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Sample records for cme activity cluster

  1. Effect of a performance improvement CME activity on management of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Gary C; Marian, Kathy; Bagley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Primary care in the United States faces unprecedented challenges from an aging population and the accompanying prevalence of chronic disease. In response, continuing medical education (CME) initiatives have begun to adopt the principles of performance improvement (PI) into their design, although currently there is a dearth of evidence from national initiatives supporting the effectiveness of this methodology. The specific aim of this study was to demonstrate the value of a national PI-CME activity to improve the performance of physicians treating patients with diabetes. We analyzed data from the American Academy of Family Physicians' METRIC® PI-CME activity in a cohort of family physician learners. The study utilized the 3-stage design standard approved for PI-CME. Baseline and follow-up performance data across a range of clinical and systems-based measures were compared in aggregate. Data were assessed for 509 learners who completed the activity. Statistically significant changes occurred both for self-assessment of a range of practice aspects and for diabetes care measures. Learners recognized that the organization of their practices had improved, and mechanisms were in place for better staff feedback, as well as aspects of patient self-management. Based on the clinical data obtained from 11 538 patient charts, 6 out of 8 diabetes measures were significantly improved. The activity appears to have had a positive, measurable impact on the medical practice of learners and suggests that, when appropriately designed and executed, PI-CME on a national scale can be a useful vehicle to influence performance change in physicians and to inform future CME activities. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  2. Treatment of Viscosity in the Shock Waves Observed After Two Consecutive Coronal Mass Ejection Activities CME08/03/2012 and CME15/03/2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Huseyin

    2016-11-01

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) is one of the most the powerful activities of the Sun. There is a possibility to produce shocks in the interplanetary medium after CMEs. Shock waves can be observed when the solar wind changes its velocity from being supersonic nature to being subsonic nature. The investigations of such activities have a central place in space weather purposes, since; the interaction of shocks with viscosity is one of the most important problems in the supersonic and compressible gas flow regime (Blazek in Computational fluid dynamics: principles and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001). The main aim of present work is to achieve a search for the viscosity effects in the shocks occurred after two consecutive coronal mass ejection activities in 2012 (i.e. CME08/03/2012 and CME15/03/2012).

  3. Impact of a Performance Improvement CME activity on the care and treatment of patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Debra L; Bhushan, Reva; Hamarstrom, Elaine; Sluka, Patrick; Presta, Christine M; Thompson, Jennifer S; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    The Performance Improvement (PI) CME format improves physician performance in other specialties but data are lacking in dermatology. We sought to assess the impact of a PI CME activity on physician practice patterns for patients with psoriasis, which was developed, implemented, and evaluated by the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), in part to assist dermatologists in fulfilling Part IV of their Maintenance of Certification requirements. In this PI CME activity, participants: (1) self-audited patient charts, which met inclusion criteria in stage A, and reflected on their results, benchmarked against peers; (2) reviewed educational materials in stage B and developed an improvement plan; and (3) self-audited a different set of patient charts following the plan's implementation. Aggregate stage A and C data were analyzed using χ(2) tests. We found a statistically significant improvement in the advisement of patients with psoriasis regarding their increased risk for cardiovascular disease, to contact their primary care provider for cardiovascular risk assessment, and in shared decision making regarding the treatment plan. We also found an overall statistically significant improvement in history taking per the guidelines. Learner chart selection bias, self-reporting of chart data, and lack of a control group are limitations. The AAD psoriasis PI CME activity demonstrated significantly improved dermatologists' documentation of patient's history, counseling of patients for lifestyle behaviors, and shared decision making. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Why Is the Great Solar Active Region 12192 CME-Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Bobra, Monica G.; Hoeksema, Todd; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; Couvidat, Sebastien; Norton, Aimee A.; Fisher, George H.

    2015-04-01

    Solar active region (AR) 12192 of October 2014 hosts the largest sunspot group in 24 years. It is the most prolific flaring site of Cycle 24, but surprisingly produced no coronal mass ejection (CME) from the core region during its disk passage. Here, we study the magnetic conditions that prevented eruption and the consequences that ensued. We find AR 12192 to be "big but mild"; its core region exhibits weaker non-potentiality, stronger overlying field, and smaller flare-related field changes compared to two other major flare-CME-productive ARs (11429 and 11158). These differences are present in the intensive-type indices (e.g., means) but generally not the extensive ones (e.g., totals). AR 12192's large amount of magnetic free energy does not translate into CME productivity. The unexpected behavior suggests that AR eruptiveness is limited by some relative measure of magnetic non-potentiality over the restriction of background field, and that confined flares may leave weaker photospheric and coronal imprints compared to their eruptive counterparts.

  5. Why Is the Great Solar Active Region 12192 Flare-rich but CME-poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Bobra, Monica G.; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; Couvidat, Sebastien; Norton, Aimee A.; Fisher, George H.

    2015-05-01

    Solar active region (AR) 12192 of 2014 October hosts the largest sunspot group in 24 years. It is the most prolific flaring site of Cycle 24 so far, but surprisingly produced no coronal mass ejection (CME) from the core region during its disk passage. Here, we study the magnetic conditions that prevented eruption and the consequences that ensued. We find AR 12192 to be “big but mild” its core region exhibits weaker non-potentiality, stronger overlying field, and smaller flare-related field changes compared to two other major flare-CME-productive ARs (11429 and 11158). These differences are present in the intensive-type indices (e.g., means) but generally not the extensive ones (e.g., totals). AR 12192's large amount of magnetic free energy does not translate into CME productivity. The unexpected behavior suggests that AR eruptiveness is limited by some relative measure of magnetic non-potentiality over the restriction of background field, and that confined flares may leave weaker photospheric and coronal imprints compared to their eruptive counterparts.

  6. Active cluster crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    We study the appearance and properties of cluster crystals (solids in which the unit cell is occupied by a cluster of particles) in a two-dimensional system of self-propelled active Brownian particles with repulsive interactions. Self-propulsion deforms the clusters by depleting particle density inside, and for large speeds it melts the crystal. Continuous field descriptions at several levels of approximation allow us to identify the relevant physical mechanisms.

  7. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck

    2007-02-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances exoplanet is protected by a "magnetic shield" with its boundary located at 1 Earth radius above the surface. Furthermore, our study indicates that magnetic moments of tidally locked Earth-like exoplanets are essential for protecting their expanded upper atmospheres because of intense XUV radiation against CME plasma erosion. Therefore, we suggest that larger and more massive terrestrial-type exoplanets may better protect their atmospheres against CMEs, because the larger cores of such exoplanets would generate stronger magnetic moments and their higher gravitational acceleration would constrain the expansion of their thermosphere-exosphere regions and reduce atmospheric escape.

