 samples for PCA from 22 coastal rivers draining to the Atlantic in southeastern Brazil from the Paraná State to the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. As a result, the GMYC model and the ABGD delimited five operational taxonomy units (OTUs - a nomenclature referred to in the present study of the possible new species delimited for the genetic analysis), a much higher number compared to the traditional alfa taxonomy that only recognizes S. guntheri across the isolated coastal rivers of Brazil. Furthermore, the PCA analysis suggests that S. guntheri is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including dorsal-fin spine length, pectoral-fin spine length, pelvic-fin spine length, lower caudal-fin spine length, caudal peduncle depth, anal width and mandibular ramus length. However, no exclusive character was found among the isolated populations that could be used to describe a new species of Schizolecis . Therefore, we can conclude, based on our results of PCA contrasting with the results of GMYC and ABGD, that S. guntheri represents a complex of species.

  5. Genetic and Morphological Analyses Demonstrate That Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae Is Likely to Be a Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizolecis is a monotypic genus of Siluriformes widely distributed throughout isolated coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. Previous studies have shown that fish groups found in isolated river basins tend to differentiate over time in the absence of gene flow, resulting in allopatric speciation. In this study, we used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI with the analysis of the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD for single locus species delimitation, and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA of external morphology to test the hypothesis that Schizolecis guntheri is a complex of species. We analyzed 94 samples of S. guntheri for GMYC and ABGD, and 82 samples for PCA from 22 coastal rivers draining to the Atlantic in southeastern Brazil from the Paraná State to the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. As a result, the GMYC model and the ABGD delimited five operational taxonomy units (OTUs – a nomenclature referred to in the present study of the possible new species delimited for the genetic analysis, a much higher number compared to the traditional alfa taxonomy that only recognizes S. guntheri across the isolated coastal rivers of Brazil. Furthermore, the PCA analysis suggests that S. guntheri is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including dorsal-fin spine length, pectoral-fin spine length, pelvic-fin spine length, lower caudal-fin spine length, caudal peduncle depth, anal width and mandibular ramus length. However, no exclusive character was found among the isolated populations that could be used to describe a new species of Schizolecis. Therefore, we can conclude, based on our results of PCA contrasting with the results of GMYC and ABGD, that S. guntheri represents a complex of species.

  6. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA) of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921). Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto) group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions) were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2%) are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled. PMID:21521527

  7. Sex-biased natal dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in American black bears as revealed by spatial genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Creel, Scott R; Kalinowski, Steven T; Vu, Ninh V; Quigley, Howard B

    2008-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sex-biased natal dispersal reduces close inbreeding in American black bears, a solitary species that exhibits nearly complete male dispersal and female philopatry. Using microsatellite DNA and spatial data from reproductively mature bears (>or= 4 years old), we examined the spatial genetic structure of two distinct populations in New Mexico from 1993 to 2000. As predicted, relatedness (r) and the frequency of close relationships (parent-offspring or full siblings) decreased with distance among female dyads, but little change was observed among male or opposite-sex dyads. Neighbouring females were more closely related than neighbouring males. The potential for inbreeding was low. Most opposite-sex pairs that lived sufficiently close to facilitate mating were unrelated, and few were close relatives. We found no evidence that bears actively avoided inbreeding in their selection of mates from this nearby pool, as mean r and relationship frequencies did not differ between potential and actual mating pairs (determined by parentage analysis). These basic patterns were apparent in both study areas despite a nearly two-fold difference in density. However, the sex bias in dispersal was less pronounced in the lower-density area, based on proportions of bears with male and female relatives residing nearby. This result suggests that male bears may respond to reduced competition by decreasing their rate or distance of dispersal. Evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal but also indicates that competition (for mates or resources) modifies dispersal patterns.

  8. A systemic gene silencing method suitable for high throughput, reverse genetic analyses of gene function in fern gametophytes

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    Tanurdzic Milos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ceratopteris richardii is a useful experimental system for studying gametophyte development and sexual reproduction in plants. However, few tools for cloning mutant genes or disrupting gene function exist for this species. The feasibility of systemic gene silencing as a reverse genetics tool was examined in this study. Results Several DNA constructs targeting a Ceratopteris protoporphyrin IX magnesium chelatase (CrChlI gene that is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis were each introduced into young gametophytes by biolistic delivery. Their transient expression in individual cells resulted in a colorless cell phenotype that affected most cells of the mature gametophyte, including the meristem and gametangia. The colorless phenotype was associated with a 7-fold decrease in the abundance of the endogenous transcript. While a construct designed to promote the transient expression of a CrChlI double stranded, potentially hairpin-forming RNA was found to be the most efficient in systemically silencing the endogenous gene, a plasmid containing the CrChlI cDNA insert alone was sufficient to induce silencing. Bombarded, colorless hermaphroditic gametophytes produced colorless embryos following self-fertilization, demonstrating that the silencing signal could be transmitted through gametogenesis and fertilization. Bombardment of young gametophytes with constructs targeting the Ceratopteris filamentous temperature sensitive (CrFtsZ and uroporphyrin dehydrogenase (CrUrod genes also produced the expected mutant phenotypes. Conclusion A method that induces the systemic silencing of target genes in the Ceratopteris gametophyte is described. It provides a simple, inexpensive and rapid means to test the functions of genes involved in gametophyte development, especially those involved in cellular processes common to all plants.

  9. ANALYSES OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN LENTINULA EDODES THROUGH MYCELIA RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT ABIOTIC CONDITIONS AND RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS

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    Maki Cristina Sayuri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of thirty-four Lentinula edodes strains submitted to different mycelial cultivation conditions (pH and temperature was evaluated and strain variability was assessed by RAPD molecular markers. The growth at three pH values (5, 6 and 7 and four different temperatures (16, 25, 28 and 37ºC was measured using the in vitro mycelial development rate and water retention as parameters. Mycelial cultivation was successful at all pH tested, while the ideal temperature for mycelial cultivation ranged between 25 and 28ºC. The water content was lower in strains grown at 37ºC. Among 20 OPA primers (Operon Technologies, Inc. used for the RAPD analyses, seventeen presented good polymorphism (OPA01 to OPA05, OPA07 to OPA14, OPA17 to OPA20. The clustering based on similarity coefficients allowed the separation of strain in two groups with different geographic origins.

  10. Liver enzyme abnormalities and associated risk factors in HIV patients on efavirenz-based HAART with or without tuberculosis co-infection in Tanzania.

