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Sample records for cmt2 mitotic checkpoint

  1. Smurf2 as a novel mitotic regulator: From the spindle assembly checkpoint to tumorigenesis

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    Moore Finola E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the mitotic program with high fidelity is dependent upon precise spatiotemporal regulation of posttranslational protein modifications. For example, the timely polyubiquitination of critical mitotic regulators by Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled activity of APC/C-Cdc20 in early mitosis, allowing bipolar attachment of kinetochores to mitotic spindle and facilitating equal segregation of sister chromatids. The critical effector of the spindle checkpoint, Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2, is recruited to unattached kinetochores forming a complex with other regulatory proteins to efficiently and cooperatively inhibit APC/C-Cdc20. A weakened and/or dysfunctional spindle checkpoint has been linked to the development of genomic instability in both cell culture and animal models, and evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of the spindle checkpoint plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Recent studies have illuminated a network of both degradative and non-degradative ubiquitination events that regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Within this context, our recent work showed that the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-terminus-family E3 ligase Smurf2 (Smad specific ubiquitin regulatory factor 2, known as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling, is required for a functional spindle checkpoint by promoting the functional localization and stability of Mad2. Here we discuss putative models explaining the role of Smurf2 as a new regulator in the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic mitotic localization of Smurf2 to the centrosome and other critical mitotic structures provides implications about mitotic checkpoint control dependent on various ubiquitination events. Finally, deregulated Smurf2 activity may contribute to carcinogenesis by

  2. In-silico modeling of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint.

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    Bashar Ibrahim

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint ((MSAC is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that ensures the correct segregation of chromosomes by restraining cell cycle progression from entering anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle. Its malfunction can lead to cancer.We have constructed and validated for the human (MSAC mechanism an in silico dynamical model, integrating 11 proteins and complexes. The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/Mad2 induced Cdc20 sequestering based on the Template Model, MCC formation, and APC inhibition. Originating from the biochemical reactions for the underlying molecular processes, non-linear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of 11 proteins and complexes of the (MSAC are derived. Most of the kinetic constants are taken from literature, the remaining four unknown parameters are derived by an evolutionary optimization procedure for an objective function describing the dynamics of the APC:Cdc20 complex. MCC:APC dissociation is described by two alternatives, namely the "Dissociation" and the "Convey" model variants. The attachment of the kinetochore to microtubuli is simulated by a switching parameter silencing those reactions which are stopped by the attachment. For both, the Dissociation and the Convey variants, we compare two different scenarios concerning the microtubule attachment dependent control of the dissociation reaction. Our model is validated by simulation of ten perturbation experiments.Only in the controlled case, our models show (MSAC behaviour at meta- to anaphase transition in agreement with experimental observations. Our simulations revealed that for (MSAC activation, Cdc20 is not fully sequestered; instead APC is inhibited by MCC binding.

  3. Dietary flavonoid fisetin induces a forced exit from mitosis by targeting the mitotic spindle checkpoint

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    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Pouwels, Jeroen; Varis, Asta; Kukkonen, Anu M.; Toivonen, Pauliina; Halonen, Pasi K.; Perälä, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Kallio, Marko J.

    2009-01-01

    Fisetin is a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits and wine at 2–160 μg/g concentrations and an ingredient in nutritional supplements with much higher concentrations. The compound has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via its ability to act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation and free radical scavenger, respectively. Our cell-based high-throughput screen for small molecules that override chemically induced mitotic arrest identified fisetin as an antimitotic compound. Fisetin rapidly compromised microtubule drug-induced mitotic block in a proteasome-dependent manner in several human cell lines. Moreover, in unperturbed human cancer cells fisetin caused premature initiation of chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis without normal cytokinesis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these mitotic errors, we analyzed the consequences of fisetin treatment on the localization and phoshorylation of several mitotic proteins. Aurora B, Bub1, BubR1 and Cenp-F rapidly lost their kinetochore/centromere localization and others became dephosphorylated upon addition of fisetin to the culture medium. Finally, we identified Aurora B kinase as a novel direct target of fisetin. The activity of Aurora B was significantly reduced by fisetin in vitro and in cells, an effect that can explain the observed forced mitotic exit, failure of cytokinesis and decreased cell viability. In conclusion, our data propose that fisetin perturbs spindle checkpoint signaling, which may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of the compound. PMID:19395653

  4. The flavonoid eupatorin inactivates the mitotic checkpoint leading to polyploidy and apoptosis

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    Salmela, Anna-Leena [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Pouwels, Jeroen; Kukkonen-Macchi, Anu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Waris, Sinikka; Toivonen, Pauliina [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Jaakkola, Kimmo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Maeki-Jouppila, Jenni [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Drug Discovery Graduate School, University of Turku (Finland); Kallio, Lila, E-mail: lila.kallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Kallio, Marko J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, P.O. Box 106, Turku (Finland); Turku Centre for Biotechnology, P.O. Box 123, University of Turku (Finland); Centre of Excellence for Translational Genome-Scale Biology, P.O. Box 106, Academy of Finland (Finland)

    2012-03-10

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome distribution in mitosis by preventing anaphase onset until the correct bipolar microtubule-kinetochore attachments are formed. Errors in SAC function may contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing numerical chromosome anomalies (aneuploidy). On the other hand, total disruption of SAC can lead to massive genomic imbalance followed by cell death, a phenomena that has therapeutic potency. We performed a cell-based high-throughput screen with a compound library of 2000 bioactives for novel SAC inhibitors and discovered a plant-derived phenolic compound eupatorin (3 Prime ,5-dihydroxy-4 Prime ,6,7-trimethoxyflavone) as an anti-mitotic flavonoid. The premature override of the microtubule drug-imposed mitotic arrest by eupatorin is dependent on microtubule-kinetochore attachments but not interkinetochore tension. Aurora B kinase activity, which is essential for maintenance of normal SAC signaling, is diminished by eupatorin in cells and in vitro providing a mechanistic explanation for the observed forced mitotic exit. Eupatorin likely has additional targets since eupatorin treatment of pre-mitotic cells causes spindle anomalies triggering a transient M phase delay followed by impaired cytokinesis and polyploidy. Finally, eupatorin potently induces apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines and suppresses cancer cell proliferation in organotypic 3D cell culture model.

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint

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    Yu, Yueyang [Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Munger, Karl, E-mail: kmunger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.

  6. Mitotic catastrophe occurs in the absence of apoptosis in p53-null cells with a defective G1 checkpoint.

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    Michalis Fragkos

    Full Text Available Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal.

  7. Aurora-B Mediated ATM Serine 1403 Phosphorylation Is Required For Mitotic ATM Activation and the Spindle Checkpoint

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    Yang, Chunying; Tang, Xi; Guo, Xiaojing; Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Katsumi; Cui, Kemi; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The ATM kinase plays a critical role in the maintenance of genetic stability. ATM is activated in response to DNA damage and is essential for cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we report that ATM is activated in mitosis in the absence of DNA damage. We demonstrate that mitotic ATM activation is dependent on the Aurora-B kinase and that Aurora-B phosphorylates ATM on serine 1403. This phosphorylation event is required for mitotic ATM activation. Further, we show that loss of ATM function results in...

  8. Taxifolin enhances andrographolide-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via spindle assembly checkpoint activation.

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    Zhong Rong Zhang

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Taxifolin (Taxi has been proposed to prevent cancer development similar to other dietary flavonoids. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the addition of Andro alone and Andro and Taxi together on human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells were assessed. Andro inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by mitotic arrest and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although the effect of Taxi alone on DU145 cell proliferation was not significant, the combined use of Taxi with Andro significantly potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis by enhancing the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, and caspases-7 and -9. Andro together with Taxi enhanced microtubule polymerization in vitro, and they induced the formation of twisted and elongated spindles in the cancer cells, thus leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, we showed that depletion of MAD2, a component in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, alleviated the mitotic block induced by the two compounds, suggesting that they trigger mitotic arrest by SAC activation. This study suggests that the anti-cancer activity of Andro can be significantly enhanced in combination with Taxi by disrupting microtubule dynamics and activating the SAC.

  9. Taxifolin Enhances Andrographolide-Induced Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells via Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Activation

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    Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Taxifolin (Taxi) has been proposed to prevent cancer development similar to other dietary flavonoids. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the addition of Andro alone and Andro and Taxi together on human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells were assessed. Andro inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by mitotic arrest and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although the effect of Taxi alone on DU145 cell proliferation was not significant, the combined use of Taxi with Andro significantly potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis by enhancing the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspases-7 and -9. Andro together with Taxi enhanced microtubule polymerization in vitro, and they induced the formation of twisted and elongated spindles in the cancer cells, thus leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, we showed that depletion of MAD2, a component in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), alleviated the mitotic block induced by the two compounds, suggesting that they trigger mitotic arrest by SAC activation. This study suggests that the anti-cancer activity of Andro can be significantly enhanced in combination with Taxi by disrupting microtubule dynamics and activating the SAC. PMID:23382917

  10. Structure of a Blinkin-BUBR1 complex reveals an interaction crucial for kinetochore-mitotic checkpoint regulation via an unanticipated binding Site

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    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Lischetti, Tiziana; Matak-Vinković, Dijana

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly bioriented and attached to the mitotic spindle. BUB1 and BUBR1 kinases are central for this proc...

  11. Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes associated with chromosomal aberrations in healthy humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Försti, A.; Frank, Ch.; Smolková, B.; Kazimírová, A.; Barančoková, M.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Kroupa, M.; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchancová, J.; Dusinská, M.; Musak, L.; Vodička, Pavel; Hemminki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 2 (2016), s. 442-446 ISSN 0304-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14789S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chromosomal integrity * cytogenetics * spindle checkpoint Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.375, year: 2016

  12. The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.

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    Li Bie

    Full Text Available Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001, and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

  13. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells

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    Xihan Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN, nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB and nuclear bud (NB in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1. Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1 decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01; (2 decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01; and (3 decreased AMR (p < 0.01 and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001. The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC.

  14. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication

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    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-01-01

    advance to anaphase before every chromosome is properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. The architecture of the KNL1-BubR1 complex reveals important features of the molecular recognition between SAC components and the kinetochore. The interaction is important for a functional SAC...... as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may...

  15. The kinetochore proteins CENP-E and CENP-F directly and specifically interact with distinct BUB mitotic checkpoint Ser/Thr kinases.

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    Ciossani, Giuseppe; Overlack, Katharina; Petrovic, Arsen; Huis In 't Veld, Pim J; Koerner, Carolin; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Maffini, Stefano; Musacchio, Andrea

    2018-05-10

    The segregation of chromosomes during cell division relies on the function of the kinetochores, protein complexes that physically connect chromosomes with microtubules of the spindle. The metazoan proteins, centromere protein E (CENP-E) and CENP-F, are components of a fibrous layer of mitotic kinetochores named the corona. Several of their features suggest that CENP-E and CENP-F are paralogs: they are very large (comprising approximately 2700 and 3200 residues, respectively), contain abundant predicted coiled-coil structures, are C-terminally prenylated, and are endowed with microtubule-binding sites at their termini. Moreover, CENP-E contains an ATP-hydrolyzing motor domain that promotes microtubule plus end-directed motion. Here, we show that both CENP-E and CENP-F are recruited to mitotic kinetochores independently of the main corona constituent, the Rod-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex. We identified specific interactions of CENP-F and CENP-E with budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 (BUB1) and BUB1-related (BUBR1) mitotic checkpoint Ser/Thr kinases, respectively, paralogous proteins involved in mitotic checkpoint control and chromosome alignment. Whereas BUBR1 was dispensable for kinetochore localization of CENP-E, BUB1 was stringently required for CENP-F localization. Through biochemical reconstitution, we demonstrated that the CENP-E-BUBR1 and CENP-F-BUB1 interactions are direct and require similar determinants, a dimeric coiled-coil in CENP-E or CENP-F and a kinase domain in BUBR1 or BUB1. Our findings are consistent with the existence of structurally similar BUB1-CENP-F and BUBR1-CENP-E complexes, supporting the notion that CENP-E and CENP-F are evolutionarily related. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

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    Nicole A. Najor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control.

  17. Interlinked bistable mechanisms generate robust mitotic transitions.

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    Hutter, Lukas H; Rata, Scott; Hochegger, Helfrid; Novák, Béla

    2017-10-18

    The transitions between phases of the cell cycle have evolved to be robust and switch-like, which ensures temporal separation of DNA replication, sister chromatid separation, and cell division. Mathematical models describing the biochemical interaction networks of cell cycle regulators attribute these properties to underlying bistable switches, which inherently generate robust, switch-like, and irreversible transitions between states. We have recently presented new mathematical models for two control systems that regulate crucial transitions in the cell cycle: mitotic entry and exit, 1 and the mitotic checkpoint. 2 Each of the two control systems is characterized by two interlinked bistable switches. In the case of mitotic checkpoint control, these switches are mutually activating, whereas in the case of the mitotic entry/exit network, the switches are mutually inhibiting. In this Perspective we describe the qualitative features of these regulatory motifs and show that having two interlinked bistable mechanisms further enhances robustness and irreversibility. We speculate that these network motifs also underlie other cell cycle transitions and cellular transitions between distinct biochemical states.

  18. The amount of DNA damage needed to activate the radiation-induced G2 checkpoint varies between single cells

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    Tkacz-Stachowska, Kinga; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Velissarou, Angeliki; Myklebust, June H.; Stokke, Trond; Syljuåsen, Randi G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The radiation-induced G2 checkpoint helps facilitate DNA repair before cell division. However, recent work has revealed that human cells often escape the G2 checkpoint with unrepaired DNA breaks. The purpose was to explore whether G2 checkpoint activation occurs according to a threshold level of DNA damage. Materials and methods: G2 checkpoint activation was assayed at 75–90 min and 24–48 h after X-ray irradiation of BJ diploid fibroblasts and U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry with pacific blue barcoding, and flow cytometry-based sorting of phospho-H3 positive cells to microscope slides, were used to examine the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX in individual mitotic cells that had escaped the G2 checkpoint. Results: For all radiation doses and times tested, the number of γ-H2AX foci varied between individual mitotic cells. At 75 min the median levels of γ-H2AX in mitotic cells increased with higher radiation doses. At 24–48 h, following a prolonged G2 checkpoint, cells were more resistant to checkpoint re-activation by a second dose of radiation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that different amounts of DNA damage are needed to activate the G2 checkpoint in individual cells. Such single cell variation in checkpoint activation may potentially contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability.

  19. Timeless links replication termination to mitotic kinase activation.

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    Jayaraju Dheekollu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1. Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication.

  20. Cenp-meta is required for sustained spindle checkpoint

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    Thomas Rubin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cenp-E is a kinesin-like motor protein required for efficient end-on attachment of kinetochores to the spindle microtubules. Cenp-E immunodepletion in Xenopus mitotic extracts results in the loss of mitotic arrest and massive chromosome missegregation, whereas its depletion in mammalian cells leads to chromosome segregation defects despite the presence of a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Cenp-meta has previously been reported to be the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate Cenp-E. In this study, we show that cenp-metaΔ mutant neuroblasts arrest in mitosis when treated with colchicine. cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a mitotic delay. Yet, despite the persistence of the two checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1 on unattached kinetochores, these cells eventually enter anaphase and give rise to highly aneuploid daughter cells. Indeed, we find that cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a slow but continuous degradation of cyclin B, which eventually triggers the mitotic exit observed. Thus, our data provide evidence for a role of Cenp-meta in sustaining the SAC response.

  1. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage

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    Toda Kazuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. Results Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2Δ mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit. Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation, in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit, during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Conclusions The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.

  2. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

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    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F

    2003-11-27

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Pol{kappa}). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development.

  3. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Polκ). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development

  4. A tumor suppressor role of the Bub3 spindle checkpoint protein after apoptosis inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain aneuploid cells, indicating that the mitotic checkpoint is permissive to the proliferation of chromosomally aberrant cells. However, mutated or altered expression of mitotic checkpoint genes accounts for a minor proportion of human tumors. We describe a Drosophila melanogaster tumorigenesis model derived from knocking down spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes and preventing apoptosis in wing imaginal discs. Bub3-deficient tumors that were also deficient in apoptosis displayed neoplastic growth, chromosomal aneuploidy, and high proliferative potential after transplantation into adult flies. Inducing aneuploidy by knocking down CENP-E and preventing apoptosis does not induce tumorigenesis, indicating that aneuploidy is not sufficient for hyperplasia. In this system, the aneuploidy caused by a deficient SAC is not driving tumorigenesis because preventing Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore does not cause hyperproliferation. Our data suggest that Bub3 has a nonkinetochore-dependent function that is consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23609535

  5. The NIMA Kinase Is Required To Execute Stage-Specific Mitotic Functions after Initiation of Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Meera; Lad, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    The G2-M transition in Aspergillus nidulans requires the NIMA kinase, the founding member of the Nek kinase family. Inactivation of NIMA results in a late G2 arrest, while overexpression of NIMA is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. Endogenously tagged NIMA-GFP has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole bodies at mitotic exit, suggesting that it functions sequentially at these locations. Since NIMA is indispensable for mitotic entry, it has been difficult to determine the requirement of NIMA for subaspects of mitosis. We show here that when NIMA is partially inactivated, although mitosis can be initiated, a proportion of cells fail to successfully generate two daughter nuclei. We further define the mitotic defects to show that normal NIMA function is required for the formation of a bipolar spindle, nuclear pore complex disassembly, completion of chromatin segregation, and the normal structural rearrangements of the nuclear envelope required to generate two nuclei from one. In the remaining population of cells that enter mitosis with inadequate NIMA, two daughter nuclei are generated in a manner dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint, indicating highly penetrant defects in mitotic progression without sufficient NIMA activity. This study shows that NIMA is required not only for mitotic entry but also sequentially for successful completion of stage-specific mitotic events. PMID:24186954

  6. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.......Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par...

  7. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akinori [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kikuguchi, Chisato [Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan); Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  8. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. ► CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. ► CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. ► MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4–NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4–NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4–NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4–NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  9. Radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe in PARG-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ame, J.Ch.; Fouquerel, E.; Dantzer, F.; De Murcia, G.; Schreiber, V. [IREBS-FRE3211 du CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, ESBS, Bd Sebastien Brant, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Gauthier, L.R.; Boussin, F.D. [Laboratoire de Radiopathologie/INSERM U967, CEA-DSV-IRCM, 92265 Fontenay aux Roses, Cedex 6 (France); Biard, D. [CEA-DSV-IRCM/INSERM U935, Institut A. Lwoff-CNRS, BP 8, 94801 Villejuif cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in the regulation of chromatin structure, DNA metabolism, cell division and cell death. Through the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), Poly(ADP-ribose) glyco-hydrolase (PARG) has a crucial role in the control of life-and-death balance following DNA insult. Comprehension of PARG function has been hindered by the existence of many PARG isoforms encoded by a single gene and displaying various subcellular localizations. To gain insight into the function of PARG in response to irradiation, we constitutively and stably knocked down expression of PARG isoforms in HeLa cells. PARG depletion leading to PAR accumulation was not deleterious to undamaged cells and was in fact rather beneficial, because it protected cells from spontaneous single-strand breaks and telomeric abnormalities. By contrast, PARG-deficient cells showed increased radiosensitivity, caused by defects in the repair of single- and double-strand breaks and in mitotic spindle checkpoint, leading to alteration of progression of mitosis. Irradiated PARG-deficient cells displayed centrosome amplification leading to mitotic supernumerary spindle poles, and accumulated aberrant mitotic figures, which induced either polyploidy or cell death by mitotic catastrophe. Our results suggest that PARG could be a novel potential therapeutic target for radiotherapy. (authors)

  10. ATM and checkpoint responses to DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints can be classified into G1/S, intra-S and G2/M checkpoints, so named according to the cell cycle transitions that they regulate. DNA damage incurred during the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle leads to growth arrest at the G1/S and G2/M phase boundaries, respectively, whereas genotoxic stress during S phase results in the transient suppression of DNA synthesis. In mammals, ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a protein kinase that controls all checkpoint responses to DNA damage. ATM is a versatile kinase which uses various means to regulate a given checkpoint pathway. It has been shown to act upon several proteins within the same pathway, many times controlling several different modifications of the same protein or using several different targets to arrive at the same end point. Some of the ATM targets act as adaptors by recruiting additional substrates for ATM. ATM controls two types of responses in G1. The p53-dependent responses inhibit Cyclin/Cdk activity by transcriptional induction of p21, whereas p53-independent responses inhibit CDKs through degradation of Cdc25A to maintain CdK2 inhibitory phosphorylation. In regulating p53, ATM directly phosphorylates p53 on Ser15, which likely causes p53 transcriptional activation, concurrently activating other kinases that phosphorylate p53 at other sites such as Ser20, which reduces the ability of MDM2 to bind p53, thus promoting its stability. ATM further ensures p53 stability by phosphorylating MDM2. At least six ATM targets, namely CHK2, CHK1, NBS1, BRCA1, SMC1 and FANCD2, have been implicated in the control of S-phase checkpoint. Cdc25A is the downstream effector of CHK1 and CHK2, though the underlying mechanism for control of intra S-phase checkpoint by other targets remain obscure. G2 checkpoint prevents mitotic entry solely through inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2/Cdk1. Several ATM targets including CHK1, CHK2, BRCA1, MDC1 and p53BP1 have been implicated in the control of G2/M

  11. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  12. Founder effect and estimation of the age of the c.892C>T (p.Arg298Cys) mutation in LMNA associated to Charcot-Marie-Tooth subtype CMT2B1 in families from North Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadouche, T; Poitelon, Y; Genin, E; Chaouch, M; Tazir, M; Kassouri, N; Nouioua, S; Chaouch, A; Boccaccio, I; Benhassine, T; De Sandre-Giovannoli, A; Grid, D; Lévy, N; Delague, V

    2008-09-01

    CMT2B1, an axonal subtype (MIM 605588) of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, is an autosomal recessive motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by progressive muscular and sensory loss in the distal extremities with chronic distal weakness. The genetic defect associated with the disease is, to date, a unique homozygous missense mutation, p.Arg298Cys (c.892C>T), in the LMNA gene. So far, this mutation has only been found in affected individuals originating from a restricted region of North Western Africa (northwest of Algeria and east of Morocco), strongly suggesting a founder effect. In order to address this hypothesis, genotyping of both STRs and intragenic SNPs was performed at the LMNA locus, at chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3, in 42 individuals affected with CMT2B1 from 25 Algerian families. Our results indicate that the affected individuals share a common ancestral haplotype in a region of about 1.0 Mb (1 cM) and that the most recent common ancestor would have lived about 800-900 years ago (95% confidence interval: 550 to 1300 years).

  13. Mechanism of APC/CCDC20 activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Brown, Nicholas G; VanderLinden, Ryan; Imre, Richard; Jarvis, Marc A; Brunner, Michael R; Davidson, Iain F; Litos, Gabriele; Haselbach, David; Mechtler, Karl; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-05-10

    Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit are initiated by the 1.2-MDa ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) and its coactivator CDC20 (cell division cycle 20). To avoid chromosome missegregation, APC/C(CDC20) activation is tightly controlled. CDC20 only associates with APC/C in mitosis when APC/C has become phosphorylated and is further inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex until all chromosomes are bioriented on the spindle. APC/C contains 14 different types of subunits, most of which are phosphorylated in mitosis on multiple sites. However, it is unknown which of these phospho-sites enable APC/C(CDC20) activation and by which mechanism. Here we have identified 68 evolutionarily conserved mitotic phospho-sites on human APC/C bound to CDC20 and have used the biGBac technique to generate 47 APC/C mutants in which either all 68 sites or subsets of them were replaced by nonphosphorylatable or phospho-mimicking residues. The characterization of these complexes in substrate ubiquitination and degradation assays indicates that phosphorylation of an N-terminal loop region in APC1 is sufficient for binding and activation of APC/C by CDC20. Deletion of the N-terminal APC1 loop enables APC/C(CDC20) activation in the absence of mitotic phosphorylation or phospho-mimicking mutations. These results indicate that binding of CDC20 to APC/C is normally prevented by an autoinhibitory loop in APC1 and that its mitotic phosphorylation relieves this inhibition. The predicted location of the N-terminal APC1 loop implies that this loop controls interactions between the N-terminal domain of CDC20 and APC1 and APC8. These results reveal how APC/C phosphorylation enables CDC20 to bind and activate the APC/C in mitosis.

  14. The fission yeast spindle orientation checkpoint: a model that generates tension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, Yannick; Reyes, Céline; Goldstone, Sherilyn; Tournier, Sylvie

    2006-10-15

    In all eukaryotes, the alignment of the mitotic spindle with the axis of cell polarity is essential for accurate chromosome segregation as well as for the establishment of cell fate, and thus morphogenesis, during development. Studies in invertebrates, higher eukaryotes and yeast suggest that astral microtubules interact with the cell cortex to position the spindle. These microtubules are thought to impose pushing or pulling forces on the spindle poles to affect the rotation or movement of the spindle. In the fission yeast model, where cell division is symmetrical, spindle rotation is dependent on the interaction of astral microtubules with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In these cells, a bub1-dependent mitotic checkpoint, the spindle orientation checkpoint (SOC), is activated when the spindles fail to align with the cell polarity axis. In this paper we review the mechanism that orientates the spindle during mitosis in fission yeast, and discuss the consequences of misorientation on metaphase progression. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Loss of p53 induces M-phase retardation following G2 DNA damage checkpoint abrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Yuzuru; Uchida, Sanae; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Shimura, Mari; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masato; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamashita, Katsumi

    2003-04-01

    Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin. Administration of caffeine to G2-arrested cells induced a drastic change in cell phenotype, the nature of which depended on the status of p53. Flow cytometric and microscopic observations revealed that cells that either contained or lacked p53 resumed their cell cycles and entered mitosis upon caffeine treatment. However, transit to the M phase was slower in p53-negative cells than in p53-positive cells. Consistent with these observations, CDK1 activity was maintained at high levels, along with stable cyclin B1, in p53-negative cells. The addition of butyrolactone I, which is an inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2, to the p53-negative cells reduced the floating round cell population and induced the disappearance of cyclin B1. These results suggest a relationship between the p53 pathway and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins and possible cross-talk between the G2-DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic checkpoint.

  16. Unconventional functions of mitotic kinases in kidney tumourigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHascoet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human tumours exhibit a variety of genetic alterations, including point mutations, translocations, gene amplifications and deletions, as well as aneuploid chromosome numbers. For carcinomas, aneuploidy is associated with poor patient outcome for a large variety of tumour types, including breast, colon and renal cell carcinoma. The Renal cell cancer (RCC is a heterogeneous carcinoma consisting of different histologic types. The clear renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is the most common subtype and represents 85 % of the RCC. Central to the biology of the ccRCC is the loss of function of the Von Hippel Lindau gene but is also associated with genetic instability that could be caused by abrogation of the cell cycle mitotic spindle checkpoint and may involve the Aurora kinases, which regulate centrosome maturation. Aneuploidy can also result from the loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal cell polarity that also may be regulated by the mitotic kinases (Plk1, CK2, DLCK1 and Aurora kinases. In this review, we describe the non mitotic unconventional functions of these kinases in renal tumourigenesis.

  17. A family with autosomal dominant mutilating neuropathy not linked to either Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B (CMT2B) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Emilia; Rodolico, Carmelo; Toscano, Antonio; Di Maria, Emilio; Cassandrini, Denise; Pizzuti, Antonio; Pigullo, Simona; Mazzeo, Anna; Macaione, Vincenzo; Girlanda, Paolo; Vita, Giuseppe; Ajmar, Franco; Mandich, Paola

    2002-03-01

    Sensory loss and ulcero-mutilating features have been observed in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I and in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIB, also referred as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B. To date two loci associated with ulcero-mutilating neuropathy have been described: CMT2B at 3q13-q22 and HSN I at 9q22.1-q22.3. We performed linkage analysis with chromosomal markers representing the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B loci on an Italian family with a severe distal sensory loss leading to an ulcero-mutilating peripheral neuropathy. Negative likelihood-of-odds scores excluded any evidence of linkage to both chromosome 3q13 and chromosome 9q22 markers, confirming the genetic heterogeneity of this clinical entity and the presence of a third locus responsible for ulcero-mutilating neuropathies.

  18. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  19. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  20. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed

  1. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Chowdhury, Debabani Roy; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2013-01-24

    In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof¹/+; mnkp⁶/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry out the interaction of MOF

  2. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpavalli Sreerangam NCVL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Results Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof1/+; mnkp6/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. Conclusion mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using

  3. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko; Omori, Hiroko; Ueda, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy–electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing LANA dots on mitotic chromosomes by fluorescent microscopy followed by electron microscopy. • LANA dots localized randomly on condensed chromosomes other than centromere/pericentromere and telomere/peritelomre. • Cellular mitotic checkpoint should not be always involved in the segregation of KSHV genomes in the latency.

  4. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko [Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Omori, Hiroko [Central Instrumentation Laboratory Research Institute for Microbial Diseases (BIKEN), Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueda, Keiji, E-mail: kueda@virus.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy–electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing LANA dots on mitotic chromosomes by fluorescent microscopy followed by electron microscopy. • LANA dots localized randomly on condensed chromosomes other than centromere/pericentromere and telomere/peritelomre. • Cellular mitotic checkpoint should not be always involved in the segregation of KSHV genomes in the latency.

  5. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  6. A link between mitotic entry and membrane growth suggests a novel model for cell size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Steph D; Nguyen, Duy Linh; Thai, Vu; Meloy, Melissa; MacDonough, Tracy; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2012-04-02

    Addition of new membrane to the cell surface by membrane trafficking is necessary for cell growth. In this paper, we report that blocking membrane traffic causes a mitotic checkpoint arrest via Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1. Checkpoint signals are relayed by the Rho1 GTPase, protein kinase C (Pkc1), and a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A(Cdc55)). Signaling via this pathway is dependent on membrane traffic and appears to increase gradually during polar bud growth. We hypothesize that delivery of vesicles to the site of bud growth generates a signal that is proportional to the extent of polarized membrane growth and that the strength of the signal is read by downstream components to determine when sufficient growth has occurred for initiation of mitosis. Growth-dependent signaling could explain how membrane growth is integrated with cell cycle progression. It could also control both cell size and morphogenesis, thereby reconciling divergent models for mitotic checkpoint function.

  7. Nek2A destruction marks APC/C activation at the prophase-to-prometaphase transition by spindle-checkpoint-restricted Cdc20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Michiel; Wolthuis, Rob

    2015-04-15

    Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C(Cdc20)). Nek2A, like cyclin A, is degraded in mitosis while the spindle checkpoint is active. Cyclin A prevents spindle checkpoint proteins from binding to Cdc20 and is recruited to the APC/C in prometaphase. We found that Nek2A and cyclin A avoid being stabilized by the spindle checkpoint in different ways. First, enhancing mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) formation by nocodazole treatment inhibited the degradation of geminin and cyclin A, whereas Nek2A disappeared at a normal rate. Second, depleting Cdc20 effectively stabilized cyclin A but not Nek2A. Nevertheless, Nek2A destruction crucially depended on Cdc20 binding to the APC/C. Third, in contrast to cyclin A, Nek2A was recruited to the APC/C before the start of mitosis. Interestingly, the spindle checkpoint very effectively stabilized an APC/C-binding mutant of Nek2A, which required the Nek2A KEN box. Apparently, in cells, the spindle checkpoint primarily prevents Cdc20 from binding destruction motifs. Nek2A disappearance marks the prophase-to-prometaphase transition, when Cdc20, regardless of the spindle checkpoint, activates the APC/C. However, Mad2 depletion accelerated Nek2A destruction, showing that spindle checkpoint release further increases APC/C(Cdc20) catalytic activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Mitotic catastrophe is the mechanism of lethality for mutations that confer mutagen sensitivity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, S H; May, G S

    1994-01-16

    We have examined the consequences of treatment with DNA-damaging agents of uvs mutants and the bimD6 mutant of Aspergillus nidulans. We first established that wild-type Aspergillus undergoes a cell cycle delay following treatment with the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or ultraviolet light (UV). We have also determined that strains carrying the bimD6, uvsB110, uvsH77, uvsF201 and the uvsC114 mutations, all of which cause an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, undergo a cell-cycle delay following DNA damage. These mutations therefore do not represent nonfunctional checkpoints in Aspergillus. However, all of the mutant strains accumulated nuclear defects after a period of delay following mutagen treatment. The nuclear defects in the uvsB110 and bimD6 strains following MMS treatment were shown to be dependent on passage through mitosis after DNA damage, as the defects were prevented with benomyl. Checkpoint controls responding to DNA damage thus only temporarily halt cell-cycle progression in response to DNA damage. The conditional bimD6 mutation also results in a defective mitosis at restrictive temperatures. This mitotic defect is similar to that seen with MMS treatment at temperatures permissive for the mitotic defect. Thus the bimD gene product may perform dual roles, one in DNA repair and the other during the mitotic cell cycle in the absence of damage.

  9. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar P Mahale

    Full Text Available The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division.

  10. Multiple Duties for Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Kinases in Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Adele L.; Wassmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) controls the proper attachment to and alignment of chromosomes on the spindle. The SAC detects errors and induces a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, preventing chromatid separation. Once all chromosomes are properly attached, the SAC-dependent arrest is relieved and chromatids separate evenly into daughter cells. The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In meiosis, haploid cells containing new genetic combinations are generated from a diploid cell through two specialized cell divisions. Though apparently less robust, SAC control also exists in meiosis. Recently, it has emerged that SAC kinases have additional roles in executing accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions. Here, we summarize the main differences between mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, and explain why meiotic divisions pose special challenges for correct chromosome segregation. The less-known meiotic roles of the SAC kinases are described, with a focus on two model systems: yeast and mouse oocytes. The meiotic roles of the canonical checkpoint kinases Bub1, Mps1, the pseudokinase BubR1 (Mad3), and Aurora B and C (Ipl1) will be discussed. Insights into the molecular signaling pathways that bring about the special chromosome segregation pattern during meiosis will help us understand why human oocytes are so frequently aneuploid. PMID:29322045

  11. Multiple Duties for Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Kinases in Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele L. Marston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC controls the proper attachment to and alignment of chromosomes on the spindle. The SAC detects errors and induces a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, preventing chromatid separation. Once all chromosomes are properly attached, the SAC-dependent arrest is relieved and chromatids separate evenly into daughter cells. The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In meiosis, haploid cells containing new genetic combinations are generated from a diploid cell through two specialized cell divisions. Though apparently less robust, SAC control also exists in meiosis. Recently, it has emerged that SAC kinases have additional roles in executing accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions. Here, we summarize the main differences between mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, and explain why meiotic divisions pose special challenges for correct chromosome segregation. The less-known meiotic roles of the SAC kinases are described, with a focus on two model systems: yeast and mouse oocytes. The meiotic roles of the canonical checkpoint kinases Bub1, Mps1, the pseudokinase BubR1 (Mad3, and Aurora B and C (Ipl1 will be discussed. Insights into the molecular signaling pathways that bring about the special chromosome segregation pattern during meiosis will help us understand why human oocytes are so frequently aneuploid.

  12. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kasim Diril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  13. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, M Kasim; Bisteau, Xavier; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Caldez, Matias J; Wee, Sheena; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kaldis, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL) MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA) rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  14. The role of p53 in the response to mitotic spindle damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein has defined roles in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in response to a range of cellular stresses including DNA damage, dominant oncogene expression, hypoxia, metabolic changes and viral infection. In addition to these responses, p53 can also be activated when damage occurs to the mitotic spindle. Initially, spindle damage activates a p53-independent checkpoint which functions at the metaphase-anaphase transition and prevents cells from progressing through mitosis until the completion of spindle formation. Cells eventually escape from this block (a process termed 'mitotic slippage'), and an aberrant mitosis ensues in which sister chromatids fail to segregate properly. After a delay period, p53 responds to this mitotic failure by instituting a G1-like growth arrest, with an intact nucleus containing 4N DNA, but without the cells undergoing division. Cells lacking wild-type p53 are still able to arrest transiently at mitosis, and also fail to undergo division, underscoring that the delay in mitosis is p53-independent. However, these cells are not prevented from re-entering the cell cycle and can reduplicate their DNA unchecked, leading to polyploidy. Additionally, p53-null cells which experience spindle failure often show the appearance of micronuclei arising from poorly segregated chromosomes which have de-condensed and been enclosed in a nuclear envelope. The ability of p53 to prevent their formation suggests an additional G2 involvement which prevents nuclear breakdown prior to mitosis. The molecular mechanism by which p53 is able to sense mitotic failure is still unknown, but may be linked to the ability of p53 to regulate duplication of the centrosome, the organelle which nucleates spindle formation. (authors)

  15. Inhibition of clathrin by pitstop 2 activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and induces cell death in dividing HeLa cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Charlotte M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During metaphase clathrin stabilises the mitotic spindle kinetochore(K-fibres. Many anti-mitotic compounds target microtubule dynamics. Pitstop 2™ is the first small molecule inhibitor of clathrin terminal domain and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We investigated its effects on a second function for clathrin in mitosis. Results Pitstop 2 did not impair clathrin recruitment to the spindle but disrupted its function once stationed there. Pitstop 2 trapped HeLa cells in metaphase through loss of mitotic spindle integrity and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, phenocopying clathrin depletion and aurora A kinase inhibition. Conclusions Pitstop 2 is therefore a new tool for investigating clathrin spindle dynamics. Pitstop 2 reduced viability in dividing HeLa cells, without affecting dividing non-cancerous NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that clathrin is a possible novel anti-mitotic drug target.

  16. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon; Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3β in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor

  17. Identification and Characterization of Components of the Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint Pathway in Fission Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadura, Shelia

    2001-01-01

    .... The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a useful system for discovering and characterizing components of this regulatory pathway because genetic approaches can be coupled with excellent cytology...

  18. Identification and Characterization of Components of the Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint Pathway in Fission Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadura, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    .... For example, mutations in human Bub1 p have been identified in cancer cell lines and altered expression of the bub1 gene has been shown to correlate with tumor cell proliferation and chromosomal instability...

  19. DNA lesions induced by replication stress trigger mitotic aberration and tetraploidy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Ichijima

    Full Text Available During tumorigenesis, cells acquire immortality in association with the development of genomic instability. However, it is still elusive how genomic instability spontaneously generates during the process of tumorigenesis. Here, we show that precancerous DNA lesions induced by oncogene acceleration, which induce situations identical to the initial stages of cancer development, trigger tetraploidy/aneuploidy generation in association with mitotic aberration. Although oncogene acceleration primarily induces DNA replication stress and the resulting lesions in the S phase, these lesions are carried over into the M phase and cause cytokinesis failure and genomic instability. Unlike directly induced DNA double-strand breaks, DNA replication stress-associated lesions are cryptogenic and pass through cell-cycle checkpoints due to limited and ineffective activation of checkpoint factors. Furthermore, since damaged M-phase cells still progress in mitotic steps, these cells result in chromosomal mis-segregation, cytokinesis failure and the resulting tetraploidy generation. Thus, our results reveal a process of genomic instability generation triggered by precancerous DNA replication stress.

  20. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  1. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  2. Checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....