  8. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O

    2007-02-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  9. Magnetic reconnection processes induced by a CME expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10–11 December 2005 a slow CME occurred in the Western Hemisphere in between two coronal streamers. SOHO/MDI magnetograms show a multipolar magnetic configuration at the photosphere: a complex of active regions located at the CME source and two bipoles at the base of the lateral coronal streamers. White light observations reveal that the CME expansion affects both of them and induces the release of plasma within or close to the nearby streamers. These transient phenomena are possibly due to magnetic reconnections induced by the CME expansion and occurring inside the streamer current sheet or between the CME flanks and the streamer.

    These events have been observed by the SOHO/UVCS with the spectrometer slit centered at 1.8 R over about a full day. In this work we focus on the interaction between the CME and the streamer: the UVCS spectral interval included UV lines from ions at different temperatures of maximum formation such as O VI, Si XIII and Al Xi. These data gave us the opportunity to infer the evolution of plasma temperature and density at the reconnection site and adjacent regions. These are relevant to characterize secondary reconnection processes occurring during a CME development.

  10. Magnetic reconnection processes induced by a CME expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10–11 December 2005 a slow CME occurred in the Western Hemisphere in between two coronal streamers. SOHO/MDI magnetograms show a multipolar magnetic configuration at the photosphere: a complex of active regions located at the CME source and two bipoles at the base of the lateral coronal streamers. White light observations reveal that the CME expansion affects both of them and induces the release of plasma within or close to the nearby streamers. These transient phenomena are possibly due to magnetic reconnections induced by the CME expansion and occurring inside the streamer current sheet or between the CME flanks and the streamer. These events have been observed by the SOHO/UVCS with the spectrometer slit centered at 1.8 R⊙ over about a full day. In this work we focus on the interaction between the CME and the streamer: the UVCS spectral interval included UV lines from ions at different temperatures of maximum formation such as O VI, Si XIII and Al Xi. These data gave us the opportunity to infer the evolution of plasma temperature and density at the reconnection site and adjacent regions. These are relevant to characterize secondary reconnection processes occurring during a CME development.

  11. Dual repression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC by CosR and CmeR in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Grinnage-Pulley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. CosR and CmeR bound independently to two separate sites of the cmeABC promoter, simultaneously repressing cmeABC expression. This dual binding of CosR and CmeR is optimal with a 17 base pair space between the two binding sites as mutations that shortened the distance between the binding sites decreased binding by CmeR and enhanced cmeABC expression. Additionally, the single cysteine residue (C218 of CosR was sensitive to oxidation, which altered the DNA-binding activity of CosR and dissociated CosR from the cmeABC promoter as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Replacement of C218 with serine rendered CosR insensitive to oxidation, suggesting a potential role of C218 in sensing oxidative stress and providing a possible mechanism for CosR-mediated response to oxidative stress. These findings reveal a dual regulatory role of CosR and CmeR in modulating cmeABC expression and suggest a potential mechanism that may explain overexpression of cmeABC in response to oxidative stress. Differential expression of cmeABC mediated by CmeR and CosR in response to different signals may facilitate adaptation of Campylobacter to various environmental conditions.

  12. CME prediction: present and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Tanja

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, the prediction of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at Earth has attracted a lot of attention from scientists all over the world. Several organizations monitor the solar activity and the solar wind embracing many of the diverse phenomena related to space weather. Despite the community wide efforts to enhance prediction models, accurately forecasting a CME's arrival time at Earth is not yet possible and the number of false alarms is still too high. With the currently limited observational possibilities of coronagraphs at L1 it may not be possible to improve the prediction error significantly. With the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) the research field of the interplanetary evolution of CMEs got fresh impetus and CMEs propagating outside the field of view of coronagraphs could have been studied in detail. Exploiting STEREO data, several methods were developed to investigate and predict the propagation of CMEs. The logical next step in the field of CME prediction is to use and refine those methods and to envisage future space weather missions where these tools can be deployed. This talk gives an overview on existing forecasting methods and models and risks a foresight into prospective models and ideas, which may enhance CME prediction.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  14. Is There a CME Rate Floor? CME and Magnetic Flux Values for the Last Four Solar Cycle Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. F.; Howard, R. A.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Vourlidas, A.

    2017-12-01

    The recent prolonged activity minimum has led to the question of whether there is a base level of the solar magnetic field evolution that yields a “floor” in activity levels and also in the solar wind magnetic field strength. Recently, a flux transport model coupled with magneto-frictional simulations has been used to simulate the continuous magnetic field evolution in the global solar corona for over 15 years, from 1996 to 2012. Flux rope eruptions in the simulations are estimated (Yeates), and the results are in remarkable agreement with the shape of the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronal mass ejection (CME) rate distribution. The eruption rates at the two recent minima approximate the observed-corrected CME rates, supporting the idea of a base level of solar magnetic activity. In this paper, we address this issue by comparing annual averages of the CME occurrence rates during the last four solar cycle minima with several tracers of the global solar magnetic field. We conclude that CME activity never ceases during a cycle, but maintains a base level of 1 CME every 1.5 to ∼3 days during minima. We discuss the sources of these CMEs.

  15. Men's sexual health: evaluating the effectiveness of print- and PDA-based CME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Gregory A; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2009-09-01

    Personal digital assistant (PDA)-based continuing medical education (CME) activities have become widely available. To evaluate the effectiveness of print- and PDA-based CME materials in erectile dysfunction (ED). CME materials describing links between ED and comorbid medical conditions, effects of certain lifestyle modifications on ED, and treatment of ED with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors were distributed as a print supplement and as electronic modules, viewed with PDAs. We evaluated how effectively these materials improved evidence-based clinical choices, using survey questions about case vignettes and comparing responses of CME participants (N = 85) and matched nonparticipants (N = 94). Effect size, measuring the difference in evidence-based clinical scores between participants and nonparticipants. CME certificates were awarded to 3,557 participants (459 print, 3,098 PDA). Among survey respondents, significantly more CME participants recognized that ED was associated with greater risk for myocardial infarction (61% participants; 34% nonparticipants; P sexual concerns was perceived as the most significant barrier to optimal ED management. Given patient reluctance to discuss sexual concerns, future CME activities should focus on educating health-care providers and patients that ED is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Both print- and PDA-based CME on ED were effective; the large number of lesson completers suggests a trend toward on-demand, self-selected CME is positive.