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    Sabina Mugusi

    Full Text Available To investigate the timing, incidence, clinical presentation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetic predictors for antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (DILI in HIV patients with or without TB co-infection.A total of 473 treatment naïve HIV patients (253 HIV only and 220 with HIV-TB co-infection were enrolled prospectively. Plasma efavirenz concentration and CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5*3, *6 and *7, ABCB1 3435C/T and SLCO1B1 genotypes were determined. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline and up to 48 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. DILI case definition was according to Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS. Incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The overall incidence of DILI was 7.8% (8.3 per 1000 person-week, being non-significantly higher among patients receiving concomitant anti-TB and HAART (10.0%, 10.7 per 1000 person-week than those receiving HAART alone (5.9%, 6.3 per 1000 person-week. Frequency of CYP2B6*6 allele (p = 0.03 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (p = 0.06 was significantly higher in patients with DILI than those without. Multivariate cox regression model indicated that CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype and anti-HCV IgG antibody positive as significant predictors of DILI. Median time to DILI was 2 weeks after HAART initiation and no DILI onset was observed after 12 weeks. No severe DILI was seen and the gain in CD4 was similar in patients with or without DILI.Antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis DILI does occur in our setting, presenting early following HAART initiation. DILI seen is mild, transient and may not require treatment interruption. There is good tolerance to HAART and anti-TB with similar immunological outcomes. Genetic make-up mainly CYP2B6 genotype influences the development of efavirenz based HAART liver injury in Tanzanians.

  11. Co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. To complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum. B. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbionts, including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea. T. vaporariorum is only known to harbor P. aleyrodidarum and Arsenophonus. We conducted a study to survey the distribution of whitefly species in Croatia, their infection status by secondary symbionts, and the spatial distribution of these symbionts in the developmental stages of the two whitefly species. Results T. vaporariorum was found to be the predominant whitefly species across Croatia, while only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found across the coastal part of the country. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected in collected T. vaporariorum populations, however, not all populations harbored both symbionts, and both symbionts showed 100% infection rate in some of the populations. Only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found in the populations tested and they harbored Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, while Arsenophonus and Fritschea were not detected in any B. tabaci populations. None of the detected symbionts appeared in all populations tested, and multiple infections were detected in some of the populations. All endosymbionts tested were localized inside the bacteriocyte in both species, but only Rickettsia and Cardinium in B. tabaci showed additional localization outside the bacteriocyte. Conclusions Our study revealed unique co-infection patterns by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum. Co-sharing of the bacteriocyte by the primary

  12. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

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    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  13. Genetic analyses involving microsatellite ETH10 genotypes on bovine chromosome 5 and performance trait measures in Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-07-01

    ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (PAngus and Brangus cattle. Results from this study provide support for STAT6 as one of the candidate genes underlying cattle growth QTL on chromosome 5. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  14. "Contrasting patterns of selection at Pinus pinaster Ait. Drought stress candidate genes as revealed by genetic differentiation analyses".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveno, Emmanuelle; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, M Angeles; Léger, Valérie; Soto, Alvaro; Díaz, Luis; Léger, Patrick; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Cervera, M Teresa; Plomion, Christophe; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H

    2008-02-01

    The importance of natural selection for shaping adaptive trait differentiation among natural populations of allogamous tree species has long been recognized. Determining the molecular basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved, and the respective roles of selection and demography in shaping population structure are actively debated. Using a multilocus scan that aims to detect outliers from simulated neutral expectations, we analyzed patterns of nucleotide diversity and genetic differentiation at 11 polymorphic candidate genes for drought stress tolerance in phenotypically contrasted Pinus pinaster Ait. populations across its geographical range. We compared 3 coalescent-based methods: 2 frequentist-like, including 1 approach specifically developed for biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) here and 1 Bayesian. Five genes showed outlier patterns that were robust across methods at the haplotype level for 2 of them. Two genes presented higher F(ST) values than expected (PR-AGP4 and erd3), suggesting that they could have been affected by the action of diversifying selection among populations. In contrast, 3 genes presented lower F(ST) values than expected (dhn-1, dhn2, and lp3-1), which could represent signatures of homogenizing selection among populations. A smaller proportion of outliers were detected at the SNP level suggesting the potential functional significance of particular combinations of sites in drought-response candidate genes. The Bayesian method appeared robust to low sample sizes, flexible to assumptions regarding migration rates, and powerful for detecting selection at the haplotype level, but the frequentist-like method adapted to SNPs was more efficient for the identification of outlier SNPs showing low differentiation. Population-specific effects estimated in the Bayesian method also revealed populations with lower immigration rates, which could have led to favorable situations for local adaptation. Outlier patterns are discussed

  15. PRO-C3-levels in patients with HIV/HCV-Co-infection reflect fibrosis stage and degree of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Leeming, Diana J; Mandorfer, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver-related deaths represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with HIV/HCV-co-infection, and are mainly related to complications of fibrosis and portal hypertension. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the structural changes by the assessment of extracellular matrix (ECM......) derived degradation fragments in peripheral blood as biomarkers for fibrosis and portal hypertension in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients (67% male, mean age: 36.5 years) with HIV/HCV-co-infection were included in the study. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG......4M and C5M levels were higher in patients with portal hypertension (HVPG>5 mmHg). CONCLUSION: PRO-C3 levels reflect liver injury, stage of liver fibrosis and degree of portal hypertension in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. Furthermore, C4M and C5M were associated with increased portal pressure...

  16. Analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Iraj; Abdi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Abbas; Wahedi, Mohammad Saleh; Menbari, Shahoo; Lahoorpour, Fariba; Rahbari, Rezgar

    2011-08-01

    To determine adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a possible diagnostic marker in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infected patients. Blood samples were collected from 72 healthy, 33 HIV positive and 30 HIV-HBV co-infected subjects. Blood CD4+ cell count was recorded and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total ADA, and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were determined. Serum ALT, AST, total ADA and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were significantly higher in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected groups compare to the control (pADA activities (R(2)=0.589, pADA was significantly increased in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infections. Therefore, because of its low cost and simplicity to perform, ADA activity might be considered as a useful diagnostic tool among the other markers in these diseases. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic linkage analyses and Cx50 mutation detection in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Li, Xin; Chen, Jiajing; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Dai, Qiushi; Cui, Hao; Wang, Duen-Mei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Lu, Shan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the underlying mutation in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract. A 6-generation Chinese family having hereditary nuclear cataract was recruited and clinically verified. Blood DNA samples were obtained from 53 available family members. Linkage analyses were performed on the known candidate regions for hereditary cataract with 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers. To identify mutations related to cataract, a direct sequencing approach was applied to a candidate gene residing in our linkage locus. A linkage locus was identified with a maximum 2-point LOD score of 4.31 (recombination fraction = 0) at marker D1S498 and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7 between markers D1S2344 and D1S498 on chromosome 1q21.1, where the candidate gene Cx50 is located. Direct sequencing of Cx50 showed a 139 G to A transition occurred in all affected family members. This transitional mutation resulted in a replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine at residue 47 (D47N) and led to a loss-of-function of the protein. The D47N mutation of Cx50 causes the hereditary nuclear cataract in this family in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.