  3. Molecular basis of APC/C regulation by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-01-01

    In the dividing eukaryotic cell the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a multimeric assembly that inhibits the APC/C, delaying chromosome segregation. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy we determined the near-atomic resolution structure of an APC/C-MCC complex (APC/CMCC). We reveal how degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit (Cdc20APC/C) responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of UbcH10 (APC/C’s initiating E2) to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex allows for UbcH10 association, and we show from a structure of APC/CMCC in complex with UbcH10 how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20MCC) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced. PMID:27509861

  4. Rad9 contribution to radiosensitivity and the G2 checkpoint in a DT40 cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Tomoyasu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Science

    2002-12-01

    In fission yeast, the rad9 (radiation sensitive) gene was cloned from a mutant that is sensitive to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet and hydroxyurea. This gene has also been shown to be required for a DNA damage checkpoint. Orthologues of the rad9 gene have recently been identified in higher eukaryote cells including human. Here we generated Rad9 knockout (Rad9-/-) cells from the chicken B lymphocyte line DT40 to examine the role of Rad9 in higher eukaryotes. First we isolated a part of the chicken Rad9 gene which was 54% identical with human Rad9 at the amino acid sequence level. Next we isolated genomic clones, determined exons and introns, and constructed targeting vectors designed to disrupt exon 1-3 of the chicken Rad9 gene by replacement with a drug-resistant gene. Successful targeted integration was verified by Southern blot analysis and the disruption of the Rad9 gene was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To analyze the radiosensitivity of these Rad9-/- cells, we monitored the clonogenic survival after various degrees of X-ray irradiation. Rad9-/- cells were more sensitive to X-rays than wild type cells at all dosages. However, these cells were less sensitive than ATM knockout (ATM-/-) cells that are known to be X-ray sensitive and that showed a defective checkpoint control. In contrast, Rad9-/- cells were markedly more sensitive to ultraviolet and hydroxyruea. In addition, we assessed the G2 checkpoint by measurement of the mitotic index that is the fraction of the accumulating number of cells in mitosis at various times after X-ray irradiation. While the number of mitotic wild type cells did not increase until 2 hrs after X-ray irradiation, the number of mitotic Rad9-/- cells showed an increase similar to that of ATM-/- cells. These results suggest that just as in fission yeast, in higher eukaryotes Rad9 also contributes to X-ray, ultraviolet and hydroxyurea sensitivity, and plays an important role in the G2 checkpoint

  5. Rad9 contribution to radiosensitivity and the G2 checkpoint in a DT40 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Tomoyasu

    2002-01-01

    In fission yeast, the rad9 (radiation sensitive) gene was cloned from a mutant that is sensitive to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet and hydroxyurea. This gene has also been shown to be required for a DNA damage checkpoint. Orthologues of the rad9 gene have recently been identified in higher eukaryote cells including human. Here we generated Rad9 knockout (Rad9-/-) cells from the chicken B lymphocyte line DT40 to examine the role of Rad9 in higher eukaryotes. First we isolated a part of the chicken Rad9 gene which was 54% identical with human Rad9 at the amino acid sequence level. Next we isolated genomic clones, determined exons and introns, and constructed targeting vectors designed to disrupt exon 1-3 of the chicken Rad9 gene by replacement with a drug-resistant gene. Successful targeted integration was verified by Southern blot analysis and the disruption of the Rad9 gene was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To analyze the radiosensitivity of these Rad9-/- cells, we monitored the clonogenic survival after various degrees of X-ray irradiation. Rad9-/- cells were more sensitive to X-rays than wild type cells at all dosages. However, these cells were less sensitive than ATM knockout (ATM-/-) cells that are known to be X-ray sensitive and that showed a defective checkpoint control. In contrast, Rad9-/- cells were markedly more sensitive to ultraviolet and hydroxyruea. In addition, we assessed the G2 checkpoint by measurement of the mitotic index that is the fraction of the accumulating number of cells in mitosis at various times after X-ray irradiation. While the number of mitotic wild type cells did not increase until 2 hrs after X-ray irradiation, the number of mitotic Rad9-/- cells showed an increase similar to that of ATM-/- cells. These results suggest that just as in fission yeast, in higher eukaryotes Rad9 also contributes to X-ray, ultraviolet and hydroxyurea sensitivity, and plays an important role in the G2 checkpoint

  6. Plk1 inhibition causes post-mitotic DNA damage and senescence in a range of human tumor cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Driscoll

    Full Text Available Plk1 is a checkpoint protein whose role spans all of mitosis and includes DNA repair, and is highly conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to man. Consistent with this wide array of functions for Plk1, the cellular consequences of Plk1 disruption are diverse, spanning delays in mitotic entry, mitotic spindle abnormalities, and transient mitotic arrest leading to mitotic slippage and failures in cytokinesis. In this work, we present the in vitro and in vivo consequences of Plk1 inhibition in cancer cells using potent, selective small-molecule Plk1 inhibitors and Plk1 genetic knock-down approaches. We demonstrate for the first time that cellular senescence is the predominant outcome of Plk1 inhibition in some cancer cell lines, whereas in other cancer cell lines the dominant outcome appears to be apoptosis, as has been reported in the literature. We also demonstrate strong induction of DNA double-strand breaks in all six lines examined (as assayed by γH2AX, which occurs either during mitotic arrest or mitotic-exit, and may be linked to the downstream induction of senescence. Taken together, our findings expand the view of Plk1 inhibition, demonstrating the occurrence of a non-apoptotic outcome in some settings. Our findings are also consistent with the possibility that mitotic arrest observed as a result of Plk1 inhibition is at least partially due to the presence of unrepaired double-strand breaks in mitosis. These novel findings may lead to alternative strategies for the development of novel therapeutic agents targeting Plk1, in the selection of biomarkers, patient populations, combination partners and dosing regimens.

  7. Accumulation of senescent cells in mitotic tissue of aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Ferreira, Mark; Sedivy, John M; Herbig, Utz

    2007-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress induced growth arrest of somatic cells, was first documented in cell cultures over 40 years ago, however its physiological significance has only recently been demonstrated. Using novel biomarkers of cellular senescence we examined whether senescent cells accumulate in tissues from baboons of ages encompassing the entire lifespan of this species. We show that dermal fibroblasts, displaying markers of senescence such as telomere damage, active checkpoint kinase ATM, high levels of heterochromatin proteins and elevated levels of p16, accumulate in skin biopsies from baboons with advancing age. The number of dermal fibroblasts containing damaged telomeres reaches a value of over 15% of total fibroblasts, whereas 80% of cells contain high levels of the heterochromatin protein HIRA. In skeletal muscle, a postmitotic tissue, only a small percentage of myonuclei containing damaged telomeres were detected regardless of animal age. The presence of senescent cells in mitotic tissues might therefore be a contributing factor to aging and age related pathology and provides further evidence that cellular senescence is a physiological event.

  8. Maintaining Genome Stability in Defiance of Mitotic DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefano; Gentili, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is based on prompt detection of the issue to be addressed, formulation and transmission of a correct set of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. While the first and the last are purely mechanical processes relying on the faithful functioning of single proteins or macromolecular complexes (sensors and effectors), information is the real cue, with signal amplitude, duration, and frequency ultimately determining the type of response. The cellular response to DNA damage is no exception to the rule. In this review article we focus on DNA damage responses in G2 and Mitosis. First, we set the stage describing mitosis and the machineries in charge of assembling the apparatus responsible for chromosome alignment and segregation as well as the inputs that control its function (checkpoints). Next, we examine the type of issues that a cell approaching mitosis might face, presenting the impact of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the correct and timely functioning of pathways correcting errors or damage before chromosome segregation. We conclude this essay with a perspective on the current status of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors and their potential use in cancer therapy. PMID:27493659

  9. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valerio-Santiago

    Full Text Available When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  10. Asynchronous Checkpoint Migration with MRNet in the Scalable Checkpoint / Restart Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, K; Moody, A; de Supinski, B R

    2012-03-20

    Applications running on today's supercomputers tolerate failures by periodically saving their state in checkpoint files on stable storage, such as a parallel file system. Although this approach is simple, the overhead of writing the checkpoints can be prohibitive, especially for large-scale jobs. In this paper, we present initial results of an enhancement to our Scalable Checkpoint/Restart Library (SCR). We employ MRNet, a tree-based overlay network library, to transfer checkpoints from the compute nodes to the parallel file system asynchronously. This enhancement increases application efficiency by removing the need for an application to block while checkpoints are transferred to the parallel file system. We show that the integration of SCR with MRNet can reduce the time spent in I/O operations by as much as 15x. However, our experiments exposed new scalability issues with our initial implementation. We discuss the sources of the scalability problems and our plans to address them.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Recolin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability.

  12. The SFP1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates G2/M transitions during the mitotic cell cycle and DNA-damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Norris, D.

    1998-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, checkpoint pathways arrest cell-cycle progression if a particular event has failed to complete appropriately or if an important intracellular structure is defective or damaged. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that lack the SFP1 gene fail to arrest at the G2 DNA-damage checkpoint in response to genomic injury, but maintain their ability to arrest at the replication and spindle-assembly checkpoints. sfp1D mutants are characterized by a premature entrance into mitosis during a normal (undamaged) cell cycle, while strains that overexpress Sfp1p exhibit delays in G2. Sfp1p therefore acts as a repressor of the G2/M transition, both in the normal cell cycle and in the G2 checkpoint pathway. Sfp1 is a nuclear protein with two Cys2His2 zinc-finger domains commonly found in transcription factors. We propose that Sfp1p regulates the expression of gene products involved in the G2/M transition during the mitotic cell cycle and the DNA-damage response. In support of this model, overexpression of Sfp1p induces the expression of the PDS1 gene, which is known to encode a protein that regulates the G2 checkpoint. (author)

  13. New mitotic regulators released from chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eYokoyama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faithful action of the mitotic spindle segregates duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells. Perturbations of this process result in chromosome mis-segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cancer development. Chromosomes are not simply passengers segregated by spindle microtubules but rather play a major active role in spindle assembly. The GTP bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP, produced around chromosomes, locally activates spindle assembly factors. Recent studies have uncovered that chromosomes organize mitosis beyond spindle formation. They distinctly regulate other mitotic events, such as spindle maintenance in anaphase, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the direct function of chromosomes is not only to produce RanGTP but, in addition, to release key mitotic regulators from chromatin. Chromatin-remodeling factors and nuclear pore complex proteins, which have established functions on chromatin in interphase, dissociate from mitotic chromatin and function in spindle assembly or maintenance. Thus, chromosomes actively organize their own segregation using chromatin-releasing mitotic regulators as well as RanGTP.

  14. Transparent checkpointing and process migration in a distributed system

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A distributed system for creating a checkpoint for a plurality of processes running on the distributed system. The distributed system includes a plurality of compute nodes with an operating system executing on each compute node. A checkpoint library resides at the user level on each of the compute nodes, and the checkpoint library is transparent to the operating system residing on the same compute node and to the other compute nodes. Each checkpoint library uses a windowed messaging logging p...

  15. Multiple functions of the S-phase checkpoint mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori

    2010-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that replication defects are the major source of spontaneous genomic instability in cells, and that S-phase checkpoints are the principal defense against such instability. The S-phase checkpoint mediator protein Mrc1/Claspin mediates the checkpoint response to replication stress by facilitating phosphorylation of effector kinase by a sensor kinase. In this review, the multiple functions and the regulation of the S-phase checkpoint mediator are discussed.

  16. Checkpointing and Recovery in Distributed and Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    A transaction-consistent global checkpoint of a database records a state of the database which reflects the effect of only completed transactions and not the results of any partially executed transactions. This thesis establishes the necessary and sufficient conditions for a checkpoint of a data item (or the checkpoints of a set of data items) to…

  17. Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of PML at T409 regulates spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Liu, J

    2016-08-31

    During mitosis, Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) change dramatically in morphology and composition, but little is known about function of PML in mitosis. Here, we show that PML is phosphorylated at T409 (PML p409) in a mitosis-specific manner. More importantly, PML p409 contributes to maintain the duration of pro-metaphase and regulates spindle checkpoint. Deficient PML p409 caused a shortening of pro-metaphase and challenged the nocodazole-triggered mitotic arrest. T409A mutation led to a higher frequency of misaligned chromosomes on metaphase plate, and subsequently death in late mitosis. In addition, inhibition of PML p409 repressed growth of tumor cells, suggesting that PML p409 is a potential target for cancer therapy. Collectively, our study demonstrated an important phosphorylated site of PML, which contributed to explore the role of PML in mitosis.

  18. A direct role of Mad1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint beyond Mad2 kinetochore recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    in the SAC beyond recruitment of C-Mad2 to kinetochores has not yet been addressed. Here, we show that Mad1 is required for mitotic arrest even when C-Mad2 is artificially recruited to kinetochores, indicating that it has indeed an additional function in promoting the checkpoint. The C-terminal globular...... domain of Mad1 and conserved residues in this region are required for this unexpected function of Mad1........ The conversion of O-Mad2 into C-Mad2 at unattached kinetochores is thought to be a key step in activating the SAC. The "template model" proposes that this is achieved by the recruitment of soluble O-Mad2 to C-Mad2 bound at kinetochores through its interaction with Mad1. Whether Mad1 has additional roles...

  19. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benada, Jan; Macůrek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2015), s. 1912-1937 ISSN 2218-273X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34264S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : checkpoint * DNA damage response * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Immune mediated neuropathy following checkpoint immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yufan; Menzies, Alexander M; Long, Georgina V; Fernando, S L; Herkes, G

    2017-11-01

    Checkpoint immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer therapy and is now standard treatment for many malignancies including metastatic melanoma. Acute inflammatory neuropathies, often labelled as Guillain-Barre syndrome, are an uncommon but potentially severe complication of checkpoint immunotherapy with individual cases described but never characterised as a group. We describe a case of acute sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy following a single dose of combination ipilimumab and nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. A literature search was performed, identifying 14 other cases of acute neuropathy following checkpoint immunotherapy, with the clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory features summarised. Most cases described an acute sensorimotor neuropathy (92%) with hyporeflexia (92%) that could occur from induction up till many weeks after the final dose of therapy. In contrast to Guillain-Barre syndrome, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis often shows a lymphocytic picture (50%) and the electrophysiology showed an axonal pattern (55%). Treatment was variable and often in combination. 11 cases received steroid therapy with only 1 death within this group, whereas of the 4 patients who did not receive steroid therapy there were 3 deaths. In conclusion checkpoint immunotherapy - induced acute neuropathies are distinct from and progress differently to Guillain-Barre syndrome. As with other immunotherapy related adverse events corticosteroid therapy should be initiated in addition to usual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); de Supinski, Bronis R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.

  2. Profiling DNA damage response following mitotic perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronni Sølvhøi; Karemore, Gopal; Gudjonsson, Thorkell

    2016-01-01

    that a broad spectrum of mitotic errors correlates with increased DNA breakage in daughter cells. Unexpectedly, we find that only a subset of these correlations are functionally linked. We identify the genuine mitosis-born DNA damage events and sub-classify them according to penetrance of the observed...

  3. Mitotic and apoptotic activity in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutova, Darina; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Bures, Jan

    2018-05-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The aim of the prospective study was to evaluate mitosis and apoptosis of epithelial cells at each stage of colorectal neoplasia. A total of 61 persons were enrolled into the study: 18 patients with non-advanced colorectal adenoma (non-a-A), 13 patients with advanced colorectal adenoma (a-A), 13 patients with CRC and 17 controls: individuals with normal findings on colonoscopy. Biopsy samples were taken from pathology (patients) and healthy mucosa (patients and healthy controls). Samples were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Mitotic and apoptotic activity were evaluated in lower and upper part of the crypts and in the superficial compartment. Apoptotic activity was also assessed using detection of activated caspase-3. In controls, mitotic activity was present in lower part of crypts, accompanied with low apoptotic activity. Mitotic and apoptotic activity decreased (to almost zero) in upper part of crypts. In superficial compartment, increase in apoptotic activity was observed. Transformation of healthy mucosa into non-a-A was associated with significant increase of mitotic activity in lower and upper part of the crypts and with significant increase of apoptotic activity in all three compartments; p colorectal neoplasia were observed. Detection of activated caspase-3 confirmed the above findings in apoptotic activity. Significant dysregulation of mitosis and apoptosis during the progression of colorectal neoplasia, corresponding with histology, was confirmed. In patients with sporadic colorectal neoplasia, healthy mucosa does not display different mitotic and apoptotic activity compared to mucosa in healthy controls and therefore adequate endoscopic/surgical removal of colorectal neoplasia is sufficient.

  4. Sensitivity to sodium arsenite in human melanoma cells depends upon susceptibility to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Belshoff, Alex C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; Fan, Teresa W-M.; McCabe, Michael J.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic induces clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and has potential for treatment of other cancers. The current study examines factors influencing sensitivity to arsenic using human malignant melanoma cell lines. A375 and SK-Mel-2 cells were sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of arsenite, whereas SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells required supratherapeutic levels for toxicity. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter function attenuated arsenite resistance, consistent with studies suggesting that arsenite is extruded from the cell as a glutathione conjugate by MRP-1. However, MRP-1 was not overexpressed in resistant lines and GST-π was only slightly elevated. ICP-MS analysis indicated that arsenite-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells did not accumulate less arsenic than arsenite-sensitive A375 cells, suggesting that resistance was not attributable to reduced arsenic accumulation but rather to intrinsic properties of resistant cell lines. The mode of arsenite-induced cell death was apoptosis. Arsenite-induced apoptosis is associated with cell cycle alterations. Cell cycle analysis revealed arsenite-sensitive cells arrested in mitosis whereas arsenite-resistant cells did not, suggesting that induction of mitotic arrest occurs at lower intracellular arsenic concentrations. Higher intracellular arsenic levels induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and G 2 -phase in SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells, respectively. The lack of arsenite-induced mitotic arrest in resistant cell lines was associated with a weakened spindle checkpoint resulting from reduced expression of spindle checkpoint protein BUBR1. These data suggest that arsenite has potential for treatment of solid tumors but a functional spindle checkpoint is a prerequisite for a positive response to its clinical application

  5. Requirement for PLK1 kinase activity in the maintenance of a robust spindle assembly checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling O'Connor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During mitotic arrest induced by microtubule targeting drugs, the weakening of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC allows cells to progress through the cell cycle without chromosome segregation occurring. PLK1 kinase plays a major role in mitosis and emerging evidence indicates that PLK1 is also involved in establishing the checkpoint and maintaining SAC signalling. However, mechanistically, the role of PLK1 in the SAC is not fully understood, with several recent reports indicating that it can cooperate with either one of the major checkpoint kinases, Aurora B or MPS1. In this study, we assess the role of PLK1 in SAC maintenance. We find that in nocodazole-arrested U2OS cells, PLK1 activity is continuously required for maintaining Aurora B protein localisation and activity at kinetochores. Consistent with published data we find that upon PLK1 inhibition, phosphoThr3-H3, a marker of Haspin activity, is reduced. Intriguingly, Aurora B inhibition causes PLK1 to relocalise from kinetochores into fewer and much larger foci, possibly due to incomplete recruitment of outer kinetochore proteins. Importantly, PLK1 inhibition, together with partial inhibition of Aurora B, allows efficient SAC override to occur. This phenotype is more pronounced than the phenotype observed by combining the same PLK1 inhibitors with partial MPS1 inhibition. We also find that PLK1 inhibition does not obviously cooperate with Haspin inhibition to promote SAC override. These results indicate that PLK1 is directly involved in maintaining efficient SAC signalling, possibly by cooperating in a positive feedback loop with Aurora B, and that partially redundant mechanisms exist which reinforce the SAC.

  6. Effect of salt-inducible kinase 2 on checkpoint in response to γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiaojiao; Zhou Lijun; Wang Yu; Liu Xiaodan; Gu Yongqing; Zhou Pingkun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of salt-induced kinase 2 (SIK2) in the G_2/M checkpoint in response to ionizing radiation and the possible mechanism. Methods: HeLa cells were irradiated with "6"0Co γ-rays. The cell model of knockdown SIK2 expression was constrcuted by transfecting HeLa cells with a pSicoR-based lentivirus vector of expressing SIK2 shRNA by lipofectamin 2000. Western blot and flow cytometry were performed to measure the changes of SIK2 protein level and cell cycle distribution. The phosphorylated histone protein H3 on Ser 10 was used as a molecular marker of mitotic cells for detecting the function of G2/M checkpoint. Results: The expression level of SIK2 protein increased in HeLa cells after "6"0Co γ-ray irradiation. A cell model of knockdown SIK2 expression was successfully generated by transfecting the specific shRNA against SIK2. Depression of SIK2 significantly increased the cellular sensitivity at 1, 2, 4, 6 Gy post-irradiation (t = -3.445, -2.581, -3.251, -2.553, P < 0.05), and led cells to release earlier from the G_2/M boundary arrest compared to control cells at 5, 6 h post-irradiation(t = 4.341, 6.500, P < 0.05). Western blot analysis indicated that the irradiation-induced phosphorylated CHK2/T68 in SIK2 knock-down cells was earlier than that in control cells. Conclusions: salt-induced kinase 2 (SIK2) participates in the regulation of G_2/M checkpoint induced by ionizing radiation and affects cellular radiosensitivity. (authors)

  7. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... in the SAC, we delineate the molecular details of its interaction with kinetochores. We find that BubR1 recruits the bulk of Cdc20 to kinetochores through its internal Cdc20 binding domain (IC20BD). We show that preventing Cdc20 kinetochore localization by removal of the IC20BD has a limited effect...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  8. Drosophila Polo regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint through Mps1-dependent BubR1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carlos; Osswald, Mariana; Barbosa, João; Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana; Pinheiro, Diana; Guimarães, Sofia; Matos, Irina; Maiato, Helder; Sunkel, Claudio E

    2013-06-12

    Maintenance of genomic stability during eukaryotic cell division relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that prevents mitotic exit until all chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle. Polo is a mitotic kinase proposed to be involved in SAC function, but its role has remained elusive. We demonstrate that Polo and Aurora B functional interdependency comprises a positive feedback loop that promotes Mps1 kinetochore localization and activity. Expression of constitutively active Polo restores normal Mps1 kinetochore levels even after Aurora B inhibition, highlighting a role for Polo in Mps1 recruitment to unattached kinetochores downstream of Aurora B. We also show that Mps1 kinetochore localization is required for BubR1 hyperphosphorylation and formation of the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope. This is essential to allow recruitment of Cdc20 to unattached kinetochores and the assembly of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-inhibitory complexes to levels that ensure long-term SAC activity. We propose a model in which Polo controls Mps1-dependent BubR1 phosphorylation to promote Cdc20 kinetochore recruitment and sustained SAC function.

  9. Validate Mitotic Checkpoint and Kinetochore Motor Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells as Targets for the Development of Novel Anti-Mitotic Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    .... Taxol and vincristine are microtubule poisons that block the proper function of microtubules that are essential for a broad spectrum of motile biological processes that include cell division, vesicle...

  10. Extending the Binomial Checkpointing Technique for Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-10-10

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, re- quired, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algo- rithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We de- scribe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding imple- mentation and discuss numerical results.

  11. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Di Nunno, Vincenzo; Cubelli, Marta; Santoni, Matteo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Anto; Battelli, Nicola; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Chemotherapy has represented the standard therapy for unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma for more than 20 years. The growing knowledge of the interaction between tumour and immune system has led to the advent of new classes of drugs, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors, which are intended to change the current scenario. To date, immunotherapy is able to improve the overall responses and survival. Moreover, thanks to its safety profile immune-checkpoint inhibitors could be proposed also to patients unfit for standard chemotherapy. No doubts that these agents have started a revolution expected for years, but despite this encouraging results it appears clear that not all subjects respond to these agents and requiring the development of reliable predictive response factors able to isolate patients who can more benefit from these treatments as well as new strategies aimed to improve immunotherapy clinical outcome. In this review we describe the active or ongoing clinical trials involving Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), Programmed Death receptor 1 (PD-1) and Cytotoxic-T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA 4) inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma focusing our attention on the developing new immune-agents and combination strategies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The moyamoya disease susceptibility variant RNF213 R4810K (rs112735431) induces genomic instability by mitotic abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Toshiaki [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Harada, Kouji H. [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osafune, Kenji [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Asaka, Isao; Ameku, Tomonaga; Watanabe, Akira; Kasahara, Tomoko; Sudo, Tomomi; Shiota, Fumihiko [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashikata, Hirokuni; Takagi, Yasushi [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Morito, Daisuke [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nakao, Kazuwa [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Koizumi, Akio, E-mail: koizumi.akio.5v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K inhibited cell proliferation. •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K had the time of mitosis 4-fold and mitotic failure. •R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than wild-type. •iPSECs from the MMD patients had elevated mitotic failure compared from the control. •RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormality and increased risk of aneuploidy. -- Abstract: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusive lesions in the Circle of Willis. The RNF213 R4810K polymorphism increases susceptibility to MMD. In the present study, we characterized phenotypes caused by overexpression of RNF213 wild type and R4810K variant in the cell cycle to investigate the mechanism of proliferation inhibition. Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K in HeLa cells inhibited cell proliferation and extended the time of mitosis 4-fold. Ablation of spindle checkpoint by depletion of mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (MAD2) did not shorten the time of mitosis. Mitotic morphology in HeLa cells revealed that MAD2 colocalized with RNF213 R4810K. Immunoprecipitation revealed an RNF213/MAD2 complex: R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than RNF213 wild-type. Desynchronized localization of MAD2 was observed more frequently during mitosis in fibroblasts from patients (n = 3, 61.0 ± 8.2%) compared with wild-type subjects (n = 6, 13.1 ± 7.7%; p < 0.01). Aneuploidy was observed more frequently in fibroblasts (p < 0.01) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (p < 0.03) from patients than from wild-type subjects. Vascular endothelial cells differentiated from iPSCs (iPSECs) of patients and an unaffected carrier had a longer time from prometaphase to metaphase than those from controls (p < 0.05). iPSECs from the patients and unaffected carrier had significantly increased mitotic failure rates compared with controls (p < 0.05). Thus, RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormalities and increased risk of genomic instability.

  13. The moyamoya disease susceptibility variant RNF213 R4810K (rs112735431) induces genomic instability by mitotic abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitomi, Toshiaki; Habu, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Harada, Kouji H.; Osafune, Kenji; Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu; Asaka, Isao; Ameku, Tomonaga; Watanabe, Akira; Kasahara, Tomoko; Sudo, Tomomi; Shiota, Fumihiko; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Takagi, Yasushi; Morito, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakao, Kazuwa; Koizumi, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K inhibited cell proliferation. •Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K had the time of mitosis 4-fold and mitotic failure. •R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than wild-type. •iPSECs from the MMD patients had elevated mitotic failure compared from the control. •RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormality and increased risk of aneuploidy. -- Abstract: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusive lesions in the Circle of Willis. The RNF213 R4810K polymorphism increases susceptibility to MMD. In the present study, we characterized phenotypes caused by overexpression of RNF213 wild type and R4810K variant in the cell cycle to investigate the mechanism of proliferation inhibition. Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K in HeLa cells inhibited cell proliferation and extended the time of mitosis 4-fold. Ablation of spindle checkpoint by depletion of mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (MAD2) did not shorten the time of mitosis. Mitotic morphology in HeLa cells revealed that MAD2 colocalized with RNF213 R4810K. Immunoprecipitation revealed an RNF213/MAD2 complex: R4810K formed a complex with MAD2 more readily than RNF213 wild-type. Desynchronized localization of MAD2 was observed more frequently during mitosis in fibroblasts from patients (n = 3, 61.0 ± 8.2%) compared with wild-type subjects (n = 6, 13.1 ± 7.7%; p < 0.01). Aneuploidy was observed more frequently in fibroblasts (p < 0.01) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (p < 0.03) from patients than from wild-type subjects. Vascular endothelial cells differentiated from iPSCs (iPSECs) of patients and an unaffected carrier had a longer time from prometaphase to metaphase than those from controls (p < 0.05). iPSECs from the patients and unaffected carrier had significantly increased mitotic failure rates compared with controls (p < 0.05). Thus, RNF213 R4810K induced mitotic abnormalities and increased risk of genomic instability

  14. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  15. Advances of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Tumor Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Immune checkpoints are cell surface molecules that can fine-tune the immune responses, they are crucial for modulating the duration and amplitude of immune reactions while maintaining self-tolerance in order to minimize autoimmune responses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that tumors cells can directly express immune-checkpoint molecules, or induce many inhibitory molecules expression in the tumor microenvironment to inhibit the anti-tumor immunity. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy to cure cancer. In the past few years, clinical trials with therapeutic antibodies targeting to the checkpoint molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. In contrast to the conventional treatment, checkpoint inhibitors induce broad and durable antitumor responses. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target different checkpoint molecules and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we summarized the recent advances of the study and development of other checkpoint molecules in tumor immunotherapy.

  16. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  17. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0141 TITLE: Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hans-Joerg Hammers...SUBTITLE Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 15-1-0141 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer . The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or enhance the abscopal in a kidney cancer

  18. Hypoxia‐induced alterations of G2 checkpoint regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hasvold, Grete; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Lando, Malin; Patzke, Sebastian; Hauge, Sissel; Suo, ZhenHe; Lyng, Heidi; Syljuåsen, Randi G.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes an aggressive tumor phenotype with increased genomic instability, partially due to downregulation of DNA repair pathways. However, genome stability is also surveilled by cell cycle checkpoints. An important issue is therefore whether hypoxia also can influence the DNA damage‐induced cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that hypoxia (24 h 0.2% O2) alters the expression of several G2 checkpoint regulators, as examined by microarray gene expression analysis and immunoblotting o...

  19. Checkpoint independence of most DNA replication origins in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Mickle, Katie L; Ramanathan, Sunita; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Chaudari, Amna; Yompakdee, Chulee; Scott, Donna; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In budding yeast, the replication checkpoint slows progress through S phase by inhibiting replication origin firing. In mammals, the replication checkpoint inhibits both origin firing and replication fork movement. To find out which strategy is employed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we used microarrays to investigate the use of origins by wild-type and checkpoint-mutant strains in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which limits the pool of deoxyribonucleo...

  20. Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    Cellular checkpoints prevent mitosis in the presence of stalled replication forks. Whether checkpoints also ensure the completion of DNA replication before mitosis is unknown. Here, we show that in yeast smc5-smc6 mutants, which are related to cohesin and condensin, replication is delayed, most...

  1. ATYPICAL MITOTIC FIGURES AND THE MITOTIC INDEX IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, AM; PIETERS, WJLM; HOLLEMA, H; BURGER, MPM

    1995-01-01

    We surveyed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to quantify the proliferation rate and the presence of normal and atypical mitotic figures. In the cervical tissue specimens of 127 women with CIN, the area with the highest cell proliferation was identified and, at that site, the proliferation

  2. PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report first-hand narrative experience of autoimmune encephalitis and to briefly review currently available evidence of autoimmune encephalitis in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Setting: A case study is presented on the management of a patient who developed autoimmune encephalitis during nivolumab monotherapy occurring after 28 weeks on anti-PD-1 monotherapy (nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for non-small cell lung cancer. Results: No substantial improvement was observed by antiepileptic treatment. After administration of 80 mg methylprednisolone, neurologic symptoms disappeared within 24 h and the patient fully recovered. Conclusions: Immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment can lead to autoimmune encephalitis. Clinical trial data indicate a frequency of autoimmune encephalitis of ≥0.1 to <1% with a higher probability during combined or sequential anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-1 therapy than during anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monotherapy. Further collection of evidence and translational research is warranted.

  3. PD-1 checkpoint inhibition: Toxicities and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew W; Gill, David M; Agarwal, Neeraj; Maughan, Benjamin L

    2017-12-01

    With the recent approval of 5 PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for a number of malignancies, PD-1 axis inhibition is drastically changing the treatment landscape of immunotherapy in cancer. As PD-1/PD-L1 are involved in peripheral immune tolerance, inhibition of this immune checkpoint has led to novel immune-related adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, and endocrinopathies among many others. In this seminar, we will analyze the incidence of immune-related adverse events for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. Then, we will discuss the specific management of the most common immune-mediated adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, endocrinopathies, nephritis, and neurologic toxicities. Immune-related adverse events are frequently treated with immunosuppressive medication such as steroids and mycofenolate mofetil. There are specific immune-related adverse events which are frequently seen by the treating oncologist from checkpoint inhibitors. It is essential to understand the recommended treatment options to minimize toxicity and mortality from this important class of anti-neoplastic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Newly Emerging Immune Checkpoints: Promises for Future Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Torphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1, and the poliovirus receptor (PVR-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  5. "Isogaba Maware": quality control of genome DNA by checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, A; Matsumoto, T

    1998-05-01

    Checkpoints maintain the interdependency of cell cycle events by permitting the onset of an event only after the completion of the preceding event. The DNA replication checkpoint induces a cell cycle arrest until the completion of the DNA replication. Similarly, the DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression if DNA repair is incomplete. A number of genes that play a role in the two checkpoints have been identified through genetic studies in yeasts, and their homologues have been found in fly, mouse, and human. They form signaling cascades activated by a DNA replication block or DNA damage and subsequently generate the negative constraints on cell cycle regulators. The failure of these signaling cascades results in producing offspring that carry mutations or that lack a portion of the genome. In humans, defects in the checkpoints are often associated with cancer-prone diseases. Focusing mainly on the studies in budding and fission yeasts, we summarize the recent progress.

  6. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-04-24

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Checkpoint independence of most DNA replication origins in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Katie L; Ramanathan, Sunita; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Chaudari, Amna; Yompakdee, Chulee; Scott, Donna; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A

    2007-12-19

    In budding yeast, the replication checkpoint slows progress through S phase by inhibiting replication origin firing. In mammals, the replication checkpoint inhibits both origin firing and replication fork movement. To find out which strategy is employed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we used microarrays to investigate the use of origins by wild-type and checkpoint-mutant strains in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which limits the pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and activates the replication checkpoint. The checkpoint-mutant cells carried deletions either of rad3 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of ATR) or cds1 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of Chk2). Our microarray results proved to be largely consistent with those independently obtained and recently published by three other laboratories. However, we were able to reconcile differences between the previous studies regarding the extent to which fission yeast replication origins are affected by the replication checkpoint. We found (consistent with the three previous studies after appropriate interpretation) that, in surprising contrast to budding yeast, most fission yeast origins, including both early- and late-firing origins, are not significantly affected by checkpoint mutations during replication in the presence of HU. A few origins (approximately 3%) behaved like those in budding yeast: they replicated earlier in the checkpoint mutants than in wild type. These were located primarily in the heterochromatic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 2. Indeed, the subtelomeric regions defined by the strongest checkpoint restraint correspond precisely to previously mapped subtelomeric heterochromatin. This observation implies that subtelomeric heterochromatin in fission yeast differs from heterochromatin at centromeres, in the mating type region, and in ribosomal DNA, since these regions replicated at least as efficiently in wild-type cells as in checkpoint

  8. Checkpoint independence of most DNA replication origins in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Katie L; Ramanathan, Sunita; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Chaudari, Amna; Yompakdee, Chulee; Scott, Donna; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A

    2007-01-01

    Background In budding yeast, the replication checkpoint slows progress through S phase by inhibiting replication origin firing. In mammals, the replication checkpoint inhibits both origin firing and replication fork movement. To find out which strategy is employed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we used microarrays to investigate the use of origins by wild-type and checkpoint-mutant strains in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which limits the pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and activates the replication checkpoint. The checkpoint-mutant cells carried deletions either of rad3 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of ATR) or cds1 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of Chk2). Results Our microarray results proved to be largely consistent with those independently obtained and recently published by three other laboratories. However, we were able to reconcile differences between the previous studies regarding the extent to which fission yeast replication origins are affected by the replication checkpoint. We found (consistent with the three previous studies after appropriate interpretation) that, in surprising contrast to budding yeast, most fission yeast origins, including both early- and late-firing origins, are not significantly affected by checkpoint mutations during replication in the presence of HU. A few origins (~3%) behaved like those in budding yeast: they replicated earlier in the checkpoint mutants than in wild type. These were located primarily in the heterochromatic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 2. Indeed, the subtelomeric regions defined by the strongest checkpoint restraint correspond precisely to previously mapped subtelomeric heterochromatin. This observation implies that subtelomeric heterochromatin in fission yeast differs from heterochromatin at centromeres, in the mating type region, and in ribosomal DNA, since these regions replicated at least as efficiently in wild-type cells as in

  9. Checkpoint independence of most DNA replication origins in fission yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Donna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In budding yeast, the replication checkpoint slows progress through S phase by inhibiting replication origin firing. In mammals, the replication checkpoint inhibits both origin firing and replication fork movement. To find out which strategy is employed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we used microarrays to investigate the use of origins by wild-type and checkpoint-mutant strains in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU, which limits the pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs and activates the replication checkpoint. The checkpoint-mutant cells carried deletions either of rad3 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of ATR or cds1 (which encodes the fission yeast homologue of Chk2. Results Our microarray results proved to be largely consistent with those independently obtained and recently published by three other laboratories. However, we were able to reconcile differences between the previous studies regarding the extent to which fission yeast replication origins are affected by the replication checkpoint. We found (consistent with the three previous studies after appropriate interpretation that, in surprising contrast to budding yeast, most fission yeast origins, including both early- and late-firing origins, are not significantly affected by checkpoint mutations during replication in the presence of HU. A few origins (~3% behaved like those in budding yeast: they replicated earlier in the checkpoint mutants than in wild type. These were located primarily in the heterochromatic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 2. Indeed, the subtelomeric regions defined by the strongest checkpoint restraint correspond precisely to previously mapped subtelomeric heterochromatin. This observation implies that subtelomeric heterochromatin in fission yeast differs from heterochromatin at centromeres, in the mating type region, and in ribosomal DNA, since these regions replicated at least as efficiently in wild

  10. Revertant mosaicism in epidermolysis bullosa caused by mitotic gene conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, MF; Scheffer, H; Stulp, R; Pas, HH; Nijenhuis, Albertine; Heeres, K; Owaribe, K; Pulkkinen, L; Uitto, J

    1997-01-01

    Mitotic gene conversion acting as reverse mutation has not been previously demonstrated in human. We report here that the revertant mosaicism of a compound heterozygous proband with an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, is caused by mitotic gene

  11. Neuromuscular complications of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Noah A; Trevino, Christopher R; Waheed, Waqar; Sobhani, Fatemeh; Landry, Kara K; Thomas, Alissa A; Hehir, Mike

    2018-01-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however, the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune-related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI-related immune diseases. Accordingly, while the optimal treatment for ICPI-related neuromuscular disorders generally follows a traditional paradigm, there are important novel considerations in selecting appropriate immunosuppressive therapy. This review presents 2 new cases, a summary of neuromuscular ICPI complications, and an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  13. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kate Bonner

    Full Text Available Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells.

  14. Combination approaches with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Swart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, immune checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune checkpoint blockade, aimed at increasing response-rates to the single treatments.

  15. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Mahesh; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J

    2016-03-15

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3' UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy.

  16. Attenuation of G2 cell cycle checkpoint control in human tumor cells is associated with increased frequencies of unrejoined chromosome breaks but not increased cytotoxicity following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Cowan, J.; Grdina, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of G 2 cell cycle checkpoint control to ionizing radiation responses was examined in ten human tumor cell lines. Most of the delay in cell cycle progression seen in the first cell cycle following radiation exposure was due to blocks in G 2 and there were large cell line-to-cell line variations in the length of the G 2 block. Longer delays were seen in cell lines that had mutations in p53. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks seen as chromosome terminal deletions in mitosis, and observation that supports the hypothesis that the signal for G 2 delay in mammalian cells is an unrejoined chromosome break. There were also an inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the level of chromosome aneuploidy in each cell line, suggesting that the G 2 and mitotic spindel checkpoints may be linked to each other. Attenuation in G 2 checkpoint control was not associated with alterations in either the frequency of induced chromosome rearrangements or cell survival following radiation exposure suggesting that chromosome rearrangements, the major radiation-induced lethal lesion in tumor cells, form before cells enters G 2 . Thus, agents that act solely to override G 2 arrest should produce little radiosensitization in human tumor cells

  17. Radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades: a snapshot in 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Yool [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect. This review will cover the current issue and the future perspectives for combined with radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades based upon the available preclinical and clinical data.

  18. Establishment and mitotic characterization of new Drosophila acentriolar cell lines from DSas-4 mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lecland

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells the centrosome is commonly viewed as the main cellular structure driving microtubule (MT assembly into the mitotic spindle apparatus. However, additional pathways, such as those mediated by chromatin and augmin, are involved in the establishment of functional spindles. The molecular mechanisms involved in these pathways remain poorly understood, mostly due to limitations inherent to current experimental systems available. To overcome these limitations we have developed six new Drosophila cell lines derived from Drosophila homozygous mutants for DSas-4, a protein essential for centriole biogenesis. These cells lack detectable centrosomal structures, astral MT, with dispersed pericentriolar proteins D-PLP, Centrosomin and γ-tubulin. They show poorly focused spindle poles that reach the plasma membrane. Despite being compromised for functional centrosome, these cells could successfully undergo mitosis. Live-cell imaging analysis of acentriolar spindle assembly revealed that nascent MTs are nucleated from multiple points in the vicinity of chromosomes. These nascent MTs then grow away from kinetochores allowing the expansion of fibers that will be part of the future acentriolar spindle. MT repolymerization assays illustrate that acentriolar spindle assembly occurs “inside-out” from the chromosomes. Colchicine-mediated depolymerization of MTs further revealed the presence of a functional Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC in the acentriolar cells. Finally, pilot RNAi experiments open the potential use of these cell lines for the molecular dissection of anastral pathways in spindle and centrosome assembly.