  16. Expanding CME-flare relations to other stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia P.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2017-05-01

    Stellar activity is one of the main parameters in exoplanet habitability studies. While the effects of UV to X-ray emission from extreme flares on exoplanets are beginning to be investigated, the impact of coronal mass ejections is currently highly speculative because CMEs and their properties cannot yet be directly observed on other stars. An extreme superflare was observed in X-rays on the Algol binary system on August 30 1997, emitting a total of energy 1.4x 10^{37} erg and making it a great candidate for studying the upper energy limits of stellar superflares in solar-type (GK) stars. A simultaneous increase and subsequent decline in absorption during the flare was also observed and interpretted as being caused by a CME. Here we investigate the dynamic properties of a CME that could explain such time-dependent absorption and appeal to trends revealed from solar flare and CME statistics as a guide. Using the ice-cream cone model that is extensively used in solar physics to describe the three-dimensional CME structure, in combination with the temporal profile of the hydrogen column density evolution, we are able to characterize the CME and estimate its kinetic energy and mass. We examine the mass, kinetic and flare X-ray fluence in the context of solar relations to examine the extent to which such relations can be extrapolated to much more extreme stellar events.

  17. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  18. PROPAGATION OF THE 2014 JANUARY 7 CME AND RESULTING GEOMAGNETIC NON-EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, M. L.; Collinson, G.; Taktakishvili, A. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L. K.; Savani, N. P.; MacNeice, P. J.; Zheng, Y. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Colaninno, R. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Odstrcil, D. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Möstl, C. [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); Temmer, M., E-mail: m.leila.mays@nasa.gov [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-20

    On 2014 January 7 an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) with a radial speed ≈2500 km s{sup −1} was observed from near an active region close to disk center. This led many forecasters to estimate a rapid arrival at Earth (≈36 hr) and predict a strong geomagnetic storm. However, only a glancing CME arrival was observed at Earth with a transit time of ≈49 hr and a K{sub P} geomagnetic index of only 3−. We study the interplanetary propagation of this CME using the ensemble Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)–ENLIL+Cone model, that allows a sampling of CME parameter uncertainties. We explore a series of simulations to isolate the effects of the background solar wind solution, CME shape, tilt, location, size, and speed, and the results are compared with observed in situ arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars. Our results show that a tilted ellipsoid CME shape improves the initial real-time prediction to better reflect the observed in situ signatures and the geomagnetic storm strength. CME parameters from the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model used as input to WSA–ENLIL+Cone, along with a tilted ellipsoid cloud shape, improve the arrival-time error by 14.5, 18.7, 23.4 hr for Venus, Earth, and Mars respectively. These results highlight that CME orientation and directionality with respect to observatories play an important role in understanding the propagation of this CME, and for forecasting other glancing CME arrivals. This study also demonstrates the importance of three-dimensional CME fitting made possible by multiple viewpoint imaging.

  19. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klančnik, A.; Šikić Pogačar, M.; Trošt, K.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Methods and Results: Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants...... and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition......: An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step...

  20. Comparison of the instructional efficacy of Internet-based CME with live interactive CME workshops: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordis, Michael; King, Jason E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Jones, Peter H; Schneider, Katharine H; Spann, Stephen J; Greenberg, Stephen B; Greisinger, Anthony J

    2005-09-07

    change. However, the Internet-based intervention was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of high-risk patients treated with pharmacotherapeutics according to guidelines (preintervention, 85.3%; postintervention, 90.3%; P = .04). Appropriately designed, evidence-based online CME can produce objectively measured changes in behavior as well as sustained gains in knowledge that are comparable or superior to those realized from effective live activities.

  1. Effects of a CME on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D.

    We investigate the effects of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on Mars. The magnetic field in the magnetic pileup region on Mars is dominated by the dynamic pressure from the solar as increased dynamic pressure compresses the magnetic pileup region causing a larger magnetic pressure, until...... this balances the solar wind pressure. As the dynamic pressure is severely increased during a CME, so is the magnetic pressure. A CME are also typically connected to a Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event, causing large amounts of radiation. When the shock front of a CME arrives at Mars strong signals are seen...... in both the magnetic field data and in the radiation data. Based on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer (MAG) and Electron Reflectometer (ER) data we study the radiation and magnetic field variations on Mars during a CME event. We also compare the effects on Mars to the effects on Earth for the same...

  2. Characterization of Catalytically Active Octahedral Metal Halide Cluster Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kamiguchi; Sayoko Nagashima; Teiji Chihara

    2014-01-01

    Halide clusters have not been used as catalysts. Hexanuclear molecular halide clusters of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten possessing an octahedral metal framework are chosen as catalyst precursors. The prepared clusters have no metal–metal multiple bonds or coordinatively unsaturated sites and therefore required activation. In a hydrogen or helium stream, the clusters are treated at increasingly higher temperatures. Above 150–250 °C, catalytically active sites develop, and the clu...

  3. CME credit systems in three developing countries: China, India and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis A. Miller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two of the largest countries in the world, still developing nations, China and Indonesia, have now created national credit systems for continuing medical education (CME. A third, India, has tried but succeeded only on a state-by-state basis. This study tracks the development of CME/continuing professional development (CPD credit systems in these three major Asian countries, analyses the related administrative backgrounds and points to strengths and weaknesses of each system in terms of serving the goals of CME/CPD in impacting medical care systems. Methods. The authors researched national- and state-level government records to identify legal and regulatory data affecting CME in China, India and Indonesia. Information on current and future activities was gained from media reports. Results. In all three countries, CME/CPD systems evaluate physician continuing competence by counting credits or credit hours. Central health authorities in China and Indonesia have established national systems applying to all health professionals. In Indonesia, CME/CPD is mandatory for re-licensure; in China, it is necessary for career advancement and re-registration. An effort to develop mandatory CME requirements in India, for physicians only, failed because the central agency underwent a major overhaul. Nevertheless, 9 of 28 states in India have developed systems, all tied to re-registration. Discussion. A comparison of systems in the three countries shows that little attention has been paid to physician performance improvement or improved patient health outcomes. Needs assessments and outcomes measures are not regularly carried out. We did not find any evidence of programmes to train administrators or faculty in CME/CPD principles, with the possible exception of Indonesia. Suggestions are offered to CME system leaders and providers to help their counterparts in developing nations.