  18. Characteristics of co-infections by HCV and HBV among Brazilian patients infected by HIV-1 and/or HTLV-1

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    Marcia Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1 share the routes of infection with hepatitis viruses B and C. Co-infection by these agents are a common event, but we have scarce knowledge on co-infection by two or more of these agents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and risk factors for co-infections by HBV and HCV in patients infected by HIV-1 or/and HTLV-1, in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: In a case-control study we evaluated patients followed in the AIDS and HTLV clinics of Federal University of Bahia Hospital. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were reviewed, and patients were tested for the presence of serological markers of HBV and HCV infections. HCV-infected patients were tested by PCR to evaluate the presence of viremia. RESULTS: A total of 200 HIV-1, 213 HTLV-1-infected, and 38 HIV-HTLV-co-infected individuals were included. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have had more sexual partners in the lifetime than other patients' groups. HIV-HTLV-co-infected subjects were predominantly male. Patients infected by HTLV or co-infected had a significantly higher frequency of previous syphilis or gonorrhea, while HIV infection was mainly associated with HPV infection. Co-infection was significantly associated to intravenous drug use (IVDU. HBV and/or HCV markers were more frequently found among co-infected patients. HBV markers were more frequently detected among HIV-infected patients, while HCV was clearly associated with IVDU across all groups. AgHBs was strongly associated with co-infection by HIV-HTLV (OR = 22.03, 95% CI: 2.69-469.7, as well as confirmed HCV infection (p = 0.001. Concomitant HCV and HBV infection was also associated with retroviral co-infection. Patients infected by HTLV-1 had a lower chance of detectable HCV viremia (OR = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.002-0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HCV and/or HBV is frequent among patients presenting retroviral infection, but risk factors and prevalence for each

  19. Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in HIV Patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Analysis of Risk Factors and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Marcelo; Wong, Wing-Wai; Law, Matthew G.; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Yunihastuti, Evy; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Lim, Poh Lian; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Man Po; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Ditangco, Rossana; Sim, Benedict L. H.; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Pujari, Sanjay; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Choi, Jun Yong; Oka, Shinichi; Kantipong, Pacharee; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Durier, Nicolas; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. Results A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive. Conclusion In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality. PMID:26933963

  20. Temporal analysis of reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012

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    Renato Simões Gaspar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3.8%. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis, despite a significant increase in that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased only in the 0- to 9-year age bracket, remaining stable or increasing in the other age groups. The incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 209% in the ≥ 60-year age bracket. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased in all geographical regions except the south, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by over 150% in the north and northeast. Regarding the outcomes, patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, in comparison with patients infected with tuberculosis only, had a 48% lower chance of cure, a 50% greater risk of treatment nonadherence, and a 94% greater risk of death from tuberculosis. Conclusions: Our study shows that tuberculosis continues to be a relevant public health issue in Brazil, because the goals for the control and cure of the disease have yet to be achieved. In addition, the sharp increase in the incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women, in the elderly, and in the northern/northeastern region reveals that the population of HIV-infected individuals is rapidly becoming more female, older, and more impoverished.

  1. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

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    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach.An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association.Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level.The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  2. Will a quadruple multiplexed point-of-care screening strategy for HIV-related co-infections be feasible and impact detection of new co-infections in at-risk populations? Results from cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Dhurat, Rachita; Potter, Martin; Behlim, Tarannum; Landry, Geneviève; Vadnais, Caroline; Rodrigues, Camilla; Joseph, Lawrence; Shetty, Anjali

    2014-12-15

    Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations. A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada. Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%). A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners

  3. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (Pducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (Pducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P.; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-01-01

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  5. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Magali, E-mail: m.lucia33@laposte.net [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bocher, Pierrick [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cosson, Richard P. [Mer Molecules Sante (MMS), Universite de Nantes, EA 2663, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frederic; Bustamante, Paco [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2012-04-15

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  6. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

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    Yan Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482. We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively.In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10. The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8 and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8. This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7. Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the

  7. Co-infection of intestinal parasites and Helicobacter pylori among upper gastrointestinal symptomatic adult patients attending Mekanesalem Hospital, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdurahaman; Tamir, Zemenu; Kasanew, Brhanu; Senbetay, Moges

    2018-02-20

    Intestinal parasites and H. pylori are well-known for their high prevalence worldwide. Thus, the objective of this study waste assess risk factors and co-infection of intestinal parasites and H. pylori among adult patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 consecutive adult patients from December 10, 2015 to February 30,2016. Stool and venous blood were collected for analysis of Intestinal parasites and H. pylori infection, respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess predictors of co-infection. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Helicobacter pylori IgG and intestinal parasites were detected in 70.25-38.3% of participants, respectively while G. lamblia accounted 22.3%. G. lamblia prevalence was significantly higher among H. pylori infected participants (COR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.46-5.23), but E. hystolytica/dispar infection didn't show significant variation (p = 0.15). H. pylori and intestinal parasites concomitant co-infection was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01-2.56), consumption of river water (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07) and ground/spring water (AOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.97-8.52). Thus, besides H. pylori investigation, upper gastrointestinal symptomatic patients should be screened for G. lamblia infection and other intestinal parasites.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  9. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands.

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    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how often exposure to these two microorganisms results in infection or disease. We show that of all the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-positive ticks, 25% were co-infected with rickettsiae. Predominantly R. helvetica was detected while R. monacensis was only found in approximately 2% of the ticks. In addition, exposure to tick-borne pathogens was compared by serology in healthy blood donors, erythema migrans (EM)-patients, and patients suspected of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). As could be expected, seroreactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato was lower in blood donors (6%) compared to EM patients (34%) and suspected LNB cases (64%). Interestingly, seroreactivity against SFG Rickettsia antigens was not detected in serum samples from blood donors (0%), but 6% of the EM patients and 21% of the LNB suspects showed anti-rickettsial antibodies. Finally, the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Rickettsia spp. in cerebrospinal fluid samples of a large cohort of patients suspected of LNB (n=208) was investigated by PCR. DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l., R. helvetica and R. monacensis was detected in seventeen, four and one patient, respectively. In conclusion, our data show that B. burgdorferi s.l. and SFG rickettsiae co-infection occurs in Dutch I. ricinus and that Lyme borreliosis patients, or patients suspected of Lyme borreliosis, are indeed exposed to both tick-borne pathogens. Whether SFG rickettsiae actually cause disease, and whether co-infections alter the clinical course of Lyme borreliosis, is not clear from our data, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Competitive advantage of a dengue 4 virus when co-infecting the mosquito Aedes aegypti with a dengue 1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Gaborit, Pascal; Mousson, Laurence; Girod, Romain; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-07-08

    Dengue viruses (DENV) are comprised in four related serotypes (DENV-1 to 4) and are critically important arboviral pathogens affecting human populations in the tropics. South American countries have seen the reemergence of DENV since the 1970's associated with the progressive re-infestation by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In French Guiana, DENV is now endemic with the co-circulation of different serotypes resulting in viral epidemics. Between 2009 and 2010, a predominant serotype change occurred from DENV-1 to DENV-4 suggesting a competitive displacement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the mosquito in the selection of the new epidemic serotype. To test this hypothesis of competitive displacement of one serotype by another in the mosquito vector, we performed mono- and co-infections of local Ae. aegypti collected during the inter-epidemic period with both viral autochthonous epidemic serotypes and compared infection, dissemination and transmission rates. We performed oral artificial infections of F1 populations in BSL-3 conditions and analyzed infection, dissemination and transmission rates. When two populations of Ae. aegypti from French Guiana were infected with either serotype, no significant differences in dissemination and transmission were observed between DENV-1 and DENV-4. However, in co-infection experiments, a strong competitive advantage for DENV-4 was seen at the midgut level leading to a much higher dissemination of this serotype. Furthermore only DENV-4 was present in Ae. aegypti saliva and therefore able to be transmitted. In an endemic context, mosquito vectors may be infected by several DENV serotypes. Our results suggest a possible competition between serotypes at the midgut level in co-infected mosquitoes leading to a drastically different transmission potential and, in this case, favoring the competitive displacement of DENV-1 by DENV-4. This phenomenon was observed despite a similar replicative fitness