  19. Spatial Rule-Based Modeling: A Method and Its Application to the Human Mitotic Kinetochore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Huwald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the analysis of biological systems is the combinatorial explosion that emerges from the complexity of multi-protein assemblies. Conventional formalisms, like differential equations, Boolean networks and Bayesian networks, are unsuitable for dealing with the combinatorial explosion, because they are designed for a restricted state space with fixed dimensionality. To overcome this problem, the rule-based modeling language, BioNetGen, and the spatial extension, SRSim, have been developed. Here, we describe how to apply rule-based modeling to integrate experimental data from different sources into a single spatial simulation model and how to analyze the output of that model. The starting point for this approach can be a combination of molecular interaction data, reaction network data, proximities, binding and diffusion kinetics and molecular geometries at different levels of detail. We describe the technique and then use it to construct a model of the human mitotic inner and outer kinetochore, including the spindle assembly checkpoint signaling pathway. This allows us to demonstrate the utility of the procedure, show how a novel perspective for understanding such complex systems becomes accessible and elaborate on challenges that arise in the formulation, simulation and analysis of spatial rule-based models.

  20. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  1. Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage occurs during DNA replication, spontaneous chemical reactions, and assaults by external or metabolism-derived agents. Therefore, all living cells must constantly contend with DNA damage. Cells protect themselves from these genotoxic stresses by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. Coordination of these pathways requires tight regulation in order to prevent genomic instability. The checkpoint clamp complex consists of Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 proteins, and is often called the 9-1-1 complex. This PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen-like donut-shaped protein complex is a checkpoint sensor protein that is recruited to DNA damage sites during the early stage of the response, and is required for checkpoint activation. As PCNA is required for multiple pathways of DNA metabolism, the checkpoint clamp has also been implicated in direct roles in DNA repair, as well as in coordination of the pathways. Here we discuss roles of the checkpoint clamp in DNA damage response (DDR.

  2. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in Arabidopsis Is Rapidly Shut Off during Severe Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Shinichiro; Schnittger, Arp

    2017-10-23

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in animals and yeast assures equal segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The prevalent occurrence of polyploidy in flowering plants together with the observation that many plants can be readily forced to double their genomes by application of microtubule drugs raises the question of whether plants have a proper SAC. Here, we provide a functional framework of the core SAC proteins in Arabidopsis. We reveal that Arabidopsis will delay mitosis in a SAC-dependent manner if the spindle is perturbed. However, we also show that the molecular architecture of the SAC is unique in plants. Moreover, the SAC is short-lived and cannot stay active for more than 2 hr, after which the cell cycle is reset. This resetting opens the possibility for genome duplications and raises the hypothesis that a rapid termination of a SAC-induced mitotic arrest provides an adaptive advantage for plants impacting plant genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. G2 checkpoint abrogator abates the antagonistic interaction between antimicrotubule drugs and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Meihua; Zhang Hongfang; Di Xiaoyun; Chang Jinjia; Shen Youqing; Fan Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously demonstrated that radiation may arrest tumor cells at G2 phase, which in turn prevents the cytotoxicity of antimicrotubule drugs and results in antagonistic interaction between these two modalities. Herein we tested whether G2 abrogators would attenuate the above antagonistic interaction and improve the therapeutic efficacy of combination therapy between radiation and antimicrotubule drugs. Materials and methods: Breast cancer BCap37 and epidermoid carcinoma KB cell lines were administered with radiation, UCN-01 (a model drug of G2 abrogator), paclitaxel or vincristine, alone or in combinations. The antitumor activities of single and combined treatments were analyzed by a series of cytotoxic, apoptotic, cell cycle, morphological and biochemical assays. Results: UCN-01 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of radiation, antimitotic drugs, and their combined treatments in vitro. Further investigations demonstrated that UCN-01 attenuated radiation-induced G2 arrest, and subsequently repressed the inhibitory effect of radiation on drug-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions: This is the first report demonstrating that G2 checkpoint abrogation represses the inhibitory effect of radiation on antimicrotubule drugs, which may be implicated in cancer combination therapy. Considering that G2 abrogators are under extensive evaluation for cancer treatment, our findings provide valuable information for this class of promising compounds.

  4. ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage and APC/CCdh1-dependent cyclin B1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Yeon; Ahn, Ju-Hyun; Cho, Min-Guk; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2018-04-27

    ATP depletion inhibits cell cycle progression, especially during the G1 phase and the G2 to M transition. However, the effect of ATP depletion on mitotic progression remains unclear. We observed that the reduction of ATP after prometaphase by simultaneous treatment with 2-deoxyglucose and NaN 3 did not arrest mitotic progression. Interestingly, ATP depletion during nocodazole-induced prometaphase arrest resulted in mitotic slippage, as indicated by a reduction in mitotic cells, APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B1, increased cell attachment, and increased nuclear membrane reassembly. Additionally, cells successfully progressed through the cell cycle after mitotic slippage, as indicated by EdU incorporation and time-lapse imaging. Although degradation of cyclin B during normal mitotic progression is primarily regulated by APC/C Cdc20 , we observed an unexpected decrease in Cdc20 prior to degradation of cyclin B during mitotic slippage. This decrease in Cdc20 was followed by a change in the binding partner preference of APC/C from Cdc20 to Cdh1; consequently, APC/C Cdh1 , but not APC/C Cdc20 , facilitated cyclin B degradation following ATP depletion. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that ATP depletion significantly abrogated global translation, including the translation of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Additionally, the half-life of Cdh1 was much longer than that of Cdc20. These data suggest that ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage facilitated by APC/C Cdh1 -dependent cyclin B degradation, which follows a decrease in Cdc20 resulting from reduced global translation and the differences in the half-lives of the Cdc20 and Cdh1 proteins.

  5. Checkpoint blockade in combination with cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-12-16

    Checkpoint blockade, prevention of inhibitory signaling that limits activation or function of tumor antigen-specific T cells responses, is revolutionizing the treatment of many poor prognosis malignancies. Indeed monoclonal antibodies that modulate signaling through the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1 are now clinically available; however, many tumors, demonstrate minimal response suggesting the need for combinations with other therapeutic strategies. Because an inadequate frequency of activated tumor antigen-specific T cells in the tumor environment, the so-called non-inflamed phenotype, is observed in some malignancies, other rationale partners are modalities that lead to enhanced T cell activation (vaccines, cytokines, toll-like receptor agonists, and other anticancer therapies such as chemo-, radio- or targeted therapies that lead to release of antigen from tumors). This review will focus on preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of cancer vaccines with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. Preliminary preclinical data demonstrate enhanced antitumor activity although the results in human studies are less clear. Broader combinations of multiple immune modulators are now under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-02-16

    Feb 16, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora inversions and duplications. Durgadas P Kasbekar. Volume 31 Issue 1 March 2006 pp 3-4 ...

  8. Effect of colchicine on mitotic polyploidization and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajai

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... to diseases and insects and reduction in fertility of flowering plants ..... soaking duration was noticed to cause the treated seeds to give low height .... Addison-. Wesley, London. Stadler J, Phillips RL, Leonard M (1989).Mitotic ...

  9. Mechanical control of mitotic progression in single animal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cattin, Cedric J.; Düggelin, Marcel; Martinez-Martin, David; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J.; Stewart, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of mitotic cell rounding in tissue development and cell proliferation, there remains a paucity of approaches to investigate the mechanical robustness of cell rounding. Here we introduce ion beam-sculpted microcantilevers that enable precise force-feedback-controlled confinement of single cells while characterizing their progression through mitosis. We identify three force regimes according to the cell response: small forces (∼5 nN) that accelerate mitotic progression, i...

  10. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, Paul H; Duell, Jason C

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters

  11. Mcl-1 dynamics influence mitotic slippage and death in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Olivia; Topham, Caroline; Diez, Maria; Taylor, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    Microtubule-binding drugs such as taxol are frontline treatments for a variety of cancers but exactly how they yield patient benefit is unclear. In cell culture, inhibiting microtubule dynamics prevents spindle assembly, leading to mitotic arrest followed by either apoptosis in mitosis or slippage, whereby a cell returns to interphase without dividing. Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (Mcl-1), a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family central to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, is degraded during a prolonged mitotic arrest and may therefore act as a mitotic death timer. Consistently, we show that blocking proteasome-mediated degradation inhibits taxol-induced mitotic apoptosis in a Mcl-1-dependent manner. However, this degradation does not require the activity of either APC/C-Cdc20, FBW7 or MULE, three separate E3 ubiquitin ligases implicated in targeting Mcl-1 for degradation. This therefore challenges the notion that Mcl-1 undergoes regulated degradation during mitosis. We also show that Mcl-1 is continuously synthesized during mitosis and that blocking protein synthesis accelerates taxol induced death-in-mitosis. Modulating Mcl-1 levels also influences slippage; overexpressing Mcl-1 extends the time from mitotic entry to mitotic exit in the presence of taxol, while inhibiting Mcl-1 accelerates it. We suggest that Mcl-1 competes with Cyclin B1 for binding to components of the proteolysis machinery, thereby slowing down the slow degradation of Cyclin B1 responsible for slippage. Thus, modulating Mcl-1 dynamics influences both death-in-mitosis and slippage. However, because mitotic degradation of Mcl-1 appears not to be under the control of an E3 ligase, we suggest that the notion of network crosstalk is used with caution.

  12. Developmental checkpoints and feedback circuits time insect maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim Furbo; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    as external cues, to time production and release of ecdysone. Based on results discussed here, we suggest that developmental progression to adulthood is controlled by checkpoints that regulate the genetic timing program enabling it to adapt to different environmental conditions. These checkpoints utilize...... a number of signaling pathways to modulate ecdysone production in the prothoracic gland. Release of ecdysone activates an autonomous cascade of both feedforward and feedback signals that determine the duration of the ecdysone pulse at each developmental transitions. Conservation of the genetic mechanisms...... that coordinate the juvenile-adult transition suggests that insights from the fruit fly Drosophila will provide a framework for future investigation of developmental timing in metazoans....

  13. The Dynamical Mechanisms of the Cell Cycle Size Checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shi-Fu; Yang Ling; Yan Jie; Liu Zeng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point

  14. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Tuck

    2013-07-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  15. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Chloe; Zhang, Tongli; Potapova, Tamara; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011). Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  16. A Brief History of Research on Mitotic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard McIntosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes in summary form some of the most important research on chromosome segregation, from the discovery and naming of mitosis in the nineteenth century until around 1990. It gives both historical and scientific background for the nine chapters that follow, each of which provides an up-to-date review of a specific aspect of mitotic mechanism. Here, we trace the fruits of each new technology that allowed a deeper understanding of mitosis and its underlying mechanisms. We describe how light microscopy, including phase, polarization, and fluorescence optics, provided descriptive information about mitotic events and also enabled important experimentation on mitotic functions, such as the dynamics of spindle fibers and the forces generated for chromosome movement. We describe studies by electron microscopy, including quantitative work with serial section reconstructions. We review early results from spindle biochemistry and genetics, coupled to molecular biology, as these methods allowed scholars to identify key molecular components of mitotic mechanisms. We also review hypotheses about mitotic mechanisms whose testing led to a deeper understanding of this fundamental biological event. Our goal is to provide modern scientists with an appreciation of the work that has laid the foundations for their current work and interests.

  17. Inhibition of Chk1 by CEP-3891 accelerates mitotic nuclear fragmentation in response to ionizing Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syljuåsen, Randi G; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The human checkpoint kinase Chk1 has been suggested as a target for cancer treatment. Here, we show that a new inhibitor of Chk1 kinase, CEP-3891, efficiently abrogates both the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S and G(2) checkpoints. When the checkpoints were abrogated by CEP-3891, the majority (64...

  18. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program du...

  19. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  20. Disappearance of nucleosome positioning in mitotic chromatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ono, Tetsuya

    2005-04-15

    During mitosis, transcription is silenced and most transcription factors are displaced from their recognition sequences. By in vivo footprinting analysis, we have confirmed and extended previous studies showing loss of transcription factors from an RNA polymerase II promoter (c-FOS) and, for the first time, an RNA polymerase III promoter (U6) in HeLa cells. Because little was known about nucleosomal organization in mitotic chromosomes, we performed footprinting analysis for nucleosomes on these promoters in interphase and mitotic cells. During interphase, each of the promoters had a positioned nucleosome in the region intervening between proximal promoter elements and distal enhancer elements, but the strong nucleosome positioning disappeared during mitosis. Thus, the nucleosomal organization that appears to facilitate transcription in interphase cells may be lost in mitotic cells, and nucleosome positioning during mitosis does not seem to be a major component of the epigenetic mechanisms to mark genes for rapid reactivation after this phase.

  1. Cell cycle checkpoints: reversible when possible, irreversible when needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are reversible in nature, and can prevent progression into the next cell cycle phase if needed. In the case of DNA damage, cells can prevent progression from G1 into S phase, and from G2 into mitosis in the presence of DNA double strand breaks. Following DNA repair, these

  2. Development of cell-cycle checkpoint therapy for solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Cellular proliferation is tightly controlled by several cell-cycle checkpoint proteins. In cancer, the genes encoding these proteins are often disrupted and cause unrestrained cancer growth. The proteins are over-expressed in many malignancies; thus, they are potential targets for anti-cancer therapies. These proteins include cyclin-dependent kinase, checkpoint kinase, WEE1 kinase, aurora kinase and polo-like kinase. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are the most advanced cell-cycle checkpoint therapeutics available. For instance, palbociclib (PD0332991) is a first-in-class, oral, highly selective inhibitor of CDK4/6 and, in combination with letrozole (Phase II; PALOMA-1) or with fulvestrant (Phase III; PALOMA-3), it has significantly prolonged progression-free survival, in patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, in comparison with that observed in patients using letrozole, or fulvestrant alone, respectively. In this review, we provide an overview of the current compounds available for cell-cycle checkpoint protein-directed therapy for solid tumors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Brian J. [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Okada, Hideho, E-mail: okadah@upmc.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  4. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for nonsmall cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Min Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint inhibition with blocking antibodies that target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 pathway [PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1] have demonstrated promise in a variety of malignancies. While ipilimumab has been approved as a CTLA-4 blocking antibody by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma, it is still not approved for lung cancer treatment. In contrast, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, both PD-1 blocking antibodies, have been approved for second-line treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer in 2015 because of their high potency and long-lasting effects in some patient subgroups. Other PD-1 and PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies are also in active development phase. Treatment with such immune checkpoint inhibitors is associated with a unique pattern of immune-related adverse events or side effects. Combination approaches involving CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade or checkpoint inhibitors with chemotherapy or radiotherapy are being investigated to determine whether they may enhance the efficacy of treatment. Despite many challenges ahead, immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has already become a new and important treatment modality for lung cancer in the last decade following the discovery of targeted therapy.

  5. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Brian J.; Pollack, Ian F.; Okada, Hideho

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas

  6. A checkpoint compression study for high-performance computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibtesham, Dewan [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Ferreira, Kurt B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable System Software Dept.; Arnold, Dorian [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    2015-02-17

    As high-performance computing systems continue to increase in size and complexity, higher failure rates and increased overheads for checkpoint/restart (CR) protocols have raised concerns about the practical viability of CR protocols for future systems. Previously, compression has proven to be a viable approach for reducing checkpoint data volumes and, thereby, reducing CR protocol overhead leading to improved application performance. In this article, we further explore compression-based CR optimization by exploring its baseline performance and scaling properties, evaluating whether improved compression algorithms might lead to even better application performance and comparing checkpoint compression against and alongside other software- and hardware-based optimizations. Our results highlights are: (1) compression is a very viable CR optimization; (2) generic, text-based compression algorithms appear to perform near optimally for checkpoint data compression and faster compression algorithms will not lead to better application performance; (3) compression-based optimizations fare well against and alongside other software-based optimizations; and (4) while hardware-based optimizations outperform software-based ones, they are not as cost effective.

  7. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  8. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  9. Checkpointing for graceful degradation in distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sababha, Belal Hussein

    Graceful degradation is an approach to developing dependable safety-critical embedded applications, where redundant active or standby resources are used to cope with faults through a system reconfiguration at run-time. Compared to traditional hardware and software redundancy, it is a promising technique that may achieve dependability with a significant reduction in cost, size, weight, and power requirements. Reconfiguration at run-time necessitates using proper checkpointing protocols to support state reservation to ensure correct task restarts after a system reconfiguration. One of the most common checkpointing protocols are communication induced checkpointing (CIC) protocols, which are well developed and understood for large parallel and information systems, but not much has been done for resource limited embedded systems. This work implements and evaluates some of the most common CIC protocols in a periodic resource constrained distributed embedded system for graceful degradation purposes. A test-bed has been developed and used for the evaluation of the various protocols. The implemented protocols are thoroughly studied and performances are contrasted. Specifically the periodicity property and how it benefits checkpointing in embedded systems is investigated. This work introduces a unique effort of CIC protocol implementation and evaluation in the field of distributed embedded systems. Other than providing a test-bed for graceful degradation support, this work shows that some checkpointing protocols that are not efficient in large information systems and supercomputers perform well in embedded systems. We show that a simple index-based CIC protocol, such as the BCS protocol, is more appropriate in embedded system applications compared to other protocols that piggyback a significant amount of information to reduce the number of forced checkpoints. Finally, this work proposes a whole graceful degradation approach to achieve fault tolerance in resource constrained

  10. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University; Smilenov, Lubomir B. [Columbia University; Young, Erik F. [Columbia University

    2013-10-01

    system, the engagement of the G2/M checkpoint only occurs at doses where most of the cells are bound for mitotic catastrophe. Further, compound haploinsufficiency of various radiosensitizing genes does not impact the threshold of activation. The experiments confirm a threshold of activation for the G2/M checkpoint, hinting at two separate radiation response programs acting below and above this threshold. Small RNA transfer in bystander effect biology: Small regulatory RNA molecules have now risen in prominence and utility. Specific examples are small interfering RNAs (siRNA) which are employed in cell level expression ablation projects and micro-RNAs (miRNA) which are a pool of short transcription products which serve to modulate the expression of other transcripts emerging from the genome in a meta-regulatory fine tuning of gene expression. The existing tenets of bystander effect radiation biology involve the communication of inflammatory mediators or direct intercellular communication of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in cell-to-cell communicative organelles called gap junctions. By ablating gap junctions, reducing the ROS/inflammatory cytokine expression one can attenuate bystander effect signaling in cell culture systems. We hypothesized that miRNAs are a competent intercellular communication molecule and therefore a possible component of the bystander response. This view is supported by the observation that miRNA are secreted from cells in exosomes found in the circulation. This circulating pool reports disease type and severity in humans. We proposed use of microbeam irradiation technology at our facilities and enhancement of this capability with a new sorting technology which would allow us to sort irradiated and non-irradiated cells with absolute fidelity. Pursuing direct quantitative transfer assessment, we succeeded in designing and constructing a new add-on sorting appliance which harmonized with our existing instruments. The sorter allowed us to gently sort

  11. How oocytes try to get it right: spindle checkpoint control in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sandra A; Wassmann, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The generation of a viable, diploid organism depends on the formation of haploid gametes, oocytes, and spermatocytes, with the correct number of chromosomes. Halving the genome requires the execution of two consecutive specialized cell divisions named meiosis I and II. Unfortunately, and in contrast to male meiosis, chromosome segregation in oocytes is error prone, with human oocytes being extraordinarily "meiotically challenged". Aneuploid oocytes, that are with the wrong number of chromosomes, give rise to aneuploid embryos when fertilized. In humans, most aneuploidies are lethal and result in spontaneous abortions. However, some trisomies survive to birth or even adulthood, such as the well-known trisomy 21, which gives rise to Down syndrome (Nagaoka et al. in Nat Rev Genet 13:493-504, 2012). A staggering 20-25 % of oocytes ready to be fertilized are aneuploid in humans. If this were not bad enough, there is an additional increase in meiotic missegregations as women get closer to menopause. A woman above 40 has a risk of more than 30 % of getting pregnant with a trisomic child. Worse still, in industrialized western societies, child birth is delayed, with women getting their first child later in life than ever. This trend has led to an increase of trisomic pregnancies by 70 % in the last 30 years (Nagaoka et al. in Nat Rev Genet 13:493-504, 2012; Schmidt et al. in Hum Reprod Update 18:29-43, 2012). To understand why errors occur so frequently during the meiotic divisions in oocytes, we review here the molecular mechanisms at works to control chromosome segregation during meiosis. An important mitotic control mechanism, namely the spindle assembly checkpoint or SAC, has been adapted to the special requirements of the meiotic divisions, and this review will focus on our current knowledge of SAC control in mammalian oocytes. Knowledge on how chromosome segregation is controlled in mammalian oocytes may help to identify risk factors important for questions

  12. Checkpoint inhibitors in endometrial cancer: preclinical rationale and clinical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Aglietta, Massimo; Genta, Sofia; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2017-10-27

    Treatment of advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer (EC) is still an unmet need for oncologists and gynecologic oncologists. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) recently provided a new genomic classification, dividing EC in four subgroups. Two types of EC, the polymerase epsilon (POLE)-ultra-mutated and the microsatellite instability-hyper-mutated (MSI-H), are characterized by a high mutation rate providing the rationale for a potential activity of checkpoint inhibitors. We analyzed all available evidence supporting the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) in EC development and the therapeutic implications offered by immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting. We performed a review on Pubmed with Mesh keywords 'endometrial cancer' and the name of each checkpoint inhibitor discussed in the article. The same search was operated on clinicaltrial.gov to identify ongoing clinical trials exploring PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 axis in EC, particularly focusing on POLE-ultra-muted and MSI-H cancer types. POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs showed an active TME expressing high number of neo-antigens and an elevated amount of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Preliminary results from a phase-1 clinical trial (KEYNOTE-028) demonstrated antitumor activity of Pembrolizumab in EC. Moreover, both Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab reported durable clinical responses in POLE-ultra-mutated patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an attractive option in POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs. Future investigations in these subgroups include combinations of checkpoints inhibitors with chemotherapy and small tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to enhance a more robust intra-tumoral immune response.

  13. Evidence for a transketolase-mediated metabolic checkpoint governing biotrophic growth in rice cells by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae threatens global food security through the widespread destruction of cultivated rice. Foliar infection requires a specialized cell called an appressorium that generates turgor to force a thin penetration hypha through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells, where the fungus grows for the first days of infection as a symptomless biotroph. Understanding what controls biotrophic growth could open new avenues for developing sustainable blast intervention programs. Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1 is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating--via ATP and TOR signaling--an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M

  14. Identification of Pathways Required for the Coordination of Late Mitotic Events in Animal Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Bridget L; Harper, J. W

    2005-01-01

    ... in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. In yeast, a signaling pathway has been identified, called the Mitotic Exit Network, which coordinates mitotic exit and cytokinesis with the end of anaphase...

  15. Identification of Pathways Required for the Coordination of Late Mitotic Events in Animal Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Bridget

    2004-01-01

    ... in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. In yeast, a signaling pathway has been identified, called the Mitotic Exit Network, which coordinates mitotic exit and cytokinesis with the end of anaphase...

  16. Mitotic Stress in Cancer: Tipping the Fine Balance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acer

    of these molecules do not fit into the classical definition of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In some cases, both over-expression and decreased expression of these genes result in mitotic arrest. Moreover, some .... The Clinical Collaborators: Dr. Arunabha Sengupta. Dr. Arun Roy. Dr. Jayanta Chakrabarty, CNCI. Prof.

  17. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  19. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_14 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_14 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_14 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_14 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_14 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Attenuation of G{sub 2} cell cycle checkpoint control in human tumor cells is associated with increased frequencies of unrejoined chromosome breaks but not increased cytotoxicity following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Cowan, J.; Grdina, D.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The contribution of G{sub 2} cell cycle checkpoint control to ionizing radiation responses was examined in ten human tumor cell lines. Most of the delay in cell cycle progression seen in the first cell cycle following radiation exposure was due to blocks in G{sub 2} and there were large cell line-to-cell line variations in the length of the G{sub 2} block. Longer delays were seen in cell lines that had mutations in p53. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between the length of G{sub 2} delay and the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks seen as chromosome terminal deletions in mitosis, and observation that supports the hypothesis that the signal for G{sub 2} delay in mammalian cells is an unrejoined chromosome break. There were also an inverse correlation between the length of G{sub 2} delay and the level of chromosome aneuploidy in each cell line, suggesting that the G{sub 2} and mitotic spindel checkpoints may be linked to each other. Attenuation in G{sub 2} checkpoint control was not associated with alterations in either the frequency of induced chromosome rearrangements or cell survival following radiation exposure suggesting that chromosome rearrangements, the major radiation-induced lethal lesion in tumor cells, form before cells enters G{sub 2}. Thus, agents that act solely to override G{sub 2} arrest should produce little radiosensitization in human tumor cells.

  13. Covering Resilience: A Recent Development for Binomial Checkpointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-09-12

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, required, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algorithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We describe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding implementation and discuss first numerical results.

  14. Implementing forward recovery using checkpointing in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a forward recovery scheme using checkpoints and replicated tasks. The implementation is based on the concept of lookahead execution and rollback validation. In the experiment, two tasks are selected for the normal execution and one for rollback validation. It is shown that the recovery strategy has nearly error-free execution time and an average redundancy lower than TMR.

  15. Analysis of Drug Development Paradigms for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Denis L; de Melo Gagliato, Débora; Giles, Francis J; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2018-04-15

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared with cytotoxic and gene-targeted anticancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the FDA website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared with that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents. As of June 2017, the FDA approved six checkpoint inhibitors for a variety of cancer types. All checkpoint inhibitors received a priority review status and access to at least two additional FDA special access programs, more often breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval. Median clinical development time (investigational new drug application to approval) was 60.77 months [avelumab had the shortest timeline (52.33 months)]. Response rates during early phase I trials (median = 16%) are higher than for phase I trials of other agents (with the exception of gene-targeted agents tested with a biomarker). Doses approved were usually not identical to doses recommended on phase I trials. Approximately 50% of types of immune-related and 43% of types of clinically relevant toxicities from later trials were identified in early-phase trials. Even so, treatment-related mortality remains exceedingly low in later studies (0.33% of patients). In conclusion, efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be reasonably predicted from the dose-finding portion of phase I trials, indicating that the fast-track development of these agents is safe and justified. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1785-94. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Spindle assembly checkpoint acquisition at the mid-blastula transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maomao Zhang

    Full Text Available The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC maintains the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. Nonpathogenic cells lacking the SAC are typically only found in cleavage stage metazoan embryos, which do not acquire functional checkpoints until the mid-blastula transition (MBT. It is unclear how proper SAC function is acquired at the MBT, though several models exist. First, SAC acquisition could rely on transcriptional activity, which increases dramatically at the MBT. Embryogenesis prior to the MBT relies primarily on maternally loaded transcripts, and if SAC signaling components are not maternally supplied, the SAC would depend on zygotic transcription at the MBT. Second, checkpoint acquisition could depend on the Chk1 kinase, which is activated at the MBT to elongate cell cycles and is required for the SAC in somatic cells. Third, SAC function could depend on a threshold nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C ratio, which increases during pre-MBT cleavage cycles and dictates several MBT events like zygotic transcription and cell cycle remodeling. Finally, the SAC could by regulated by a timer mechanism that coincides with other MBT events but is independent of them. Using zebrafish embryos we show that SAC acquisition at the MBT is independent of zygotic transcription, indicating that the checkpoint program is maternally supplied. Additionally, by precociously lengthening cleavage cycles with exogenous Chk1 activity, we show that cell cycle lengthening and Chk1 activity are not sufficient for SAC acquisition. Furthermore, we find that SAC acquisition can be uncoupled from the N:C ratio. Together, our findings indicate that SAC acquisition is regulated by a maternally programmed developmental timer.

  17. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Is Not Essential for Viability of Human Cells with Genetically Lowered APC/C Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Narita, Takeo; Schou, Julie; Nilsson, Jakob; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2016-03-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which inhibits the APC/C, are essential determinants of mitotic timing and faithful division of genetic material. Activation of the APC/C is known to depend on two APC/C-interacting E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes-UBE2C and UBE2S. We show that APC/C activity in human cells is tuned by the combinatorial use of three E2s, namely UBE2C, UBE2S, and UBE2D. Genetic deletion of UBE2C and UBE2S, individually or in combination, leads to discriminative reduction in APC/C function and sensitizes cells to UBE2D depletion. Reduction of APC/C activity results in loss of switch-like metaphase-to-anaphase transition and, strikingly, renders cells insensitive to chemical inhibition of MPS1 and genetic ablation of MAD2, both of which are essential for the SAC. These results provide insights into the regulation of APC/C activity and demonstrate that the essentiality of the SAC is imposed by the strength of the APC/C. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Is Not Essential for Viability of Human Cells with Genetically Lowered APC/C Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Narita, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which inhibits the APC/C, are essential determinants of mitotic timing and faithful division of genetic material. Activation of the APC/C is known to depend on two APC/C-interacting E2 ubiquitin......-conjugating enzymes-UBE2C and UBE2S. We show that APC/C activity in human cells is tuned by the combinatorial use of three E2s, namely UBE2C, UBE2S, and UBE2D. Genetic deletion of UBE2C and UBE2S, individually or in combination, leads to discriminative reduction in APC/C function and sensitizes cells to UBE2D...... depletion. Reduction of APC/C activity results in loss of switch-like metaphase-to-anaphase transition and, strikingly, renders cells insensitive to chemical inhibition of MPS1 and genetic ablation of MAD2, both of which are essential for the SAC. These results provide insights into the regulation of APC...

  19. The final checkpoint. Cancer as an adaptive evolutionary mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumena Petkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for identification of DNA damage and repair usually manage DNA damage very efficiently. If damaged cells manage to bypass the checkpoints where the integrity of the genome is assessed and the decisions whether to proceed with the cell cycle are made, they may evade the imperative to stop dividing and to die. As a result, cancer may develop. Warding off the potential sequence-altering effects of DNA damage during the life of the individual or the existence span of the species is controlled by a set of larger checkpoints acting on a progressively increasing scale, from systematic removal of damaged cells from the proliferative pool by means of repair of DNA damage/programmed cell death through ageing to, finally, cancer. They serve different purposes and act at different levels of the life cycle, safeguarding the integrity of the genetic backup of the individual, the genetic diversity of the population, and, finally, the survival of the species and of life on Earth. In the light of the theory that cancer is the final checkpoint or the nature's manner to prevent complex organisms from living forever at the expense of genetic stagnation, the eventual failure of modern anti-cancer treatments is only to be expected. Nevertheless, the medicine of today and the near future has enough potential to slow down the progression to terminal cancer so that the life expectancy and the quality of life of cancer-affected individuals may be comparable to those of healthy aged individuals.

  20. Single-walled carbon nanotube-induced mitotic disruption⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, L.M.; Hubbs, A.F.; Young, S.-H.; Kashon, M.L.; Dinu, C.Z.; Salisbury, J.L.; Benkovic, S.A.; Lowry, D.T.; Murray, A.R.; Kisin, E.R.; Siegrist, K.J.; Battelli, L.; Mastovich, J.; Sturgeon, J.L.; Bunker, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were among the earliest products of nanotechnology and have many potential applications in medicine, electronics, and manufacturing. The low density, small size, and biological persistence of carbon nanotubes create challenges for exposure control and monitoring and make respiratory exposures to workers likely. We have previously shown mitotic spindle aberrations in cultured primary and immortalized human airway epithelial cells exposed to 24, 48 and 96 μg/cm2 single-walled c...

  1. Sobriety checkpoints in Thailand: a review of effectiveness and developments over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsuwan, Vallop; Veerman, J Lennert; Bertram, Melanie; Vos, Theo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the legal basis for and implementation of sobriety checkpoints in Thailand and identifies factors that influenced their historical development and effectiveness. The first alcohol and traffic injury control law in Thailand was implemented in 1934. The 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration limit was set in 1994. Currently, 3 types of sobriety checkpoints are used: general police checkpoints, selective breath testing, and special event sobriety checkpoints. The authors found few reports on the strategies, frequencies, and outcomes for any of these types of checkpoints, despite Thailand having devoted many resources to their implementation. In Thailand and other low-middle income countries, it is necessary to address the country-specific barriers to successful enforcement (including political and logistical issues, lack of equipment, and absence of other supportive alcohol harm reduction measures) before sobriety checkpoints can be expected to be as effective as reported in high-income countries. © 2011 APJPH.

  2. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  3. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V.; Hazen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells

  4. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hazen, M.J. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mariajose.hazen@uam.es

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells.

  5. Mitotic Figure Recognition: Agreement among Pathologists and Computerized Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Malon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prognostic importance of mitotic count as one of the components of the Bloom – Richardson grade [3], several studies ([2, 9, 10] have found that pathologists’ agreement on the mitotic grade is fairly modest. Collecting a set of more than 4,200 candidate mitotic figures, we evaluate pathologists' agreement on individual figures, and train a computerized system for mitosis detection, comparing its performance to the classifications of three pathologists. The system’s and the pathologists’ classifications are based on evaluation of digital micrographs of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. On figures where the majority of pathologists agree on a classification, we compare the performance of the trained system to that of the individual pathologists. We find that the level of agreement of the pathologists ranges from slight to moderate, with strong biases, and that the system performs competitively in rating the ground truth set. This study is a step towards automatic mitosis count to accelerate a pathologist's work and improve reproducibility.

  6. The spindle assembly checkpoint: More than just keeping track of the spindle.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, KS; Engebrecht, J

    2015-01-01

    Genome stability is essential for cell proliferation and survival. Consequently, genome integrity is monitored by two major checkpoints, the DNA damage response (DDR) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The DDR monitors DNA lesions in G1, S, and G2 stages of the cell cycle and the SAC ensures proper chromosome segregation in M phase. There have been extensive studies characterizing the roles of these checkpoints in response to the processes for which they are named; however, emerging e...

  7. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G(1)/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G(1)/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G(1)/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes.

  8. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.

  9. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G1/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:18662996

  10. Physical Limits on the Precision of Mitotic Spindle Positioning by Microtubule Pushing forces: Mechanics of mitotic spindle positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon; Garzon-Coral, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Tissues are shaped and patterned by mechanical and chemical processes. A key mechanical process is the positioning of the mitotic spindle, which determines the size and location of the daughter cells within the tissue. Recent force and position-fluctuation measurements indicate that pushing forces, mediated by the polymerization of astral microtubules against- the cell cortex, maintain the mitotic spindle at the cell center in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The magnitude of the centering forces suggests that the physical limit on the accuracy and precision of this centering mechanism is determined by the number of pushing microtubules rather than by thermally driven fluctuations. In cells that divide asymmetrically, anti-centering, pulling forces generated by cortically located dyneins, in conjunction with microtubule depolymerization, oppose the pushing forces to drive spindle displacements away from the center. Thus, a balance of centering pushing forces and anti-centering pulling forces localize the mitotic spindles within dividing C. elegans cells. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Xanthium strumarium extract inhibits mammalian cell proliferation through mitotic spindle disruption mediated by xanthatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Piloto-Ferrer, Janet; Fiore, Mario; Stano, Pasquale; Cozzi, Renata; Tofani, Daniela; Cundari, Enrico; Francisco, Marbelis; Romero, Aylema; González, Maria L; Degrassi, Francesca

    2016-12-24

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family popularly used with multiple therapeutic purposes. Whole extracts of this plant have shown anti-mitotic activity in vitro suggesting that some components could induce mitotic arrest in proliferating cells. Aim of the present work was to characterize the anti-mitotic properties of the X. strumarium whole extract and to isolate and purify active molecule(s). The capacity of the whole extract to inhibit mitotic progression in mammalian cultured cells was investigated to identify its anti-mitotic activity. Isolation of active component(s) was performed using a bioassay-guided multistep separation procedure in which whole extract was submitted to a progressive process of fractionation and fractions were challenged for their anti-mitotic activity. Our results show for the first time that X. strumarium whole extract inhibits assembly of the mitotic spindle and spindle-pole separation, thereby heavily affecting mitosis, impairing the metaphase to anaphase transition and inducing apoptosis. The purification procedure led to a fraction with an anti-mitotic activity comparable to that of the whole extract. Chemical analysis of this fraction showed that its major component was xanthatin. The present work shows a new activity of X. strumarium extract, i.e. the alteration of the mitotic apparatus in cultured cells that may be responsible for the anti-proliferative activity of the extract. Anti-mitotic activity is shown to be mainly exerted by xanthatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of responses to immune checkpoint blockade in advanced melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquelot, N; Roberti, M P; Enot, D P

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have become pivotal therapies in the clinical armamentarium against metastatic melanoma (MMel). Given the frequency of immune related adverse events and increasing use of ICB, predictors of response to CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blockade represent unmet clinical needs....... Using a systems biology-based approach to an assessment of 779 paired blood and tumor markers in 37 stage III MMel patients, we analyzed association between blood immune parameters and the functional immune reactivity of tumor-infiltrating cells after ex vivo exposure to ICB. Based on this assay, we...

  13. Central Tolerance Blockade to Augment Checkpoint Immunotherapy in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    expressed at higher levels in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) than in cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs), addition of anti-RANKL antibody...relative Aire expression by quantitative RT-PCR in cultured thymic tissue . 12-15 90% Subtask 3. Culture human thymus sections with OPG-Fc or vehicle...PCR in cultured thymic tissue . 15-18 90% ACURO approval 13-14 100% Major Task 1. Effect of concurrent anti-RANKL and checkpoint inhibitor

  14. Sequential phosphorylation of GRASP65 during mitotic Golgi disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danming Tang

    2012-09-01

    GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.

  15. Mitotic delay of irradiated cells and its connection with quantity of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Fominykh, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    The study is dedicated to development of mathematical approach to interpret radiation-induced mitosic delay. An assumption is made that mitotic delay is conditioned by discrete injuries distributed in cells according to stochasticity of interaction of radiation and target substance. It is supposed to consider the problem on injuries nature causing mitotic delay and to use the developed method for accounting the effect of radiation-induced mitotic delay on registered chromosomal aberration yield. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth are discussed in connection with the results of studies in Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum. The action of temperature seems to be of major importance. As many authors suggest that various chemical agents and slight intoxications also affect mitosis in a way similar to that induced by ionizing radiation, the radiation induced stimulation has lost its specific character and approaches might be found for further investigations of this phenomenon. (MG) [de

  17. Conformation-specific anti-Mad2 monoclonal antibodies for the dissection of checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Lischetti, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis by delaying the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores. The Mad2 protein is essential for a functional checkpoint because it binds directly t...

  18. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  19. The Roles of Fission Yeast Ase1 in Mitotic Cell Division, Meiotic Nuclear Oscillation, and Cytokinesis Checkpoint SignalingD⃞V⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Akira; Sato, Masamitsu; Fujita, Akiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Ase1/Prc1 proteins constitute a conserved microtubule-associated protein family that is implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis. Here we characterize a role for fission yeast Ase1. Ase1 localizes to microtubule overlapping zones and displays dynamic alterations of localization during the cell cycle. In particular, its spindle localization during metaphase is reduced substantially, followed by robust appearance at the spindle midzone in anaphase. ase1 deletions are viable b...