  4. CME properties and solar source region characteristics - HELCATS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Mrotzek, Niclas; Murray, Sophie; Gallagher, Peter; Barnes, David; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard

    2017-04-01

    One objective of the EU FP7 project HELCATS is to derive and catalogue the characteristics of CMEs observed with the STEREO/COR2 & HI imagers based on geometrical and forward modelling. Here we present the results of the analysis of a subset of the 122 CME events that have been dynamically modelled with the GCS-method in the COR2 field of view and which are compiled in the KINCAT database at http://www.affects-fp7.eu/helcats-database/database.php. The CME properties, such as speeds, masses, angular widths, as derived from modelling, are compared with magnetic field properties of the corresponding solar source active region, such as magnetic flux, area, and polarity line characteristics. The results show which solar parameters define the structure of CMEs at distances around 12 solar radii and how they can be used for space weather forecast services.

  5. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, A; Šikić Pogačar, M; Trošt, K; Tušek Žnidarič, M; Mozetič Vodopivec, B; Smole Možina, S

    2017-01-01

    To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition of adhesion of Camp. jejuni to these abiotic and biotic surfaces. Low doses of GSS extract can inhibit Camp. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene surfaces and to PSI and H4 cells, and can thus modulate Camp. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step towards the application of new innovative strategies to control Campylobacter contamination and infection via the food chain. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Cluster activity in Lithuania: challenges and search for opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelita Skaržauskienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyse and summarise the problems of innovative business cluster performance in Lithuania and provide suggestions on how to improve the situation and to identify the main sources of their activity riskMethodology – general review of scientific literature that analyses the efficiency of clusters and factors that have a negative impact on their business; a case study.Results – problems of cluster performance in Lithuania analysed and the main types of risk of cluster activity identified.Research limitations – study limitations arise due to the lack of quantitative data and the confidentiality of insider information. For this reason, it is difficult to create adequate models of efficiency assessment.Practical implications – the development of innovation industry in the public environment and the academic environment is based on the one-sided point of view as a progress indicator in Lithuania. However, there is too little debate on whether the cluster is a truly optimal form to create the conditions for the development of business innovations. Despite the fact that innovations are the main subject of venture capital funds financing, the risks related to innovation and clustering have also been insufficiently analysed. This article seeks to identify the risk characteristics and structure inherent in business clusters.Value – the main problems of cluster activity in Lithuania, the main types of cluster activity risk and the problems of its assessment are identified.Research type: literature review, general review.

  7. Characterization of Catalytically Active Octahedral Metal Halide Cluster Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kamiguchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Halide clusters have not been used as catalysts. Hexanuclear molecular halide clusters of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten possessing an octahedral metal framework are chosen as catalyst precursors. The prepared clusters have no metal–metal multiple bonds or coordinatively unsaturated sites and therefore required activation. In a hydrogen or helium stream, the clusters are treated at increasingly higher temperatures. Above 150–250 °C, catalytically active sites develop, and the cluster framework is retained up to 350–450 °C. One of the active sites is a Brønsted acid resulting from a hydroxo ligand that is produced by the elimination of hydrogen halide from the halogen and aqua ligands. The other active site is a coordinatively unsaturated metal, which can be isoelectronic with the platinum group metals by taking two or more electrons from the halogen ligands. In the case of the rhenium chloride cluster Re3Cl9, the cluster framework is stable at least up to 300 °C under inert atmosphere; however, it is reduced to metallic rhenium at 250–300 °C under hydrogen. The activated clusters are characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses, Raman spectrometry, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis, infrared spectrometry, acid titration with Hammett indicators, and elemental analyses.

  8. ForeCAT: Using CME Deflections to Constrain their Mass and the Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, C.; dos Santos, L. F. G.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show that CMEs can deflect from a purely radial trajectory yet no consensus exists as to the cause of these deflections. The majority of the deflection motion occurs in the corona at distances where the magnetic energy dominates. Accordingly, many theories attribute the CME deflection to magnetic forces. In Kay et al. (2013) we presented ForeCAT, a model for CME deflections based on the magnetic forces (magnetic tension and magnetic pressure gradients). Kay et al. (2014) introduced an improved three-dimensional version of ForeCAT. Here we study the 2008 December 12 CME which occurred during solar minimum of Solar Cycle 24 (Byrne et al 2010, Gui et al. 2011, Liu et al 2010a,b). This CME erupted from high latitudes, and, despite the weak background magnetic field, deflected to the ecliptic, impacting Earth. From the observations, we are able to constrain all of the ForeCAT input parameters except for the CME mass and the drag coefficient that affects the CME motion. The reduced chi-square best fit to the observations constrains the CME mass range to 3e14 to 7e14 g and the drag coefficient range to 1.9 to 2.4. We explore the effects of a different magnetic background which decreases less rapidly than our standard Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model, as type II radio bursts suggest that the PFSS magnetic field decays too rapidly above active regions. For the case of the filament eruption of 2008 December 12 we find that the quiet sun coronal magnetic field should behave similar to the PFSS model. Finally, we present our current work exploring the case of the 2008 April 9 CME.

  9. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The recently determined universal pressure profile of the ICM gas has been used and after comparing with the entropy profile of the gas from gravitational effects of the dark matter halo, the additional entropy injected by non-gravitational sources, as a function of the total cluster mass is determined.

  10. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel......-time series. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. Data were acquired with PET at different time points during practice of a visuomotor task. The results from cluster analysis show...

  11. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron transfer chains involved in a number of biologi- cal systems including respiration and photosynthesis.1. The most common iron–sulphur clusters found as active centres in iron–sulphur proteins are [Fe2S2], [Fe3S4] and [Fe4S4], in which Fe(III) ions are coordinated to cysteines from the peptide and are linked to each ...

  12. Current-driven flare and CME models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2017-08-01

    Roles played by the currents in the impulsive phase of a solar flare and in a coronal mass ejection (CME) are reviewed. Solar flares are magnetic explosions: magnetic energy stored in unneutralized currents in coronal loops is released into energetic electrons in the impulsive phase and into mass motion in a CME. The energy release is due to a change in current configuration effectively reducing the net current path. A flare is driven by the electromotive force (EMF) due to the changing magnetic flux. The EMF drives a flare-associated current whose cross-field closure is achieved by redirection along field lines to the chromosphere and back. The essential roles that currents play are obscured in the "standard" model and are described incorrectly in circuit models. A semiquantitative treatment of the energy and the EMF is provided by a multicurrent model, in which the currents are constant and the change in the current paths is described by time-dependent inductances. There is no self-consistent model that includes the intrinsic time dependence, the EMF, the flare-associated current, and the internal energy transport during a flare. The current, through magnetic helicity, plays an important role in a CME, with twist converted into writhe allowing the kink instability plus reconnection to lead to a new closed loop and with the current-current force accelerating the CME through the torus instability.