  11. Co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent Hepatocystis lineages in a wild African primate community★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary I.; Ghai, Ria R.; Hyeroba, Hyeroba; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Chapman, Colin A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Dinis, Jorge; Steeil, James; Greiner, Ellis C.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O’Connor, David H.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2013-01-01

    Hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family Plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. Despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. Primates were investigated in Kibale National Park, Uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. Blood samples were examined for parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Hepatocystis using microscopy and PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, followed by Sanger sequencing. To assess co-infection, “deep sequencing” of a variable region within cytochrome b was performed. Out of nine black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), one blue guenon (Cercopithecus mitis), five grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), 23 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 52 red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and 12 red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 79 infections (77.5%) were found, all of which were Hepatocystis spp. Sanger sequencing revealed 25 different parasite haplotypes that sorted phylogenetically into six species-specific but morphologically similar lineages. “Deep sequencing” revealed mixed-lineage co-infections in baboons and red colobus (41.7% and 64.7% of individuals, respectively) but not in other host species. One lineage infecting red colobus also infected baboons, but always as the minor variant, suggesting directional cross-species transmission. Hepatocystis parasites in this primate community are a diverse assemblage of cryptic lineages, some of which co-infect hosts and at least one of which can cross primate species barriers. PMID:23603520

  12. Genetic basis for spontaneous hybrid genome doubling during allopolyploid speciation of common wheat shown by natural variation analyses of the paternal species.

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    Yoshihiro Matsuoka

    Full Text Available The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome, namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome. An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis showed that (1 production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2 first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3 six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated

  13. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

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    Nohelia Farías-Curtidor

    Full Text Available The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W during two separate efforts: (a a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010, and (b three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014. Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA and Cytochrome b (Cytb. Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.. However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  14. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tim L; Switzer, John F; Morrison, Cheryl L; Eackles, Michael S; Young, Colleen C; Lubinski, Barbara A; Cryan, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Zapus hudsonius preblei, listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), is one of 12 recognized subspecies of meadow jumping mice found in North America. Recent morphometric and phylogenetic comparisons among Z. h. preblei and neighbouring conspecifics questioned the taxonomic status of selected subspecies, resulting in a proposal to delist the Z. h. preblei from the ESA. We present additional analyses of the phylogeographic structure within Z. hudsonius that calls into question previously published data (and conclusions) and confirms the original taxonomic designations. A survey of 21 microsatellite DNA loci and 1380 base pairs from two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions (control region and cytochrome b) revealed that each Z. hudsonius subspecies is genetically distinct. These data do not support the null hypothesis of a homogeneous gene pool among the five subspecies found within the southwestern portion of the species' range. The magnitude of the observed differentiation was considerable and supported by significant findings for nearly every statistical comparison made, regardless of the genome or the taxa under consideration. Structuring of nuclear multilocus genotypes and subspecies-specific mtDNA haplotypes corresponded directly with the disjunct distributions of the subspecies investigated. Given the level of correspondence between the observed genetic population structure and previously proposed taxonomic classification of subspecies (based on the geographic separation and surveys of morphological variation), we conclude that the nominal subspecies surveyed in this study do not warrant synonymy, as has been proposed for Z. h. preblei, Z. h. campestris, and Z. h. intermedius.

  15. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

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    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  16. Emergency caesarean delivery in a patient with cerebral malaria-leptospira co infection: Anaesthetic and critical care considerations

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    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-leptospira co-infection is rarely detected. Emergency surgery in such patients has not been reported. We describe such a case of a 24-year-old primigravida at term pregnancy posted for emergency caesarean delivery who developed pulmonary haemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, and cerebral oedema. Here, we discuss the perioperative management, pain management (with transverse abdominis plane block, intensive care management (special reference to management of pulmonary haemorrhage with intra pulmonary factor VIIa and the role of plasmapheresis in leptospira related jaundice with renal failure.

  17. HBV/HIV co-infection and APOBEC3G polymorphisms in a population from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Diarra, Birama; Assih, Maleki; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Tchelougou, Damehan; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier Romuald; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Djigma, Wendkuuni Florencia; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-07-22

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is a potent host defense factor, which interferes with HIV-1 and HBV. Our study had three objectives, to screen a population of HIV-1 infected and uninfected patients in Burkina Faso for HBV, to screen the population for APOBEC3G variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 previously described, and to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1/HBV co-infection in Burkina Faso. HBV detection was performed on samples from HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects using rapid detection tests and real-time PCR. APOBEC3 genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Fisher Exact test, Odds ratio (OR), confidence intervals (CI) at 95 %, Linkage disequilibrium (LD) summary statistics and haplotype frequencies were calculated. The prevalence of HBV was 56.7 % among HIV-1 positive patients of our study while it was about 12.8 % among HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Genotype E was the genotype of HBV present in our hepatitis B positive samples. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 were higher in seronegative subjects. The T minor allele of variant rs35228531 was protective against HIV-1/HBV co-infection with OR = 0.61, 95 % CI (0.42-0.90), p = 0.013. There was also an association between the GGT haplotype and protection against HIV-1/HBV co-infection, OR = 0.57, 95 % CI (0.33-0.99), p = 0.050. The other haplotypes present in the population were not statistically significant. There minor allele T of the rs35228531 was protective against HIV mono-infection OR = 0.53, 95 % CI (0.3-0.93), P = 0.030. But there was no effect of protection against HBV mono-infection. APOBEC3G through its variants rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531, in this study interferes with HIV-1/HBV co-infection could be due the HIV-1 mono-infection in a population from Burkina Faso.

  18. Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoming; Padhi, Abinash; Xu, Junqiang; Gong, Xiaoyan; Tien, Po

    2016-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China. Our results revealed the presence of eleven strongly supported clades. While nine clades belonged to genotype 3, two clades belonged to genotype 2. Additionally, four clades that belonged to genotype 3 exhibited inter-clade recombination events. The presence of clonal sequences representing multiple clades within the HIV-infected individual provided the evidence of co-circulation of HPgV strains across the region. Of the 23 patients, six patients (i.e., five males and one female) were detected to have HPgV recombinant sequences. Our results also revealed that while male patients shared the viral strains with other patients, viral strains from the female patients had restricted dispersal. Taken together, the present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPgV.