  20. Detection of mitotic figures in thin melanomas--immunohistochemistry does not replace the careful search for mitotic figures in hematoxylin-eosin stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Karl; Tronnier, Michael; Mitteldorf, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The mitotic rate is an important prognostic criterion in patients with thin melanoma ≤ 1 mm. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of the mitotic rate in thin melanoma in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stain and compare it with the detection of mitotic figures by immunohistochemistry. The number of mitoses stated in the routine diagnostic report in 190 pT1 melanomas was compared with the number gained from re-evaluation of H&E sections and the number detected after staining with the mitotic marker, phosphohistone H3 (PHH3). Two different approaches were used for choosing the "hot spot" for evaluation (dermal vs epidermal/dermal). Comparing routine H&E-stained slides with re-evaluation slides, the number of mitotic figures was slightly variable. However, findings did not result in a change of the tumor stage. In 34% of the tumors with dermal mitotic figures on H&E, mitoses could not be found in the corresponding PHH3 slide anymore. In 4% of the cases, stage relevant mitoses could only be found by PHH3 immunohistochemistry. This is a single center study. Immunohistochemical staining for mitotic figures does not replace a careful evaluation of H&E-stained slides. Immunohistochemical detection of mitosis is only an additional tool; the time-saving effect is therefore negligible. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rituximab does not reset defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Cantaert, Tineke; Herold, Kevan C.; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show abnormalities in early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in the accumulation of large numbers of autoreactive B cells in their blood. Treatment with rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb that depletes B cells, has been shown to preserve β cell function in T1D patients and improve other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it remains largely unknown how anti–B cell therapy thwarts autoimmunity in these pathologies. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of Abs expressed by single, mature naive B cells from 4 patients with T1D before and 52 weeks after treatment to determine whether rituximab resets early B cell tolerance checkpoints. We found that anti–B cell therapy did not alter the frequencies of autoreactive and polyreactive B cells, which remained elevated in the blood of all patients after rituximab treatment. Moreover, the limited proliferative history of autoreactive B cells after treatment revealed that these clones were newly generated B cells and not self-reactive B cells that had escaped depletion and repopulated the periphery through homeostatic expansion. We conclude that anti–B cell therapy may provide a temporary dampening of autoimmune processes through B cell depletion. However, repletion with autoreactive B cells may explain the relapse that occurs in many autoimmune patients after anti–B cell therapy. PMID:26642366

  2. Immunotherapy targeting immune check-point(s) in brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Valente, Monica; Covre, Alessia; Danielli, Riccardo; Maio, Michele

    2017-08-01

    Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed to different immune check-point(s) is showing a significant clinical impact in a growing number of human tumors of different histotype, both in terms of disease response and long-term survival patients. In this rapidly changing scenario, treatment of brain metastases remains an high unmeet medical need, and the efficacy of immunotherapy in these highly dismal clinical setting remains to be largely demonstrated. Nevertheless, up-coming observations are beginning to suggest a clinical potential of cancer immunotherapy also in brain metastases, regardless the underlying tumor histotype. These observations remain to be validated in larger clinical trials eventually designed also to address the efficacy of therapeutic mAb to immune check-point(s) within multimodality therapies for brain metastases. Noteworthy, the initial proofs of efficacy on immunotherapy in central nervous system metastases are already fostering clinical trials investigating its therapeutic potential also in primary brain tumors. We here review ongoing immunotherapeutic approaches to brain metastases and primary brain tumors, and the foreseeable strategies to overcome their main biologic hurdles and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Avelumab: combining immune checkpoint inhibition and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibition holds great promise for selected tumors. The human monoclonal antibody (mAB) avelumab is directed to programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and is supposed to inhibit the immunosuppressive PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and, furthermore, effect antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) lysis of tumor cells. Areas covered: This article presents an overview of the current means to activate the antitumor immune defense by targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 with mABs and their possible role in ADCC-mediated tumor cell elimination. Expert opinion: Avelumab contains a Fc region which can bind cognate receptors on immune effector cells and induce ADCC-mediated tumor cell lysis, in contrast to other mABs directed to PD-1/PD-L1 which lack the ability to trigger ADCC due to belonging to the IgG4 subclass or possessing a mutated Fc region. Preclinical and clinical data indicate that avelumab can be safely administered to cancer patients with a toxicity profile comparable to other mABs and without lysis of PD-L1-positive activated immune cells. This antibody yielded durable responses in a phase II trial in advanced Merkel cell carcinoma patients. Tumor cell lysis by avelumab prevents cells from resorting to alternative checkpoints as shown by targeting PD-1 and the upregulation of TIM-3.

  4. A molecular mechanism of mitotic centrosome assembly in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduit, Paul T; Richens, Jennifer H; Wainman, Alan; Holder, James; Vicente, Catarina C; Pratt, Metta B; Dix, Carly I; Novak, Zsofia A; Dobbie, Ian M; Schermelleh, Lothar; Raff, Jordan W

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM). The PCM expands dramatically as cells enter mitosis, but it is unclear how this occurs. In this study, we show that the centriole protein Asl initiates the recruitment of DSpd-2 and Cnn to mother centrioles; both proteins then assemble into co-dependent scaffold-like structures that spread outwards from the mother centriole and recruit most, if not all, other PCM components. In the absence of either DSpd-2 or Cnn, mitotic PCM assembly is diminished; in the absence of both proteins, it appears to be abolished. We show that DSpd-2 helps incorporate Cnn into the PCM and that Cnn then helps maintain DSpd-2 within the PCM, creating a positive feedback loop that promotes robust PCM expansion around the mother centriole during mitosis. These observations suggest a surprisingly simple mechanism of mitotic PCM assembly in flies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03399.001 PMID:25149451

  5. Parameters of mitotic recombination in minute mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrus, A.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 16 Minutes, representing 12 loci distributed over all the chromosome arms and including 3 pairs of alleles and 4 deficiencies, has been studied with respect to several developmental and recombinational parameters. Cell marker mutants located in most of the chromosome arms were used to assess (1) spontaneous and x-ray-induced mitotic recombination frequencies of each Minute, and (2) clone sizes of the different cell marker clones. These parameters were analyzed both in the wing disc and in the abdominal histoblasts. Whereas spontaneous frequencies are not affected by the presence of the Minutes studied, the different Minutes characteristically increase the frequency of recombination clones arising after x irradiation. The recombinant clones which are M + /M + are significantly larger than clones in the same fly which retain the M + /M condition. This is particularly striking in clones in the wing disc, slightly so in clones in the tergites. The occurrence of mitotic recombination in the fourth chromosome is reported for the first time. Chaeta length and developmental delay correlates with the recombinational parameters in different ways. Possible causal interrelationships of the different traits of the Minute syndrome are discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Inhibition of mitotic-specific histone phophorylation by sodium arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Synchronized cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) were used to measure the effects of 10{mu}M sodium arsenite on histone phosphorylation. This treatment caused cell proliferation to be temporarily arrested, after which the cells spontaneously resumed cell proliferation in a radiomimetric manner. Immediately following treatment, it was found that sodium arsenite affected only mitotic-specific HI and H3 phosphorylations. Neither interphase, nor mitotic, H2A and H4 phosphorylations were affected, nor was interphase HI Phosphorylation affected. The phosphorylation of HI was inhibited only in mitosis, reducing HI phosphorylation to 38.1% of control levels, which was the level of interphase HI phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of both H3 variants was inhibited in mitosis, the less hydrophobic H3 to 19% and the more hydrophobic H3 to 24% of control levels. These results suggest that sodium arsenite may inhibite cell proliferation by interfering with the cyclin B/p34{sup cdc2} histone kinase activity which is thought to play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. It has been proposed by our laboratory that HI and H3 phosphorylations play a role in restructuring interphase chromatin into metaphase chromosomes. Interference of this process by sodium arsenite may lead to structurally damaged chromosomes resulting in the increased cancer risks known to be produced by arsenic exposure from the environment.

  7. Down-regulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle genes blocks progression through the first mitotic division in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad M; Rosu, Simona; Joseph-Strauss, Daphna; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2014-02-18

    The cell cycle is a highly regulated process that enables the accurate transmission of chromosomes to daughter cells. Here we uncover a previously unknown link between the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cell cycle progression in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo. We found that down-regulation of TCA cycle components, including citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and aconitase, resulted in a one-cell stage arrest before entry into mitosis: pronuclear meeting occurred normally, but nuclear envelope breakdown, centrosome separation, and chromosome condensation did not take place. Mitotic entry is controlled by the cyclin B-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) complex, and the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 must be removed in order for the complex to be active. We found that following down-regulation of the TCA cycle, cyclin B levels were normal but CDK-1 remained inhibitory-phosphorylated in one-cell stage-arrested embryos, indicative of a G2-like arrest. Moreover, this was not due to an indirect effect caused by checkpoint activation by DNA damage or replication defects. These observations suggest that CDK-1 activation in the C. elegans one-cell embryo is sensitive to the metabolic state of the cell, and that down-regulation of the TCA cycle prevents the removal of CDK-1 inhibitory phosphorylation. The TCA cycle was previously shown to be necessary for the development of the early embryo in mammals, but the molecular processes affected were not known. Our study demonstrates a link between the TCA cycle and a specific cell cycle transition in the one-cell stage embryo.

  8. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay evolves into a 'cytome' assay of chromosomal instability, mitotic dysfunction and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was originally developed as an ideal system for measuring micronuclei (MNi) however it can also be used to measure nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear buds (NBUDs), cell death (necrosis or apoptosis) and nuclear division rate. Current evidence suggests that (a) NPBs originate from dicentric chromosomes in which the centromeres have been pulled to the opposite poles of the cell at anaphase and are therefore indicative of DNA mis-repair, chromosome rearrangement or telomere end-fusions, (b) NPBs may break to form MNi, (c) the nuclear budding process is the mechanism by which cells remove amplified and/or excess DNA and is therefore a marker of gene amplification and/or altered gene dosage, (d) cell cycle checkpoint defects result in micronucleus formation and (e) hypomethylation of DNA, induced nutritionally or by inhibition of DNA methyl transferase can lead to micronucleus formation either via chromosome loss or chromosome breakage. The strong correlation between micronucleus formation, nuclear budding and NPBs (r = 0.75-0.77, P < 0.001) induced by either folic acid deficiency or exposure to ionising radiation is supportive of the hypothesis that folic acid deficiency and/or ionising radiation cause genomic instability and gene amplification by the initiation of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. In its comprehensive mode, the CBMN assay measures all cells including necrotic and apoptotic cells as well as number of nuclei per cell to provide a measure of cytotoxicity and mitotic activity. The CBMN assay has in fact evolved into a 'cytome' method for measuring comprehensively chromosomal instability phenotype and altered cellular viability caused by genetic defects and/or nutrional deficiencies and/or exogenous genotoxins thus opening up an exciting future for the use of this methodology in the emerging fields of nutrigenomics and toxicogenomics and their combinations

  9. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Damian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have benefited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and

  10. When the genome plays dice: circumvention of the spindle assembly checkpoint and near-random chromosome segregation in multipolar cancer cell mitoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisselsson, David; Håkanson, Ulf; Stoller, Patrick; Marti, Dominik; Jin, Yuesheng; Rosengren, Anders H; Stewénius, Ylva; Kahl, Fredrik; Panagopoulos, Ioannis

    2008-04-02

    Normal cell division is coordinated by a bipolar mitotic spindle, ensuring symmetrical segregation of chromosomes. Cancer cells, however, occasionally divide into three or more directions. Such multipolar mitoses have been proposed to generate genetic diversity and thereby contribute to clonal evolution. However, this notion has been little validated experimentally. Chromosome segregation and DNA content in daughter cells from multipolar mitoses were assessed by multiphoton cross sectioning and fluorescence in situ hybridization in cancer cells and non-neoplastic transformed cells. The DNA distribution resulting from multipolar cell division was found to be highly variable, with frequent nullisomies in the daughter cells. Time-lapse imaging of H2B/GFP-labelled multipolar mitoses revealed that the time from the initiation of metaphase to the beginning of anaphase was prolonged and that the metaphase plates often switched polarity several times before metaphase-anaphase transition. The multipolar metaphase-anaphase transition was accompanied by a normal reduction of cellular cyclin B levels, but typically occurred before completion of the normal separase activity cycle. Centromeric AURKB and MAD2 foci were observed frequently to remain on the centromeres of multipolar ana-telophase chromosomes, indicating that multipolar mitoses were able to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint with some sister chromatids remaining unseparated after anaphase. Accordingly, scoring the distribution of individual chromosomes in multipolar daughter nuclei revealed a high frequency of nondisjunction events, resulting in a near-binomial allotment of sister chromatids to the daughter cells. The capability of multipolar mitoses to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint system typically results in a near-random distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Spindle multipolarity could thus be a highly efficient generator of genetically diverse minority clones in transformed cell

  11. When the genome plays dice: circumvention of the spindle assembly checkpoint and near-random chromosome segregation in multipolar cancer cell mitoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gisselsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal cell division is coordinated by a bipolar mitotic spindle, ensuring symmetrical segregation of chromosomes. Cancer cells, however, occasionally divide into three or more directions. Such multipolar mitoses have been proposed to generate genetic diversity and thereby contribute to clonal evolution. However, this notion has been little validated experimentally. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chromosome segregation and DNA content in daughter cells from multipolar mitoses were assessed by multiphoton cross sectioning and fluorescence in situ hybridization in cancer cells and non-neoplastic transformed cells. The DNA distribution resulting from multipolar cell division was found to be highly variable, with frequent nullisomies in the daughter cells. Time-lapse imaging of H2B/GFP-labelled multipolar mitoses revealed that the time from the initiation of metaphase to the beginning of anaphase was prolonged and that the metaphase plates often switched polarity several times before metaphase-anaphase transition. The multipolar metaphase-anaphase transition was accompanied by a normal reduction of cellular cyclin B levels, but typically occurred before completion of the normal separase activity cycle. Centromeric AURKB and MAD2 foci were observed frequently to remain on the centromeres of multipolar ana-telophase chromosomes, indicating that multipolar mitoses were able to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint with some sister chromatids remaining unseparated after anaphase. Accordingly, scoring the distribution of individual chromosomes in multipolar daughter nuclei revealed a high frequency of nondisjunction events, resulting in a near-binomial allotment of sister chromatids to the daughter cells. CONCLUSION: The capability of multipolar mitoses to circumvent the spindle assembly checkpoint system typically results in a near-random distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Spindle multipolarity could thus be a highly efficient

  12. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  13. CYTOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY NITRATE OF LEAD ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT ALLIUM CEPA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvica Padureanu

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of nitrate of lead upon the mitotic division of Allium cepa L. The treatment with nitrate of lead has determined the lessening of the mitotic index and the chromosomial mutations. Also nitrate of lead determined in little proportion cells autopoliploid. The experiment prowed that nitrate of lead, known as a polluting agent has a mutagenic potential on the plants.

  14. Mitotically Active Leiomyoma of the Uterus in a Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patient Receiving Tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Feng Liu

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Endometrial cancer is rarely noted in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen. Further, none have reported mitotically active leiomyoma of the uterus. From this case, endometrial proliferation and mitotically active leiomyoma of the uterus may be related to tamoxifen therapy, and should not be neglected in breast cancer patients.

  15. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheen Fei Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.

  16. EMODnet MedSea Checkpoint for sustainable Blue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussat, Eric; Pinardi, Nadia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Blanc, Frederique

    2016-04-01

    The EMODNET checkpoint is a wide monitoring system assessment activity aiming to support the sustainable Blue Growth at the scale of the European Sea Basins by: 1) Clarifying the observation landscape of all compartments of the marine environment including Air, Water, Seabed, Biota and Human activities, pointing out to the existing programs, national, European and international 2) Evaluating fitness for use indicators that will show the accessibility and usability of observation and modeling data sets and their roles and synergies based upon selected applications by the European Marine Environment Strategy 3) Prioritizing the needs to optimize the overall monitoring Infrastructure (in situ and satellite data collection and assembling, data management and networking, modeling and forecasting, geo-infrastructure) and release recommendations for evolutions to better meet the application requirements in view of sustainable Blue Growth The assessment is designed for : - Institutional stakeholders for decision making on observation and monitoring systems - Data providers and producers to know how their data collected once for a given purpose could fit other user needs - End-users interested in a regional status and possible uses of existing monitoring data Selected end-user applications are of paramount importance for: (i) the blue economy sector (offshore industries, fisheries); (ii) marine environment variability and change (eutrophication, river inputs and ocean climate change impacts); (iii) emergency management (oil spills); and (iv) preservation of natural resources and biodiversity (Marine Protected Areas). End-user applications generate innovative products based on the existing observation landscape. The fitness for use assessment is made thanks to the comparison of the expected product specifications with the quality of the product derived from the selected data. This involves the development of checkpoint information and indicators based on Data quality and

  17. Acute inflammatory thyromegaly following checkpoint inhibition: A new imaging entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Middlebrooks, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint blockade (CPB utilizing such agents as ipilimumab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab has revolutionized melanoma therapy and has seen continued utilization in numerous other malignancies in recent years. However, these agents come at the price of inflammatory immune-related adverse events. Despite the increasing recognition of biochemical thyroid dysfunction associated with CPB, information regarding potential imaging findings is sparse. We describe the first 2 cases of acute thyroiditis following CPB presenting as diffuse thyromegaly documented by computed tomography, ultrasound, and iodine uptake imaging. Given the rise in the use of CPB, it is important for radiologists to recognize potential imaging manifestations of therapy immune-related adverse events to avoid erroneous diagnosis and to prompt the biochemical investigation of thyroid function.

  18. The CD47-SIRPα signaling axis as an innate immune checkpoint in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlung, Hanke L; Szilagyi, Katka; Barclay, Neil A; van den Berg, Timo K

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting CTLA-4/B7 and the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathways, are now available for clinical use in cancer patients, with other interesting checkpoint inhibitors being currently in development. Most of these have the purpose to promote adaptive T cell-mediated immunity against cancer. Here, we review another checkpoint acting to potentiate the activity of innate immune cells towards cancer. This innate immune checkpoint is composed of what has become known as the 'don't-eat me' signal CD47, which is a protein broadly expressed on normal cells and often overexpressed on cancer cells, and its counter-receptor, the myeloid inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα. Blocking CD47-SIRPα interactions has been shown to promote the destruction of cancer cells by phagocytes, including macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that targeting of the CD47-SIRPα axis may also promote antigen-presenting cell function and thereby stimulate adaptive T cell-mediated anti-cancer immunity. The development of CD47-SIRPα checkpoint inhibitors and the potential side effects that these may have are discussed. Collectively, this identifies the CD47-SIRPα axis as a promising innate immune checkpoint in cancer, and with data of the first clinical studies with CD47-SIRPα checkpoint inhibitors expected within the coming years, this is an exciting and rapidly developing field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maryann R; Alrajhi, Abdullah M; Durand, Cheryl R

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 13% of all lung cancer diagnoses each year. SCLC is characterized by a rapid doubling time, early metastatic spread, and an unfavorable prognosis overall. Most patients with SCLC will respond to initial treatment; however, the majority will experience a disease recurrence and response to second-line therapies is poor. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may be an option given the success in other diseases. A literature search was conducted using Medline (1946-July week 1, 2017) and Embase (1996-2017 week 28) with the search terms small cell lung cancer combined with nivolumab or ipilimumab or pembrolizumab or atezolizumab or tremelimumab or durvalumab. Five clinical trials, including extended follow-up for 2, that evaluated immune checkpoint inhibitors in limited stage or extensive stage SCLC were included. In 2 phase 2 trials, ipilimumab was added to upfront chemotherapy. In both trials, an improvement in progression-free survival was seen. Toxicity, when combined with a platinum and etoposide, was significant. In a confirmatory phase 3 trial, ipilimumab did not prolong overall survival when added to first-line chemotherapy. Overall, response rates were similar between the placebo and ipilimumab groups. A phase 1/2 trial evaluated nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in recurrent SCLC. Results revealed that nivolumab monotherapy and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab were relatively safe and had antitumor activity. Pembrolizumab has been evaluated in a multicohort, phase 1b trial. Preliminary data showed a durable response in the second-line setting. Given the lack of overall survival data and significant toxicity associated with the combination of ipilimumab with first-line chemotherapy, this treatment is not a reasonable option at this time. Nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab is a valid option for recurrent SCLC.

  20. The pachytene checkpoint and its relationship to evolutionary patterns of polyploidization and hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Barringer, B C; Barbash, D A

    2009-01-01

    Sterility is a commonly observed phenotype in interspecific hybrids. Sterility may result from chromosomal or genic incompatibilities, and much progress has been made toward understanding the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in various taxa. The underlying mechanisms causing hybrid sterility, however, are less well known. The pachytene checkpoint is a meiotic surveillance system that many organisms use to detect aberrant meiotic products, in order to prevent the production of defective gametes. We suggest that activation of the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism contributing to two types of hybrid sterility. First, the pachytene checkpoint may form the mechanistic basis of some gene-based hybrid sterility phenotypes. Second, the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism that mediates chromosomal-based hybrid sterility phenotypes involving gametes with non-haploid (either non-reduced or aneuploid) chromosome sets. Studies in several species suggest that the strength of the pachytene checkpoint is sexually dimorphic, observations that warrant future investigation into whether such variation may contribute to differences in patterns of sterility between male and female interspecific hybrids. In addition, plants seem to lack the pachytene checkpoint, which correlates with increased production of unreduced gametes and a higher incidence of polyploid species in plants versus animals. Although the pachytene checkpoint occurs in many animals and in fungi, at least some of the genes that execute the pachytene checkpoint are different among organisms. This finding suggests that the penetrance of the pachytene checkpoint, and even its presence or absence can evolve rapidly. The surprising degree of evolutionary flexibility in this meiotic surveillance system may contribute to the observed variation in patterns of hybrid sterility and in rates of polyploidization.

  1. [Stability in association of the peripheral material with mitotic chromosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosykh, M I; Chentsov, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    The localization of nucleolar proteins (fibrillarin and B-23), and of the protein of interphase nuclear matrix (NMP-65) was studied in the perichromosomal material (CM) after of short hypotonic treatment (15% solution of Henks medium) on cultured pig embryonic kidney cells, followed by restoration of isotonic conditions. It is shown that during hypotonic shock the mitotic chromosomes demonstrate reversible swelling, but their periphery is bounded with a rim of PCM, containing antibodies to fibrillarin and NMP-65, but not to B-23. After returning the cells to the initial isotonic medium, all the three proteins can be detected again on the periphery of chromosomes. It suggests the existence of different stability in the association of free proteins with chromosome bodies. Besides, B-23 and fibrillarin could be visualized in residual nucleoli after a complete extraction of histones and DNA from nuclei.

  2. Aurora A's functions during mitotic exit: the Guess Who game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eReboutier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions during mitosis was limited to pre-metaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. However, an involvement of Aurora A in post-metaphase events was also suspected, but not clearly demonstrated due to the technical difficulty to perform the appropriate experiments. Recent developments of both an analog specific version of Aurora A, and of small molecule inhibitors have led to the first demonstration that Aurora A is required for the early steps of cytokinesis. As in pre-metaphase, Aurora A plays diverse functions during anaphase, essentially participating in astral microtubules dynamics and central spindle assembly and functioning. The present review describes the experimental systems used to decipher new functions of Aurora A during late mitosis and situate these functions into the context of cytokinesis mechanisms.

  3. NEK11: linking CHK1 and CDC25A in DNA damage checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Melixetian, Marina; Klein, Ditte Kjaersgaard

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage induced G(2)/M checkpoint is an important guardian of the genome that prevents cell division when DNA lesions are present. The checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis by degrading CDC25A, a key CDK activator. CDC25A proteolysis is controlled by direct phosphorylation events...... is required for beta-TrCP mediated CDC25A polyubiquitylation and degradation. The activity of NEK11 is in turn controlled by CHK1 that activates NEK11 via phosphorylation on serine 273. Since inhibition of NEK11 activity forces checkpoint-arrested cells into mitosis and cell death, NEK11 is, like CHK1...

  4. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Landon L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580 deletion mutant. Results The san-1(ok1580 animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue, MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue, MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging. Several of the san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2 and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos but not bub-3(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580 and bub-3(RNAi, but not hcp-1(RNAi embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(RNAi and san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(ok1757 animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

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  2. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_7-9 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. An origin-deficient yeast artificial chromosome triggers a cell cycle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brabant, A J; Buchanan, C D; Charboneau, E; Fangman, W L; Brewer, B J

    2001-04-01

    Checkpoint controls coordinate entry into mitosis with the completion of DNA replication. Depletion of nucleotide precursors by treatment with the drug hydroxyurea triggers such a checkpoint response. However, it is not clear whether the signal for this hydroxyurea-induced checkpoint pathway is the presence of unreplicated DNA, or rather the persistence of single-stranded or damaged DNA. In a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) we have engineered an approximately 170 kb region lacking efficient replication origins that allows us to explore the specific effects of unreplicated DNA on cell cycle progression. Replication of this YAC extends the length of S phase and causes cells to engage an S/M checkpoint. In the absence of Rad9 the YAC becomes unstable, undergoing deletions within the origin-free region.

  4. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  5. An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiang; Hu, Baocheng; Guan, Jun; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2002-01-01

    After exposure to genotoxic stress, proliferating cells actively slow down the DNA replication through a S-phase checkpoint to provide time for repair. We report that in addition to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent pathway that controls the fast response, there is an ATM-independent pathway that controls the slow response to regulate the S-phase checkpoint after ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. The slow response of S-phase checkpoint, which is resistant to wortmannin, sensitive to caffeine and UCN-01, and related to cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation, is much stronger in CHK1 overexpressed cells, and it could be abolished by Chk1 antisense oligonucleotides. These results provide evidence that the ATM-independent slow response of S-phase checkpoint involves CHK1 pathway.

  6. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the era of precision medicine: What radiologists should know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Hodi, Frank Stephan Jr; Nishno, Mizuki [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

  7. Implication of the G2 checkpoint in the maintenance of genome integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Munoz, P.

    2000-01-01

    Checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that block transitions, for instance in response to DNA damage. We summarize here here recent progress in the molecular characterization of the G 2 checkpoint which controls the entry into mitosis, and review new evidence which implicates de-regulated expression of checkpoint proteins and proteins involved in DNA damage repair in cancer development. These now exists good evidence that individuals who inherited mutations in genes involved in G 2 checkpoint and DNA damage repair are predisposed to the development of various types of cancer, their cells having a strong tendency to accumulate additional mutations. However, the occurrence of mutations of most of these genes in sporadic tumors has yet to be analysed more accurately. (authors)

  8. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the era of precision medicine: What radiologists should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Hodi, Frank Stephan Jr; Nishno, Mizuki

    2017-01-01

    Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors

  9. Orchestration of DNA Damage Checkpoint Dynamics across the Human Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui Xiao; Poovey, Cere E; Privette, Ashley A; Grant, Gavin D; Chao, Hui Yan; Cook, Jeanette G; Purvis, Jeremy E

    2017-11-22

    Although molecular mechanisms that prompt cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage have been elucidated, the systems-level properties of DNA damage checkpoints are not understood. Here, using time-lapse microscopy and simulations that model the cell cycle as a series of Poisson processes, we characterize DNA damage checkpoints in individual, asynchronously proliferating cells. We demonstrate that, within early G1 and G2, checkpoints are stringent: DNA damage triggers an abrupt, all-or-none cell-cycle arrest. The duration of this arrest correlates with the severity of DNA damage. After the cell passes commitment points within G1 and G2, checkpoint stringency is relaxed. By contrast, all of S phase is comparatively insensitive to DNA damage. This checkpoint is graded: instead of halting the cell cycle, increasing DNA damage leads to slower S phase progression. In sum, we show that a cell's response to DNA damage depends on its exact cell-cycle position and that checkpoints are phase-dependent, stringent or relaxed, and graded or all-or-none. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Ect2 Localization Couple Actomyosin-Dependent Cell Shape Changes to Mitotic Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Helen K.; Delabre, Ulysse; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Guck, Jochen; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2012-01-01

    Summary As they enter mitosis, animal cells undergo profound actin-dependent changes in shape to become round. Here we identify the Cdk1 substrate, Ect2, as a central regulator of mitotic rounding, thus uncovering a link between the cell-cycle machinery that drives mitotic entry and its accompanying actin remodeling. Ect2 is a RhoGEF that plays a well-established role in formation of the actomyosin contractile ring at mitotic exit, through the local activation of RhoA. We find that Ect2 first...

  11. Effect of insulin on the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells after irradiation. [Gamma radiation, rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1976-02-01

    A total of 236 white rats were given a whole-body gamma dose of 750 R. Part of the rats were given a subcutaneous insulin injection of 0.2 units/kg. After 10, 20, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 hours the mitotic index was determined in both groups of rats in the bone marrow of the femur. The content of glucose and insulin in the blood was determined. The mitotic index was found to be higher on administering insulin. The use of insulin in radiation sickness intensifies the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells and stimulates the recovery of bone marrow hematopoiesis. 5 references.

  12. Resistance to checkpoint blockade therapy through inactivation of antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade-Feldman, Moshe; Jiao, Yunxin J; Chen, Jonathan H; Rooney, Michael S; Barzily-Rokni, Michal; Eliane, Jean-Pierre; Bjorgaard, Stacey L; Hammond, Marc R; Vitzthum, Hans; Blackmon, Shauna M; Frederick, Dennie T; Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika; Nadres, Brandon A; Van Seventer, Emily E; Shukla, Sachet A; Yizhak, Keren; Ray, John P; Rosebrock, Daniel; Livitz, Dimitri; Adalsteinsson, Viktor; Getz, Gad; Duncan, Lyn M; Li, Bo; Corcoran, Ryan B; Lawrence, Donald P; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Boland, Genevieve M; Landau, Dan A; Flaherty, Keith T; Sullivan, Ryan J; Hacohen, Nir

    2017-10-26

    Treatment with immune checkpoint blockade (CPB) therapies often leads to prolonged responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, but the common mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to these agents remain incompletely characterized and have yet to be validated in large cohorts. By analyzing longitudinal tumor biopsies from 17 metastatic melanoma patients treated with CPB therapies, we observed point mutations, deletions or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), an essential component of MHC class I antigen presentation, in 29.4% of patients with progressing disease. In two independent cohorts of melanoma patients treated with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1, respectively, we find that B2M LOH is enriched threefold in non-responders (~30%) compared to responders (~10%) and associated with poorer overall survival. Loss of both copies of B2M is found only in non-responders. B2M loss is likely a common mechanism of resistance to therapies targeting CTLA4 or PD1.

  13. Identification of a novel EGF-sensitive cell cycle checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Francesca; Zhang Huihua; Burgess, Antony W.

    2007-01-01

    The site of action of growth factors on mammalian cell cycle has been assigned to the boundary between the G1 and S phases. We show here that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is also required for mitosis. BaF/3 cells expressing the EGFR (BaF/wtEGFR) synthesize DNA in response to EGF, but arrest in S-phase. We have generated a cell line (BaF/ERX) with defective downregulation of the EGFR and sustained activation of EGFR signalling pathways: these cells undergo mitosis in an EGF-dependent manner. The transit of BaF/ERX cells through G2/M strictly requires activation of EGFR and is abolished by AG1478. This phenotype is mimicked by co-expression of ErbB2 in BaF/wtEGFR cells, and abolished by inhibition of the EGFR kinase, suggesting that sustained signalling of the EGFR, through impaired downregulation of the EGFR or heterodimerization, is required for completion of the cycle. We have confirmed the role of EGFR signalling in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle using a human tumor cell line which overexpresses the EGFR and is dependent on EGFR signalling for growth. These findings unmask an EGF-sensitive checkpoint, helping to understand the link between sustained EGFR signalling, proliferation and the acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype in cancer cells

  14. Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Michelle A.; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is an essential GTPase signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. We show here that during meiosis, the MEN is dispensable for exit from meiosis I but contributes to the timely exit from meiosis II. Consistent with a role for the MEN during meiosis II, we find that the signaling pathway is active only during meiosis II. Our analysis further shows that MEN signaling is modulated during meiosis in several key ways. Whereas binding of MEN components to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) is necessary for MEN signaling during mitosis, during meiosis MEN signaling occurs off SPBs and does not require the SPB recruitment factor Nud1. Furthermore, unlike during mitosis, MEN signaling is controlled through the regulated interaction between the MEN kinase Dbf20 and its activating subunit Mob1. Our data lead to the conclusion that a pathway essential for vegetative growth is largely dispensable for the specialized meiotic divisions and provide insights into how cell cycle regulatory pathways are modulated to accommodate different modes of cell division. PMID:22718910

  15. Termini of human chromosomes display elevated rates of mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornforth, M N; Eberle, R L

    2001-01-01

    The strand-specific in situ hybridization technique of CO-FISH was used to probe telomeres of human mitotic cells in order to determine the spontaneous frequency of crossover. This approach allowed the detection of recombinational crossovers occurring anywhere along the length of individual chromosomes, including reciprocal events taking place between sister chromatids. Although the process of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the most prominent type of recombination in somatic mammalian cells, our results show that SCEs accounted for less than a third of the recombinational events revealed by CO-FISH. It is concluded that chromosomal regions near the termini of chromosome arms undergo extraordinarily high rates of spontaneous recombination, producing terminal crossovers whose small size precludes detection by standard cytogenetic methods. That similar results were observed for transformed epithelial cells, as well as primary fibroblasts, suggests that the phenomenon is a common characteristic of human cells. These findings are noteworthy because, although telomeric and subtelomeric DNA is known to be preferentially involved in certain types of recombination, the tips of somatic mammalian chromosomes have not previously been identified as preferred sites for crossover. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of limitations imposed on CO-FISH for its proposed use in directional hybridization mapping.

  16. Phosphorylation and disassembly of intermediate filaments in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yinghao; Rosevear, E.; Goldman, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    As baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells enter mitosis, networks of intermediate filaments (IFs) are transformed into cytoplasmic aggregates of protofilaments. Coincident with this morphological change, the phosphate content of vimentin increases from 0.3 mol of P i per mol of protein in interphase to 1.9 mol of P i per mol of protein in mitosis. A similar increase in phosphate content is observed with desmin, from 0.5 mol of P i per mol of protein to 1.5 mol of P i per mol of protein. Fractionation of mitotic cell lysates by hydroxylapatite column chromatography reveals the presence of two IF protein kinase activities, designated as IF protein kinase I and IF protein kinase II. Comparison of two-dimensional 32 P-labeled phosphopeptide maps of vimentin and desmin phosphorylated in vivo in mitosis, and in vitro using partially purified kinase fractions, reveals extensive similarity in the two sets of phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of in vitro polymerized IFs by IF protein kinase II induces complete disassembly as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. The results support the idea that the disassembly of IFs in mitosis is regulated by the phosphorylation of its subunit proteins

  17. X-ray induction of mitotic and meiotic chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.T.S.

    1980-01-01

    In 1964 six pairs of rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) were obtained from Australia. The tissues of these animals were used to initiate cell lines. Since this species has a low chromosome number of six pairs, each pair with its own distinctive morphology, it is particularly favorable for cytogenetic research. In cell cultures derived from the corneal endothelial tissues of one animal there emerged a number of haploid cells. The number of haploid cells in the cultures reached as high as 20% of the total mitotic configurations. The in vitro diploid and haploid mixture cell cultures could be a resemblance or a coincidence to the mixture existence of the diploid primary spermatocytes and the haploid secondary spermatocytes (gametes) in the in vivo testicular tissues of the male animals. It would be interesting to compare reactions of the haploid and diploid cell mixture, either in the cultures or in the testes, to x-ray exposure. Two other studies involving x-ray effects on Chinese hamster oocyte maturation and meiotic chromosomes and the x-ray induction of Chinese hamster spermatocyte meiotic chromosome aberrations have been done in this laboratory. A review of these three studies involving diploid and haploid chromosomes may lead to further research in the x-ray induction of chromosome aberrations

  18. Genetical control of mitotic crossing over in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, I.V.; Marfin, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Lethal effect of 8 methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (LUR) on diploid and haploid radiosensitive strains of yeast LSaccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. It is shown that wild type diploids and homozygous with respect to locus rad 2 is considerably more stable than corresponding haploids, while diploid homozygous with respect to rad 54 locus is more sensitive than haploid. Use of the method of repeated irradiation permitted to study capability of radiosensitive diploids to remove 8 MOP-induced DNA photodamages-monoadducts. This process proceeds effectively in the wild type strain and rad 54 rad 54 diploid and was absent in rad 2 rad 2 diploid. Very strong recombinogenous effect of 8-MOP and LUR was discovered when studying mitotic segregation and crossing-over. It is also shown that rad 2 mutation increases slightly and rad 54 mutation decreases sharply frequency of recombination events in yeast cells. It is established by means of the repeated irradiation method that the main contribution to the 8 MOP and LUR recombinogenous effect is made with DNA sutures induced with these agents. Possible participation of different repair systems in the recombination processes induced with 8 MOP and LUR in yeast cells is discussed

  19. Mitotic chromosome transmission fidelity mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.; Gerring, S.L.; Connelly, C.; Hieter, P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated 136 independent EMS-induced mutations in haploid yeast strains that exhibit decreased chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. Eight-five percent of the mutations are recessive and 15% are partially dominant. Complementation analysis between MATa and MATα isolates identifies 11 chromosome transmission fidelity (CTF) complementation groups, the largest of which is identical to CHL1. For 49 independent mutations, no corresponding allele has been recovered in the opposite mating type. The initial screen monitored the stability of a centromere-linked color marker on a nonessential yeast chromosome fragment; the mitotic inheritance of natural yeast chromosome III is also affected by the ctf mutations. Of the 136 isolates identified, seven were inviable at 37 degree and five were inviable at 11 degree. In all cases tested, these temperature conditional lethalities cosegregated with the chromosome instability phenotype. Five additional complementation groups (ctf12 through ctf16) have been defined by complementation analysis of the mutations causing inviability at 37 degree. All of the mutant strains showed normal sensitivity to ultraviolet and γ-irradiation

  20. The CRO-1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls mitotic crossing over, chromosomal stability and sporulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.S.; Maleas, D.T.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Holbrook, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of a novel temperature-sensitive recombination-defective mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cro1-1 is described. The cro1-1 mutant is the first instance of a rec mutation that reduces drastically the rates of spontaneous mitotic crossing-over events but not those of gene conversional events. The cro1-1 mutation thus provides evidence that mitotic crossing-over is dependent upon gene products that are not essential for gene conversional events. The cro1-1 mutation also results in enhanced mitotic-chromosomal instability and MATa/MATα cro1-1/cro1-1 mutants are sporulation deficient. These phenotypes indicate that the CRO1 gene modulates mitotic chromosomal integrity and is essential for normal meiosis. The cro1-1 mutant possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity, hence its recombinational defect does not involve failure to execute this putative final recombinational step. 7 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Lechowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of 5-FU on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem were investigated during 24-hour incubation in 5-FU and postincubation in water. The incubation in 5-FU caused a reversible inhibition of mitotic activity, and waves of the partially synchronised mitoses were observed during the period of postincubation. The most pronounced synchronisation of mitoses was obtained after incubation in 100 mg/l. 5-FU but the mitotic index of the resumed mitotic activity amounted to only one half of the control value. 5-FU was found to cause some cytological changes in meristematic cells such as enlargement of the nucleoli, change in the interphasic nuclei structure, appearance of subchromatid and chromatid aberrations and micronuclei. The effects of 5-FU on nucleic acids and the cell division cycle ace discussed and compared with the effects of 5-FUdR.

  2. Increased spontaneous mitotic segregation in MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to four different complementation groups, when homozygous, increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation to canavanine resistance from heterozygous sensitive (can/sup r//+) diploids by 13- to 170-fold. The mms8-1 mutant is MMS and x-ray sensitive and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 170-fold. The mms9-1 and mms13-1 mutants are sensitive to x rays and uv, respectively, in addition to MMS, and increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation by 13-fold and 85-fold, respectively. The mutant mms21-1 is sensitive to MMS, x rays and uv and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 23-fold

  3. Mapping genes by meiotic and UV-induced mitotic recombination in Coprinus cinereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhanian, J.D.; Cowan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Three morphological mutants in Coprinus cinereus—one spontaneous (den-2) and two chemically induced (zigand sta)—were assigned to linkage groups and utilized in meiotic and mitotic mapping. Mutants den-2 and zig belong to linkage group III, den-2 being close to the centromere and about 20 map units (mu) from zig. The mutant sta in linkage group ‘G’ is at a distance of about 37 mu from ade-3. Mitotic mapping confirmed the gene order in linkage group III and provided evidence that trp-2 in linkage group ‘G’ was between the centromere and ade-3. These morphological mutants are compact in colony growth and therefore suited to high-density plating. The rarity of spontaneously occurring mitotic segregants suggests that diploids of Coprinus cinereus, heterozygous for morphoiogical markers in repuision, could serve as useful test systems for rapid screening of chemical mutagen/carcinogens via mitotic recombination studies

  4. Histone phosphorylation during radiation-induced mitotic delay in synchronous plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, E.N.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    Using the nearly perfect synchrony of the mitotic stages in Physarum plasmodia, and making use of 32 P as a tracer, studies were made to define the time course of histone phosphorylation during the late G2 and prophase and the alterations in that time course accompanying radiation-induced mitotic delay. Histone H1 was phosphorylated throughout the last 2-3 hours of the mitotic cycle coincident with the early stages of chromosome condensation. H1 phosphorylation appeared to be reduced in irradiated plasmodia. It is postulated that a longer time period, i.e. the mitotic delay, may be required to obtain the same eventual level of H1-phosphate. In normal cultures, nucleosome core histones were phosphorylated late in G2 and prophase, the peak corresponding closely with the γ-transition point. In irradiated plasmodia, phosphorylation of the core histones had an extended time course similar to H1. (U.K.)