  13. Tubes, Mono Jets, Squeeze Out and CME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Glasma Flux Tubes, Mono Jets with squeeze out flow around them plus the Chiral Magnetic Effect(CME) are physical phenomenon that generate two particle correlation with respect to the reaction plane in mid-central 20% to 30% Au-Au collision √sNN = 200.0 GeV measured at RHIC.

  14. Activation of CO2 by supported Cu clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyemperumal, Satish Kumar; Deskins, N Aaron

    2017-11-01

    Catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to useful chemicals is a potent way to mitigate this greenhouse gas, but the challenge lies in finding active reduction catalysts. Using density functional theory we studied CO2 activation over TiO2-supported Cu clusters of size 1-4 atoms. The linear to bent transformation of CO2 is necessary for activation, and we found that all the clusters stabilized bent CO2, along with a significant gain of electrons on the CO2 (indicative of activation). On all the TiO2 supported Cu clusters, the interfacial sites were found to stabilize the bent CO2 adsorption, where the active site of adsorption on Cu dimer, trimer and tetramer was on the Cu atom farthest away from the TiO2 surface. Particularly, the Cu dimer stabilized bent CO2 very strongly, although this species was found to be unstable on the surface. A synthesis technique that could stabilize the Cu dimer could therefore lead to a very active catalyst. Furthermore we found (using vibrational and charge analysis) that the active sites for the CO2 activation predominantly had 0 and +1 oxidation states; the oxidation state of Cu is known to directly affect CO2 reduction activity. Our study shows TiO2-supported small Cu clusters can be active catalysts for CO2 reduction and also provides further motivation for theoretical and experimental studies of metal clusters.

  15. Study and assessment of clusters activity effect on regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cluster approach, i.e., forming basic innovative and industrial clusters is widely applied in modern Russian conditions for the development of the economy. These actions are considered as effective measures for implementing the economic policy stimulating regional development by federal and regional authorities. The analysis we carried out showed that the quantitative approach for assessing the efficiency of cluster creation and performance is still insufficiently used. In this paper we establish and quantitatively estimate the influence cluster have on the regional economy using regression analysis with an example of a number of Russian regional clusters. Expanding the practice of creation and the state support of clusters taking into account the revealed quantitative dependences estimating their efficiency is suggested. We have advanced the hypothesis that clustering has a positive influence on regional economy, and confirmed this influence by means of quantitative methods using representative datasets. Our study of course had a selective character as it is not possible to carry out the calculations for all the existing clusters and cluster initiatives of Russia and discuss the results within a single article. At the same time, following the analysis we performed, we concluded that it is effective to initiate cluster creation in Russian regions. It is shown that cluster activity is capable to have of having a positive impact on GRP growth and the budgetary income in the region. Along with that, we note the dissimilarities in the multiplying influence of clusters on the regional development, its dependence on territorial and branch specifics that will be the direction for a further indepth study.

  16. Solar eruptions: The CME-flare relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršnak, B.

    2016-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), caused by large-scale eruptions of the coronal magnetic field, often are accompanied by a more localized energy release in the form of flares, as a result of dissipative magnetic-field reconfiguration. Morphology and evolution of such flares, also denoted as dynamical flares are often explained as a consequence of reconnection of the arcade magnetic field, taking place below the erupting magnetic flux rope. A close relationship of the CME acceleration and the flare energy release is evidenced by various statistical correlations between parameters describing CMEs and flares, as well as by the synchronization of the CME acceleration phase with the impulsive phase of the associated flare. Such behavior implies that there must be a feedback relation between the dynamics of the CME and the flare-associated reconnection process. From the theoretical standpoint, magnetic reconnection affects the CME dynamics in several ways. First, it reduces the tension of the overlying arcade magnetic field and increases the magnetic pressure below the flux rope, and in this way enhances the CME acceleration. Furthermore, it supplies the poloidal magnetic flux to the flux rope, which helps sustaining the electric current in the rope and prolonging the action of the driving Lorentz force to large distances. The role of these processes, directly relating solar flares and CMEs, is illustrated by employing a simple model, where the erupting structure is represented by a curved flux rope anchored at both sides in the dense/inert photosphere, being subject to the kink and torus instability. It is shown that in most strongly accelerated ejections, where values on the order of 10 km s-2 are attained, the poloidal flux supplied to the erupting rope has to be several times larger than was the initial flux.

  17. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    series. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. Data were acquired with PET at different time points during practice of a visuomotor task. The results from cluster analysis show......Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel-time...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  19. Initialization independent clustering with actively self-training method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Feiping; Xu, Dong; Li, Xuelong

    2012-02-01

    The results of traditional clustering methods are usually unreliable as there is not any guidance from the data labels, while the class labels can be predicted more reliable by the semisupervised learning if the labels of partial data are given. In this paper, we propose an actively self-training clustering method, in which the samples are actively selected as training set to minimize an estimated Bayes error, and then explore semisupervised learning to perform clustering. Traditional graph-based semisupervised learning methods are not convenient to estimate the Bayes error; we develop a specific regularization framework on graph to perform semisupervised learning, in which the Bayes error can be effectively estimated. In addition, the proposed clustering algorithm can be readily applied in a semisupervised setting with partial class labels. Experimental results on toy data and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed clustering method on the unsupervised and the semisupervised setting. It is worthy noting that the proposed clustering method is free of initialization, while traditional clustering methods are usually dependent on initialization.

  20. Thermal activation in statistical clusters of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, O.

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a kinetic Monte-Carlo study of thermally activated magnetisation dynamics in clusters of statistically distributed magnetic nanoparticles. The structure of clusters is assumed to be of fractal nature, consistently with recent observations of magnetic particle aggregation in cellular environments. The computed magnetisation relaxation decay and frequency-dependent hysteresis loops are seen to significantly depend on the fractal dimension of aggregates, leading to accelerated magnetisation relaxation and reduction in the size of hysteresis loops as the fractal dimension increases from one-dimensional-like to three-dimensional-like clusters. Discussed are implications for applications in nanomedicine, such as magnetic hyperthermia or magnetic particle imaging.