  19. The Characteristics of TB Epidemic and TB/HIV Co-Infection Epidemic: A 2007-2013 Retrospective Study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi.Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate. Subsequently, the geocoded address for 82 streets was transformed into a dot map used as the basis of spatial datasets. In addition, the paper also used quantile map and the spatial scan statistic in order to identify the spatial distribution and spatial clusters of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic.There was a declining trend of the notification rates of TB epidemic from 2007 to 2009, as well as a rising trend from 2010 to 2013. However, the notification rates of TB/HIV co-infection epidemic showed a rising trend from 2007 to 2010, and a declining trend from 2011 to 2013. Moreover, a significant share of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic happened between the age of 15 to 45 years old, indicating an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. It is worth noting that the risk of HIV infection for male TB patients was 2.947 times (95% CI [2.178, 3.988] than that of female patients. Han ethnicity and Uygur ethnicity in urban region accounted for a large proportion of total TB and TB/HIV co-infection cases. Most of the TB cases of minorities in Urumqi showed a statistically significant increase in risk of HIV infection than Han ethnicity in Urumqi. In addition, the spatial distribution of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic was highly skewed. Most of the local clusters were located in urban area and rural-urban continuum where showed an increase in risk of TB and TB

  20. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV and HIV-TB co-infection at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Oluwamayowa; Rotimi, Kunle; Ikumawoyi, Victor; Adeyemo, Titilope; Olayemi, Sunday

    2017-06-01

    HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects. 40 HIV/TB co-infected and 50 HIV mono-infected patients were divided into 2 equal groups. Participants provided demographic information and blood was collected to determine oxidative stress parameters before and after vitamin A (5000 IU) and C (2600 mg) supplementation for 1 month. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) at baseline for HIV infected subjects compared with HIV-TB co-infected subjects. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) lower level of MDA and higher level of Catalase (CAT) in subjects administered supplementation compared to subjects without supplementation for the HIV infected group. There was a significantly lower level of Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and higher level of MDA after one month of supplementation compared with baseline levels for HIV/TB co infected subjects. A similar result was also obtained for the HIV mono-infected groups which had a significantly lower level of SOD, MDA and CAT compared to the baseline. There was a significantly lower level of GSH and SOD, and higher level of MDA after supplementation compared with the baseline for HIV/TB co-infected subjects. Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in the oxidative stress parameters. HIV/TB co-infection and HIV mono-infection seems to diminish the capacity of the anti-oxidant system to control oxidative stress, however exogenous anti-oxidant supplementation appears not to have beneficial roles in positively modulating the associated oxidative stress.

  1. [Co-infections of HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 among men who have sex with men at the voluntary HIV counseling and testing clinics in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tang, H F; Ning, Z; Zheng, H; He, N; Zhang, Y Y

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rates of HIV-syphilis and HIV-herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) co-infections and related factors among men having sex with men (MSM) who had visited the voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Shanghai, China. Methods: 756 eligible MSM who attended the VCT clinics of Shanghai Municipality and Putuo district during March to August, 2015 were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire interview and blood testing for HIV, syphilis and HSV-2. Results: A total of 732 participants completed a valid questionnaire survey. The prevalence rates were 3.3 % (24/732) for HIV/Syphilis co-infection, 1.9 % (14/732) for HIV/HSV-2 co-infection, and 0.7 % (5/732) for HIV/Syphilis/HSV-2 co-infection, respectively. HIV prevalence appeared significantly higher among syphilis-infected participants (45.3 % , 24/53) than those without Syphilis (7.2 % , 61/679) (χ(2)=63.11, P Syphilis co-infection. Those participants who had high middle school or lower levels of education ( OR =6.87, 95 %CI : 1.86-25.42; OR =9.82, 95 %CI : 2.25-42.85) were under risk on HIV and HSV-2 co-infection. Conclusion: HIV/Syphilis and HIV/HSV-2 co-infection were seen among MSM who attended the VCT clinics in Shanghai that called for special attention, especially on migrants, those with low education or illicit drug users.

  2. Malnutrition associated with unfavorable outcome and death among South African MDR-TB and HIV co-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R M; Padayatchi, N; Shah, N S; Wolf, A; Werner, L; Sunkari, V B; O'Donnell, M R

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is complicated by difficult diagnosis, complex treatment, and high mortality. In South Africa, these challenges are amplified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection; however, evidence on treatment outcomes among co-infected children is limited. Using conventional and new pediatric definitions, to describe treatment outcomes and identify risk factors for unfavorable outcome and mortality in children aged children (median age 8 years, IQR 4-12) with MDR-TB (n = 78) or XDR-TB (n = 6) initiated treatment. Sixty-four (77%) were HIV-positive and 62 (97%) received antiretroviral therapy. Sixty-six (79%) achieved favorable treatment outcomes. Overall mortality was 11% (n = 9) at 18 months after initiation of treatment. Malnutrition (aOR 27.4, 95%CI 2.7-278.7) and severe radiographic findings (aOR 4.68, 95%CI 1.01-21.9) were associated with unfavorable outcome. New pediatric outcome definitions increased the proportion classified as cured. It is possible to successfully treat pediatric MDR-TB-HIV even in resource-poor settings. Malnutrition is a marker for severe TB-HIV disease, and is a potential target for future interventions in these patients.

  3. Disclosing respiratory co-infections: a broad-range panel assay for avian respiratory pathogens on a nanofluidic PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croville, Guillaume; Foret, Charlotte; Heuillard, Pauline; Senet, Alexis; Delpont, Mattias; Mouahid, Mohammed; Ducatez, Mariette F; Kichou, Faouzi; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-01

    Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR. This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry, were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©, San Francisco, CA, USA). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled from turkeys showing RS and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive co-infection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assays for unveiling respiratory co-infection profiles in poultry.

  4. A mathematical model for HIV and hepatitis C co-infection and its assessment from a statistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Sanchez, Amparo Yovanna; Aerts, Marc; Shkedy, Ziv; Vickerman, Peter; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Salamina, Guiseppe; Hens, Niel

    2013-03-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a clear threat for public health, with high prevalences especially in high risk groups such as injecting drug users. People with HIV infection who are also infected by HCV suffer from a more rapid progression to HCV-related liver disease and have an increased risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Quantifying the impact of HIV and HCV co-infection is therefore of great importance. We propose a new joint mathematical model accounting for co-infection with the two viruses in the context of injecting drug users (IDUs). Statistical concepts and methods are used to assess the model from a statistical perspective, in order to get further insights in: (i) the comparison and selection of optional model components, (ii) the unknown values of the numerous model parameters, (iii) the parameters to which the model is most 'sensitive' and (iv) the combinations or patterns of values in the high-dimensional parameter space which are most supported by the data. Data from a longitudinal study of heroin users in Italy are used to illustrate the application of the proposed joint model and its statistical assessment. The parameters associated with contact rates (sharing syringes) and the transmission rates per syringe-sharing event are shown to play a major role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment outcomes of patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmahakhun, S; Chaiwarith, R; Nuntachit, N; Sirisanthana, T; Supparatpinyo, K

    2012-06-01

    Thailand has been greatly affected by the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic. This study aimed to determine treatment outcomes among HIV/TB co-infected patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. Of 171 patients, 100 patients were male (58.5%) and the mean age was 36.8 ± 8.0 years. Seventy-two patients (42.1%) had pulmonary tuberculosis. Median CD4+ count before TB treatment was 69 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR] 33, 151). The overall mortality was 3.5% (6 patients). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurred in eight patients (6.0%). Disseminated TB infections increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR] = 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 5.18) and IRIS (OR = 9.16, 95% CI 1.67, 50.07). Initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) within two months after TB treatment increased risk of IRIS (OR = 6.57, 95% CI 1.61-26.86) and physicians caring for HIV/TB co-infected patients should be aware of this condition.