  5. Effect of head-irradiation upon epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing in the adrenalectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koshi

    1977-01-01

    Epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing was estimated both in the adrenalectomized, head-irradiated mice and in the adrenalectomized, non-irradiated mice, and was compared with those obtained previously from the unoperated, head-irradiated mice. It was found that head-irradiation caused a mitotic depression to a much smaller extent in the adrenalectomized mice than it did in the unoperated mice, though adrenalectomy itself had exerted a great inhibitory effect upon the mitosis induced by an injury. Whether this abscopal effect of head-irradiation upon the mitotic activity was mediated via the adrenals, and whether in the adrenalectomized mice the head-irradiation acted to increase epidermal response to injury, making the mitotic pattern of adrenalectomized mice to come near that of control mice were discussed. (auth.)

  6. Effects of polyamines and polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on mitotic activity of Allium cepa root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Meral; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Tufekci, M A

    2008-03-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and PA biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), cyclohexilamine (CHA), methylglioxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were investigated in the root meristems of Allium cepa L. The reduction of mitotic index and the induction of chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, stickiness, c-mitotic anaphases, micronuclei, endoredupliction by PAs and PA biosynthetic inhibitors were observed and these were used as evidence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

  7. The relationship between mitotic rate and depth of invasion in biopsies of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Basir HR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir,1,2 Pedram Alirezaei,2 Sara Ahovan,3 Abbas Moradi3 1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psoriasis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Malignant melanoma of the skin is a potentially lethal neoplasm that generally originates from atypical melanocytes in the dermal–epidermal junction. When the neoplasm penetrates into the dermis, several variables can affect the extent of its spread, among which depth of invasion has the most important prognostic value. Mitotic rate is another prognostic factor that reflects the biological behavior of the neoplasm.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the probable relationship between the depth of invasion of malignant melanoma and its mitotic rate.Materials and methods: This study was performed on 50 excisional biopsy specimens that had received the diagnosis of malignant melanoma histopathologically. Tumor characteristics including Breslow thickness, Clark level, T-stage, and tumor mitotic rate were recorded.Results: We observed that at higher Clark levels and higher T-stages, and the mean mitotic rate was significantly increased. Moreover, there was a positive and significant correlation between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate. We demonstrated that one unit increase in mitotic rate was correlated with 0.8 mm increase in Breslow thickness of the tumor.Conclusion: In malignant melanoma, mitotic activity may probably indicate the depth of tumor invasion. Therefore, in incisional biopsies where depth of invasion cannot be accurately determined, the mitotic activity may be used to estimate Breslow thickness, which is necessary for planning surgical management. Keywords: melanoma, mitosis, Breslow, invasion, thickness, proliferation

  8. Radiation-induced mitotic and meiotic aneuploidy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, J.M.; Sharp, D.; Tippins, R.S.; Parry, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A number of genetic systems are described which in yeast may be used to monitor the induction of chromosome aneuploidy during both mitotic and meiotic cell division. Using these systems the authors have been able to demonstrate the induction of both monosomic and trisomic cells in mitotically dividing cells and disomic spores in meiotically dividing cells after both UV light and X-ray exposure. (Auth.)

  9. The structure of the mitotic spindle and nucleolus during mitosis in the amebo-flagellate Naegleria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Mitosis in the amebo-flagellate Naegleria pringsheimi is acentrosomal and closed (the nuclear membrane does not break down). The large central nucleolus, which occupies about 20% of the nuclear volume, persists throughout the cell cycle. At mitosis, the nucleolus divides and moves to the poles in association with the chromosomes. The structure of the mitotic spindle and its relationship to the nucleolus are unknown. To identify the origin and structure of the mitotic spindle, its relationship to the nucleolus and to further understand the influence of persistent nucleoli on cellular division in acentriolar organisms like Naegleria, three-dimensional reconstructions of the mitotic spindle and nucleolus were carried out using confocal microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies against three different nucleolar regions and α-tubulin were used to image the nucleolus and mitotic spindle. Microtubules were restricted to the nucleolus beginning with the earliest prophase spindle microtubules. Early spindle microtubules were seen as short rods on the surface of the nucleolus. Elongation of the spindle microtubules resulted in a rough cage of microtubules surrounding the nucleolus. At metaphase, the mitotic spindle formed a broad band completely embedded within the nucleolus. The nucleolus separated into two discreet masses connected by a dense band of microtubules as the spindle elongated. At telophase, the distal ends of the mitotic spindle were still completely embedded within the daughter nucleoli. Pixel by pixel comparison of tubulin and nucleolar protein fluorescence showed 70% or more of tubulin co-localized with nucleolar proteins by early prophase. These observations suggest a model in which specific nucleolar binding sites for microtubules allow mitotic spindle formation and attachment. The fact that a significant mass of nucleolar material precedes the chromosomes as the mitotic spindle elongates suggests that spindle elongation drives nucleolar division.

  10. Bir1 Deletion Causes Malfunction of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint and Apoptosis in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Qun; Liou, Liang-Chun; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    Cell division in yeast is a highly regulated and well studied event. Various checkpoints are placed throughout the cell cycle to ensure faithful segregation of sister chromatids. Unexpected events, such as DNA damage or oxidative stress, cause the activation of checkpoint(s) and cell cycle arrest. Malfunction of the checkpoints may induce cell death. We previously showed that under oxidative stress, the budding yeast cohesin Mcd1, a homolog of human Rad21, was cleaved by the caspase-like protease Esp1. The cleaved Mcd1 C-terminal fragment was then translocated to mitochondria, causing apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that Bir1 plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint and cell death. Similar to H 2 O 2 treatment, deletion of BIR1 using a BIR1-degron strain caused degradation of the securin Pds1, which binds and inactivates Esp1 until metaphase-anaphase transition in a normal cell cycle. BIR1 deletion caused an increase level of ROS and mis-location of Bub1, a major protein for spindle assembly checkpoint. In wild type, Bub1 was located at the kinetochores, but was primarily in the cytoplasm in bir1 deletion strain. When BIR1 was deleted, addition of nocodazole was unable to retain the Bub1 localization on kinetochores, further suggesting that Bir1 is required to activate and maintain the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our study suggests that the BIR1 function in cell cycle regulation works in concert with its anti-apoptosis function.

  11. Asynchronous Two-Level Checkpointing Scheme for Large-Scale Adjoints in the Spectral-Element Solver Nek5000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanen, Michel; Marin, Oana; Zhang, Hong; Anitescu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Adjoints are an important computational tool for large-scale sensitivity evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and derivative-based optimization. An essential component of their performance is the storage/recomputation balance in which efficient checkpointing methods play a key role. We introduce a novel asynchronous two-level adjoint checkpointing scheme for multistep numerical time discretizations targeted at large-scale numerical simulations. The checkpointing scheme combines bandwidth-limited disk checkpointing and binomial memory checkpointing. Based on assumptions about the target petascale systems, which we later demonstrate to be realistic on the IBM Blue Gene/Q system Mira, we create a model of the expected performance of our checkpointing approach and validate it using the highly scalable Navier-Stokes spectralelement solver Nek5000 on small to moderate subsystems of the Mira supercomputer. In turn, this allows us to predict optimal algorithmic choices when using all of Mira. We also demonstrate that two-level checkpointing is significantly superior to single-level checkpointing when adjoining a large number of time integration steps. To our knowledge, this is the first time two-level checkpointing had been designed, implemented, tuned, and demonstrated on fluid dynamics codes at large scale of 50k+ cores.

  12. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2 + . The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  13. Utilization during mitotic cell division of loci controlling meiotic recombination and disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, B.S.; Carpenter, A.T.C.; Ripoll, P.

    1978-01-01

    To inquire whether the loci identified by recombination-defective and disjunction-defective meiotic mutants in Drosophila are also utilized during mitotic cell division, the effects of 18 meiotic mutants (representing 13 loci) on mitotic chromosome stability have been examined genetically. To do this, meiotic-mutant-bearing flies heterozygous for recessive somatic cell markers were examined for the frequencies and types of spontaneous clones expressing the cell markers. In such flies, marked clones can arise via mitotic recombination, mutation, chromosome breakage, nondisjunction or chromosome loss, and clones from these different origins can be distinguished. In addition, meiotic mutants at nine loci have been examined for their effects on sensitivity to killing by uv and x rays. Mutants at six of the seven recombination-defective loci examined (mei-9, mei-41, c(3)G, mei-W68, mei-S282, mei-352, mei-218) cause mitotic chromosome instability in both sexes, whereas mutants at one locus (mei-218) do not affect mitotic chromosome stability. Thus many of the loci utilized during meiotic recombination also function in the chromosomal economy of mitotic cells

  14. Identification of Mitosis-Specific Phosphorylation in Mitotic Chromosome-Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinya; Kimura, Michiko; Takagi, Shunsuke; Toramoto, Iyo; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2016-09-02

    During mitosis, phosphorylation of chromosome-associated proteins is a key regulatory mechanism. Mass spectrometry has been successfully applied to determine the complete protein composition of mitotic chromosomes, but not to identify post-translational modifications. Here, we quantitatively compared the phosphoproteome of isolated mitotic chromosomes with that of chromosomes in nonsynchronized cells. We identified 4274 total phosphorylation sites and 350 mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites in mitotic chromosome-associated proteins. Significant mitosis-specific phosphorylation in centromere/kinetochore proteins was detected, although the chromosomal association of these proteins did not change throughout the cell cycle. This mitosis-specific phosphorylation might play a key role in regulation of mitosis. Further analysis revealed strong dependency of phosphorylation dynamics on kinase consensus patterns, thus linking the identified phosphorylation sites to known key mitotic kinases. Remarkably, chromosomal axial proteins such as non-SMC subunits of condensin, TopoIIα, and Kif4A, together with the chromosomal periphery protein Ki67 involved in the establishment of the mitotic chromosomal structure, demonstrated high phosphorylation during mitosis. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulation of chromosome restructuring in mitosis via protein phosphorylation. Our study generated a large quantitative database on protein phosphorylation in mitotic and nonmitotic chromosomes, thus providing insights into the dynamics of chromatin protein phosphorylation at mitosis onset.

  15. Co-delivery of paclitaxel and cetuximab by nanodiamond enhances mitotic catastrophe and tumor inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Raj, Emmanuel Naveen; Liao, Wei-Siang; Lin, Johnson; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Chen, Ting-Hua; Cheng, Hsiao-Chun; Wang, Chi-Ching; Li, Lily Yi; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2017-08-29

    The poor intracellular uptake and non-specific binding of anticancer drugs into cancer cells are the bottlenecks in cancer therapy. Nanocarrier platforms provide the opportunities to improve the drug efficacy. Here we show a carbon-based nanomaterial nanodiamond (ND) that carried paclitaxel (PTX), a microtubule inhibitor, and cetuximab (Cet), a specific monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), inducing mitotic catastrophe and tumor inhibition in human colorectal cancer (CRC). ND-PTX blocked the mitotic progression, chromosomal separation, and induced apoptosis in the CRC cells; however, NDs did not induce these effects. Conjugation of ND-PTX with Cet (ND-PTX-Cet) was specifically binding to the EGFR-positive CRC cells and enhanced the mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis induction. Besides, ND-PTX-Cet markedly decreased tumor size in the xenograft EGFR-expressed human CRC tumors of nude mice. Moreover, ND-PTX-Cet induced the mitotic marker protein phospho-histone 3 (Ser10) and apoptotic protein active-caspase 3 for mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. Taken together, this study demonstrated that the co-delivery of PTX and Cet by ND enhanced the effects of mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, which may be applied in the human CRC therapy.

  16. Acute symptomatic hypocalcemia from immune checkpoint therapy-induced hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Myint Aung; Thein, Kyaw Zin; Qdaisat, Aiham; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim

    2017-07-01

    Ipilimumab (a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4) and nivolumab (a humanized antibody against PD-1) target these immune checkpoint pathways and are used for treatment of melanoma and an increasing number of other cancers. However, they may cause immune-related adverse effects (IRAEs). Although many endocrinopathies are known to be IRAEs, primary hypoparathyroidism with severe hypocalcemia has never been reported. This is the first case of hypoparathyroidism as an IRAE presenting to an Emergency Department with acute hypocalcemia. A 73-year-old man with metastatic melanoma presented to the Emergency Department for the chief complaints of imbalance, general muscle weakness, abdominal pain and tingling in extremities. He had wide spread metastasis, and begun immunotherapy with concurrent ipilimumab and nivolumab 1.5months ago. At presentation, he had ataxia, paresthesia in the hands and feet, and abdominal cramping. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was unremarkable. He was found to be hypocalcemic with undetectable plasma parathyroid hormone. He was admitted for treatment of symptomatic hypocalcemia and was diagnosed with primary hypoparathyroidism. Shortly afterwards, he had thyrotoxicosis manifesting as tachycardia and anxiety, followed by development of primary hypothyroidism. At 4months after the Emergency Department visit, his parathyroid function and thyroid function had not recovered, and required continued thyroid hormone replacement and calcium and vitamin D treatment for hypocalcemia. Primary hypoparathyroidism caused by ipilimumab and nivolumab may acute manifest with severe symptomatic hypocalcemia. Emergency care providers should be aware of hypoparathyroidism as a new IRAE in this new era of immuno-oncology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calreticulin reveals a critical Ca2+ checkpoint in cardiac myofibrillogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Pucéat, Michel; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Mery, Annabelle; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Michalak, Marek; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Jaconi, Marisa E.

    2002-01-01

    Calreticulin (crt) is an ubiquitously expressed and multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein that regulates diverse vital cell functions, including Ca2+ storage in the ER and protein folding. Calreticulin deficiency in mice is lethal in utero due to defects in heart development and function. Herein, we used crt − / − embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated in vitro into cardiac cells to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure of knockout embryos. After 8 d of differentiation, beating areas were prominent in ES-derived wild-type (wt) embryoid bodies (EBs), but not in ES-derived crt − / − EBs, despite normal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors. Crt − / − EBs exhibited a severe decrease in expression and a lack of phosphorylation of ventricular myosin light chain 2 (MLC2v), resulting in an impaired organization of myofibrils. Crt − / − phenotype could be recreated in wt cells by chelating extracellular or cytoplasmic Ca2+ with EGTA or BAPTA, or by inhibiting Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs). An imposed ionomycin-triggered cystolic-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) elevation restored the expression, phosphorylation, and insertion of MLC2v into sarcomeric structures and in turn the myofibrillogenesis. The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor C2 failed to accumulate into nuclei of crt − / − cardiac cells in the absence of ionomycin-triggered [Ca2+]c increase. We conclude that the absence of calreticulin interferes with myofibril formation. Most importantly, calreticulin deficiency revealed the importance of a Ca2+-dependent checkpoint critical for early events during cardiac myofibrillogenesis. PMID:12105184

  18. Frequency and mitotic heritability of epimutations in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquis, David; Rognon, Anne; Chaparro, Cristian; Boissier, Jerome; Arancibia, Nathalie; Cosseau, Celine; Parrinello, Hugues; Grunau, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic platyhelminth responsible for intestinal bilharzia. It has a complex life cycle, infecting a freshwater snail of the Biomphalaria genus, and then a mammalian host. Schistosoma mansoni adapts rapidly to new (allopatric) strains of its intermediate host. To study the importance of epimutations in this process, we infected sympatric and allopatric mollusc strains with parasite clones. ChIP-Seq was carried out on four histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27ac and H4K20me1) in parallel with genomewide DNA resequencing (i) on parasite larvae shed by the infected snails and (ii) on adult worms that had developed from the larvae. No change in single nucleotide polymorphisms and no mobilization of transposable elements were observed, but 58-105 copy number variations (CNVs) within the parasite clones in different molluscs were detected. We also observed that the allopatric environment induces three types of chromatin structure changes: (i) host-induced changes on larvae epigenomes in 51 regions of the genome that are independent of the parasites' genetic background, (ii) spontaneous changes (not related to experimental condition or genotype of the parasite) at 64 locations and (iii) 64 chromatin structure differences dependent on the parasite genotype. Up to 45% of the spontaneous, but none of the host-induced chromatin structure changes were transmitted to adults. In our model, the environment induces epigenetic changes at specific loci but only spontaneous epimutations are mitotically heritable and have therefore the potential to contribute to transgenerational inheritance. We also show that CNVs are the only source of genetic variation and occur at the same order of magnitude as epimutations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Caffeine stabilizes Cdc25 independently of Rad3 in S chizosaccharomyces pombe contributing to checkpoint override

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, John P; Sjölander, Johanna J; Baar, Juliane; Özbaki-Yagan, Nejla; Kakoschky, Bianca; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Cdc25 is required for Cdc2 dephosphorylation and is thus essential for cell cycle progression. Checkpoint activation requires dual inhibition of Cdc25 and Cdc2 in a Rad3-dependent manner. Caffeine is believed to override activation of the replication and DNA damage checkpoints by inhibiting Rad3-related proteins in both S chizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian cells. In this study, we have investigated the impact of caffeine on Cdc25 stability, cell cycle progression and checkpoint override. Caffeine induced Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe independently of Rad3. Caffeine delayed cell cycle progression under normal conditions but advanced mitosis in cells treated with replication inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. In the absence of Cdc25, caffeine inhibited cell cycle progression even in the presence of hydroxyurea or phleomycin. Caffeine induces Cdc25 accumulation in S . pombe by suppressing its degradation independently of Rad3. The induction of Cdc25 accumulation was not associated with accelerated progression through mitosis, but rather with delayed progression through cytokinesis. Caffeine-induced Cdc25 accumulation appears to underlie its ability to override cell cycle checkpoints. The impact of Cdc25 accumulation on cell cycle progression is attenuated by Srk1 and Mad2. Together our findings suggest that caffeine overrides checkpoint enforcement by inducing the inappropriate nuclear localization of Cdc25. PMID:24666325

  20. Checkpoint inhibitors in advanced melanoma: effect on the field of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'reilly, Aine; Larkin, James

    2017-07-01

    The success of the immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma has reinvigorated the field of immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now the standard of care in multiple cancer types including lung cancer, head and neck cancer, urothelial cancer and renal cell cancer. The field of immunotherapy is currently expanding rapidly and will be a focus of research and development for decades to come. Areas covered: This review covers the early development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the changes that occurred in the drug development paradigm to facilitate the development of immunotherapy. The review will summarise the areas into which immune checkpoint inhibitors have been adopted and will review the data that supported this. Furthermore, we will discuss future developments in immunotherapy and the current landscape regarding maximising the potential of immunotherapy in clinical practice. Expert commentary: In the author's opinion, the potential of immunotherapy is vast. To date immune checkpoint inhibition has already delivered durable responses in a proportion of patients with cancer types which were previously universally lethal. The future of immunotherapy will rely upon the intelligent application of translational research to clinical practice, such that immunotherapy can be effective for a wider population and maintain its current growth.

  1. Evidence of activity-specific, radial organization of mitotic chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri G Strukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization and the mechanisms of condensation of mitotic chromosomes remain unsolved despite many decades of efforts. The lack of resolution, tight compaction, and the absence of function-specific chromatin labels have been the key technical obstacles. The correlation between DNA sequence composition and its contribution to the chromosome-scale structure has been suggested before; it is unclear though if all DNA sequences equally participate in intra- or inter-chromatin or DNA-protein interactions that lead to formation of mitotic chromosomes and if their mitotic positions are reproduced radially. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of live or minimally perturbed, fixed chromosomes in Drosophila embryonic cultures or tissues expressing MSL3-GFP fusion protein, we studied positioning of specific MSL3-binding sites. Actively transcribed, dosage compensated Drosophila genes are distributed along the euchromatic arm of the male X chromosome. Several novel features of mitotic chromosomes have been observed. MSL3-GFP is always found at the periphery of mitotic chromosomes, suggesting that active, dosage compensated genes are also found at the periphery of mitotic chromosomes. Furthermore, radial distribution of chromatin loci on mitotic chromosomes was found to be correlated with their functional activity as judged by core histone modifications. Histone modifications specific to active chromatin were found peripheral with respect to silent chromatin. MSL3-GFP-labeled chromatin loci become peripheral starting in late prophase. In early prophase, dosage compensated chromatin regions traverse the entire width of chromosomes. These findings suggest large-scale internal rearrangements within chromosomes during the prophase condensation step, arguing against consecutive coiling models. Our results suggest that the organization of mitotic chromosomes is reproducible not only longitudinally, as demonstrated by chromosome-specific banding

  2. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  3. Evidence of Selection against Complex Mitotic-Origin Aneuploidy during Preimplantation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Rajiv C.; Demko, Zachary P.; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-chromosome imbalances affect over half of early human embryos and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss. While these errors frequently arise in oocyte meiosis, many such whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting cleavage-stage embryos are the result of chromosome missegregation occurring during the initial mitotic cell divisions. The first wave of zygotic genome activation at the 4–8 cell stage results in the arrest of a large proportion of embryos, the vast majority of which contain whole-chromosome abnormalities. Thus, the full spectrum of meiotic and mitotic errors can only be detected by sampling after the initial cell divisions, but prior to this selective filter. Here, we apply 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to 28,052 single-cell day-3 blastomere biopsies and 18,387 multi-cell day-5 trophectoderm biopsies from 6,366 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. We precisely characterize the rates and patterns of whole-chromosome abnormalities at each developmental stage and distinguish errors of meiotic and mitotic origin without embryo disaggregation, based on informative chromosomal signatures. We show that mitotic errors frequently involve multiple chromosome losses that are not biased toward maternal or paternal homologs. This outcome is characteristic of spindle abnormalities and chaotic cell division detected in previous studies. In contrast to meiotic errors, our data also show that mitotic errors are not significantly associated with maternal age. PGS patients referred due to previous IVF failure had elevated rates of mitotic error, while patients referred due to recurrent pregnancy loss had elevated rates of meiotic error, controlling for maternal age. These results support the conclusion that mitotic error is the predominant mechanism contributing to pregnancy losses occurring prior to blastocyst formation. This high-resolution view of the full spectrum of whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting early embryos provides insight

  4. Evidence of Selection against Complex Mitotic-Origin Aneuploidy during Preimplantation Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv C McCoy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whole-chromosome imbalances affect over half of early human embryos and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss. While these errors frequently arise in oocyte meiosis, many such whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting cleavage-stage embryos are the result of chromosome missegregation occurring during the initial mitotic cell divisions. The first wave of zygotic genome activation at the 4-8 cell stage results in the arrest of a large proportion of embryos, the vast majority of which contain whole-chromosome abnormalities. Thus, the full spectrum of meiotic and mitotic errors can only be detected by sampling after the initial cell divisions, but prior to this selective filter. Here, we apply 24-chromosome preimplantation genetic screening (PGS to 28,052 single-cell day-3 blastomere biopsies and 18,387 multi-cell day-5 trophectoderm biopsies from 6,366 in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. We precisely characterize the rates and patterns of whole-chromosome abnormalities at each developmental stage and distinguish errors of meiotic and mitotic origin without embryo disaggregation, based on informative chromosomal signatures. We show that mitotic errors frequently involve multiple chromosome losses that are not biased toward maternal or paternal homologs. This outcome is characteristic of spindle abnormalities and chaotic cell division detected in previous studies. In contrast to meiotic errors, our data also show that mitotic errors are not significantly associated with maternal age. PGS patients referred due to previous IVF failure had elevated rates of mitotic error, while patients referred due to recurrent pregnancy loss had elevated rates of meiotic error, controlling for maternal age. These results support the conclusion that mitotic error is the predominant mechanism contributing to pregnancy losses occurring prior to blastocyst formation. This high-resolution view of the full spectrum of whole-chromosome abnormalities affecting early embryos

  5. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the generation Z of negative checkpoint regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eLe Mercier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy.

  6. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the Generation Z of Negative Checkpoint Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Isabelle; Lines, J Louise; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy.

  7. Blocking CHK1 Expression Induces Apoptosis and Abrogates the G2 Checkpoint Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Luo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chki is a checkpoint gene that is activated after DNA damage. It phosphorylates and inactivates the Cdc2 activating phosphatase Cdc25C. This in turn inactivates Cdc2, which leads to G2/M arrest. We report that blocking Chki expression by antisense or ribozymes in mammalian cells induces apoptosis and interferes with the G2/M arrest induced by adriamycin. The Chki inhibitor UCN-01 also blocks the G2 arrest after DNA damage and renders cells more susceptible to adriamycin. These results indicate that Chki is an essential gene for the checkpoint mechanism during normal cell proliferation as well as in the DNA damage response.

  8. Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyang; Chang, Leifu; Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-05-12

    results reveal the mechanism for the regulation of mitotic APC/C by phosphorylation and provide a rationale for the development of selective inhibitors of this state.

  9. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_7-9 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_7-9 dm3 All antigens Embryo Mitotic cycle 7-9 SRX645...111,SRX645115,SRX645103,SRX645123,SRX645107,SRX645137,SRX645099,SRX645119 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_7-9.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13 dm3 All antigens Embryo Mitotic cycle 11-13 SR...X645130,SRX645124,SRX645116,SRX645108,SRX645127,SRX645112,SRX645138,SRX645120 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13 dm3 All antigens Embryo Mitotic cycle 11-13 SR...X645108,SRX645116,SRX645127,SRX645124,SRX645130,SRX645112,SRX645120,SRX645138 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Mitotic_cycle_11-13.bed ...

  12. The anaphase inhibitor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pds1p is a target of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Fix, O.; Koshland, D.

    1997-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA replication and physical DNA damage induce checkpoint responses that arrest cell cycle progression at two different stages. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the execution of both checkpoint responses requires the Mec1 and Rad53 proteins. This observation led to the suggestion that these checkpoint responses are mediated through a common signal transduction pathway. However, because the checkpoint-induced arrests occur at different cell cycle stages, the downstream effectors mediating these arrests are likely to be distinct. We have previously shown that the S. cerevisiae protein Pds1p is an anaphase inhibitor and is essential for cell cycle arrest in mitosis in the presence DNA damage. Herein we show that DNA damage, but not inhibition of DNA replication, induces the phosphorylation of Pds1p. Analyses of Pds1p phosphorylation in different checkpoint mutants reveal that in the presence of DNA damage, Pds1p is phosphorylated in a Mec1p- and Rad9p-dependent hut Rad53p-independent manner. Our data place Pds1p and Rad53p on parallel branches of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. We suggest that Pds1p is a downstream target of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway and that it is involved in implementing the DNA damage checkpoint arrest specifically in mitosis

  13. Pseudodominant inheritance pattern in a family with CMT2 caused by GDAP1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Paassen, Barbara W.; Bronk, Marieke; Verhamme, Camiel; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; de Visser, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    We report a family in which an autosomal dominantly inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 was suspected. The affected family members (proband, sister, father, and paternal aunt) showed intrafamilial clinical variability. The proband needed walking aids since adolescence because of

  14. Use of common time base for checkpointing and rollback recovery in a distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Shin, Kang G.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to checkpointing and rollback recovery in a distributed computing system using a common time base is proposed. A common time base is established in the system using a hardware clock synchronization algorithm. This common time base is coupled with the idea of pseudo-recovery points to develop a checkpointing algorithm that has the following advantages: reduced wait for commitment for establishing recovery lines, fewer messages to be exchanged, and less memory requirement. These advantages are assessed quantitatively by developing a probabilistic model.

  15. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K

    2015-01-01

    an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme...... that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein...

  16. Interprofessional Collaboration with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: the Roles of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Virginia

    2017-11-01

    To discuss immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and identify opportunities for interprofessional collaboration in the management of toxicities in the areas of gastroenterology, endocrinology, and neurology. Published research and education articles in oncology, nursing, and various specialties. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is expanding; timely management of toxicity is critical for positive patient outcomes. There are many opportunities for interprofessional collaboration in the diagnosis and treatment of immune-related adverse events. Nurses play key roles in recognizing immune-related adverse events, providing patient education, and helping to facilitate interprofessional collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of serotonin on the mitotic rate in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-01-01

    1. The mitotic rate in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of the descending colon of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of a small dose (10 microgram/kg) of serotonin resulted in an increase in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 3. Blockade of serotonin receptors by 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and depletion of tissue serotonin levels following injection of DL-6-fluorotryptophan both result in a decrease in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 4. Treatment with serotonin, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and DL-6-fluorotryptophan were all without effect on the colonic crypt cell mitotic rate.

  18. High frequency induction of mitotic recombination by ionizing radiation in Mlh1 null mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Ponomareva, Olga N.; Lasarev, Michael; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2006-01-01

    Mitotic recombination in somatic cells involves crossover events between homologous autosomal chromosomes. This process can convert a cell with a heterozygous deficiency to one with a homozygous deficiency if a mutant allele is present on one of the two homologous autosomes. Thus mitotic recombination often represents the second mutational step in tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In this study we examined the frequency and spectrum of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced autosomal mutations affecting Aprt expression in a mouse kidney cell line null for the Mlh1 mismatch repair (MMR) gene. The mutant frequency results demonstrated high frequency induction of mutations by IR exposure and the spectral analysis revealed that most of this response was due to the induction of mitotic recombinational events. High frequency induction of mitotic recombination was not observed in a DNA repair-proficient cell line or in a cell line with an MMR-independent mutator phenotype. These results demonstrate that IR exposure can initiate a process leading to mitotic recombinational events and that MMR function suppresses these events from occurring

  19. Centrosome Amplification Increases Single-Cell Branching in Post-mitotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricolo, Delia; Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casanova, Jordi; Araújo, Sofia J

    2016-10-24

    Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancer, although we are still far from understanding how this process affects tumorigenesis [1, 2]. Besides the contribution of supernumerary centrosomes to mitotic defects, their biological effects in the post-mitotic cell are not well known. Here, we exploit the effects of centrosome amplification in post-mitotic cells during single-cell branching. We show that Drosophila tracheal cells with extra centrosomes branch more than wild-type cells. We found that mutations in Rca1 and CycA affect subcellular branching, causing tracheal tip cells to form more than one subcellular lumen. We show that Rca1 and CycA post-mitotic cells have supernumerary centrosomes and that other mutant conditions that increase centrosome number also show excess of subcellular lumen branching. Furthermore, we show that de novo lumen formation is impaired in mutant embryos with fewer centrioles. The data presented here define a requirement for the centrosome as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) for the initiation of subcellular lumen formation. We propose that centrosomes are necessary to drive subcellular lumen formation. In addition, centrosome amplification increases single-cell branching, a process parallel to capillary sprouting in blood vessels [3]. These results shed new light on how centrosomes can contribute to pathology independently of mitotic defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of tumor promoters on ultraviolet light-induced mutation and mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, B.A.; Hannan, M.A.; Haynes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that mitotic recombination is involved in tumor promotion. On this basis, one might expect tumor promoters to be recombinagenic. D7 is a diploid strain of yeast in which both mutation and mitotic recombination can be measured. We have used this strain to assay the known tumor promoters, iodacetate, anthralin, and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and the cocarcinogen, catechol, for mutagenicity, recombinagenicity, and the ability to enhance ultraviolet light (UV)-induced genetic events. In the absence of preirradiation with UV, iodoacetate was found to be recombinagenic whereas catechol was mutagenic; however, in both cases, the effects were small. Iodoacetate, anthralin, and catechol potentiated UV-induced mitotic crossing-over, aberrant colony formation, and mutation, while catechol also increased UV-induced gene conversion. We were unable to detect any mutagenic or recombinagenic effect of 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in either whole cells or spheroplasts. Our results do not indicate any consistent correlation between tumor-promoting activity and the ability of an agent to induce mitotic recombination in yeast. However, the ability to potentiate UV-induced mutation and mitotic recombination may reflect the cocarcinogenic activity of certain promoters

  1. Wnt activation followed by Notch inhibition promotes mitotic hair cell regeneration in the postnatal mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Shasha; Tang, Mingliang; Sun, Shan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Hair cell (HC) loss is the main cause of permanent hearing loss in mammals. Previous studies have reported that in neonatal mice cochleae, Wnt activation promotes supporting cell (SC) proliferation and Notch inhibition promotes the trans-differentiation of SCs into HCs. However, Wnt activation alone fails to regenerate significant amounts of new HCs, Notch inhibition alone regenerates the HCs at the cost of exhausting the SC population, which leads to the death of the newly regenerated HCs. Mitotic HC regeneration might preserve the SC number while regenerating the HCs, which could be a better approach for long-term HC regeneration. We present a two-step gene manipulation, Wnt activation followed by Notch inhibition, to accomplish mitotic regeneration of HCs while partially preserving the SC number. We show that Wnt activation followed by Notch inhibition strongly promotes the mitotic regeneration of new HCs in both normal and neomycin-damaged cochleae while partially preserving the SC number. Lineage tracing shows that the majority of the mitotically regenerated HCs are derived specifically from the Lgr5+ progenitors with or without HC damage. Our findings suggest that the co-regulation of Wnt and Notch signaling might provide a better approach to mitotically regenerate HCs from Lgr5+ progenitor cells. PMID:27564256

  2. Chromosome segregation regulation in human zygotes: altered mitotic histone phosphorylation dynamics underlying centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werken, C; Avo Santos, M; Laven, J S E; Eleveld, C; Fauser, B C J M; Lens, S M A; Baart, E B

    2015-10-01

    regulatory kinase pathways involved in centromeric CPC targeting revealed normal phosphorylation dynamics of histone H2A at T120 (H2ApT120) by Bub1 kinase and subsequent recruitment of Shugoshin. However, phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3pT3) by Haspin kinase failed to show the expected centromeric enrichment on metaphase chromosomes in the zygote, but not at later stages. Inhibition of Haspin revealed this activity to be essential for proper mitotic checkpoint complex activation in human zygotes, thus demonstrating an active mitotic checkpoint under normal conditions. Abolishment of H3pT3 during zygotic prometaphase further shows that centromeric H2ApT120 alone is not sufficient for proper shugoshin and CPC localization. As the removal of H3pT3 from the chromosome arms during prometaphase normally contributes to further centromeric enrichment of the CPC in somatic cells, CPC targeting may be less accurate in human zygotes. Owing to ethical limitations, tripronuclear zygotes were used in functional experiments. Although these represent the best available models, it is unknown if they are completely representative for dipronuclear zygotes. In addition, further research is needed to determine to what extent the differences we observed in H3T3 phosphorylation dynamics and CPC localization affect chromosome attachment. In the zygote, paternal and maternal chromosomes coming from two separate pronuclei, and with contrasting epigenetic signatures, need to be aligned on a single metaphase plate. Our results suggest that adaptations in mechanisms regulating CPC targeting exist in the human zygote, to ensure symmetric recruitment despite the epigenetic asymmetry between maternal and paternal chromosomes. This adaptation may come at a price regarding chromosome segregation fidelity. This study was funded by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare

  3. Sequential multisite phospho-regulation of KNL1-BUB3 interfaces at mitotic kinetochores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, Mathijs; Omerzu, Manja; Groenewold, Vincent; Hadders, Michael A; Lens, Susanne M A; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-01-01

    Regulated recruitment of the kinase-adaptor complex BUB1/BUB3 to kinetochores is crucial for correcting faulty chromosome-spindle attachments and for spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) signaling. BUB1/BUB3 localizes to kinetochores by binding phosphorylated MELT motifs (MELpT) in the kinetochore

  4. Mitotic recombination induced by chemical and physical agents in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.J.; Evans, W.E.; Parry, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The treatment of diploid cultures of yeast with ultraviolet light (uv), γ-rays, nitrous acid (na) and ethyl methane sulphonate (ems) results in increases in cell death, mitotic gene conversion and crossing-over. Acridine orange (ao) treatment, in contrast, was effective only in increasing the frequency of gene conversion. The individual mutagens were effective in the order uv>na>γ-rays>ao>ems. Prior treatment of yeast cultures in starvation medium produced a significant reduction in the yield of induced gene conversion. The results have been interpreted on the basis of a general model of mitotic gene conversion which involves the post-replication repair of induced lesions involving de novo DNA synthesis without genetic exchange. In contrast mitotic crossing-over appears to involve the action of a repair system independent from excision or post-replication repair which involves genetic exchange between homologous chromosomes

  5. A nontranscriptional role for Oct4 in the regulation of mitotic entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Deibler, Richard W.; Lerou, Paul H.; Ballabeni, Andrea; Heffner, Garrett C.; Cahan, Patrick; Unternaehrer, Juli J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progression through the cell cycle and a very short G1 phase are defining characteristics of embryonic stem cells. This distinct cell cycle is driven by a positive feedback loop involving Rb inactivation and reduced oscillations of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity. In this setting, we inquired how ES cells avoid the potentially deleterious consequences of premature mitotic entry. We found that the pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) plays an unappreciated role in the ES cell cycle by forming a complex with cyclin–Cdk1 and inhibiting Cdk1 activation. Ectopic expression of Oct4 or a mutant lacking transcriptional activity recapitulated delayed mitotic entry in HeLa cells. Reduction of Oct4 levels in ES cells accelerated G2 progression, which led to increased chromosomal missegregation and apoptosis. Our data demonstrate an unexpected nontranscriptional function of Oct4 in the regulation of mitotic entry. PMID:25324523

  6. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  7. Mitotic Transcriptional Activation: Clearance of Actively Engaged Pol II via Transcriptional Elongation Control in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiwei; Woodfin, Ashley R; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Rickels, Ryan A; Gao, Xin; Haug, Jeffrey S; Jaspersen, Sue L; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-11-05

    Although it is established that some general transcription factors are inactivated at mitosis, many details of mitotic transcription inhibition (MTI) and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We have identified mitotic transcriptional activation (MTA) as a key regulatory step to control transcription in mitosis for genes with transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to activate and transcribe until the end of the gene to clear Pol II from mitotic chromatin, followed by global impairment of transcription reinitiation through MTI. Global nascent RNA sequencing and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrate the existence of transcriptionally engaged Pol II in early mitosis. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of P-TEFb in mitosis lead to delays in the progression of cell division. Together, our study reveals a mechanism for MTA and MTI whereby transcriptionally engaged Pol II can progress into productive elongation and finish transcription to allow proper cellular division. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling Controls Mitotic Spindle Orientation during Epithelial Morphogenesis and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jingjing; Swiercz, Jakub M.; Bañón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration of epithelial tissues rely on the accurate orientation of cell divisions, which is specified by the mitotic spindle axis. To remain in the epithelial plane, symmetrically dividing epithelial cells align their mitotic spindle axis with the plane. Here, we...... show that this alignment depends on epithelial cell-cell communication via semaphorin-plexin signaling. During kidney morphogenesis and repair, renal tubular epithelial cells lacking the transmembrane receptor Plexin-B2 or its semaphorin ligands fail to correctly orient the mitotic spindle, leading...... to severe defects in epithelial architecture and function. Analyses of a series of transgenic and knockout mice indicate that Plexin-B2 controls the cell division axis by signaling through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Cdc42. Our data uncover semaphorin-plexin signaling as a central...

  9. Cell fate after mitotic arrest in different tumor cells is determined by the balance between slippage and apoptotic threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán-Malo, Patricia; Vela, Laura; Gonzalo, Oscar; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Gracia-Fleta, Lucía; Naval, Javier; Marzo, Isabel, E-mail: imarzo@unizar.es

    2012-02-01

    Microtubule poisons and other anti-mitotic drugs induce tumor death but the molecular events linking mitotic arrest to cell death are still not fully understood. We have analyzed cell fate after mitotic arrest produced by the microtubule-destabilizing drug vincristine in a panel of human tumor cell lines showing different response to vincristine. In Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and HeLa cells, apoptosis was triggered shortly after vincristine-induced mitotic arrest. However, A549 cells, which express a great amount of Bcl-x{sub L} and undetectable amounts of Bak, underwent mitotic slippage prior to cell death. However, when Bcl-x{sub L} gene was silenced in A549 cells, vincristine induced apoptosis during mitotic arrest. Another different behavior was found in MiaPaca2 cells, where vincristine caused death by mitotic catastrophe that switched to apoptosis when cyclin B1 degradation was prevented by proteasome inhibition. Overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} or silencing Bax and Bak expression delayed the onset of apoptosis in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, enabling mitotic slippage and endoreduplication. In HeLa cells, overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} switched cell death from apoptosis to mitotic catastrophe. Mcl-1 offered limited protection to vincristine-induced cell death and Mcl-1 degradation was not essential for vincristine-induced death. All these results, taken together, indicate that the Bcl-x{sub L}/Bak ratio and the ability to degrade cyclin B1 determine cell fate after mitotic arrest in the different tumor cell types. Highlights: ► Vincristine induces cell death by apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe. ► Apoptosis-proficient cells die by apoptosis during mitosis upon vincristine treatment. ► p53wt apoptosis-deficient cells undergo apoptosis from a G1-like tetraploid state. ► p53mt apoptosis-deficient cells can survive and divide giving rise to 8N cells.