  1. Active Clustering with Model-Based Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiming; Johnson, David M; Corso, Jason J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-supervised clustering seeks to augment traditional clustering methods by incorporating side information provided via human expertise in order to increase the semantic meaningfulness of the resulting clusters. However, most current methods are passive in the sense that the side information is provided beforehand and selected randomly. This may require a large number of constraints, some of which could be redundant, unnecessary, or even detrimental to the clustering results. Thus in order to scale such semi-supervised algorithms to larger problems it is desirable to pursue an active clustering method-i.e., an algorithm that maximizes the effectiveness of the available human labor by only requesting human input where it will have the greatest impact. Here, we propose a novel online framework for active semi-supervised spectral clustering that selects pairwise constraints as clustering proceeds, based on the principle of uncertainty reduction. Using a first-order Taylor expansion, we decompose the expected uncertainty reduction problem into a gradient and a step-scale, computed via an application of matrix perturbation theory and cluster-assignment entropy, respectively. The resulting model is used to estimate the uncertainty reduction potential of each sample in the dataset. We then present the human user with pairwise queries with respect to only the best candidate sample. We evaluate our method using three different image datasets (faces, leaves and dogs), a set of common UCI machine learning datasets and a gene dataset. The results validate our decomposition formulation and show that our method is consistently superior to existing state-of-the-art techniques, as well as being robust to noise and to unknown numbers of clusters.

  2. CME1003Pg011ED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    People with diabetes who choose to drink alcohol, should limit daily intake to one drink for adult women and two drinks for adult men. One drink is defined ... Older adults. • Energy requirements for older adults are lower than for younger adults. • Physical activity should be encouraged. • In the elderly, undernutrition is.

  3. Who are the healthy active seniors? A cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Claudia K Y; Chan, Engle Angela; Chin, Kenny C W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports a cluster analysis of a sample recruited from a randomized controlled trial that explored the effect of using a life story work approach to improve the psychological outcomes of older people in the community. 238 subjects from community centers were included in this analysis. After statistical testing, 169 seniors were assigned to the active ageing (AG) cluster and 69 to the inactive ageing (IG) cluster. Those in the AG were younger and healthier, with fewer chronic diseases and fewer depressive symptoms than those in the IG. They were more satisfied with their lives, and had higher self-esteem. They met with their family members more frequently, they engaged in more leisure activities and were more likely to have the ability to move freely. In summary, active ageing was observed in people with better health and functional performance. Our results echoed the limited findings reported in the literature.

  4. Unsupervised active learning based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Xie, Nianhua; Maybank, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Most existing active learning approaches are supervised. Supervised active learning has the following problems: inefficiency in dealing with the semantic gap between the distribution of samples in the feature space and their labels, lack of ability in selecting new samples that belong to new categories that have not yet appeared in the training samples, and lack of adaptability to changes in the semantic interpretation of sample categories. To tackle these problems, we propose an unsupervised active learning framework based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering. In the framework, two promising graph-theoretic clustering algorithms, namely, dominant-set clustering and spectral clustering, are combined in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework has some advantages, such as ease of implementation, flexibility in architecture, and adaptability to changes in the labeling. Evaluations on data sets for network intrusion detection, image classification, and video classification have demonstrated that our active learning framework can effectively reduce the workload of manual classification while maintaining a high accuracy of automatic classification. It is shown that, overall, our framework outperforms the support-vector-machine-based supervised active learning, particularly in terms of dealing much more efficiently with new samples whose categories have not yet appeared in the training samples.

  5. Active cloaking for clusters of pins in thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Jane; Haslinger, Stewart; Movchan, Natasha; Craster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers active cloaking of a square array of evenly spaced pins in a Kirchhoff plate in the presence of flexural waves. Active sources are distributed exterior to the cluster and are represented by the non-singular Green's function for the biharmonic operator. The complex amplitudes of the active sources, which cancel out selected multipole orders of the scattered field, are found by solving an algebraic system of equations. For frequencies in the zero-frequency stop band, we find that a small number of active sources located on a grid is sufficient for cloaking. For higher frequencies, we achieve efficient cloaking with the active sources positioned on a circle surrounding the cluster. We demonstrate the cloaking efficiency with several numerical illustrations, considering key frequencies from band diagrams and dispersion surfaces for a Kirchhoff plate pinned in a doubly periodic fashion.

  6. Study of CME Properties Using High Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Ya. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.

    The joint use of high-resolution data from SDO and PROBA2 satellites and LASCO/SOHO coronographs enabled us to examine early stages of initiation and propagation of six limb CMEs registered in June 2010 - June 2011. For five events under consideration, the CME initiation is marked by filament (prominence) eruption or by a loop-like structure having another nature. Subsequently, several loop-like structures having higher brightness and following each other at different velocities appear in the region of the CME initiation. The CME frontal structure is formed by these loop-like structures. The CME kinematics and such CME characteristics as angular size and longitudinal to latitudinal size ratio was found for considered all events. We have drawn a conclusion about the possible existence of two CME types dependent on the velocity profile.

  7. Flexible macrocycles as versatile supports for catalytically active metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, JD; Gagnon, KJ; Teat, SJ; McIntosh, RD

    2016-02-12

    Here we present three structurally diverse clusters stabilised by the same macrocyclic polyphenol; t-butylcalix[8]arene. This work demonstrates the range of conformations the flexible ligand is capable of adopting, highlighting its versatility in metal coordination. In addition, a Ti complex displays activity for the ring-opening polymerisation of lactide

  8. Neighborhood organization activities: evacuation drills, clusters, and fire safety awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick White

    1995-01-01

    Emergency preparedness activities of one Berkeley-Oakland Hills neighborhood at the wildland/urban interface include establishing clusters that reduce fire hazards and fuel loads, setting aside emergency supplies, and identifying evacuation routes; taking emergency preparedness courses from the Offices of Emergency Services of Berkeley and Oakland (the CERT and CORE...

  9. Activation of Molecular Oxygen by Anionic Gold Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodham, A. P.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.