  6. Increased CD56(bright) NK cells in HIV-HCV co-infection and HCV mono-infection are associated with distinctive alterations of their phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Suvercha; Ahmad, Fareed; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cornberg, Marcus; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; van Lunzen, Jan; Sarin, Shiv K; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk

    2016-04-18

    HIV-HCV co-infection is associated with accelerated progression to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma than HCV mono-infection. The contribution of innate immunity during HIV-HCV co-infection has been a relatively under-investigated area. Natural killer (NK) cells are pivotal sentinels of innate immunity against viruses and tumour cells. In this study we evaluated the effect of HIV-HCV co-infection on peripheral blood NK cell subsets with emphasis on the phenotype of CD56(bright) NK cells. Sixty patients were included in the study; HIV mono-infected (n = 12), HCV mono-infected (n = 15), HCV-HIV co-infected (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 16). PBMCs were isolated and immunophenotyping of NK cells was performed by flowcytometry. We observed an expansion of CD56(bright) NK cell subset in HIV-HCV co-infection as compared to healthy controls and HIV mono-infected group. All the infected groups had an upregulated expression of the activating receptor NKG2D on CD56(bright) NK cells in comparison to healthy controls while not differing amongst themselves. The expression of NKp46 in HIV-HCV co-infected group was significantly upregulated as compared to both HIV as well as HCV mono-infections while NKp30 expression in the HIV-HCV co-infected group significantly differed as compared to HIV mono-infection. The CD56(bright) NK cell subset was activated in HIV-HCV co-infection as assessed by the expression of CD69 as compared to healthy controls but was significantly downregulated in comparison to HIV mono-infection. CD95 expression on CD56(bright) NK cells followed the same pattern where there was an increased expression of CD95 in HIV mono-infection and HIV-HCV co-infection as compared to healthy controls. In contrast to CD69 expression, CD95 expression in HCV mono-infection was decreased when compared to HIV mono-infection and HIV-HCV co-infection. Finally, expression of CXCR3 on CD56(bright) NK cells was increased in HIV-HCV co-infection in comparison

  7. Giant Galápagos tortoises; molecular genetic analyses identify a trans-island hybrid in a repatriation program of an endangered taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant Galápagos tortoises on the island of Española have been the focus of an intensive captive breeding-repatriation programme for over 35 years that saved the taxon from extinction. However, analysis of 118 samples from released individuals indicated that the bias sex ratio and large variance in reproductive success among the 15 breeders has severely reduced the effective population size (Ne. Results We report here that an analysis of an additional 473 captive-bred tortoises released back to the island reveals an individual (E1465 that exhibits nuclear microsatellite alleles not found in any of the 15 breeders. Statistical analyses incorporating genotypes of 304 field-sampled individuals from all populations on the major islands indicate that E1465 is most probably a hybrid between an Española female tortoise and a male from the island of Pinzón, likely present on Española due to human transport. Conclusion Removal of E1465 as well as its father and possible (half-siblings is warranted to prevent further contamination within this taxon of particular conservation significance. Despite this detected single contamination, it is highly noteworthy to emphasize the success of this repatriation program conducted over nearly 40 years and involving release of over 2000 captive-bred tortoises that now reproduce in situ. The incorporation of molecular genetic analysis of the program is providing guidance that will aid in monitoring the genetic integrity of this ambitious effort to restore a unique linage of a spectacular animal.

  8. SDMtoolbox 2.0: the next generation Python-based GIS toolkit for landscape genetic, biogeographic and species distribution model analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available SDMtoolbox 2.0 is a software package for spatial studies of ecology, evolution, and genetics. The release of SDMtoolbox 2.0 allows researchers to use the most current ArcGIS software and MaxEnt software, and reduces the amount of time that would be spent developing common solutions. The central aim of this software is to automate complicated and repetitive spatial analyses in an intuitive graphical user interface. One core tenant facilitates careful parameterization of species distribution models (SDMs to maximize each model’s discriminatory ability and minimize overfitting. This includes carefully processing of occurrence data, environmental data, and model parameterization. This program directly interfaces with MaxEnt, one of the most powerful and widely used species distribution modeling software programs, although SDMtoolbox 2.0 is not limited to species distribution modeling or restricted to modeling in MaxEnt. Many of the SDM pre- and post-processing tools have ‘universal’ analogs for use with any modeling software. The current version contains a total of 79 scripts that harness the power of ArcGIS for macroecology, landscape genetics, and evolutionary studies. For example, these tools allow for biodiversity quantification (such as species richness or corrected weighted endemism, generation of least-cost paths and corridors among shared haplotypes, assessment of the significance of spatial randomizations, and enforcement of dispersal limitations of SDMs projected into future climates—to only name a few functions contained in SDMtoolbox 2.0. Lastly, dozens of generalized tools exists for batch processing and conversion of GIS data types or formats, which are broadly useful to any ArcMap user.

  9. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  10. SDMtoolbox 2.0: the next generation Python-based GIS toolkit for landscape genetic, biogeographic and species distribution model analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Bennett, Joseph R; French, Connor M

    2017-01-01

    SDMtoolbox 2.0 is a software package for spatial studies of ecology, evolution, and genetics. The release of SDMtoolbox 2.0 allows researchers to use the most current ArcGIS software and MaxEnt software, and reduces the amount of time that would be spent developing common solutions. The central aim of this software is to automate complicated and repetitive spatial analyses in an intuitive graphical user interface. One core tenant facilitates careful parameterization of species distribution models (SDMs) to maximize each model's discriminatory ability and minimize overfitting. This includes carefully processing of occurrence data, environmental data, and model parameterization. This program directly interfaces with MaxEnt, one of the most powerful and widely used species distribution modeling software programs, although SDMtoolbox 2.0 is not limited to species distribution modeling or restricted to modeling in MaxEnt. Many of the SDM pre- and post-processing tools have 'universal' analogs for use with any modeling software. The current version contains a total of 79 scripts that harness the power of ArcGIS for macroecology, landscape genetics, and evolutionary studies. For example, these tools allow for biodiversity quantification (such as species richness or corrected weighted endemism), generation of least-cost paths and corridors among shared haplotypes, assessment of the significance of spatial randomizations, and enforcement of dispersal limitations of SDMs projected into future climates-to only name a few functions contained in SDMtoolbox 2.0. Lastly, dozens of generalized tools exists for batch processing and conversion of GIS data types or formats, which are broadly useful to any ArcMap user.