  10. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Checkpointing and Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant hard real-time systems for safety-critical applications. We use checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication for tolerating transient faults. Processes are statically scheduled and communications are performed using the time...

  11. Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Corsino, Patrick E; Davis, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    instability. Expression of these complexes in the MCF10A cell line leads to retinoblastoma protein (Rb) hyperphosphorylation, a subsequent increase in proliferation rate, and increased expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. This results in a strengthening of the spindle assembly...

  12. A phospho-proteomic screen identifies substrates of the checkpoint kinase Chk1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasius, Melanie; Forment, Josep V; Thakkar, Neha

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is essential in mammalian cells due to its roles in controlling processes such as DNA replication, mitosis and DNA-damage responses. Despite its paramount importance, how Chk1 controls these functions remains unclear, mainly because very few Chk1...

  13. Localization of spindle checkpoint proteins in cells undergoing mitosis with unreplicated genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Kathrine; Cooksey, Amanda M; Wise, Dwayne A

    2008-11-01

    CHO cells can be arrested with hydoxyurea at the beginning of the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. Subsequent treatment with the xanthine, caffeine, induces cells to bypass the S-phase checkpoint and enter unscheduled mitosis [Schlegel and Pardee,1986, Science 232:1264-1266]. These treated cells build a normal spindle and distribute kinetochores, unattached to chromosomes, to their daughter cells [Brinkley et al.,1988, Nature 336:251-254; Zinkowski et al.,1991, J Cell Biol 113:1091-1110; Wise and Brinkley,1997, Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 36:291-302; Balczon et al.,2003, Chromosoma 112:96-102]. To investigate how these cells distribute kinetochores to daughter cells, we analyzed the spindle checkpoint components, Mad2, CENP-E, and the 3F3 phosphoepitope, using immunofluorescence and digital microscopy. Even though the kinetochores were unpaired and DNA was fragmented, the tension, alignment, and motor components of the checkpoint were found to be present and localized as predicted in prometaphase and metaphase. This unusual mitosis proves that a cell can successfully localize checkpoint proteins and divide even when kinetochores are unpaired and fragmented. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The point of no return: The poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Michael; Ferrer-Vicens, Ivan; Murphy, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases play critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and processing of the transcripts. For example, CDK9 regulates transcription of protein-coding genes, splicing, and 3' end formation of the transcripts. Accordingly, CDK9 inhibitors have a drastic effect on the production of mRNA in human cells. Recent analyses indicate that CDK9 regulates transcription at the early-elongation checkpoint of the vast majority of pol II-transcribed genes. Our recent discovery of an additional CDK9-regulated elongation checkpoint close to poly(A) sites adds a new layer to the control of transcription by this critical cellular kinase. This novel poly(A)-associated checkpoint has the potential to powerfully regulate gene expression just before a functional polyadenylated mRNA is produced: the point of no return. However, many questions remain to be answered before the role of this checkpoint becomes clear. Here we speculate on the possible biological significance of this novel mechanism of gene regulation and the players that may be involved.

  15. The point of no return: The poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Michael; Ferrer-Vicens, Ivan; Murphy, Shona

    2016-01-01

    abstract Cyclin-dependent kinases play critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and processing of the transcripts. For example, CDK9 regulates transcription of protein-coding genes, splicing, and 3′ end formation of the transcripts. Accordingly, CDK9 inhibitors have a drastic effect on the production of mRNA in human cells. Recent analyses indicate that CDK9 regulates transcription at the early-elongation checkpoint of the vast majority of pol II-transcribed genes. Our recent discovery of an additional CDK9-regulated elongation checkpoint close to poly(A) sites adds a new layer to the control of transcription by this critical cellular kinase. This novel poly(A)-associated checkpoint has the potential to powerfully regulate gene expression just before a functional polyadenylated mRNA is produced: the point of no return. However, many questions remain to be answered before the role of this checkpoint becomes clear. Here we speculate on the possible biological significance of this novel mechanism of gene regulation and the players that may be involved. PMID:26853452

  16. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Treatment of Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthias M; Fottner, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are usually controlled by antiproliferative, local ablative and/or radionuclide therapies, whereas poorly differentiated NENs generally require cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, treatment options for patients with advanced/metastatic high-grade NENs remain limited. Review of the literature and international congress abstracts on the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibition in advanced/metastatic NENs. Evidence points to an important role of immune phenomena in the pathogenesis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligand are mainly expressed in poorly differentiated NENs. Microsatellite instability and high mutational load are more pronounced in high-grade NENs and may predict response to immunotherapy. Clinical experience of immune checkpoint blockade mainly exists for Merkel cell carcinoma, a high-grade cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which has led to approval of the anti-PD-1 antibody avelumab. In addition, there is anecdotal evidence for the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in large-cell lung NECs, ovarian NECs and others, including gastroenteropancreatic NENs. Currently, phase II studies investigate PDR001, pembrolizumab, combined durvalumab and tremelimumab, and avelumab treatment in patients with advanced/metastatic NENs. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising therapeutic option, especially in progressive NECs or high-grade NETs with high tumor burden, microsatellite instability, and/or mutational load. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Pilar [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Duran, Assumpta [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caballin, Maria Rosa [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio de l' Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, Leonardo, E-mail: Lleonard.Barrios@uab.cat [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-11-02

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of {gamma}-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  18. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Duran, Assumpta; Caballin, Maria Rosa; Ribas, Montserrat; Barrios, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of γ-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  19. Myasthenia triggered by immune checkpoint inhibitors: New case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Natalia L; Puwanant, Araya; Lu, Angela; Marks, Stanley M; Živković, Saša A

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint molecules are potent regulators of immunologic homeostasis that prevent the development of autoimmunity while maintaining self-tolerance. Inhibitors of immune checkpoint molecules are used as immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma and different types of refractory cancer, and can trigger various autoimmune complications including myositis and myasthenia gravis. We describe a case of generalized myasthenia gravis induced by pembrolizumab and review 11 other cases. Five patients also had elevated serum CK levels ranging from 1200 to 8729 IU/L, and biopsy showed myositis in one. Severity was highly variable as symptoms normalized spontaneously in one patient, but three others developed myasthenic crisis (including two with fatal outcomes). Steroids have been recommended as a preferred treatment of autoimmune complications of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Myasthenia gravis should be considered when weakness, diplopia or bulbar symptoms are seen after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, and additional studies are needed to characterize association with hyperCKemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. rad-Dependent response of the chk1-encoded protein kinase at the DNA damage checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walworth, N.C.; Bernards, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to agents that generate DNA damage results in transient arrest of progression through the cell cycle. In fission yeast, the DNA damage checkpoint associated with cell cycle arrest before mitosis requires the protein kinase p56chk1. DNA damage induced by ultraviolet

  1. Differential impact of diverse anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation checkpoint pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agner, Jeppe; Falck, Jacob; Lukas, Jiri; Bartek, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    When exposed to DNA-damaging insults such as ionizing radiation (IR) or ultraviolet light (UV), mammalian cells activate checkpoint pathways to halt cell cycle progression or induce cell death. Here we examined the ability of five commonly used anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action to activate the Chk1/Chk2-Cdc25A-CDK2/cyclin E cell cycle checkpoint pathway, previously shown to be induced by IR or UV. Whereas exposure of human cells to topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, or adriamycin resulted in rapid (within 1 h) activation of the pathway including degradation of the Cdc25A phosphatase and inhibition of cyclin E/CDK2 kinase activity, taxol failed to activate this checkpoint even after a prolonged treatment. Unexpectedly, although the alkylating agent cisplatin also induced degradation of Cdc25A (albeit delayed, after 8-12 h), cyclin E/CDK2 activity was elevated and DNA synthesis continued, a phenomena that correlated with increased E2F1 protein levels and consequently enhanced expression of cyclin E. These results reveal a differential impact of various classes of anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation pathway, and indicate that the kinetics of checkpoint induction, and the relative balance of key components within the DNA damage response network may dictate whether the treated cells arrest their cell cycle progression

  2. Immunogenic Chemotherapy Sensitizes Renal Cancer to Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy in Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shujin

    2017-07-11

    BACKGROUND Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the most common malignant cancers of males worldwide. For advanced RCC patients, there still is no effective therapy. Immune checkpoint blockade therapies have shown benefits for many cancers, but previous clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade therapies in RCC patients achieved only modest results. MATERIAL AND METHODS We explored the effects of combining chemotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade therapy in RCC xenograft mouse models. We also studied the potential mechanisms by which chemotherapy might enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy, both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS Our results showed that many commonly used chemotherapy agents can induce immunogenic marker release in RCC cell lines. Importantly, the RCC xenograft mouse model mice who received the combination treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies (Abs) had longer survival times compared to those who received 5-FU or anti-PD-L1 Abs alone. Also, increased key cytokines that promote tumor immunity, such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, as well as tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells, were also increased after the combination treatment. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that 5-FU can sensitize RCC to anti-PD-L1 treatment by releasing the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment.

  3. The emerging role of immune checkpoint based approaches in AML and MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Prajwal; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Allison, James; Sharma, Padmanee; Daver, Naval

    2018-04-01

    The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major breakthrough in the field of cancer therapeutics. Pursuant to their success in melanoma and numerous solid tumor malignancies, these agents are being investigated in hematological malignancies including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Although AML/MDS have traditionally been considered to be less immunogenic than solid tumor malignancies, recent pre-clinical models suggest a therapeutic role for immune checkpoint inhibition in these diseases. CTLA-4 inhibition may be especially effective in treating late post-allogeneic stem cell transplant relapse of AML in patients with limited or no graft versus host disease. Immune checkpoint inhibition, specifically PD-1 inhibition, demonstrated limited single agent efficacy in patients with relapsed AML and with MDS post-hypomethylating therapy. Rationally designed combinations of PD-1 inhibitors with standard anti-leukemic therapy are needed. Hypomethylating agents such as azacitidine, up-regulate PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in patients with AML/MDS and up-regulation of these genes was associated with the emergence of resistance. The combination of azacitidine and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition may be a potential mechanism to prevent or overcome resistance to 5-azacitidine. A number of such combinations are being evaluated in clinical trials with early encouraging results. Immune checkpoint inhibition is also an attractive option to improve relapse-free survival or eliminate minimal residual disease post induction and consolidation by enhancing T-cell surveillance in patients with high-risk AML. The ongoing clinical trials with checkpoint inhibitors in AML/MDS will improve our understanding of the immunobiology of these diseases and guide us to the most appropriate application of these agents in the therapy of AML/MDS.

  4. [Sea urchin embryo, DNA-damaged cell cycle checkpoint and the mechanisms initiating cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellé, Robert; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Morales, Julia; Cosson, Bertrand; Cormier, Patrick; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile

    2007-01-01

    Cell division is an essential process for heredity, maintenance and evolution of the whole living kingdom. Sea urchin early development represents an excellent experimental model for the analysis of cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms since embryonic cells contain a functional DNA-damage checkpoint and since the whole sea urchin genome is sequenced. The DNA-damaged checkpoint is responsible for an arrest in the cell cycle when DNA is damaged or incorrectly replicated, for activation of the DNA repair mechanism, and for commitment to cell death by apoptosis in the case of failure to repair. New insights in cancer biology lead to two fundamental concepts about the very first origin of cancerogenesis. Cancers result from dysfunction of DNA-damaged checkpoints and cancers appear as a result of normal stem cell (NCS) transformation into a cancer stem cell (CSC). The second aspect suggests a new definition of "cancer", since CSC can be detected well before any clinical evidence. Since early development starts from the zygote, which is a primary stem cell, sea urchin early development allows analysis of the early steps of the cancerization process. Although sea urchins do not develop cancers, the model is alternative and complementary to stem cells which are not easy to isolate, do not divide in a short time and do not divide synchronously. In the field of toxicology and incidence on human health, the sea urchin experimental model allows assessment of cancer risk from single or combined molecules long before any epidemiologic evidence is available. Sea urchin embryos were used to test the worldwide used pesticide Roundup that contains glyphosate as the active herbicide agent; it was shown to activate the DNA-damage checkpoint of the first cell cycle of development. The model therefore allows considerable increase in risk evaluation of new products in the field of cancer and offers a tool for the discovery of molecular markers for early diagnostic in cancer biology

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans histone methyltransferase MET-2 shields the male X chromosome from checkpoint machinery and mediates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Checchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC, suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.

  6. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been...

  8. Variation in sensitivity to #betta#-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations during the mitotic cycle of the sea urchin egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Y.; Nakamura, I.; Shiroya, T.

    1982-01-01

    Sea urchin eggs were irradiated with 137 Cs #betta# rays at various stages of the mitotic cycle, and chromosomal aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis and embryonic abnormalities at later developmental stages were examined. The radiosensitivity of the eggs to both endpoints varied in parallel with the mitotic stage at the time of irradiation, suggesting a possible relationship between chromosomal damage and embryonic abnormalities

  9. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  10. The reduction of radiation-induced mitotic delay by caffeine: a test of the cyclic AMP hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleinick, N.L.; Brewer, E.N.; Rustad, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of the reduction in γ-radiation-induced mitotic delay by caffeine in the naturally-synchronous plasmodial slime mould. Physarum polycephalum during late G 2 and early prophase, and the results compared with those obtained with other compounds of similar structure and/or physiological function. The reduction of radiation-induced mitotic delay was related to increasing concentrations of caffeine over at least two orders of magnitude. Pre-irradiation treatment with caffeine had no detectable effect. Caffeine had to be present for most, if not all, of the post-irradiation pre-mitotic period. Other chemicals which are reported to inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase either reduce or increase radiation-induced mitotic delay. The results therefore indicate that the reduction of mitotic delay by caffeine is not a result of altered cyclic AMP levels. (UK)

  11. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:26149688

  12. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs. PMID:23593258

  13. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  14. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  15. Participation of SRM5/CDC28, SRM8/NET1 and SRM12/HF11 genes in activation of checkpoints of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskaya, E.Yu.; Koltovaya, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that there are about twenty checkpoint genes in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We study participation of SRM genes selected as genes affecting genetic stability and radiosensitivity. It has been shown that srm5/cdc28-srm, srm8/net1-srm, srm12/hfil-srm mutations prevent checkpoint activation by DNA damage, particularly G0/S-checkpoint (srm5, srm8), G1/S-checkpoint (srm5, srm8, srm12), S-checkpoint (srm5, srm12) and G2-checkpoint (srm5). These data indicate, at least in budding yeast, CDC28/SRM5, HF11/ADA1/SRM12 and NET1/SRM8 genes mediate cellular response induced by DNA damage including checkpoint control

  16. Induction of mitotic recombination by UV and diepoxybutane and its enhancement by hydroxyurea in Saccharomyces cerevisae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborowska, D.; Swietlinska, Z.; Zuk, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Biochemii i Biofizyki)

    1983-04-01

    Mitotic inter- and intra-genic recombination was induced by UV-irradiation and treatment with diepoxybutane (DEB) in 2 heteroallelic diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBTD and D7. Induction of the events tested was strongly potentiated by plating of mutagen-treated cells on growth media containing 0.03 M hydroxyurea (HU).

  17. INFLUENCE OF SUMIDAN ON MITOTIC DIVISION IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Mihaela Axente

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : This paper includes the cytogenetic effects induced by sumidan insectofungicide in meristematic cells of Trigonella foenum graecum L. root tips. The increase of pesticide concentration determined the decrease of mitotic index, while the frequency and the type of chromosome aberrations are much greater in treated variants, comparatively with control.

  18. Frequencies of mutagen-induced coincident mitotic recombination at unlinked loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Kathryn M. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States); Hoffmann, George R. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)]. E-mail: ghoffmann@holycross.edu

    2007-03-01

    Frequencies of coincident genetic events were measured in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This diploid strain permits the detection of mitotic gene conversion involving the trp5-12 and trp5-27 alleles, mitotic crossing-over and gene conversion leading to the expression of the ade2-40 and ade2-119 alleles as red and pink colonies, and reversion of the ilv1-92 allele. The three genes are on different chromosomes, and one might expect that coincident (simultaneous) genetic alterations at two loci would occur at frequencies predicted by those of the single alterations acting as independent events. Contrary to this expectation, we observed that ade2 recombinants induced by bleomycin, {beta}-propiolactone, and ultraviolet radiation occur more frequently among trp5 convertants than among total colonies. This excess among trp5 recombinants indicates that double recombinants are more common than expected for independent events. No similar enrichment was found among Ilv{sup +} revertants. The possibility of an artifact in which haploid yeasts that mimic mitotic recombinants are generated by a low frequency of cryptic meiosis has been excluded. Several hypotheses that can explain the elevated incidence of coincident mitotic recombination have been evaluated, but the cause remains uncertain. Most evidence suggests that the excess is ascribable to a subset of the population being in a recombination-prone state.

  19. Influence of the circadian rhythm in cell division on radiation-induced mitotic delay in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    All mitotically active normal tissues in mammals investigated to date demonstrate a circadian rhythm in cell division. The murine corneal epithelium is a practical and advantageous tissue model for studying this phenomenon. In animals synchronized to a light-dark (LD) schedule, one sees predictably reproducible occurrences of peaks and troughs in the mitotic index (MI) within each 24-hour (h) period. One of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on dividing cells is mitotic delay, reported to be a G 2 block in cells approaching mitosis. Affected cells are not killed but are inhibited from entering mitosis and are delayed for a span of time reported to be dose and cell cycle dependent. In the classical description of mitotic delay, MI of irradiated cells begins to drop in relation to the control, which is plotted as a straight line, uniform throughout the experiment. After the damage is repaired, delayed cells can enter mitosis along with other cells in the pool unaffected by the radiation, resulting in a MI higher than control levels. The span of delay and the occurrence of recovery are assumed to be constant for a given dose and tissue under similar experimental conditions. First described in asynchronously-dividing tissue culture cells, this concept is also extrapolated to the in vivo situation

  20. Prediction of X-ray induced mitotic delay and recovery of G2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.M.; Schneiderman, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that predicts the delay of mitosis caused by X-irradiation of an asynchronous, exponentially growing cell culture. In the model, based on Gompertz kinetics, the driving function to generate the curves is a simple exponential decay expression. For the delayed mitotic progress curves, this function characterizes the distribution of the time required for cells to enter mitosis. (author)

  1. Discrimination of bromodeoxyuridine labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells in flow cytometric bromodeoxyuridine/DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Larsen, J K; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells, respectively, can be discriminated from interphase cells using a new method, based on immunocytochemical staining of BrdUrd and flow cytometric four-parameter analysis of DNA content, BrdUrd incorporation, and forward and orthogona...

  2. Cell cycle-dependent SUMO-1 conjugation to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Sung; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Sun-Jick; Bang, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun-A; Sung, Ki Sa [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyun-Joo [TissueGene Inc. 9605 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Yoo, Hae Yong [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Cheol Yong, E-mail: choicy@skku.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •NuMA is modified by SUMO-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. •NuMA lysine 1766 is the primary target site for SUMOylation. •SUMOylation-deficient NuMA induces multiple spindle poles during mitosis. •SUMOylated NuMA induces microtubule bundling. -- Abstract: Covalent conjugation of proteins with small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle control, replication, and transcriptional regulation. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) localizes to spindle poles during mitosis, and is an essential component in the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles. Here we show that NuMA is a target for covalent conjugation to SUMO-1. We find that the lysine 1766 residue is the primary NuMA acceptor site for SUMO-1 conjugation. Interestingly, SUMO modification of endogenous NuMA occurs at the entry into mitosis and this modification is reversed after exiting from mitosis. Knockdown of Ubc9 or forced expression of SENP1 results in impairment of the localization of NuMA to mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. The SUMOylation-deficient NuMA mutant is defective in microtubule bundling, and multiple spindles are induced during mitosis. The mitosis-dependent dynamic SUMO-1 modification of NuMA might contribute to NuMA-mediated formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis.

  3. Mitotic phosphorylation of VCIP135 blocks p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsukawa, Go; Matsuo, Ayaka; Kubota, Ayano; Taguchi, Yuya; Kondo, Hisao, E-mail: hk228@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •VCIP135 is mitotically phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2. •Phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97ATPase. •The phosphorylation of VCIP135 inhibits p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 and p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 result in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 and the p97/p37 pathways, respectively [11,14]. In this study, we show another mechanism of mitotic inhibition of p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. We clarified that VCIP135, an essential factor in both p97 membrane fusion pathways, is phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2 at mitosis and that this phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97. An in vitro Golgi reassembly assay revealed that VCIP135(T760E, S767E), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, caused no cisternal regrowth. Our results indicate that the phosphorylation of VCIP135 on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 inhibits p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion at mitosis.

  4. Suspension of Mitotic Activity in Dentate Gyrus of the Hibernating Ground Squirrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Popov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4–6°C permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  5. Mediator can regulate mitotic entry and direct periodic transcription in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyai, Gabor; Lopez, Marcela Davila; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2014-11-01

    Cdk8 is required for correct timing of mitotic progression in fission yeast. How the activity of Cdk8 is regulated is unclear, since the kinase is not activated by T-loop phosphorylation and its partner, CycC, does not oscillate. Cdk8 is, however, a component of the multiprotein Mediator complex, a conserved coregulator of eukaryotic transcription that is connected to a number of intracellular signaling pathways. We demonstrate here that other Mediator components regulate the activity of Cdk8 in vivo and thereby direct the timing of mitotic entry. Deletion of Mediator components Med12 and Med13 leads to higher cellular Cdk8 protein levels, premature phosphorylation of the Cdk8 target Fkh2, and earlier entry into mitosis. We also demonstrate that Mediator is recruited to clusters of mitotic genes in a periodic fashion and that the complex is required for the transcription of these genes. We suggest that Mediator functions as a hub for coordinated regulation of mitotic progression and cell cycle-dependent transcription. The many signaling pathways and activator proteins shown to function via Mediator may influence the timing of these cell cycle events. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Frequencies of mutagen-induced coincident mitotic recombination at unlinked loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Kathryn M.; Hoffmann, George R.

    2007-01-01

    Frequencies of coincident genetic events were measured in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This diploid strain permits the detection of mitotic gene conversion involving the trp5-12 and trp5-27 alleles, mitotic crossing-over and gene conversion leading to the expression of the ade2-40 and ade2-119 alleles as red and pink colonies, and reversion of the ilv1-92 allele. The three genes are on different chromosomes, and one might expect that coincident (simultaneous) genetic alterations at two loci would occur at frequencies predicted by those of the single alterations acting as independent events. Contrary to this expectation, we observed that ade2 recombinants induced by bleomycin, β-propiolactone, and ultraviolet radiation occur more frequently among trp5 convertants than among total colonies. This excess among trp5 recombinants indicates that double recombinants are more common than expected for independent events. No similar enrichment was found among Ilv + revertants. The possibility of an artifact in which haploid yeasts that mimic mitotic recombinants are generated by a low frequency of cryptic meiosis has been excluded. Several hypotheses that can explain the elevated incidence of coincident mitotic recombination have been evaluated, but the cause remains uncertain. Most evidence suggests that the excess is ascribable to a subset of the population being in a recombination-prone state

  7. Induction of mitotic recombination by UV and diepoxybutane and its enhancement by hydroxyurea in Saccharomyces cerevisae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborowska, D.; Swietlinska, Z.; Zuk, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mitotic inter- and intra-genic recombination was induced by UV-irradiation and treatment with diepoxybutane (DEB) in 2 heteroallelic diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBTD and D7. Induction of the events tested was strongly potentiated by plating of mutagen-treated cells on growth media containing 0.03 M hydroxyurea (HU). (orig.)

  8. Akt Inhibitor A-443654 Interferes with Mitotic Progression by Regulating Aurora A Kinase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both Akt and Aurora A kinase have been shown to be important targets for intervention for cancer therapy. We report here that Compound A (A-443654, a specific Akt inhibitor, interferes with mitotic progression and bipolar spindle formation. Compound A induces G2/M accumulation, defects in centrosome separation, and formation of either monopolar arrays or disorganized spindles. On the basis of gene expression array studies, we identified Aurora A as one of the genes regulated transcriptionally by Akt inhibitors including Compound A. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, either by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or by Compound A, dramatically inhibits the promoter activity of Aurora A, whereas the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has little effect, suggesting that Akt might be responsible for up-regulating Aurora A for mitotic progression. Further analysis of the Aurora A promoter region indicates that the Ets element but not the Sp1 element is required for Compound A-sensitive transcriptional control of Aurora A. Overexpression of Aurora A in cells treated with Compound A attenuates the mitotic arrest and the defects in bipolar spindle formation induced by Akt inhibition. Our studies suggest that that Akt may promote mitotic progression through the transcriptional regulation of Aurora A.

  9. Deficiency of RITA results in multiple mitotic defects by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhäuser, K; Klöble, P; Kreis, N-N; Ritter, A; Friemel, A; Roth, S; Reichel, J M; Michaelis, J; Rieger, M A; Louwen, F; Oswald, F; Yuan, J

    2017-04-01

    Deregulation of mitotic microtubule (MT) dynamics results in defective spindle assembly and chromosome missegregation, leading further to chromosome instability, a hallmark of tumor cells. RBP-J interacting and tubulin-associated protein (RITA) has been identified as a negative regulator of the Notch signaling pathway. Intriguingly, deregulated RITA is involved in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and other malignant entities. We were interested in the potential molecular mechanisms behind its involvement. We show here that RITA binds to tubulin and localizes to various mitotic MT structures. RITA coats MTs and affects their structures in vitro as well as in vivo. Tumor cell lines deficient of RITA display increased acetylated α-tubulin, enhanced MT stability and reduced MT dynamics, accompanied by multiple mitotic defects, including chromosome misalignment and segregation errors. Re-expression of wild-type RITA, but not RITA Δtub ineffectively binding to tubulin, restores the phenotypes, suggesting that the role of RITA in MT modulation is mediated via its interaction with tubulin. Mechanistically, RITA interacts with tubulin/histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and its suppression decreases the binding of the deacetylase HDAC6 to tubulin/MTs. Furthermore, the mitotic defects and increased MT stability are also observed in RITA -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. RITA has thus a novel role in modulating MT dynamics and its deregulation results in erroneous chromosome segregation, one of the major reasons for chromosome instability in tumor cells.

  10. Polo-like kinase-1 is a target of the DNA damage checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, V.A.J.; Klompmaker, R.; Arnaud, L.; Rijksen, G.; Nigg, E.A.; Medema, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Polo-like kinases (PLKs) have an important role in several stages of mitosis. They contribute to the activation of cyclin B/Cdc2 and are involved in centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation at the onset of mitosis1, 2. PLKs also control mitotic exit by regulating the anaphase-promoting

  11. Hydrogen peroxide induced loss of heterozygosity correlates with replicative lifespan and mitotic asymmetry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Erin D.; Parker, Meighan C.; Gupta, Nilin; Rodrigues, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Cellular aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to genomic instability and impaired mitotic asymmetry. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in cellular aging, we examined the effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry in a collection of yeast strains with diverse backgrounds. We treated yeast cells with hydrogen peroxide and monitored the changes of viability and the frequencies of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in response to hydrogen peroxide doses. The mid-transition points of viability and LOH were quantified using sigmoid mathematical functions. We found that the increase of hydrogen peroxide dependent genomic instability often occurs before a drop in viability. We previously observed that elevation of genomic instability generally lags behind the drop in viability during chronological aging. Hence, onset of genomic instability induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment is opposite to that induced by endogenous oxidative stress during chronological aging, with regards to the midpoint of viability. This contrast argues that the effect of endogenous oxidative stress on genome integrity is well suppressed up to the dying-off phase during chronological aging. We found that the leadoff of exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced genomic instability to viability significantly correlated with replicative lifespan (RLS), indicating that yeast cells’ ability to counter oxidative stress contributes to their replicative longevity. Surprisingly, this leadoff is positively correlated with an inverse measure of endogenous mitotic asymmetry, indicating a trade-off between mitotic asymmetry and cell’s ability to fend off hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. Overall, our results demonstrate strong associations of oxidative stress to genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry at the population level of budding yeast. PMID:27833823

  12. Dataset from the global phosphoproteomic mapping of early mitotic exit in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rogers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence or absence of a phosphorylation on a substrate at any particular point in time is a functional readout of the balance in activity between the regulatory kinase and the counteracting phosphatase. Understanding how stable or short-lived a phosphorylation site is required for fully appreciating the biological consequences of the phosphorylation. Our current understanding of kinases and their substrates is well established; however, the role phosphatases play is less understood. Therefore, we utilized a phosphatase dependent model of mitotic exit to identify potential substrates that are preferentially dephosphorylated. Using this method, we identified >16,000 phosphosites on >3300 unique proteins, and quantified the temporal phosphorylation changes that occur during early mitotic exit (McCloy et al., 2015 [1]. Furthermore, we annotated the majority of these phosphorylation sites with a high confidence upstream kinase using published, motif and prediction based methods. The results from this study have been deposited into the ProteomeXchange repository with identifier PXD001559. Here we provide additional analysis of this dataset; for each of the major mitotic kinases we identified motifs that correlated strongly with phosphorylation status. These motifs could be used to predict the stability of phosphorylated residues in proteins of interest, and help infer potential functional roles for uncharacterized phosphorylations. In addition, we provide validation at the single cell level that serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk are stable during phosphatase dependent mitotic exit. In summary, this unique dataset contains information on the temporal mitotic stability of thousands of phosphorylation sites regulated by dozens of kinases, and information on the potential preference that phosphatases have at both the protein and individual phosphosite level. The compellation of this data provides an invaluable resource for the wider research

  13. Drug-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) protocols: cytogenetic approaches in mitotic chromosome and interphase chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is a fundamental technique which is used in wide areas of cytogenetic study including karyotyping species, hereditary diseases diagnosis, or chromosome biology study. Chromosomes are usually prepared from mitotic cells arrested by colcemid block protocol. However, obtaining mitotic chromosomes is often hampered under several circumstances. As a result, cytogenetic analysis will be sometimes difficult or even impossible in such cases. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) (see Note 1) is an alternative method that has proved to be a unique and useful way in chromosome analysis. Former, PCC has been achieved following cell fusion method (cell-fusion PCC) mediated either by fusogenic viruses (e.g., Sendai virus) or cell fusion chemicals (e.g., polyethylene glycol), but the cell fusion PCC has several drawbacks. The novel drug-induced PCC using protein phosphatase inhibitors was introduced about 20 years ago. This method is much simpler and easier even than the conventional mitotic chromosome preparation protocol use with colcemid block and furthermore obtained PCC index (equivalent to mitotic index for metaphase chromosome) is usually much higher than colcemid block method. Moreover, this method allows the interphase chromatin to be condensed to visualize like mitotic chromosomes. Therefore drug-induced PCC has opened the way for chromosome analysis not only in metaphase chromosomes but also in interphase chromatin. The drug-induced PCC has thus proven the usefulness in cytogenetics and other cell biology fields. For this second edition version, updated modifications/changes are supplemented in Subheadings 2, 3, and 4, and a new section describing the application of PCC in chromosome science fields is added with citation of updated references.

  14. Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrington, Kristen S.; Slettedahl, Seth; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Czene, Kamila; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bojesen, Stig E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Cox, Angela; Hall, Per; Carpenter, Jane; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Haiman, Christopher A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Mannermaa, Arto; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Lindblom, Annika; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Benitez, Javier; Swerdlow, Anthony; Kristensen, Vessela; Guénel, Pascal; Meindl, Alfons; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Wang, Xianshu; Olswold, Curtis; Olson, Janet E.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Clarke, Christine; Scott, Rodney; Fostira, Florentia; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Ekici, Arif B.; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Pylkäs, Katri; Kauppila, Saila; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Arndt, Volker; Margolin, Sara; Balleine, Rosemary; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Pilar Zamora, M.; Menéndez, Primitiva; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Truong, Thérèse; Bugert, Peter; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Labrèche, France; Goldberg, Mark S.; Dumont, Martine; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lee, Eunjung; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Peterlongo, Paolo; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Martens, John W.M.; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Susan M.; Durcan, Lorraine; Mclean, Catriona; Milne, Roger L.; Baglietto, Laura; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Van'T Veer, Laura J.; Cornelissen, Sten; Försti, Asta; Torres, Diana; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nickels, Stefan; Weltens, Caroline; Floris, Giuseppe; Moisse, Matthieu; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Brown, Judith; Simard, Jacques; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hopper, John L.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Zheng, Wei; Radice, Paolo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Devillee, Peter; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hooning, Maartje; García-Closas, Montserrat; Sawyer, Elinor; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmee, Frederick; Eccles, Diana M.; Giles, Graham G.; Peto, Julian; Schmidt, Marjanka; Broeks, Annegien; Hamann, Ute; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lambrechts, Diether; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Easton, Douglas; Pankratz, V. Shane; Slager, Susan; Vachon, Celine M.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.33, P = 4.2 × 10−10) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.11, P = 8.7 × 10−6) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23, P = 7.9 × 10−5) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 × 10−3). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24927736

  15. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Midori [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ayumu [Department of Chemistry, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Sizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aiba, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmura@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  16. Mitotic Stress Is an Integral Part of the Oncogene-Induced Senescence Program that Promotes Multinucleation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Dikovskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS is a tumor suppression mechanism that blocks cell proliferation in response to oncogenic signaling. OIS is frequently accompanied by multinucleation; however, the origin of this is unknown. Here, we show that multinucleate OIS cells originate mostly from failed mitosis. Prior to senescence, mutant H-RasV12 activation in primary human fibroblasts compromised mitosis, concordant with abnormal expression of mitotic genes functionally linked to the observed mitotic spindle and chromatin defects. Simultaneously, H-RasV12 activation enhanced survival of cells with damaged mitoses, culminating in extended mitotic arrest and aberrant exit from mitosis via mitotic slippage. ERK-dependent transcriptional upregulation of Mcl1 was, at least in part, responsible for enhanced survival and slippage of cells with mitotic defects. Importantly, mitotic slippage and oncogene signaling cooperatively induced senescence and key senescence effectors p21 and p16. In summary, activated Ras coordinately triggers mitotic disruption and enhanced cell survival to promote formation of multinucleate senescent cells.

  17. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Tetsushi, E-mail: tiida@nig.ac.jp [Division of Cytogenetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iida, Naoko [Division of Mutagenesis, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Tsutsui, Yasuhiro [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Yamao, Fumiaki [Division of Mutagenesis, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takehiko [Division of Cytogenetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sokendai, Mishima, 1111 Yata, Mishima 411-8540 (Japan)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNAi is linked to the cell cycle checkpoint in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr1 co-purifies with Ago1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr1-1 mutation impairs the checkpoint but does not affect gene silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} regulate the cell cycle checkpoint via the same pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations in ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} lead to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs. -- Abstract: Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1{sup +}, the overexpression of ago1{sup +} alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1{Delta}. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1{sup +} is dependent on ptr1{sup +}. Nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +}, suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control.

  18. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A New Opportunity in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mittica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancer. The standard treatment for advanced stage is the combination of optimal debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, recurrence is frequent (around 70% and prognosis is globally poor. New therapeutic agents are needed to improve survival. Since EOC is strongly immunogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors are under evaluation for their capacity to contrast the “turn off” signals expressed by the tumor to escape the immune system and usually responsible for self-tolerance maintenance. This article reviews the literature on anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-PD-L2 antibodies in EOC and highlights their possible lines of development. Further studies are needed to better define the prognostic role of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, to identify predictors of response and the optimal clinical setting in EOC.

  19. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: An Innovation in Immunotherapy for the Treatment and Management of Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dine, Jennifer; Gordon, RuthAnn; Shames, Yelena; Kasler, Mary Kate; Barton-Burke, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Cancer survival rates are generally increasing in the United States. These trends have been partially attributed to improvement in therapeutic strategies. Cancer immunotherapy is an example of one of the newer strategies used to fight cancer, which primes or activates the immune system to produce antitumor effects. The first half of this review paper concisely describes the cell mechanisms that control antitumor immunity and the major immunotherapeutic strategies developed to target these mechanisms. The second half of the review discusses in greater depth immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently demonstrated tremendous promise for the treatment of diverse solid tumor types, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and others. More specifically, the mechanisms of action, side effects, and patient and family management and education concerns are discussed to provide oncology nurses up-to-date information relevant to caring for cancer-affected patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Future directions for cancer immunotherapy are considered.

  20. Cloud object store for checkpoints of high performance computing applications using decoupling middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2016-04-19

    Cloud object storage is enabled for checkpoints of high performance computing applications using a middleware process. A plurality of files, such as checkpoint files, generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining said plurality of files from said parallel computing system; converting said plurality of files to objects using a log structured file system middleware process; and providing said objects for storage in a cloud object storage system. The plurality of processes may run, for example, on a plurality of compute nodes. The log structured file system middleware process may be embodied, for example, as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS). The log structured file system middleware process optionally executes on a burst buffer node.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of US FDA-Approved Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shun Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few effective treatment options are available for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC after unsuccessful first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. To date, immune checkpoint inhibitors are novel therapeutic agents for UC treatment. From May 2016 to May 2017, five anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies received accelerated or regular approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC. The present comprehensive review presents the background information of these five US FDA-approved anticancer agents to provide a basic but concise understanding of these agents for advanced studies. We summarize their immune checkpoint mechanisms, clinical efficacy, recommended usage protocols, adverse events, and the limitations of the PD-L1 biomarker assays.

  2. A novel ATM-dependent checkpoint defect distinct from loss of function mutation promotes genomic instability in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Loredana; Brooks, Kelly; Chia, KeeMing; Grossman, Gavriel; Ellis, Jonathan J; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Škalamera, Dubravka; Pavey, Sandra; Burmeister, Bryan; Gabrielli, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas have high levels of genomic instability that can contribute to poor disease prognosis. Here, we report a novel defect of the ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint in melanoma cell lines that promotes genomic instability. In defective cells, ATM signalling to CHK2 is intact, but the cells are unable to maintain the cell cycle arrest due to elevated PLK1 driving recovery from the arrest. Reducing PLK1 activity recovered the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest, and over-expressing PLK1 was sufficient to overcome the checkpoint arrest and increase genomic instability. Loss of the ATM-dependent checkpoint did not affect sensitivity to ionizing radiation demonstrating that this defect is distinct from ATM loss of function mutations. The checkpoint defective melanoma cell lines over-express PLK1, and a significant proportion of melanomas have high levels of PLK1 over-expression suggesting this defect is a common feature of melanomas. The inability of ATM to impose a cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage increases genomic instability. This work also suggests that the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest is likely to be defective in a higher proportion of cancers than previously expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint

  4. Disruption of spindle checkpoint function in rats following 28 days of repeated administration of renal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD(+) cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.

  5. CDC28, NETI, and HFII are required for checkpoints in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltovaya, N.A.; Kadyshevskaya, E.Yu.; Roshina, M.P.; Devin, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of SRM genes selected as genes affecting genetic stability and radiosensitivity in a cell cycle arrest under the action of damaging agents was studied. It was shown that the srm5/cdc28-srm, srm8/netI-srm, and srmI2/hfiI-srm mutations prevent checkpoint activation by DNA damage, particularly the G 0 /S (srm5, srm8), G 1 /S (srm5, srm8, srm12), S (srm8, srm12) and S/G 2 (srm5) checkpoints. It seems that in budding yeast the CDC28, HFII/ADAI, and NETI genes mediate cellular response induced by DNA damage with checkpoint control. The well-known checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and RAD53, and the genes CDC28, and NETI have been found to belong to one epistasis group named RAD9-group as regards cell sensitivity to γ radiation. An analysis of the radiosensitivity of double mutants has revealed that the mutation cdc-28-srm is hypostatic to each of mutations rad9Δ, and rad24Δ, and additive to rad17Δ. The mutation netI-srm is hypostatic to the mutations rad9Δ but additive to rad17Δ, rad24Δ, and rad53. The mutation hfiI-srm has an additive effect in compound with the mutations rad24Δ and rad9Δ. So, investigations of epistatic interactions have demonstrated a branched RAD9-dependent pathway. The analyzed genes can also participate in a minor mechanism involved in determining cell radiation sensitivity independently of the mentioned RAD9-dependent pathway

  6. Oncogene-induced senescence is part of the tumorigenesis barrier imposed by DNA damage checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Jirina; Rezaei, Nousin; Liontos, Michalis

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the existence of tumorigenesis barriers that slow or inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. One such barrier involves DNA replication stress, which leads to activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and thereby to apoptosis or cell cycle arrest...... and senescence markers cosegregate closely. Thus, senescence in human preneoplastic lesions is a manifestation of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress and, together with apoptosis, provides a barrier to malignant progression....