    2012-01-01

    A golden opportunity: Molecular oxygen is found to be converted into a superoxo (O2−) species upon complexation to gold-cluster anions containing an even number of Au atoms. Vibrational spectra (see scheme) reveal small variations in the extent of O[BOND]O bond activation dependent upon the electron

  10. Hydrogen-promoted oxygen activation by free gold cluster cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Barnett, Robert N; Yoon, Bokwon; Landman, Uzi

    2009-07-01

    Small gas-phase gold cluster cations are essentially inert toward molecular oxygen. Preadsorption of molecular hydrogen, however, is found to cooperatively activate the binding of O(2) to even-size Au(x)(+) (x = 2, 4, 6) clusters. Measured temperature- and reaction-time-dependent ion intensities, obtained by ion trap mass spectrometry, in conjunction with first-principles density-functional theory calculations, reveal promotion and activation of molecular oxygen by preadsorbed hydrogen. These processes lead to the formation of a hydroperoxo intermediate on Au(4)(+) and Au(6)(+) and culminate in the dissociation of O(2) via the release of H(2)O. Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanisms involving the coadsorption of both of the reactant molecules are discussed for both cluster sizes, and an alternative Eley-Rideal mechanism involving hydrogen molecules adsorbed on a Au(6)(+) cluster reacting with an impinging gaseous oxygen molecule is analyzed. Structural fluctionality of the gold hexamer cation, induced by the adsorption of hydrogen molecules, and resulting in structural isomerization from a ground-state triangular structure to an incomplete hexagonal one, is theoretically predicted. Bonding of H(2) on cationic gold clusters is shown to involve charge transfer to the clusters. This serves to promote the bonding of coadsorbed oxygen through occupation of the antibonding 2pi* orbitals, resulting in excess electronic charge accumulation on the adsorbed molecule and weakening of the O-O bond. The theoretical results for hydrogen saturation coverages and reaction characteristics between the coadsorbed hydrogen and oxygen molecules are found to agree with the experimental findings. The joint investigations provide insights regarding hydrogen and oxygen cooperative adsorption effects and consequent reaction mechanisms.

  11. State of play of CME in Europe in 2014: proceedings from the Seventh Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that was established in 2007 in order to bring together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European CME and promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the 7th Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum in London on 13–14 November 2014. The meeting was held at a time of great uncertainty in European CME and gave attendees opportunity to consider many unanswered questions regarding how CME in Europe will be funded, accredited and regulated in the future. The programme for the forum was developed based on a needs assessment conducted among a variety of CME stakeholders in Europe and beyond. This exercise identified a number of issues that are rarely covered at similar gatherings and which were therefore given prominence during the meeting. Chief among these “hot topics” were how to ensure effective measurement of outcomes in CME programmes and how to encourage and manage the transparency of relationships between industry and healthcare professionals. Other subjects covered in depth during the forum included the future funding of CME, e-learning innovations and potential, and the value, or otherwise, of CME accreditation. The forum made use of a number of interactive meeting formats which ensured the days’ proceedings were characterised by a series of lively discussions and stimulating debates.

  12. Development and Parameters of a Non-Self-Similar CME Caused by the Eruption of a Quiescent Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent prominence on 17 August 2013 and an associated coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from different vantage points by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Screening of the quiet Sun by the prominence produced an isolated negative microwave burst. We estimated the parameters of the erupting prominence from a radio absorption model and measured them from 304 Å images. The variations of the parameters as obtained by these two methods are similar and agree within a factor of two. The CME development was studied from the kinematics of the front and different components of the core and their structural changes. The results were verified using movies in which the CME expansion was compensated for according to the measured kinematics. We found that the CME mass (3.6 × 10^{15} g) was mainly supplied by the prominence (≈ 6 × 10^{15} g), while a considerable part drained back. The mass of the coronal-temperature component did not exceed 10^{15} g. The CME was initiated by the erupting prominence, which constituted its core and remained active. The structural and kinematical changes started in the core and propagated outward. The CME structures continued to form during expansion, which did not become self-similar up to 25 R_{⊙}. The aerodynamic drag was insignificant. The core formed during the CME rise to 4 R_{⊙} and possibly beyond. Some of its components were observed to straighten and stretch outward, indicating the transformation of tangled structures of the core into a simpler flux rope, which grew and filled the cavity as the CME expanded.

  13. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  14. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  15. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  16. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel-time se...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  17. Evaluating Conflicts of Interest in Research Presented in CME Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy L.; Galliher, James M.; Spano, Mindy S.; Main, Deborah S.; Brannigan, Michael; Pace, Wilson D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is much in the literature regarding the potential for commercial bias in clinical research and in continuing medical education (CME), but no studies were found regarding the potential for bias in reporting original research in CME venues. This pilot study investigated the presence of perceived bias in oral and print content of…

  18. Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

  19. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants…

  20. Optimizing the Effectiveness of CME Program: NAMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available purposeful learning require strong basis of principles of adult learning along with a sound knowledge and requisite skills in both psychology as well as technology of medical education. Assessing effectiveness of a CME program is as important as the organization of learning activities and delivery of academic program as these may provide further directions for enhancing the efficacy of the CME delivery system.Objective: (i The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of well planned and conducted CME program in terms of enhancing knowledge and competence of the participants. (ii To explore if the gain in knowledge and competence, if any, can be attributed to the interactive design of the educational process.Methods: The study was conducted during NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine at AIIMS, Jodhpur as part of NAMSCON 2013. After explaining the objectives of the study to the participants and assurance of confidentiality, a validated and pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice, single response questions, was administered to 103 participants. Following intervention consisting of didactic lectures by experts in different aspects of sleep medicine, interactive sessions and problem triggered sessions consisting of clinical data, participants were re-administered post test questions which were, however, different from pre-test but had similar difficulty level.Result: The response rate of participants was 89%. Pre-intervention scores were 11.76 ± 4.4, with only 26 % of participants achieving an arbitrary pass score of 50 %. Comparison of paired score of participants who attempted both pre and post tests (n=59 showed improvement from 12.1 ±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8 which was significant (p <0.05. 84.7 % of participants secured above pre decided 50% score. The mean increase in the score was 6.2 with 95% CIs 4.8; 7.5 (P <0.001. Higher gain in knowledge and competencies is attributed to intense interactive

  1. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  2. State of Play of CME in Europe in 2013: Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that is dedicated to bringing together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European Continuing Medical Education (CME in order to promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum, held in London on the 14th and 15th November 2013, which was preceded by a series of ‘Day 0’ meetings as pre-meeting sessions for delegates from specific interest groups. The predominant target audience comprised people with an interest in European CME including the accreditation bodies, scientific societies, education providers, industry and European medical communications agencies. The year prior to the meeting saw the introduction of new accreditation standards from UEMS-EACCME, with other accreditors examining how they should be evolving their own; the introduction of the US Physicians’ Payment Sunshine Act and its rather unexpected ramifications in Europe; pharmaceutical companies also starting to employ the grant process for funding CME, and their own increasing insistence on being hands-off from CME programmes. This in turn has led to education providers needing to be more knowledgeable and accountable and looking for their own guidance to help them navigate these evermore complicated waters. Against this back-drop, session themes for the sixth annual meeting were focused on sharing best practices and identifying what constitutes good CME in practice, discussing the role of industry in CME, summarising the latest trends relating to accreditation in Europe, discussing the current legal and regulatory frameworks impacting on CME, and communicating new innovative CME ideas (e.g. relating to e-learning.