  11. Serum metabolomics analysis of patients with chikungunya and dengue mono/co-infections reveals distinct metabolite signatures in the three disease conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Gaind, Rajni; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are arboviral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. A subset of chikungunya infection occurs also as co-infections with dengue, resulting in complications during diagnosis and patient management. The present study was undertaken to identify the global metabolome of patient sera infected with chikungunya as mono infections and with dengue as co-infections. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolome of sera of three disease conditions, namely, chikungunya and dengue as mono-infections and when co-infected were ascertained and compared with healthy individuals. Further, the cohorts were analyzed on the basis of age, onset of fever and joint involvement. Here we show that many metabolites in the serum are significantly differentially regulated during chikungunya mono-infection as well as during chikungunya co-infection with dengue. We observed that glycine, serine, threonine, galactose and pyrimidine metabolisms are the most perturbed pathways in both mono and co-infection conditions. The affected pathways in our study correlate well with the clinical manifestation like fever, inflammation, energy deprivation and joint pain during the infections. These results may serve as a starting point for validations and identification of distinct biomolecules that could be exploited as biomarker candidates thereby helping in better patient management.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti in response to mono-infections and co-infections of dengue virus-2 and chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Srivastava, Pratibha; Sunil, Sujatha

    2017-10-28

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) spread via the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Both these viruses exist as co-infections in the host as well as the vector and are known to exploit their cellular machinery for their replication. While there are studies reporting the changes in Aedes transcriptome when infected with DENV and CHIKV individually, the effect both these viruses have on the mosquitoes when present as co-infections is not clearly understood. In the present study, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with DENV and CHIKV individually and as co-infection through nanoinjections. We performed high throughput RNA sequencing of the infected Aedes aegypti to understand the changes in the Aedes transcriptome during the early stages of infection, i.e., 24 h post infection and compared the transcriptome profiles during DENV and CHIKV mono-infections with that of co-infections. We identified 190 significantly regulated genes identified in CHIKV infected library, 37 genes from DENV library and 100 genes from co-infected library and they were classified into different pathways. Our study reveal that distinct pathways and transcripts are being regulated during the three types of infection states in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using genetics to test the causal relationship of total adiposity and periodontitis: Mendelian randomization analyses in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Divaris, Kimon; Holtfreter, Birte; Shaffer, John R; Yu, Yau-Hua; Barros, Silvana P; Beck, James D; Biffar, Reiner; Boerwinkle, Eric A; Crout, Richard J.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Goran; Hindy, George; Hu, Frank B; Kraft, Peter; McNeil, Daniel W; Melander, Olle; Moss, Kevin L; North, Kari E; Orho-Melander, Marju; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ridker, Paul M; Rimm, Eric B; Rose, Lynda M; Rukh, Gull; Teumer, Alexander; Weyant, Robert J; Chasman, Daniel I; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Kocher, Thomas; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Marazita, Mary L; Nilsson, Peter; Offenbacher, Steve; Davey Smith, George; Lundberg, Pernilla; Palmer, Tom M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Johansson, Ingegerd; Franks, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Background: The observational relationship between obesity and periodontitis is widely known, yet causal evidence is lacking. Our objective was to investigate causal associations between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI). Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses with BMI-associated loci combined in a genetic risk score (GRS) as the instrument for BMI. All analyses were conducted within the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium in 13 studies from Europe and the USA, including 49 066 participants with clinically assessed (seven studies, 42.1% of participants) and self-reported (six studies, 57.9% of participants) periodontitis and genotype data (17 672/31 394 with/without periodontitis); 68 761 participants with BMI and genotype data; and 57 871 participants (18 881/38 990 with/without periodontitis) with data on BMI and periodontitis. Results: In the observational meta-analysis of all participants, the pooled crude observational odds ratio (OR) for periodontitis was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.24] per standard deviation increase of BMI. Controlling for potential confounders attenuated this estimate (OR = 1.08; 95% CI:1.03, 1.12). For clinically assessed periodontitis, corresponding ORs were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.17), respectively. In the genetic association meta-analysis, the OR for periodontitis was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) per GRS unit (per one effect allele) in all participants and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.03) in participants with clinically assessed periodontitis. The instrumental variable meta-analysis of all participants yielded an OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.38) per BMI standard deviation, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.46) in participants with clinical data. Conclusions: Our study does not support total adiposity as a causal risk factor for periodontitis, as the point estimate is very close to the null in the causal inference analysis, with wide

  14. Neglected Tropical Diseases among Two Indigenous Subtribes in Peninsular Malaysia: Highlighting Differences and Co-Infection of Helminthiasis and Sarcocystosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Muhammad Aidil, Roslan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous) as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar). Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171) compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98). Trichuris trichiura (46.2%) was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7%) and hookworm (4.1%). In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8%) was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7%) and finally hookworm (8.3%). There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0–33.0), followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, −0.3–6.5). In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0–13.8), Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, −0.2–3.8) and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, −0.4–2.8). In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal) in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular) among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital

  15. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

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    Soo Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar. Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171 compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98. Trichuris trichiura (46.2% was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7% and hookworm (4.1%. In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8% was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7% and finally hookworm (8.3%. There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0, followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5. In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8, Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8 and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8. In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  16. Liver function assessment in malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

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    Enemchukwu, B N; Ibe, C C; Udedi, S C; Iroha, A; Ubaoji, K I; Ogundapo, S S

    2014-06-01

    Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90) volunteer patients; comprising (30) patients with malaria only, (30) with typhoid only and (30) with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20) healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23), AST (31.33±12.80), ALT (23.10±11.84), TB (19.43±5.02), CB (5.91±3.03) and ALP (116.69±48.68), AST (28.33±11.72), ALT (22.8±5.94), TB (19.31±5.84),CB (5.60±2.50) were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62), AST (33.97±8.43), ALT (24.40±4.37),TB (21.27±2.96),CB (6.58±3.10) while the control subjects had mean serum levels ofALP (71.05±18.18), AST (16.65±7.45), ALT (13.85±6.09), TB (10.05±4.85) and CB (3.00±1.67). These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05).The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT, TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

  17. Distinct clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections in adult tuberculosis patients from urban compared to rural Tanzania.

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    Sikalengo, George; Hella, Jerry; Mhimbira, Francis; Rutaihwa, Liliana K; Bani, Farida; Ndege, Robert; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Kamwela, Lujeko; Said, Khadija; Mhalu, Grace; Mlacha, Yeromin; Hatz, Christoph; Knopp, Stefanie; Gagneux, Sébastien; Reither, Klaus; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Letang, Emilio; Weisser, Maja; Fenner, Lukas

    2018-03-24

    Differences in rural and urban settings could account for distinct characteristics in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). We comparatively studied epidemiological features of TB and helminth co-infections in adult patients from rural and urban settings of Tanzania. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB were consecutively enrolled into two cohorts in Dar es Salaam, with ~ 4.4 million inhabitants (urban), and Ifakara in the sparsely populated Kilombero District with ~ 400 000 inhabitants (rural). Clinical data were obtained at recruitment. Stool and urine samples were subjected to diagnose helminthiases using Kato-Katz, Baermann, urine filtration, and circulating cathodic antigen tests. Differences between groups were assessed by χ 2 , Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations. Between August 2015 and February 2017, 668 patients were enrolled, 460 (68.9%) at the urban and 208 (31.1%) at the rural site. Median patient age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 27-41.5 years), and 454 (68%) were males. Patients from the rural setting were older (median age 37 years vs. 34 years, P = 0.003), had a lower median body mass index (17.5 kg/m 2 vs. 18.5 kg/m 2 , P urban Tanzania. There was no significant difference in frequencies of HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, and haemoglobin concentration levels between the two settings. The overall prevalence of helminth co-infections was 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.4-27.0%). The significantly higher prevalence of helminth infections at the urban site (25.7% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.018) was predominantly driven by Strongyloides stercoralis (17.0% vs. 4.8%, P rural setting (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.16-13.67) and increasing age (aOR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10). Clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections pattern differ in TB patients in urban and rural Tanzania. The