  7. SPARC: Demonstrate burst-buffer-based checkpoint/restart on ATS-1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, Ron A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ulmer, Craig D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Widener, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Recent high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as the Trinity Advanced Technology System (ATS-1) feature burst buffer resources that can have a dramatic impact on an application’s I/O performance. While these non-volatile memory (NVM) resources provide a new tier in the storage hierarchy, developers must find the right way to incorporate the technology into their applications in order to reap the benefits. Similar to other laboratories, Sandia is actively investigating ways in which these resources can be incorporated into our existing libraries and workflows without burdening our application developers with excessive, platform-specific details. This FY18Q1 milestone summaries our progress in adapting the Sandia Parallel Aerodynamics and Reentry Code (SPARC) in Sandia’s ATDM program to leverage Trinity’s burst buffers for checkpoint/restart operations. We investigated four different approaches with varying tradeoffs in this work: (1) simply updating job script to use stage-in/stage out burst buffer directives, (2) modifying SPARC to use LANL’s hierarchical I/O (HIO) library to store/retrieve checkpoints, (3) updating Sandia’s IOSS library to incorporate the burst buffer in all meshing I/O operations, and (4) modifying SPARC to use our Kelpie distributed memory library to store/retrieve checkpoints. Team members were successful in generating initial implementation for all four approaches, but were unable to obtain performance numbers in time for this report (reasons: initial problem sizes were not large enough to stress I/O, and SPARC refactor will require changes to our code). When we presented our work to the SPARC team, they expressed the most interest in the second and third approaches. The HIO work was favored because it is lightweight, unobtrusive, and should be portable to ATS-2. The IOSS work is seen as a long-term solution, and is favored because all I/O work (including checkpoints) can be deferred to a single library.

  8. A Review of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for the Management of Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kirollos S

    2017-11-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary system and the sixth most common cancer in the United States. The overall incidence of UC appears to be on the decline, but death rates have remained stable. Stage IV metastatic disease is associated with only a 5% survival rate at 5 years. Gemcitabine and cisplatin combinations or dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin are the preferred regimens for individuals with advance, metastatic disease and a good performance status and organ function. Second-line therapies in this setting are limited. During the course of 1 year, five immune checkpoint inhibitors were approved for treatment of cancers in the locally advanced or metastatic setting: atezolizumab, nivolumab, durvalumab, avelumab, and pembrolizumab. Immunotherapies have played a significant role in the treatment of various cancers and have continued to expand. It is of utmost importance that practitioners include checkpoint inhibitors as treatment options for UC. Based on the limited data, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab may be the drugs of choice, as they are supported by the most influential data to date; however, further research is warranted. Ongoing clinical trials will further assess the benefits of inducing cellular immunity in the treatment of UC. These therapies mark a new landscape in the treatment of UC. In this article, the available data on immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic UC and their place in therapy are reviewed. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  10. Measures to detect and control radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap at border checkpoints in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap has never received a high priority in Poland and in the international community. Since the dissolution of the former Soviet Union a higher attention has been given to the problem. Poland which is located between the West and East Europe has the obligation to develop and implement an effective prevention and detection system. The reasons to increase national control and detection system at the border checkpoints in Poland are to avoid the following risks: post Chernobyl contamination transports of commodities; transport of contaminated metal scrap; transfer of radioactive waste for their disposal or utilization; high risk of becoming a transit country of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. In order to avoid the above-mentioned risks, Poland initiated in 1990, a deployment of the portable radiation devices at the border checkpoints and, as of 1998, the number of installed instruments exceeded a hundred. This paper presents Poland's activities to detect contaminated scrap at its border checkpoints. (author)

  11. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy: The 2014 Tang prize in biopharmaceutical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shan Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Tang Prize for Biopharmaceutical Science has been awarded to Prof. James P. Allison and Prof. Tasuku Honjo for their contributions leading to an entirely new way to treat cancer by blocking the molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 that turn off immune response. The treatment, called "immune checkpoint blockade therapy," has opened a new therapeutic era. Here the discoveries of the immune checkpoints and how they contribute to the maintenance of self-tolerance, as well as how to protect tissues from the excess immune responses causing damage are reviewed. The efforts made by Prof. Allison and Prof. Honjo for developing the most promising approaches to activate therapeutic antitumor immunity are also summarized. Since these certain immune checkpoint pathways appear to be one of the major mechanisms resulting in immune escape of tumors, the presence of anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-PD-1 should contribute to removal of the inhibition signals for T cell activation. Subsequently, it will enhance specific T cell activation and, therefore, strengthen antitumor immunity.

  12. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases as emerging targets of innate immune checkpoint blockade for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalu, Yemsratch T; Rothlin, Carla V; Ghosh, Sourav

    2017-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapy utilizing T-cell checkpoint inhibitors has shown tremendous clinical success. Yet, this mode of treatment is effective in only a subset of patients. Unresponsive patients tend to have non-T-cell-inflamed tumors that lack markers associated with the activation of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. Notably, elimination of cancer cells by T cells is critically dependent on the optimal activity of innate immune cells. Therefore, identifying new targets that regulate innate immune cell function and promote the engagement of adaptive tumoricidal responses is likely to lead to the development of improved therapies against cancer. Here, we review the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases-TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK-as an emerging class of innate immune checkpoints that participate in key steps of anti-tumoral immunity. Namely, TAM-mediated efferocytosis, negative regulation of dendritic cell activity, and dysregulated production of chemokines collectively favor the escape of malignant cells. Hence, disabling TAM signaling may promote engagement of adaptive immunity and complement T-cell checkpoint blockade. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Unique cytologic features of thyroiditis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor E. Angell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immune checkpoint molecules to reverse cancer-induced immune suppression can improve anti-tumor immune responses in cancer patients. Monoclonal antibodies targeting two such molecules, Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4 have shown clinical benefit in the treatment of advanced malignancies, including metastatic melanoma. Adverse effects of these immune checkpoint inhibitors include immune-related adverse events (irAE, of which one of the most common is autoimmune thyroiditis. Though thyroiditis is increasingly recognized, there are no reports of the pathological findings that occur in immunotherapy-induced thyroiditis. We present a case of immunotherapy-induced thyroiditis demonstrating its unique cytopathologic features. A 51-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma was found to have a suppressed TSH and elevated free thyroxine concentration 14 days after starting treatment with nivolumab (PD-1 antagonist plus ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antagonist therapy. A thyroid biopsy was performed based on ultrasound findings and cytopathology revealed unique features including abundant clusters of necrotic cells, lymphocytes and CD163-positive histiocytes. This case reports cytopathologic features found in immune checkpoint inhibitor related thyroiditis. These appear to be unique findings and may help inform future research regarding the pathophysiology and mechanisms of this condition.

  14. Cdk2 is required for p53-independent G2/M checkpoint control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon H Chung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation of phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks is associated with ordered cell cycle transitions. Among the mammalian Cdks, only Cdk1 is essential for somatic cell proliferation. Cdk1 can apparently substitute for Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, which are individually dispensable in mice. It is unclear if all functions of non-essential Cdks are fully redundant with Cdk1. Using a genetic approach, we show that Cdk2, the S-phase Cdk, uniquely controls the G(2/M checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis. CDK2-nullizygous human cells exposed to ionizing radiation failed to exclude Cdk1 from the nucleus and exhibited a marked defect in G(2/M arrest that was unmasked by the disruption of P53. The DNA replication licensing protein Cdc6, which is normally stabilized by Cdk2, was physically associated with the checkpoint regulator ATR and was required for efficient ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A signaling. These findings demonstrate that Cdk2 maintains a balance of S-phase regulatory proteins and thereby coordinates subsequent p53-independent G(2/M checkpoint activation.

  15. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: the new frontier in non–small cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Osta HE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazem El-Osta, Kamran Shahid, Glenn M Mills, Prakash Peddi Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the major cause for cancer-related death in the US. Although advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapy have improved the outcome of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, its prognosis remains dismal. A deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the immune system and tumor microenvironment has identified immune checkpoint inhibitors as new avenue of immunotherapy. Rather than acting directly on the tumor, these therapies work by removing the inhibition exerted by tumor cell or other immune cells on the immune system, promoting antitumoral immune response. To date, two programmed death-1 inhibitors, namely nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer that failed platinum-based chemotherapy. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology of cancer immune evasion, summarizes pertinent data on completed and ongoing clinical trials involving checkpoint inhibitors, discusses the different strategies to optimize their function, and outlines various challenges that are faced in this promising yet evolving field. Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy, nivolumab, non-small-cell lung cancer, pembrolizumab, programmed death-1, programmed death ligand-1

  16. PLK1 regulation of PCNT cleavage ensures fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Kwanwoo; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2015-12-09

    Centrioles are duplicated and segregated in close link to the cell cycle. During mitosis, daughter centrioles are disengaged and eventually separated from mother centrioles. New daughter centrioles may be generated only after centriole separation. Therefore, centriole separation is considered a licensing step for centriole duplication. It was previously known that separase specifically cleaves pericentrin (PCNT) during mitotic exit. Here we report that PCNT has to be phosphorylated by PLK1 to be a suitable substrate of separase. Phospho-resistant mutants of PCNT are not cleaved by separase and eventually inhibit centriole separation. Furthermore, phospho-mimetic PCNT mutants rescue centriole separation even in the presence of a PLK1 inhibitor. On the basis on these results, we propose that PLK1 phosphorylation is a priming step for separase-mediated cleavage of PCNT and eventually for centriole separation. PLK1 phosphorylation of PCNT provides an additional layer of regulatory mechanism to ensure the fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

  17. Analysis of the Ceratitis capitata y chromosome using in situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

    1998-01-01

    In Ceratitis capitata the Y chromosome is responsible for sex-determination. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic analysis of mitotic chromosomes. FISH with the wild-type strain EgyptII and two repetitive DNA probes enabled us to differentiate between the short and the long arm of the Y chromosome and gives a much better resolution than C-banding of mitotic chromosomes. We identified the Y-chromosomal breakpoints in Y-autosome translocations using FISH. Even more complex rearrangements i.e. deletions and insertions in some translocation strains were detected by this method. A strategy for mapping the primary sex determination factor in Ceratitis capitata by FISH is presented. (author)

  18. SON is a spliceosome-associated factor required for mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Michael S Y; Sy, Shirley M H; Leung, Ka Man; Ching, Yick-Pang; Tipoe, George L; Man, Cornelia; Dong, Shuo; Chen, Junjie

    2010-07-01

    The eukaryotic RNA splicing machinery is dedicated to the daunting task of excising intronic sequences on the many nascent RNA transcripts in a cell, and in doing so facilitates proper translation of its transcriptome. Notably, emerging evidence suggests that RNA splicing may also play direct roles in maintaining genome stability. Here we report the identification of the RNA/DNA-binding protein SON as a component of spliceosome that plays pleiotropic roles during mitotic progression. We found that SON is essential for cell proliferation, and that its inactivation triggers a MAD2-dependent mitotic delay. Moreover, SON deficiency is accompanied by defective chromosome congression, compromised chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, which in turn contributes to cellular aneuploidy and cell death. In summary, our study uncovers a specific link between SON and mitosis, and highlights the potential of RNA processing as additional regulatory mechanisms that govern cell proliferation and division. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  19. Effects of mutagen-sensitive mus mutations on spontaneous mitotic recombination in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Kafer, E

    1992-04-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus+ controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced recombination, while musN and musQ caused increases. In contrast, musO diploids produced significantly higher levels only for intragenic recombination. Effects were relatively small, but averages between hypo- and hyperrec mus differed 15-20-fold. In musL diploids, most of the rare color segregants resulted from mitotic malsegregation rather than intergenic crossing over. This indicates that the musL gene product is required for recombination and that DNA lesions lead to chromosome loss when it is deficient. In addition, analysis of the genotypes of intragenic (ad+) recombinants showed that the musL mutation specifically reduced single allele conversion but increased complex conversion types (especially recombinants homozygous for ad+). Similar analysis revealed differences between the effects of two hyperrec mutations; musN apparently caused high levels solely of mitotic crossing over, while musQ increased various conversion types but not reciprocal crossovers. These results suggest that mitotic gene conversion and crossing over, while generally associated, are affected differentially in some of the mus strains of Aspergillus nidulans.

  20. Determining local and contextual features describing appearance of difficult to identify mitotic figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Mitotic count is helpful in determining the aggressiveness of breast cancer. In previous studies, it was shown that the agreement among pathologists for grading mitotic index is fairly modest, as mitoses have a large variety of appearances and they could be mistaken for other similar objects. In this study, we determined local and contextual features that differ significantly between easily identifiable mitoses and challenging ones. The images were obtained from the Mitosis-Atypia 2014 challenge. In total, the dataset contained 453 mitotic figures. Two pathologists annotated each mitotic figure. In case of disagreement, an opinion from a third pathologist was requested. The mitoses were grouped into three categories, those recognized as "a true mitosis" by both pathologists ,those labelled as "a true mitosis" by only one of the first two readers and also the third pathologist, and those annotated as "probably a mitosis" by all readers or the majority of them. After color unmixing, the mitoses were segmented from H channel. Shape-based features along with intensity-based and textural features were extracted from H-channel, blue ratio channel and five different color spaces. Holistic features describing each image were also considered. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to identify significantly different features. Multiple comparisons were done using the rank-based version of Tukey-Kramer test. The results indicated that there are local and global features which differ significantly among different groups. In addition, variations between mitoses in different groups were captured in the features from HSL and LCH color space more than other ones.

  1. Genetic control of mitotic crossing over in yeast. 2. Influence of UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, I.A.; Marfin, S.V.; Koval'tsova, S.V.; Kasinova, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    UV-induced crossing-over and general mitotic segregation of the following strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were studied: a wild-type diploid, diploids homozygous with respect to the radiosensitivity of rad 2, rad 15, rad 54, xrs 4, rad 2 rad 54, rad 15 rad 54. Wild-type diploids rad 2 and rad 15 have a high frequency of the induced mitotic crossing-over. Diploids rad 15, rad 54 can not cause UV-induced mitotic crossing-over. Reddish-pink and reddish-pink-white colonies ratio (the first appear if the crossing-over occurs during the first after the irradiation division, the second - during the second division) is 4.8:1 for the wild type, 1.6:1 for rad 2, and 1.1:1 for rad 15. Nonreciprocal mitotic segregation of high frequency was observed for the wild type rad 2, rad 15, xrs 4, and diploids rad 54, rad 2 rad 54, rad 15 rad 54 had a lower frequency. We suppose that after UV-irradiation there exist at least three types of repair in yeast diploid cells: excision repair, prereplication recombinating repair after the excision of dimers, and post-replication recombinating repair. Rad 2 and rad 15 mutations blow the first and second types, rad 54 mutation partially block the second and third parths. It seems that xrs 4 mutation does not block the recombinating capability but somehow changes the process of recombination in such a way that much nonreciprocal products recorded as seqregants are produced [ru

  2. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krauss, Sharon W

    2006-01-01

    We proposed to test the novel hypothesis that protein 4.1 is of critical importance to centrosome and mitotic spindle aberrations that directly impact aspects of breast cancer pathogenesis. We characterized...

  3. Kinesin-8 effects on mitotic microtubule dynamics contribute to spindle function in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Zachary R.; Crapo, Ammon; Hough, Loren E.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin-8 motor proteins destabilize microtubules. Their absence during cell division is associated with disorganized mitotic chromosome movements and chromosome loss. Despite recent work studying effects of kinesin-8s on microtubule dynamics, it remains unclear whether the kinesin-8 mitotic phenotypes are consequences of their effect on microtubule dynamics, their well-established motor activity, or additional, unknown functions. To better understand the role of kinesin-8 proteins in mitosis, we studied the effects of deletion of the fission yeast kinesin-8 proteins Klp5 and Klp6 on chromosome movements and spindle length dynamics. Aberrant microtubule-driven kinetochore pushing movements and tripolar mitotic spindles occurred in cells lacking Klp5 but not Klp6. Kinesin-8–deletion strains showed large fluctuations in metaphase spindle length, suggesting a disruption of spindle length stabilization. Comparison of our results from light microscopy with a mathematical model suggests that kinesin-8–induced effects on microtubule dynamics, kinetochore attachment stability, and sliding force in the spindle can explain the aberrant chromosome movements and spindle length fluctuations seen. PMID:27146110

  4. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals new roles for the protein phosphatase PP6 in mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Scott F; Schlosser, Kate A; Adamo, Mark E; Kettenbach, Arminja N

    2015-10-13

    Protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism controlling mitotic progression. Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is an essential enzyme with conserved roles in chromosome segregation and spindle assembly from yeast to humans. We applied a baculovirus-mediated gene silencing approach to deplete HeLa cells of the catalytic subunit of PP6 (PP6c) and analyzed changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome in mitotic cells by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We identified 408 phosphopeptides on 272 proteins that increased and 298 phosphopeptides on 220 proteins that decreased in phosphorylation upon PP6c depletion in mitotic cells. Motif analysis of the phosphorylated sites combined with bioinformatics pathway analysis revealed previously unknown PP6c-dependent regulatory pathways. Biochemical assays demonstrated that PP6c opposed casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of the condensin I subunit NCAP-G, and cellular analysis showed that depletion of PP6c resulted in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation in anaphase, consistent with dysregulation of condensin I function in the absence of PP6 activity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Changes in Ect2 Localization Couple Actomyosin-Dependent Cell Shape Changes to Mitotic Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Helen K.; Delabre, Ulysse; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Guck, Jochen; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2012-01-01

    Summary As they enter mitosis, animal cells undergo profound actin-dependent changes in shape to become round. Here we identify the Cdk1 substrate, Ect2, as a central regulator of mitotic rounding, thus uncovering a link between the cell-cycle machinery that drives mitotic entry and its accompanying actin remodeling. Ect2 is a RhoGEF that plays a well-established role in formation of the actomyosin contractile ring at mitotic exit, through the local activation of RhoA. We find that Ect2 first becomes active in prophase, when it is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, activating RhoA to induce the formation of a mechanically stiff and rounded metaphase cortex. Then, at anaphase, binding to RacGAP1 at the spindle midzone repositions Ect2 to induce local actomyosin ring formation. Ect2 localization therefore defines the stage-specific changes in actin cortex organization critical for accurate cell division. PMID:22898780

  6. Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sympathetic neuroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain

  7. Kalanchoe tubiflora extract inhibits cell proliferation by affecting the mitotic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Jen; Yang, Ming-Yeh; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Chinpiao; Wan, Chin-Fung; Chang, Meng-Ya; Chang, Chih-Jui

    2012-09-10

    Kalanchoe tubiflora (KT) is a succulent plant native to Madagascar, and is commonly used as a medicinal agent in Southern Brazil. The underlying mechanisms of tumor suppression are largely unexplored. Cell viability and wound-healing were analyzed by MTT assay and scratch assay respectively. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by FACS. Mitotic defects were analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence images. An n-Butanol-soluble fraction of KT (KT-NB) was able to inhibit cell proliferation. After a 48 h treatment with 6.75 μg/ml of KT, the cell viability was less than 50% of controls, and was further reduced to less than 10% at higher concentrations. KT-NB also induced an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle as well as an increased level of cells in the subG1 phase. Instead of disrupting the microtubule network of interphase cells, KT-NB reduced cell viability by inducing multipolar spindles and defects in chromosome alignment. KT-NB inhibits cell proliferation and reduces cell viability by two mechanisms that are exclusively involved with cell division: first by inducing multipolarity; second by disrupting chromosome alignment during metaphase. KT-NB reduced cell viability by exclusively affecting formation of the proper structure of the mitotic apparatus. This is the main idea of the new generation of anti-mitotic agents. All together, KT-NB has sufficient potential to warrant further investigation as a potential new anticancer agent candidate.

  8. Relationships betwen mitotic delay and the dose rate of X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, P.N.; Rha, C.K.; Evans, H.H.; Beer, J.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure of cells to radiation delivered at a continuous low dose rate, cell proliferation may be sustained with the cells exhibiting a constant doubling time that is independent of the total dose. The doubling time or mitotic delay under these conditions has been shown to depend on the dose rate in HeLa, V79 and P388F cells. Reanalysis of the data for these particular cell lines shows that there is a threshold dose rate for mitotic delay, and that above the threshold there is a linear relationship between the length of mitotic delay and the logarithm of the dose rate which is referred to as the dose-rate response. We have observed the same relationships for L5178Y (LY)-R and LY-S cells exposed to low-dose-rate radiation. The threshold dose rates for LY-R, LY-S and P388F cells are similar (0.01-0.02 Gy/h) and are much lower than for V79 and HeLa cells. The slope of the dose-rate response curve is the greatest for HeLa cells, followed in order by LY-S, V79 and P388F cells, and finally by LY-R cells. The slopes for HeLa and LY-R cells differ by a factor of 35. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purrington, Kristen S; Slettedahl, Seth; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 × 10......Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide......(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 × 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene...

  10. Late A-bomb effects on proliferation and mitotic inhibition of T- and B-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Macchi, M; Fujikura, Toshio; Pirofsky, B; Hamada, Tadao

    1984-11-01

    In order to investigate late effects of ionization radiation and aging on T- and B-lymphocytes, mitotic ability of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 266 A-bomb survivors was examined by determining the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were used as inducers. Furthermore, mitotic inhibition of lymphocytes induced by a lymphatic inhibitor which was in part prepared from ulex seed extracts (USE) was examined. A decreased reaction of peripheral lymphocytes to PHA was seen in men exposed to 100-199 rad; a decreased reaction to PWM was seen in women exposed to more than 200 rad. According to the age group at examination, these decreased reactions were remarkable in men aged 60 years or younger and women aged 60 years or older. Among men less than 60-year-old exposed to 100-199 rad, PWM-induced mitosis of lymphocytes tended to be inhibited remarkably by USE. These results suggest the involvement of late A-bomb effects in mitotic regulation of T- and B-lymphocytes of aged A-bomb survivors.

  11. A method for determining the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation by evaluating the mitotic inhibition of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1977-03-01

    The mitotic response of mouse ascites tumor cells to in vivo 60 Co γ-irradiation (50, 100, 200, and 300 rad) was investigated on the fourth day after inoculation at 1 hour postirradiation. In the dose range applied the relationship between the mitotic index (MI) and the gamma dose (D, in rad) could be represented by MI = -35,07 lg D + 105,57. (author)

  12. The SUMO protease SENP1 is required for cohesion maintenance and mitotic arrest following spindle poison treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Era, Saho [Fondazione IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, IFOM-IEO campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan (Italy); Radiation Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abe, Takuya; Arakawa, Hiroshi [Fondazione IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, IFOM-IEO campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan (Italy); Kobayashi, Shunsuke [Radiation Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Szakal, Barnabas [Fondazione IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, IFOM-IEO campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan (Italy); Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Motegi, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi [Radiation Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Branzei, Dana, E-mail: dana.branzei@ifom.eu [Fondazione IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, IFOM-IEO campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan (Italy)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SENP1 knockout chicken DT40 cells are hypersensitive to spindle poisons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spindle poison treatment of SENP1{sup -/-} cells leads to increased mitotic slippage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitotic slippage in SENP1{sup -/-} cells associates with apoptosis and endoreplication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SENP1 counteracts sister chromatid separation during mitotic arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plk1-mediated cohesion down-regulation is involved in colcemid cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: SUMO conjugation is a reversible posttranslational modification that regulates protein function. SENP1 is one of the six SUMO-specific proteases present in vertebrate cells and its altered expression is observed in several carcinomas. To characterize SENP1 role in genome integrity, we generated Senp1 knockout chicken DT40 cells. SENP1{sup -/-} cells show normal proliferation, but are sensitive to spindle poisons. This hypersensitivity correlates with increased sister chromatid separation, mitotic slippage, and apoptosis. To test whether the cohesion defect had a causal relationship with the observed mitotic events, we restored the cohesive status of sister chromatids by introducing the TOP2{alpha}{sup +/-} mutation, which leads to increased catenation, or by inhibiting Plk1 and Aurora B kinases that promote cohesin release from chromosomes during prolonged mitotic arrest. Although TOP2{alpha} is SUMOylated during mitosis, the TOP2{alpha}{sup +/-} mutation had no obvious effect. By contrast, inhibition of Plk1 or Aurora B rescued the hypersensitivity of SENP1{sup -/-} cells to colcemid. In conclusion, we identify SENP1 as a novel factor required for mitotic arrest and cohesion maintenance during prolonged mitotic arrest induced by spindle poisons.

  13. Delayed cell death associated with mitotic catastrophe in γ-irradiated stem-like glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firat, Elke; Gaedicke, Simone; Tsurumi, Chizuko; Esser, Norbert; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Stem-like tumor cells are regarded as highly resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Previous studies have focused on apoptosis early after irradiation, and the apoptosis resistance observed has been attributed to reduced DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair compared to non-stem tumor cells. Here, early and late radioresponse of patient-derived stem-like glioma cells (SLGCs) and differentiated cells directly derived from them were examined for cell death mode and the influence of stem cell-specific growth factors. Primary SLGCs were propagated in serum-free medium with the stem-cell mitogens epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Differentiation was induced by serum-containing medium without EGF and FGF. Radiation sensitivity was evaluated by assessing proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and mitotic catastrophe. DNA damage-associated γH2AX as well as p53 and p21 expression were determined by Western blots. SLGCs failed to apoptose in the first 4 days after irradiation even at high single doses up to 10 Gy, but we observed substantial cell death later than 4 days postirradiation in 3 of 6 SLGC lines treated with 5 or 10 Gy. This delayed cell death was observed in 3 of the 4 SLGC lines with nonfunctional p53, was associated with mitotic catastrophe and occurred via apoptosis. The early apoptosis resistance of the SLGCs was associated with lower γH2AX compared to differentiated cells, but we found that the stem-cell culture cytokines EGF plus FGF-2 strongly reduce γH2AX levels. Nonetheless, in two p53-deficient SLGC lines examined γIR-induced apoptosis even correlated with EGF/FGF-induced proliferation and mitotic catastrophe. In a line containing CD133-positive and -negative stem-like cells, the CD133-positive cells proliferated faster and underwent more γIR-induced mitotic catastrophe. Our results suggest the importance of delayed apoptosis, associated mitotic catastrophe, and cellular proliferation for γIR-induced death of

  14. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  15. Dpb11/TopBP1 plays distinct roles in DNA replication, checkpoint response and homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela; Østergaard, Vibe Hallundbæk; Haas, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    DPB11/TopBP1 is an essential evolutionarily conserved gene involved in initiation of DNA replication and checkpoint signaling. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dpb11 forms nuclear foci that localize to sites of DNA damage in G1, S and G2 phase, a recruitment that is conserved for its...... and Tel1, and of the checkpoint mediator Rad9. In a site-directed mutagenesis screen, we identify a separation-of-function mutant, dpb11-PF, that is sensitive to DSB-inducing agents yet remains proficient for DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint at the permissive temperature. The dpb11-PF mutant...... homologue TopBP1 in Gallus gallus. Damage-induced Dpb11 foci are distinct from Sld3 replication initiation foci. Further, Dpb11 foci are dependent on the checkpoint proteins Mec3 (9-1-1 complex) and Rad24, and require the C-terminal domain of Dpb11. Dpb11 foci are independent of the checkpoint kinases Mec1...

  16. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Checkpoint Inhibition: Programmed Cell Death 1 and Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand Inhibitors in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasboas, Jose Caetano; Ansell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by a reactive immune infiltrate surrounding relatively few malignant cells. In this scenario, active immune evasion seems to play a central role in allowing tumor progression. Immune checkpoint inhibitor pathways are normal mechanisms of T-cell regulation that suppress immune effector function following an antigenic challenge. Hodgkin lymphoma cells are able to escape immune surveillance by co-opting these mechanisms. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway in particular is exploited in HL as the malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells express on their surface cognate ligands (PD-L1/L2) for the PD-1 receptor and thereby dampen the T-cell-mediated antitumoral response. Monoclonal antibodies that interact with and disrupt the PD-1:PD-L1/L2 axis have now been developed and tested in early-phase clinical trials in patients with advanced HL with encouraging results. The remarkable clinical activity of PD-1 inhibitors in HL highlights the importance of immune checkpoint pathways as therapeutic targets in HL. In this review, we discuss the rationale for targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 in the treatment of HL. We will evaluate the published clinical data on the different agents and highlight the safety profile of this class of agents. We discuss the available evidence on the use of biomarkers as predictors of response to checkpoint blockade and summarize the areas under active investigation in the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of HL.

  18. Immuno-oncologic Approaches: CAR-T Cells and Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Francesca; D'Agostino, Mattia; Giaccone, Luisa; Genuardi, Mariella; Festuccia, Moreno; Boccadoro, Mario; Bruno, Benedetto

    2017-08-01

    Advances in understanding myeloma biology have shown that disease progression is not only the consequence of intrinsic tumor changes but also of interactions between the tumor and the microenvironment in which the cancer grows. The immune system is an important component of the tumor microenvironment in myeloma, and acting on the immune system is an appealing new treatment strategy. There are 2 ways to act toward immune cells and boost antitumor immunity: (1) to increase antitumor activity (acting on T and NK cytotoxic cells), and (2) to reduce immunosuppression (acting on myeloid-derived stem cells and T regulatory cells). Checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) are 2 of the main actors, together with monoclonal antibodies and immunomodulatory agents, in the immune-oncologic approach. The aim of checkpoint inhibitors is to release the brakes that block the action of the immune system against the tumor. Anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1-Ligand, as well as anti-CTLA4 and KIR are currently under evaluation, as single agents or in combination, with the best results achieved so far with combination of anti-PD-1 and immunomodulatory agents. The aim of ACT is to create an immune effector specific against the tumor. Preliminary results on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, first against CD19, and more recently against B-cell maturation antigen, have shown to induce durable responses in heavily pretreated patients. This review focuses on the most recent clinical results available on the use of checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-T cells in myeloma, in the context of the new immune-oncologic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutant p53 perturbs DNA replication checkpoint control through TopBP1 and Treslin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Graves, Joshua D; Lee, Yu-Ju; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2017-05-09

    Accumulating evidence supports the gain-of-function of mutant forms of p53 (mutp53s). However, whether mutp53 directly perturbs the DNA replication checkpoint remains unclear. Previously, we have demonstrated that TopBP1 forms a complex with mutp53s and mediates their gain-of-function through NF-Y and p63/p73. Akt phosphorylates TopBP1 and induces its oligomerization, which inhibits its ATR-activating function. Here we show that various contact and conformational mutp53s bypass Akt to induce TopBP1 oligomerization and attenuate ATR checkpoint response during replication stress. The effect on ATR response caused by mutp53 can be exploited in a synthetic lethality strategy, as depletion of another ATR activator, DNA2, in mutp53-R273H-expressing cancer cells renders cells hypersensitive to cisplatin. Expression of mutp53-R273H also makes cancer cells more sensitive to DNA2 depletion or DNA2 inhibitors. In addition to ATR-activating function during replication stress, TopBP1 interacts with Treslin in a Cdk-dependent manner to initiate DNA replication during normal growth. We find that mutp53 also interferes with TopBP1 replication function. Several contact, but not conformational, mutp53s enhance the interaction between TopBP1 and Treslin and promote DNA replication despite the presence of a Cdk2 inhibitor. Together, these data uncover two distinct mechanisms by which mutp53 enhances DNA replication: ( i ) Both contact and conformational mutp53s can bind TopBP1 and attenuate the checkpoint response to replication stress, and ( ii ) during normal growth, contact (but not conformational) mutp53s can override the Cdk2 requirement to promote replication by facilitating the TopBP1/Treslin interaction.

  20. Monitoring of scrap loads at Gorzia border checkpoints: A thirty months experience and some suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabretto, M.

    1999-01-01

    The following topics are highlighted: personnel training, assistance from foreign scrap suppliers, and computerized database. It is suggested that when selecting personnel for this job, major attention should be paid to their attitudes; the personnel should be given very good training, teaching them also how to make controls manually; expert physicist' support should be available within a very short time; each monitoring checkpoint should have its local electronic database; periodical exchange and updating of information should be practised on the standardization of methods of detection, of levels of attention and alarm, of statistics among the people in charge of EU and non-EU countries. (P.A.)

  1. Strategies to overcome HBV-specific T cell exhaustion: checkpoint inhibitors and metabolic re-programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Paola; Boni, Carolina; Barili, Valeria; Laccabue, Diletta; Ferrari, Carlo

    2018-01-29

    HBV-specific T cells play a key role in antiviral protection and failure to control HBV is associated with severely dysfunctional T cell responses. Therefore, functional T cell reconstitution represents a potential way to treat chronically infected patients. The growing understanding of the dysregulated transcriptional/epigenetic and metabolic programs underlying T cell exhaustion allows to envisage functional T cell reconstitution strategies based on the combined/sequential use of compounds able to induce decline of antigen load, checkpoint modulation, metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming with possible boosting of functionally restored responses by specific vaccines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The MiAge Calculator: a DNA methylation-based mitotic age calculator of human tissue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ahrim; Wang, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is important in human aging and cancer. The estimation of the number of cell divisions (mitotic age) of a given tissue type in individuals is of great interest as it allows not only the study of biological aging (using a new molecular aging target) but also the stratification of prospective cancer risk. Here, we introduce the MiAge Calculator, a mitotic age calculator based on a novel statistical framework, the MiAge model. MiAge is designed to quantitatively estimate mitotic age (total number of lifetime cell divisions) of a tissue using the stochastic replication errors accumulated in the epigenetic inheritance process during cell divisions. With the MiAge model, the MiAge Calculator was built using the training data of DNA methylation measures of 4,020 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from eight TCGA cancer types and was tested using the testing data of DNA methylation measures of 2,221 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples of five other TCGA cancer types. We showed that within each of the thirteen cancer types studied, the estimated mitotic age is universally accelerated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Across the thirteen cancer types, we showed that worse cancer survivals are associated with more accelerated mitotic age in tumor tissues. Importantly, we demonstrated the utility of mitotic age by showing that the integration of mitotic age and clinical information leads to improved survival prediction in six out of the thirteen cancer types studied. The MiAge Calculator is available at http://www.columbia.edu/∼sw2206/softwares.htm .

  3. In vitro analysis of the role of replication protein A (RPA) and RPA phosphorylation in ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Reardon, Joyce T; Wold, Marc S; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-10-19

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair.

  4. In Vitro Analysis of the Role of Replication Protein A (RPA) and RPA Phosphorylation in ATR-mediated Checkpoint Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Wold, Marc S.; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair. PMID:22948311

  5. Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages as a Potential Strategy to Enhance the Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Luca; Kitamura, Takanori

    2018-01-01

    Inhibition of immune checkpoint pathways in CD8 + T cell is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of solid tumors that has shown significant anti-tumor effects and is now approved by the FDA to treat patients with melanoma and lung cancer. However the response to this therapy is limited to a certain fraction of patients and tumor types, for reasons still unknown. To ensure success of this treatment, CD8 + T cells, the main target of the checkpoint inhibitors, should exert full cytotoxicity against tumor cells. However recent studies show that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) can impede this process by different mechanisms. In this mini-review we will summarize recent studies showing the effect of TAM targeting on immune checkpoint inhibitors efficacy. We will also discuss on the limitations of the current strategies as well on the future scientific challenges for the progress of the tumor immunology field.

  6. A gene encoding the major beta tubulin of the mitotic spindle in Physarum polycephalum plasmodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G.; Paul, E.C.A.; Oetliker, M.; Dove, W.F.

    1988-03-01

    The multinucleate plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is unusual among eucaryotic cells in that it uses tubulins only in mitotic-spindle microtubules; cytoskeletal, flagellar, and centriolar microtubules are absent in this cell type. The authors identified a ..beta..-tubulin cDNA clone, ..beta..105, which is shown to correspond to the transcript of the betC ..beta..-tubulin locus and to encode ..beta..2 tubulin, the ..beta.. tubulin expressed specifically in the plasmodium and used exclusively in the mitotic spindle. Physarum amoebae utilize tubulins in the cytoskeleton, centrioles, and flagella, in addition to the mitotic spindle. Sequence analysis shows that ..beta..2 tubulin is only 83% identical to the two ..beta.. tubulins expressed in amoebae. This compares with 70 to 83% identity between Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin and the ..beta.. tubulins of yeasts, fungi, alga, trypanosome, fruit fly, chicken, and mouse. On the other hand, Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin is no more similar to, for example, Aspergillus ..beta.. tubulins than it is to those of Drosophila melanogaster or mammals. Several eucaryotes express at least one widely diverged ..beta.. tubulin as well as one or more ..beta.. tubulins that conform more closely to a consensus ..beta..-tubulin sequence. The authors suggest that ..beta..-tubulins diverge more when their expression pattern is restricted, especially when this restriction results in their use in fewer functions. This divergence among ..beta.. tubulins could have resulted through neutral drift. For example, exclusive use of Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin in the spindle may have allowed more amino acid substitutions than would be functionally tolerable in the ..beta.. tubulins that are utilized in multiple microtubular organelles. Alternatively, restricted use of ..beta.. tubulins may allow positive selection to operate more freely to refine ..beta..-tubulin function.

  7. Kalanchoe tubiflora extract inhibits cell proliferation by affecting the mitotic apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Yi-Jen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kalanchoe tubiflora (KT is a succulent plant native to Madagascar, and is commonly used as a medicinal agent in Southern Brazil. The underlying mechanisms of tumor suppression are largely unexplored. Methods Cell viability and wound-healing were analyzed by MTT assay and scratch assay respectively. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by FACS. Mitotic defects were analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence images. Results An n-Butanol-soluble fraction of KT (KT-NB was able to inhibit cell proliferation. After a 48 h treatment with 6.75 μg/ml of KT, the cell viability was less than 50% of controls, and was further reduced to less than 10% at higher concentrations. KT-NB also induced an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle as well as an increased level of cells in the subG1 phase. Instead of disrupting the microtubule network of interphase cells, KT-NB reduced cell viability by inducing multipolar spindles and defects in chromosome alignment. KT-NB inhibits cell proliferation and reduces cell viability by two mechanisms that are exclusively involved with cell division: first by inducing multipolarity; second by disrupting chromosome alignment during metaphase. Conclusion KT-NB reduced cell viability by exclusively affecting formation of the proper structure of the mitotic apparatus. This is the main idea of the new generation of anti-mitotic agents. All together, KT-NB has sufficient potential to warrant further investigation as a potential new anticancer agent candidate.

  8. Exclusion of NFAT5 from mitotic chromatin resets its nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution in interphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Estrada-Gelonch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transcription factor NFAT5 is a major inducer of osmoprotective genes and is required to maintain the proliferative capacity of cells exposed to hypertonic stress. In response to hypertonicity, NFAT5 translocates to the nucleus, binds to regulatory regions of osmoprotective genes and activates their transcription. Besides stimulus-specific regulatory mechanisms, the activity of transcription factors in cycling cells is also regulated by the passage through mitosis, when most transcriptional processes are downregulated. It was not known whether mitosis could be a point of control for NFAT5. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using confocal microscopy we observed that NFAT5 was excluded from chromatin during mitosis in both isotonic and hypertonic conditions. Analysis of NFAT5 deletions showed that exclusion was mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD. NFAT5 mutants lacking this domain showed constitutive binding to mitotic chromatin independent of tonicity, which caused them to localize in the nucleus and remain bound to chromatin in the subsequent interphase without hypertonic stimulation. We analyzed the contribution of the CTD, DNA binding, and nuclear import and export signals to the subcellular localization of this factor. Our results indicated that cytoplasmic localization of NFAT5 in isotonic conditions required both the exclusion from mitotic DNA and active nuclear export in interphase. Finally, we identified several regions within the CTD of NFAT5, some of them overlapping with transactivation domains, which were separately capable of causing its exclusion from mitotic chromatin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a multipart mechanism regulating the subcellular localization of NFAT5. The transactivating module of NFAT5 switches its function from an stimulus-specific activator of transcription in interphase to an stimulus-independent repressor of binding to DNA in mitosis. This mechanism, together with export

  9. Functional characterisation and drug target validation of a mitotic kinesin-13 in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Yoow Chan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitotic kinesins are essential for faithful chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. Therefore, in humans, kinesin motor proteins have been identified as anti-cancer drug targets and small molecule inhibitors are now tested in clinical studies. Phylogenetic analyses have assigned five of the approximately fifty kinesin motor proteins coded by Trypanosoma brucei genome to the Kinesin-13 family. Kinesins of this family have unusual biochemical properties because they do not transport cargo along microtubules but are able to depolymerise microtubules at their ends, therefore contributing to the regulation of microtubule length. In other eukaryotic genomes sequenced to date, only between one and three Kinesin-13s are present. We have used immunolocalisation, RNAi-mediated protein depletion, biochemical in vitro assays and a mouse model of infection to study the single mitotic Kinesin-13 in T. brucei. Subcellular localisation of all five T. brucei Kinesin-13s revealed distinct distributions, indicating that the expansion of this kinesin family in kinetoplastids is accompanied by functional diversification. Only a single kinesin (TbKif13-1 has a nuclear localisation. Using active, recombinant TbKif13-1 in in vitro assays we experimentally confirm the depolymerising properties of this kinesin. We analyse the biological function of TbKif13-1 by RNAi-mediated protein depletion and show its central role in regulating spindle assembly during mitosis. Absence of the protein leads to abnormally long and bent mitotic spindles, causing chromosome mis-segregation and cell death. RNAi-depletion in a mouse model of infection completely prevents infection with the parasite. Given its essential role in mitosis, proliferation and survival of the parasite and the availability of a simple in vitro activity assay, TbKif13-1 has been identified as an excellent potential drug target.

  10. Grp/DChk1 is required for G(2)-M checkpoint activation in Drosophila S2 cells, whereas Dmnk/DChk2 is dispensable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, HI; Uyetake, L; Lemstra, W; Brunsting, JF; Su, TT; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    2005-01-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints are signal-transduction pathways required to maintain genomic stability in dividing cells. Previously, it was reported that two kinases essential for checkpoint signalling, Chk1 and Chk2 are structurally conserved. In contrast to yeast, Xenopus and mammals, the Chk1- and

  11. The Geography of Deterrence: Exploring the Small Area Effects of Sobriety Checkpoints on Alcohol-Impaired Collision Rates within a City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel; Newby, William

    2011-01-01

    This article examines alcohol-impaired collision metrics around nine sobriety checkpoint locations in Indianapolis, Indiana, before and after implementation of 22 checkpoints, using a pre/post examination, a pre/post nonequivalent comparison group analysis, and an interrupted time series approach. Traffic safety officials used geographical…

  12. Effects of Mutagen-Sensitive Mus Mutations on Spontaneous Mitotic Recombination in Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, P.; Kafer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus(+) controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced reco...

  13. Mitotic chromosome loss in a radiation-sensitive strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, R.K.; Contopoulou, R.; Schild, D.

    1981-01-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutations in the RAD52 gene have previously been shown to be defective in meiotic and mitotic recombination, in sporulation, and in repair of radiation-induced damage to DNA. In this study we show that diploid cells homozygous for rad52 lose chromosomes at high frequencies and that these frequencies of loss can be increased dramatically by exposure of these cells to x-rays. Genetic analyses of survivors of x-ray treatment demonstrate that chromosome loss events result in the conversion of diploid cells to cells with near haploid chromosome numbers

  14. STAG2 and Rad21 mammalian mitotic cohesins are implicated in meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Ignacio; Pezzi, Nieves; Buesa, José M.; Kremer, Leonor; Barthelemy, Isabel; Carreiro, Candelas; Roncal, Fernando; Martínez, Alicia; Gómez, Lucio; Fernández, Raúl; Martínez-A, Carlos; Barbero, José L.

    2002-01-01

    STAG/SA proteins are specific cohesin complex subunits that maintain sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis and meiosis. Two members of this family, STAG1/SA1 and STAG2/SA2,‡ are classified as mitotic cohesins, as they are found in human somatic cells and in Xenopus laevis as components of the cohesinSA1 and cohesinSA2 complexes, in which the shared subunits are Rad21/SCC1, SMC1 and SMC3 proteins. A recently reported third family member, STAG3, is germinal cell-specific and is a subunit of the ...

  15. Evidence that phosphorylation by the mitotic kinase Cdk1 promotes ICER monoubiquitination and nuclear delocalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memin, Elisabeth, E-mail: molinac@mail.montclair.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Genzale, Megan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Crow, Marni; Molina, Carlos A. [Department of Biology and Molecular Biology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, 07043 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In contrast to normal prostatic cells, the transcriptional repressor Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER) is undetected in the nuclei of prostate cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms for ICER abnormal expression in prostate cancer cells remained largely unknown. In this report data is presented demonstrating that ICER is phosphorylated by the mitotic kinase cdk1. Phosphorylation of ICER on a discrete residue targeted ICER to be monoubiquitinated. Different from unphosphorylated, phosphorylated and polyubiquitinated ICER, monoubiquitinated ICER was found to be cytosolic. Taken together, these results hinted on a mechanism for the observed abnormal subcellular localization of ICER in human prostate tumors.

  16. Induction of high mitotic index in Petunia suspension cultures by sequential treatment with aphidicolin and colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Zelcer, A; Izhar, S

    1984-12-01

    Significantly higher than normal mitotic index (MI) values were induced in Petunia cell suspensions following treatments with colchicine, aphidicolin, drastic medium replacement, or a sequential application of aphidicolin and colchicine. This last treatment yielded the highest MI values: cells incubated with 30 μg/ml aphidicolin for 18 h, then cultured in drug-free medium for 8 h and finally exposed to 0.1% colchicine for 8 additional hours exhibited MI of 62.8% and 65.7% respectively, for the two cell lines in study.

  17. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  18. Discrimination of bromodeoxyuridine labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells in flow cytometric bromodeoxyuridine/DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Larsen, J K; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells, respectively, can be discriminated from interphase cells using a new method, based on immunocytochemical staining of BrdUrd and flow cytometric four-parameter analysis of DNA content, BrdUrd incorporation, and forward and orthogonal...... light scatter. The method was optimized using the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and K-562. Samples of 10(5) ethanol-fixed cells were treated with pepsin/HCl and stained as a nuclear suspension with anti-BrdUrd antibody, FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, and propidium iodide. Labelled mitoses could...

  19. Structural basis of a novel PD-L1 nanobody for immune checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Wei, Hudie; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Yu; Wang, Pilin; Wu, Jiawei; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yugang; Cai, Haiyan; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Aiwu

    2017-01-01

    The use of antibodies to target immune checkpoints, particularly PD-1/PD-L1, has made a profound impact in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we identified KN035, an anti-PD-L1 nanobody that can strongly induce T-cell responses and inhibit tumor growth. The crystal structures of KN035 complexed with PD-L1 and free PD-L1, solved here at 1.7 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively, show that KN035 competes with PD-1 (programmed death protein 1) for the same flat surface on PD-L1, mainly through a single surface loop of 21 amino acids. This loop forms two short helices and develops key hydrophobic and ionic interactions with PD-L1 residues, such as Ile54, Tyr56 and Arg113, which are also involved in PD-1 binding. The detailed mutagenesis study identified the hotspot residues of the PD-L1 surface and provides an explanation for the stronger (~1 000-fold) binding of KN035 to PD-L1 than PD-1 and its lack of binding to PD-L2. Overall, this study reveals how a single immunoglobulin-variable scaffold of KN035 or PD-1 can bind to a flat protein surface through either a single surface loop or beta-sheet strands; and provides a basis for designing new immune checkpoint blockers and generating bi-specific antibodies for combination therapy.

  20. Nucleotide Selectivity at a Preinsertion Checkpoint of T7 RNA Polymerase Transcription Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Chao; Duan, Baogen; Yu, Jin

    2017-04-20

    Nucleotide selection is crucial for transcription fidelity control, in particular, for viral T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) lack of proofreading activity. It has been recognized that multiple kinetic checkpoints exist prior to full nucleotide incorporation. In this work, we implemented intensive atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to quantify how strong the nucleotide selection is at the initial checkpoint of an elongation cycle of T7 RNAP. The incoming nucleotides bind into a preinsertion site where a critical tyrosine residue locates nearby to assist the nucleotide selection. We calculated the relative binding free energy between a noncognate nucleotide and a cognate one at a preinsertion configuration via alchemical simulations, showing that a small selection free energy or the binding free energy difference (∼3 k B T) exists between the two nucleotides. Indeed, another preinsertion configuration favored by the noncognate nucleotides was identified, which appears to be off path for further nucleotide insertion and additionally assists the nucleotide selection. By chemical master equation (CME) approach, we show that the small selection free energy at the preinsertion site along with the off-path noncognate nucleotide filtering can help substantially to reduce the error rate and to maintain the elongation rate high in the T7 RNAP transcription.

  1. Checkpoint-dependent RNR induction promotes fork restart after replicative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morafraile, Esther C; Diffley, John F X; Tercero, José Antonio; Segurado, Mónica

    2015-01-20

    The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored.

  2. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for non-small-cell lung cancer: does that represent a 'new frontier'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Sara; Kinspergher, Stefania; Peretti, Umberto; Calio, Anna; Carbognin, Luisa; Ferrara, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the interpretation and understanding of cancer behaviour, particularly of its ability to evade the host immunosurveillance, deregulating the balance between inhibitory and stimulatory factors, led to the development of an innovative category of immunotherapeutic agents, currently under investigation. Although the disappointing data deriving from the employment of vaccines in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), more promising results have been obtained in the early phase trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. This review delineates the main features of the available immunotherapeutic agents, focusing the discussion on immune checkpoint inhibitors, those that have already demonstrated a relevant clinical activity (such as Ipilimumab and Nivolumab) and those molecules still in early development phase. Moreover, we underline the possible emerging issues deriving from the progressive diffusion of Immuno-Oncology into the standard clinical practice. The careful and accurate identification and management of immune-related toxicities, the validation of more reliable immune response criteria and the increasing research of potential predictive biomarkers are key points of discussion. The perspective is that immunotherapy might represent an effective 'magic bullet', able to change the treatment paradigm of NSCLC, particularly of those subgroups featured by a heavily mutant cancer (squamous histology and smokers), where the immunologic agents contribute in cancer development and progression seems to be strong and, concurrently, the efficacy of standard therapies particularly limited.

  3. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  4. Hepatic neuregulin 4 signaling defines an endocrine checkpoint for steatosis-to-NASH progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Chen, Zhimin; Xia, Houjun; Li, Siming; Zhang, Yanqiao; Kobberup, Sune; Zou, Weiping; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by progressive liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis; however, the mechanisms that govern the transition from hepatic steatosis, which is relatively benign, to NASH remain poorly defined. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is an adipose tissue–enriched endocrine factor that elicits beneficial metabolic effects in obesity. Here, we show that Nrg4 is a key component of an endocrine checkpoint that preserves hepatocyte health and counters diet-induced NASH in mice. Nrg4 deficiency accelerated liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation, and cell death in a mouse model of NASH. In contrast, transgenic expression of Nrg4 in adipose tissue alleviated diet-induced NASH. Nrg4 attenuated hepatocyte death in a cell-autonomous manner by blocking ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of c-FLIPL, a negative regulator of cell death. Adeno-associated virus–mediated (AAV-mediated) rescue of hepatic c-FLIPL expression in Nrg4-deficent mice functionally restored the brake for steatosis to NASH transition. Thus, hepatic Nrg4 signaling serves as an endocrine checkpoint for steatosis-to-NASH progression by activating a cytoprotective pathway to counter stress-induced liver injury. PMID:29106384

  5. The impact of aviation checkpoint queues on optimizing security screening effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Adrian J., E-mail: ajlee@citeri.or [Central Illinois Technology and Education Research Institute, 2312 Connie Drive, Springfield, IL 62704-8722 (United States); Jacobson, Sheldon H., E-mail: shj@illinois.ed [Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 N. Goodwin Ave. M/C 258, Urbana, IL 61801-2302 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Passenger screening at aviation security checkpoints is a critical component in protecting airports and aircraft from terrorist threats. Recent developments in screening device technology have increased the ability to detect these threats; however, the average amount of time it takes to screen a passenger still remains a concern. This paper models the queueing process for a multi-level airport checkpoint security system, where multiple security classes are formed through subsets of specialized screening devices. An optimal static assignment policy is obtained which minimizes the steady-state expected amount of time a passenger spends in the security system. Then, an optimal dynamic assignment policy is obtained through a transient analysis that balances the expected number of true alarms with the expected amount of time a passenger spends in the security system. Performance of a two-class system is compared to that of a selective security system containing primary and secondary levels of screening. The key contribution is that the resulting optimal assignment policies increase security and passenger throughput by efficiently and effectively utilizing available screening resources.

  6. The impact of aviation checkpoint queues on optimizing security screening effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Adrian J.; Jacobson, Sheldon H.

    2011-01-01

    Passenger screening at aviation security checkpoints is a critical component in protecting airports and aircraft from terrorist threats. Recent developments in screening device technology have increased the ability to detect these threats; however, the average amount of time it takes to screen a passenger still remains a concern. This paper models the queueing process for a multi-level airport checkpoint security system, where multiple security classes are formed through subsets of specialized screening devices. An optimal static assignment policy is obtained which minimizes the steady-state expected amount of time a passenger spends in the security system. Then, an optimal dynamic assignment policy is obtained through a transient analysis that balances the expected number of true alarms with the expected amount of time a passenger spends in the security system. Performance of a two-class system is compared to that of a selective security system containing primary and secondary levels of screening. The key contribution is that the resulting optimal assignment policies increase security and passenger throughput by efficiently and effectively utilizing available screening resources.

  7. In vitro autoradiographic studies for determination of mitotic index and labelling index in biopsies of the human oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzbach, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find the most favourable method of incubation for in-vitro autoradiographies of biopsies of human oral mucosa, tissue biopsies were taken from oral mucosa transplants of 10 patients (7 females, 3 males) and either fixed or incubated at once. The author then investigated the mitotic index of the non-incubated tissue specimens, the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated in atmospheric conditions (A), and the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated under pressure (B). Simultaneously, autoradiographs of the incubated tissue specimens were prepared in order to determine their labelling indices. The mitotic indices of the non-incubated tissue specimen were found to differ significantly from those of the A-incubated tissue specimens. A similar difference was found between the mitotic indices of the A- and B-incubated tissue biopsies. Further, the labelling indices of A autoradiographs differed significantly from the labelling indices of B autoradiographs. The findings suggest that incubation with an excess oxygen pressure of 2 bar is the method of choice for in-vitro studies of human oral mucosa as the cells retain their specific activity and cell processes will continue unhindered. Further, the findings can be transferred to in-vivo conditions with a reasonable error rate. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-08-14

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation on cycle time and mitotic duration. A time-lapse cinematography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hooghe, M.C.; Hemon, D.; Valleron, A.J.; Malaise, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ rays on the length of the intermitotic period, the duration of mitosis, and the division probability of EMT6 cells have been studied in vitro using time-lapse cinematography. Irradiation increases the duration of the mitosis and of the cycle in comparable proportions: both parameters are practically doubled by a dose of 10 Gy. When daughters of irradiated cells die, the mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis of their mother cells are longer than average. Mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis depend on the age of cells at the moment of irradiation. The mitotic delay increases progressively when cells are irradiated during the first 8 h of their cycle (i.e., before the transition point), whereas mitosis is slightly prolonged. On the other hand, when the cells are irradiated after this transition point the mitotic delay decreases markedly, whereas the lengthening of mitosis increases sharply. These results tend to indicate that two different mechanisms are responsible for mitotic delay and prolongation of mitosis observed after irradiation

  10. Proteasome inhibition enhances the efficacy of volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML in vitro and prolongs survival in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnerch, Dominik; Schüler, Julia; Follo, Marie; Felthaus, Julia; Wider, Dagmar; Klingner, Kathrin; Greil, Christine; Duyster, Justus; Engelhardt, Monika; Wäsch, Ralph

    2017-03-28

    Elderly and frail patients, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and ineligible to undergo intensive treatment, have a dismal prognosis. The small molecule inhibitor volasertib induces a mitotic block via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and has shown remarkable anti-leukemic activity when combined with low-dose cytarabine. We have demonstrated that AML cells are highly vulnerable to cell death in mitosis yet manage to escape a mitotic block through mitotic slippage by sustained proteasome-dependent slow degradation of cyclin B. Therefore, we tested whether interfering with mitotic slippage through proteasome inhibition arrests and kills AML cells more efficiently during mitosis. We show that therapeutic doses of bortezomib block the slow degradation of cyclin B during a volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML cell lines and patient-derived primary AML cells. In a xenotransplant mouse model of human AML, mice receiving volasertib in combination with bortezomib showed superior disease control compared to mice receiving volasertib alone, highlighting the potential therapeutic impact of this drug combination.

  11. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation on cycle time and mitotic duration. A time-lapse cinematography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hooghe, M.C. (Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, Lille, France); Hemon, D.; Valleron, A.J.; Malaise, E.P.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays on the length of the intermitotic period, the duration of mitosis, and the division probability of EMT6 cells have been studied in vitro using time-lapse cinematography. Irradiation increases the duration of the mitosis and of the cycle in comparable proportions: both parameters are practically doubled by a dose of 10 Gy. When daughters of irradiated cells die, the mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis of their mother cells are longer than average. Mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis depend on the age of cells at the moment of irradiation. The mitotic delay increases progressively when cells are irradiated during the first 8 h of their cycle (i.e., before the transition point), whereas mitosis is slightly prolonged. On the other hand, when the cells are irradiated after this transition point the mitotic delay decreases markedly, whereas the lengthening of mitosis increases sharply. These results tend to indicate that two different mechanisms are responsible for mitotic delay and prolongation of mitosis observed after irradiation.

  12. Isolation of a dinoflagellate mitotic cyclin by functional complementation in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertomeu, Thierry; Morse, David

    2004-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are parasite with permanently condensed chromosomes that lack histones and whose nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis. These unusual nuclear characters have suggested that the typical cell cycle regulators might be slightly different than those in more typical eukaryotes. To test this, a cyclin has been isolated from the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra by functional complementation in cln123 mutant yeast. This GpCyc1 sequence contains two cyclin domains in its C-terminal region and a degradation box typical of mitotic cyclins. Similar to other dinoflagellate genes, GpCyc1 has a high copy number, with ∼5000 copies found in the Gonyaulax genome. An antibody raised against the N-terminal region of the GpCYC1 reacts with a 68 kDa protein on Western blots that is more abundant in cell cultures enriched for G2-phase cells than in those containing primarily G1-phase cells, indicating its cellular level follows a pattern expected for a mitotic cyclin. This is the first report of a cell cycle regulator cloned and sequenced from a dinoflagellate, and our results suggest control of the dinoflagellate cell cycle will be very similar to that of other organisms

  13. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  14. Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yvonne A R; Woods, Dori C; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2012-02-26

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and can spontaneously generate 35- to 50-μm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1-2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, similar to adult mice, possess rare mitotically active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Significance and outcome of nuclear anaplasia and mitotic index in prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Gozde; Sarbay, Billur Cosan; Gumus, Eyup

    2016-10-01

    The Gleason grading system measures architectural differentiation and disregards nuclear atypia and the cell proliferation index. Several studies have reported that nuclear grade and mitotic index (MI) are prognostically useful. This study included 232 radical prostatectomy specimens. Nuclear anaplasia (NA) was determined on the basis of nucleomegali (at least 20µm); vesicular chromatin; eosinophilic macronucleoli, nuclear lobulation, and irregular thickened nuclear membranei. The proportion of area of NA was recorded in each tumor in 10% increments. The MI was defined as the number of mitotic figures in 10 consecutive high-power fields (HPF). In univariate analysis, significant differences included associations between biochemical prostate-specific antigen recurrence (BCR) and Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margin, the presence of high-pathologic stage, NA≥10% of tumor area, MI≥3/10 HPF, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. In a stepwise Cox regression model, a positive surgical margin, the presence of a NA≥10% of tumor area, and a MI of≥3/10 HPF were independent predictors of BCR after radical prostatectomy. NA≥10% of tumor area appeared to have a stronger association with outcome than MI≥3/10 HPF, as still associated with BCR when Gleason score was in the model. The results of our study showed that, in addition to the conventional Gleason grading system, NA, and MI are useful prognostic parameters while evaluating long-term prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Strand Breaks in Mitotic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Evaluated by Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sojin; Choi, Seoyun; Ahn, Byungchan

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage responses are important for the maintenance of genome stability and the survival of organisms. Such responses are activated in the presence of DNA damage and lead to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In Caenorhabditis elegans, double-strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents have been detected indirectly by antibodies against DSB recognizing proteins. In this study we used a comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and to measure the elimination of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. We found that C. elegans brc-1 mutants were more sensitive to ionizing radiation and camptothecin than the N2 wild-type strain and repaired DNA strand breaks less efficiently than N2. This study is the first demonstration of direct measurement of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. This newly developed assay can be applied to detect DNA strand breaks in different C. elegans mutants that are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26903030

  17. LOX is a novel mitotic spindle-associated protein essential for mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufraqech, Myriem; Wei, Darmood; Weyemi, Urbain; Zhang, Lisa; Quezado, Martha; Kalab, Petr; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-05-17

    LOX regulates cancer progression in a variety of human malignancies. It is overexpressed in aggressive cancers and higher expression of LOX is associated with higher cancer mortality. Here, we report a new function of LOX in mitosis. We show that LOX co-localizes to mitotic spindles from metaphase to telophase, and p-H3(Ser10)-positive cells harbor strong LOX staining. Further, purification of mitotic spindles from synchronized cells show that LOX fails to bind to microtubules in the presence of nocodazole, whereas paclitaxel treated samples showed enrichment in LOX expression, suggesting that LOX binds to stabilized microtubules. LOX knockdown leads to G2/M phase arrest; reduced p-H3(Ser10), cyclin B1, CDK1, and Aurora B. Moreover, LOX knockdown significantly increased sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents that target microtubules. Our findings suggest that LOX has a role in cancer cell mitosis and may be targeted to enhance the activity of microtubule inhibitors for cancer therapy.

  18. MiR-210 disturbs mitotic progression through regulating a group of mitosis-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Wu, Jiangbin; Xu, Naihan; Xie, Weidong; Li, Mengnan; Li, Jianna; Jiang, Yuyang; Yang, Burton B; Zhang, Yaou

    2013-01-07

    MiR-210 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types but its function is disputable and further investigation is necessary. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified the putative target genes of miR-210 in hypoxia-induced CNE cells from genome-wide scale. Two functional gene groups related to cell cycle and RNA processing were recognized as the major targets of miR-210. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and biological consequence of miR-210 in cell cycle regulation, particularly mitosis. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of miR-210 was highly correlated with the down-regulation of a group of mitosis-related genes, including Plk1, Cdc25B, Cyclin F, Bub1B and Fam83D. MiR-210 suppressed the expression of these genes by directly targeting their 3'-UTRs. Over-expression of exogenous miR-210 disturbed mitotic progression and caused aberrant mitosis. Furthermore, miR-210 mimic with pharmacological doses reduced tumor formation in a mouse metastatic tumor model. Taken together, these results implicate that miR-210 disturbs mitosis through targeting multi-genes involved in mitotic progression, which may contribute to its inhibitory role on tumor formation.

  19. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  20. [Intragenic mitotic recombination induced by ultraviolet and gamma rays in radiosensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, I A; Kasinova, G V; Koval'tsova, S V

    1983-01-01

    The effect of UV- and gamma-irradiation on the survival and intragenic mitotic recombination (gene conversion) of 5 radiosensitive mutants was studied in comparison with the wild type. The level of spontaneous conversion was similar for RAD, rad2 and rad15, mutations xrs2 and xrs4 increasing and rad54 significantly decreasing it. The frequency of conversion induced by UV-light was greater in rad2, rad15 and xrs2 mutants and lower in xrs4, as compared to RAD. Gamma-irradiation caused induction of gene conversion with an equal frequency in RAD, rad2, rad15. Xrs2 and xrs4 mutations slightly decreased gamma-induced conversion. In rad54 mutant, UV-and gamma-induced conversion was practically absent. In the wild type yeast, a diploid strain is more resistant than a haploid, whereas in rad54 a diploid strain has the same or an increased sensitivity, as compared to a haploid strain (the "inverse ploidy effect"). This effect and also the block of induced mitotic recombination caused by rad54 indicate the presence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of repair pathways of UV- and gamma-induced damages acting in diploid cells and realised by recombination. The data obtained as a result of many years' investigation of genetic effects in radiosensitive mutants of yeast are summarised and considered.

  1. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.; Barquinero, J.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Perez, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy γ rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  2. Action of plasma and liver extract from adult mice on the mitotic activity of young mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A L; Inda, A M; Echave Llanos, J M

    1991-06-01

    Inbred C3HS male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis were used. A hundred and seventy 25 +/- 2 days old mice were injected at 16:00 hs with saline, plasma or liver extract from 27 mice 90 days old. Controls were made at 08/16, 12/20, 16/24, 08/40, 12/44, 16/48, 08/64, 12/68 and 16/72 (time of day/time post-injection). The mitotic activity of the hepatocytes and litoral cells were determined. The injection of small doses of extract and plasma inhibits the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first and second following days. A compensatory wave appears in the third day. The extract inhibits the mitotic activity of litoral cells in the first day of control only, whereas the plasma inhibits this variable in the second and third day.

  3. The effect of mitotic inhibitors on DNA strand size and radiation-associated break repair in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.G.; Steiner, M.E.; Kalvonjian, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of mitotic inhibitors on formation and repair of DNA breaks was studied in cultured fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome in order to investigate the hypothesis that the karyotyping procedure itself may play a role in the increased chromosome breakage seen in these cells after gamma radiation exposure. Using the nondenaturing elution and alkaline elution techniques to examine fibroblasts from Down syndrome patients and from controls, no specific abnormalities in Down syndrome cells could be detected after exposure to mitotic inhibitors, including rate and extent of elution of DNA from filters as well as repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks. In both normal and Down syndrome cell strains, however, exposure to mitotic inhibitors was associated with a decrease in cellular DNA strand size, suggesting the presence of drug-induced DNA strand breaks. The mechanism of increased chromosome sensitivity of Down syndrome cells to gamma radiation remains unknown. (orig.)

  4. Centromere replication timing determines different forms of genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint mutants during replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Bachant, Jeff; Collingwood, David; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2009-12-01

    Yeast replication checkpoint mutants lose viability following transient exposure to hydroxyurea, a replication-impeding drug. In an effort to understand the basis for this lethality, we discovered that different events are responsible for inviability in checkpoint-deficient cells harboring mutations in the mec1 and rad53 genes. By monitoring genomewide replication dynamics of cells exposed to hydroxyurea, we show that cells with a checkpoint deficient allele of RAD53, rad53K227A, fail to duplicate centromeres. Following removal of the drug, however, rad53K227A cells recover substantial DNA replication, including replication through centromeres. Despite this recovery, the rad53K227A mutant fails to achieve biorientation of sister centromeres during recovery from hydroxyurea, leading to secondary activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), aneuploidy, and lethal chromosome segregation errors. We demonstrate that cell lethality from this segregation defect could be partially remedied by reinforcing bipolar attachment. In contrast, cells with the mec1-1 sml1-1 mutations suffer from severely impaired replication resumption upon removal of hydroxyurea. mec1-1 sml1-1 cells can, however, duplicate at least some of their centromeres and achieve bipolar attachment, leading to abortive segregation and fragmentation of incompletely replicated chromosomes. Our results highlight the importance of replicating yeast centromeres early and reveal different mechanisms of cell death due to differences in replication fork progression.

  5. Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather than oligomerization, is required for the spindle checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, L; Melixetian, M; Faretta, M

    2001-01-01

    Mad2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint, a device that controls the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. The ability of Mad2 to form oligomers in vitro has been correlated with its ability to block the cell cycle upon injection into Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Mad2 forms...

  6. Structural Biology of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor PD-1 and Its Ligands PD-L1/PD-L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Magiera, Katarzyna; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells can avoid and suppress immune responses through activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Blocking the activities of these proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and thus restoring T cell function, has delivered breakthrough therapies against

  7. ATM/Wip1 activities at chromatin control Plk1 re-activation to determine G2 checkpoint duration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaiswal, H.; Benada, Jan; Müllers, E.; Akopyan, K.; Burdová, Kamila; Koolmeister, T.; Helleday, T.; Medema, R.H.; Macůrek, Libor; Lindqvist, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 14 (2017), s. 2161-2176 ISSN 0261-4189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18392S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ATM * ATR * checkpoint recovery * G2 * Pik1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 9.792, year: 2016

  8. Wip1 phosphatase is associated with chromatin and dephosphorylates gammaH2AX to promote checkpoint inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macůrek, Libor; Lindqvist, A.; Voets, O.; Kool, J.; Vos, H.R.; Medema, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 15 (2010), s. 2281-2291 ISSN 0950-9232 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP305/10/P420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : DNA damage * checkpoint * phosphatase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.414, year: 2010

  9. Design Optimization of Time- and Cost-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Checkpointing and Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Eles, Petru

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant hard real-time systems for safety-critical applications. We use checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication for tolerating transient faults. Processes and communications are statically scheduled. Our synthesis approach deci...

  10. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  11. Radiation-induced apoptosis and cell cycle checkpoints in human colorectal tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playle, L.C.

    2001-03-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor gene is mutated in 75% of colorectal carcinomas and is critical for DNA damage-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Data presented in this thesis demonstrate that after treatment with Ionizing Radiation (IR), colorectal tumour cell lines with mutant p53 are unable to arrest at G1 and undergo cell cycle arrest at G2. The staurosporine derivative, UCN-01, was shown to abrogate the IR-induced G2 checkpoint in colorectal tumour cell lines. Furthermore, in some cell lines, abrogation of the G2 checkpoint was associated with radiosensitisation. Data presented in this study demonstrate that 2 out of 5 cell lines with mutant p53 were sensitised to IR by UCN-01. In order to determine whether radiosensitisation correlated with lack of functional p53, transfected derivatives of an adenoma-derived cell line were studied, in which endogenous wild type p53 was disrupted by expression of a dominant negative p53 mutant protein (and with a vector control). In both these cell lines UCN-01 abrogated the G2 arrest however this was not associated with radiosensitisation, indicating that radiosensitisation is a cell type-specific phenomenon. Although 2 colorectal carcinoma cell lines, with mutant p53, were sensitised to IR by UCN-01, the mechanisms of p53-independent IR-induced apoptosis in the colon are essentially unknown. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (that is the JNK, p38 and ERK pathways) have been implicated in apoptosis in a range of cell systems and in IR-induced apoptosis in some cell types. Data presented in this study show that, although the MAPKs can be activated by the known activator anisomycin, there is no evidence of a role for MAPKs in IR-induced apoptosis in colorectal tumour cell lines, regardless of p53 status. In summary, some colorectal tumour cell lines with mutant p53 can be sensitised to IR-induced cell death by G2 checkpoint abrogation and this may be an important treatment strategy, however mechanisms of IR-induced p53

  12. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle upon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoshina, M.M.; Poryadkova, N.A.; Luchnik, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in Chinese hamster cells has been studied by means of the method of differential staining of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation enhances frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is carried out before the end of DNA replication synthesis. Comparison of frequency depenedence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle results in the conclusion that the microexchanges are none other than small SCE

  13. Targeting cytokine signaling checkpoint CIS activates NK cells to protect from tumor initiation and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Eva M.; Guillerey, Camille; Kos, Kevin; Stannard, Kimberley; Miles, Kim; Delconte, Rebecca B.; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Smyth, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytokine-induced SH2-containing protein CIS belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein family. Here, we show the critical role of CIS in suppressing natural killer (NK) cell control of tumor initiation and metastasis. Cish-deficient mice were highly resistant to methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma formation and protected from lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma and RM-1 prostate carcinoma cells. In contrast, the growth of primary subcutaneous tumors, including those expressing the foreign antigen OVA, was unchanged in Cish-deficient mice. The combination of Cish deficiency and relevant targeted and immuno-therapies such as combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors, immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, IL-2 and type I interferon revealed further improved control of metastasis. The data clearly indicate that targeting CIS promotes NK cell antitumor functions and CIS holds great promise as a novel target in NK cell immunotherapy. PMID:28344878

  14. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Furness, Andrew J. S.; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ramskov, Sofie; Lyngaa, Rikke; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Hiley, Crispin T.; Watkins, Thomas B. K.; Shafi, Seema; Murugaesu, Nirupa; Mitter, Richard; Akarca, Ayse U.; Linares, Joseph; Marafioti, Teresa; Henry, Jake Y.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Miao, Diana; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garraway, Levi A.; Makarov, Vladimir; Rizvi, Naiyer A.; Snyder, Alexandra; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Shukla, Sachet A.; Wu, Catherine J.; Peggs, Karl S.; Chan, Timothy A.; Hadrup, Sine R.; Quezada, Sergio A.; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy–induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens. PMID:26940869

  15. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  16. Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE7 selects miR390 through multiple checkpoints during RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yayoi; Iwakawa, Hiro-oki; Tomari, Yukihide

    2013-07-01

    Plant ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7) assembles RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) specifically with miR390 and regulates the auxin-signalling pathway via production of TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs). However, how AGO7 discerns miR390 among other miRNAs remains unclear. Here, we show that the 5' adenosine of miR390 and the central region of miR390/miR390* duplex are critical for the specific interaction with AGO7. Furthermore, despite the existence of mismatches in the seed and central regions of the duplex, cleavage of the miR390* strand is required for maturation of AGO7-RISC. These findings suggest that AGO7 uses multiple checkpoints to select miR390, thereby circumventing promiscuous tasiRNA production.

  17. Cremophor EL stimulates mitotic recombination in uvsH//uvsH diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Busso

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cremophor EL is a solubilizer and emulsifier agent used in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. The solvent is the principal constituent of paclitaxel's clinical formulation vehicle. Since mitotic recombination plays a crucial role in multistep carcinogenesis, the study of the recombinagenic potential of chemical compounds is of the utmost importance. In our research genotoxicity of cremophor EL has been studied by using an uvsH//uvsH diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans. Since it spends a great part of its cell cycle in the G2period, this fungus is a special screening system for the study of mitotic recombination induced by chemical substances. Homozygotization Indexes (HI for paba and bi markers from heterozygous B211//A837 diploid strain were determined for the evaluation of the recombinagenic effect of cremophor EL. It has been shown that cremophor EL induces increase in mitotic crossing-over events at nontoxic concentrations (0.05 and 0.075% v/v.Cremofor EL (CEL é um solubilizante e emulsificante amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de gêneros alimentícios. É o principal veículo empregado nas formulações clínicas do antineoplásico paclitaxel. Considerando-se que a recombinação mitótica desempenha importante função no processo de carcinogênese, o estudo de substâncias químicas com potencial recombinagênico assume importância crucial, no sentido de se detectar aquelas que eventualmente possam atuar como promotoras de neoplasias. A genotoxicidade do cremofor EL foi estudada no presente trabalho, utilizando-se uma linhagem diplóide uvsH//uvsH de Aspergillus nidulans. Neste fungo as células vegetativas comumente repousam no período G2 do ciclo celular, facilitando a ocorrência da recombinação mitótica. O efeito recombinagênico do CEL foi avaliado através da determinação dos Índices de Homozigotização para os marcadores nutricionais paba e bi do diplóide heterozigoto B211//A837. Os

  18. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sandro; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Mocellin, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies, two new class of drugs for treatment of metastatic melanoma, have not been compared in randomized controlled trials (RCT). We quantitatively summarized the evidence and compared immune and targeted therapies in terms of both efficacy and toxicity. A comprehensive search for RCTs of immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies was conducted to August 2016. Using a network meta-analysis approach, treatments were compared with each other and ranked based on their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on progression-free survival [PFS]) and acceptability (the inverse of high grade toxicity). Twelve RCTs enrolling 6207 patients were included. Network meta-analysis generated 15 comparisons. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors were associated with longer PFS as compared to anti-CTLA4 (HR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.41) and anti-PD1 antibodies alone (HR: 0.38; CI: 0.20-0.72). However, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies were less toxic than anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 0.65; CI: 0.40-0.78) and their combination significantly increased toxicity compared to either single agent anti-CTLA4 (RR: 2.06; CI: 1.45-2.93) or anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 3.67; CI: 2.27-5.96). Consistently, ranking analysis suggested that the combination of targeted therapies is the most effective strategy, whereas single agent anti-PD1 antibodies have the best acceptability. The GRADE level of evidence quality for these findings was moderate to low. The simultaneous inhibition of BRAF and MEK appears the most effective treatment for melanomas harboring BRAF V600 mutation, although anti-PD1 antibodies appear to be less toxic. Further research is needed to increase the quality of evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Archaeosome-Adjuvanted Vaccine and Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Combination Significantly Enhances Protection from Murine Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity C. Stark

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeosomes constitute archaeal lipid vesicle vaccine adjuvants that evoke a strong CD8+ T cell response to antigenic cargo. Therapeutic treatment of murine B16-ovalbumin (B16-OVA melanoma with archaeosome-OVA eliminates small subcutaneous solid tumors; however, they eventually resurge despite an increased frequency of circulating and tumor infiltrating OVA-CD8+ T cells. Herein, a number of different approaches were evaluated to improve responses, including dose number, interval, and the combination of vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors. Firstly, we found that tumor protection could not be enhanced by repetitive and/or delayed boosting to maximize the CD8+ T cell number and/or phenotype. The in vivo cytotoxicity of vaccine-induced OVA-CD8+ T cells was impaired in tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, tumor-infiltrating OVA-CD8+ T cells had an increased expression of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1 compared to other organ compartments, suggesting impaired function. Combination therapy of tumor-bearing mice with the vaccine archaeosome-OVA, and α-CTLA-4 administered concurrently as well as α-PD-1 and an α-PD-L1 antibody administered starting 9 days after tumor challenge given on a Q3Dx4 schedule (days 9, 12, 15 and 18, significantly enhanced survival. Following multi-combination therapy ~70% of mice had rapid tumor recession, with no detectable tumor mass after >80 days in comparison to a median survival of 17–22 days for untreated or experimental groups receiving single therapies. Overall, archaeosomes offer a powerful platform for delivering cancer antigens when used in combination with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies.

  20. The Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitor Prexasertib Induces Regression of Preclinical Models of Human Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Caitlin D; VanWye, Alle B; Dowless, Michele; Blosser, Wayne; Falcon, Beverly L; Stewart, Julie; Stephens, Jennifer; Beckmann, Richard P; Bence Lin, Aimee; Stancato, Louis F

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a mediator of replication stress through modulation of replication fork licensing and activation of S and G 2 -M cell-cycle checkpoints. We evaluated prexasertib (LY2606368), a small-molecule CHK1 inhibitor currently in clinical testing, in multiple preclinical models of pediatric cancer. Following an initial assessment of prexasertib activity, this study focused on the preclinical models of neuroblastoma. Experimental Design: We evaluated the antiproliferative activity of prexasertib in a panel of cancer cell lines; neuroblastoma cell lines were among the most sensitive. Subsequent Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses measured DNA damage and DNA repair protein activation. Prexasertib was investigated in several cell line-derived xenograft mouse models of neuroblastoma. Results: Within 24 hours, single-agent prexasertib promoted γH2AX-positive double-strand DNA breaks and phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors ATM and DNA-PKcs, leading to neuroblastoma cell death. Knockdown of CHK1 and/or CHK2 by siRNA verified that the double-strand DNA breaks and cell death elicited by prexasertib were due to specific CHK1 inhibition. Neuroblastoma xenografts rapidly regressed following prexasertib administration, independent of starting tumor volume. Decreased Ki67 and increased immunostaining of endothelial and pericyte markers were observed in xenografts after only 6 days of exposure to prexasertib, potentially indicating a swift reduction in tumor volume and/or a direct effect on tumor vasculature. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate that prexasertib is a specific inhibitor of CHK1 in neuroblastoma and leads to DNA damage and cell death in preclinical models of this devastating pediatric malignancy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4354-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.