  18. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Muhammad Aidil, Roslan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous) as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar). Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171) compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98). Trichuris trichiura (46.2%) was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7%) and hookworm (4.1%). In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8%) was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7%) and finally hookworm (8.3%). There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0), followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5). In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8), Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8) and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8). In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal) in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular) among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  19. Morphological and Genetic Analyses of the Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora austrocedri Reveal that Two Clonal Lineages Colonized Britain and Argentina from a Common Ancestral Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricot, Béatrice; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Armstrong, April C; Sharp, Paul M; Green, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina, and Germany are homothallic, with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia, or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance, although most isolates, regardless of origin, grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions when inoculated onto both A. chilensis and J. communis; however, the Argentinian isolate caused longer lesions on A. chilensis than on J. communis and vice versa for the British isolate. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical. Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between the British and Argentinian isolates. We concluded that British isolates and Argentinian isolates conform to two distinct clonal lineages of P. austrocedri founded from the same as-yet-unidentified source population. These lineages should be recognized and treated as separate risks by international plant health legislation.

  20. Population differentiation of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura: Portunidae on the southwest English coast based on genetic and morphometric analyses

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    Inês C. Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcinus maenas has a planktonic larval phase which can potentially disperse over large distances. Consequently, larval transport is expected to play an important role in promoting gene flow and determining population structure. In the present study, population structuring on the southwest coast of England was analysed using molecular and morphometric approaches. Variation at eight microsatellite loci suggested that the individuals sampled within this region comprise a single genetic population and that gene flow among them is not restricted. Nevertheless, the FST values estimated across loci for all populations suggested that the Tamar population was significantly different from the Exe, Camel and Torridge populations. This differentiation is not explained by isolation by distance, and coastal hydrological events that are apparently influencing larval flux might be the cause of this pattern. Morphometric analysis was also performed. Analysis of carapace and chela shape variation using landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed extensive morphological variability, as the multivariate analysis of variance showed significant morphometric differences among geographic groups for both sexes. Thus, the morphological differentiation found may be a plastic response to habitat-specific selection pressures.

  1. Co-infection with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in mononucleosis: case report and review of literature.

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    Olson, Douglas; Huntington, Mark K

    2009-09-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with infectious mononucleosis. Serological studies demonstrated elevated IgM titres to both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The role of each of these agents in infectious mononucleosis is reviewed, as are literature reports of co-infection by these two viruses. Both near-simultaneous infections and temporally remote sequential infections with acute CMV triggering an immunoreactivation of EBV are reported in the literature. We believe the current case is most consistent with the latter. Infectious mononucleosis is a common infection of childhood and young adulthood. Although a variety of agents may be associated with infectious mononucleosis, EBV is the most common etiology. We encountered a patient with serological findings that were suggestive of the simultaneous presence of two etiological agents of infectious mononucleosis: EBV and CMV. This prompted an inquiry into how commonly dual infections are encountered and their significance.

  2. Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus forefoot and blood stream co-infection in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiny, Christine; Dirschmid, Harald; Lhotta, Karl

    2015-05-28

    Streptococcus uberis, the most frequent cause of mastitis in lactating cows, is considered non-pathogenic for humans. Only a few case reports have described human infections with this microorganism, which is notoriously difficult to identify. We report the case of a 75-year-old male haemodialysis patient, who developed a severe foot infection with osteomyelitis and bacteraemia. Both Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in wound secretion and blood samples using mass spectrometry. The presence of Streptococcus uberis was confirmed by superoxide dismutase A sequencing. The patient recovered after amputation of the forefoot and antibiotic treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam. He had probably acquired the infection while walking barefoot on cattle pasture land. This is the first case report of a human infection with Streptococcus uberis with identification of the microorganism using modern molecular technology. We propose that Staphylococcus aureus co-infection was a prerequisite for deep wound and bloodstream infection with Streptococcus uberis.

  3. A comparative hospital-based observational study of mono- and co-infections of malaria, dengue virus and scrub typhus causing acute undifferentiated fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Dhar, M; Mittal, G; Bhat, N K; Shirazi, N; Kalra, V; Sati, H C; Gupta, V

    2016-04-01

    Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus. The groups thus created were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, biochemical and outcome parameters. The co-infection group (n = 49) was associated with milder clinical manifestations, fewer, milder and non-progressive organ dysfunction, and lesser need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation and dialysis as compared to mono-infections. When co-infections were sub-grouped and compared with the relevant mono-infections, there were differences in certain haematological and biochemical parameters; however, this difference did not translate into differential outcomes. Scrub typhus mono-infection was associated with severe disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Malaria, dengue and scrub typhus should be routinely tested in all patients with AUFIs. Co-infections, whether true or due to serological cross-reactivity, appear to be a separate entity so far as presentation and morbidity is concerned. Further insight is needed into the mechanism and identification of the protective infection.

  4. Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Matee Mecky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%, while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%. None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1% with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  5. Identification of a 251 gene expression signature that can accurately detect M. tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.

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    Noor Dawany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. RESULTS: Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%. Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9-94.7% accuracy; 69.2-90% sensitivity and 90.3-100% specificity. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A 251-gene signature is described to (a detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy.

  6. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  7. [Prevalence of HIV-Tuberculosis co-infection and HIV impact on patients with tuberculosis in the Lubumbashi Health Zone from 2014 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wa Ilunga, E N; Muya, R K; Kaponda, A A; Kaput, C M A; Kalonji, S M; Chiribagula, V B; Nshikala, B N; N'sasi, A N; Simbi, J-B L

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are a dangerous couple in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of the co-infection tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS and its impact on issues of tuberculosis patients treated in Lubumbashi Heath Zone (LHZ). A retrospective and transversal study was conducted through the analysis of tuberculosis patients' data admitted in the tuberculosis Health Centers for Diagnosis and treatment (HCDT) in the LHZ from January 2014 to December 2015. TB-HIV co-infection cases will be identified and the outcome will be analyzed. Data of 1368 patients were noted from three HCDT of the TB of the Lubumbashi ZS and among them 334 cases of co-infections were recorded. The most incriminated age range is 40-50 years. The mean of age of our patients is 32.84±15.32 years and the man/women sex ratio is 1.70. The most predominant clinical tuberculosis form is the extra pulmonary [EPT (52.70 %)]. Among co-infected patients, the predominant form is pulmonary (TPM-). Out of the 51 cases of deaths recorded, 23 (45.10 %) also had HIV while 28 (54.90 %) were HIV-negative. There was an increase of 11.6 % in TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection from 2014 to 2015. TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection is a reality in the LHZ, especially in patients with negative bacterial TB (TPM-) and we have to pay a particular attention on the impact of HIV on the death of tuberculosis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

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