  3. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  4. Dynamic clustering in active colloidal suspensions with chemical signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurkauff, I; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Palacci, J; Ybert, C; Bocquet, L

    2012-06-29

    In this Letter, we explore experimentally the phase behavior of a dense active suspension of self-propelled colloids. In addition to a solidlike and gaslike phase observed for high and low densities, a novel cluster phase is reported at intermediate densities. This takes the form of a stationary assembly of dense aggregates-resulting from a permanent dynamical merging and separation of active colloids-whose average size grows with activity as a linear function of the self-propelling velocity. While different possible scenarios can be considered to account for these observations-such as a generic velocity weakening instability recently put forward-we show that the experimental results are reproduced mathematically by a chemotactic aggregation mechanism, originally introduced to account for bacterial aggregation and accounting here for diffusiophoretic chemical interaction between colloidal swimmers.

  5. The detailed nature of active central cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubser, S. I.; Soechting, I. K.

    2013-05-01

    We present detailed integral field unit observations of the central few kiloparsecs of the ionized nebulae surrounding four active central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters (Abell 0496, 0780, 1644 and 2052). Our sample consists of CCGs with Hα filaments, and have existing data from the X-ray regime available. Here, we present the detailed optical emission-line (and simultaneous absorption line) data over a broad wavelength range to probe the dominant ionization processes, excitation sources, morphology and kinematics of the hot gas (as well as the morphology and kinematics of the stars). This, combined with the other multiwavelength data, will form a complete view of the different phases (hot and cold gas and stars) and how they interact in the processes of star formation and feedback detected in central galaxies in cooling flow clusters, as well as the influence of the host cluster. We derive the optical dust extinction maps of the four nebulae. We also derive a range of different kinematic properties, given the small sample size. For Abell 0496 and 0780, we find that the stars and gas are kinematically decoupled, and in the case of Abell 1644 we find that these components are aligned. For Abell 2052, we find that the gaseous components show rotation even though no rotation is apparent in the stellar components. To the degree that our spatial resolution reveals, it appears that all the optical forbidden and hydrogen recombination lines originate in the same gas for all the galaxies. Based on optical diagnostic ratios ([O III] λ5007/Hβ against [N II] λ6584/Hα, [S II] λλ6717, 6731/Hα and [O I] λ6300/Hα), all galaxies show extended low-ionization nuclear emission-line region emission, but that at least one has significant Seyfert emission areas, and at least one other has significant H II-like emission line ratios for many pixels. We also show that the hardness of the ionizing continuum do not decrease with galactocentric distance within our

  6. Recent VLA Measurements of CME-Induced Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason; Thomas, Najma; Guy, Michael; Spangler, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of Faraday rotation, the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma, have been used for decades to determine the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma density. Similarly, observations of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) have the potential to improve our understanding of the CME’s plasma structure. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light coronagraph and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of cosmic radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. A unique aspect of these observations is that the CME occulted several of these radio sources and, therefore, our Faraday rotation measurements provide information on the plasma structure in different regions of the CME. We successfully measured CME-induced Faraday rotation along multiple lines of sight because we made special arrangements with the staff at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to trigger VLA observations when a candidate CME appeared low in the corona in near real-time images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 instrument.

  7. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game.

  8. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment(SCEC/CME): A Collaboratory for Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, J. B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) Project is an NSF-supported Geosciences/IT partnership that is actively developing an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This partnership includes SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed on the Project include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERFs). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) codes have also been developed that simulate friction-based fault slip. The SCEC/CME collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of these SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based scientific workflow system. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC and TeraGrid High Performance Computing Centers. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB). This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data seta and their metadata. To provide an easy

  9. Asymmetry in the CME-CME interaction process for the events from 2011 February 14-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Peinhart, V. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vršnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-04-20

    We present a detailed study of the interaction process of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) successively launched on 2011 February 14 (CME1) and 2011 February 15 (CME2). Reconstructing the three-dimensional shape and evolution of the flux ropes, we verify that the two CMEs interact. The frontal structure of both CMEs, measured along different position angles (PAs) over the entire latitudinal extent, reveals differences in the kinematics for the interacting flanks and the apexes. The interaction process is strongly PA-dependent in terms of timing as well as kinematical evolution. The central interaction occurs along PA-100°, which shows the strongest changes in kinematics. During interaction, CME1 accelerates from ∼400 km s{sup –1} to ∼700 km s{sup –1} and CME2 decelerates from ∼1300 km s{sup –1} to ∼600 km s{sup –1}. Our results indicate that a simplified scenario such as inelastic collision may not be sufficient to describe the CME-CME interaction. The magnetic field structures of the intertwining flux ropes and the momentum transfer due to shocks each play an important role in the interaction process.

  10. Relationship among knowledge acquisition, motivation to change, and self-efficacy in CME participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy W; Kessler, Harold A; Williams, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among an individual's sense of self-efficacy, motivation to change, barriers to change, and the implementation of improvement programs has been reported. This research reports the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation to change, and the acquisition of knowledge in a continuing medical education (CME) activity. The measure of individual sense of self-efficacy was a 4-item scale. The measure of motivation was a 6-item scale following on the work of Prochaska and colleagues. The knowledge acquisition was measured in a simple post measure. The participants were enrolled in a CME activity focused on HIV.  The CME activities had a significant effect on knowledge. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a relationship among the self-efficacy measure, the motivation to change measure, and global intent to change. Specifically, as reported earlier, the sense of efficacy in effecting change in the practice environment is predictive of a high level of motivation to change that, in turn, is predictive of formation of intent to change practice patterns. Interestingly, there were also relationships among the self-efficacy measure, the motivation to change measure, and knowledge acquisition. Finally, as expected, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and intent to change practice.  Further inspection of the motivation to change construct suggests that it mediates the self-efficacy constructs' effect on intent as well as its effect on knowledge acquisition. This new finding suggests that the proximal construct motivation completely masks an important underlying causal relationship that appears to contribute to practice change as well as learning following CME-self-efficacy. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  11. Magnetic Field Modeling of Hot Channels in four Flare/CME Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Su, Yingna

    2017-08-01

    We study the magnetic structure and 3D geometrical morphology of four active regions with sigmoidal hot channels which produced flare/CME events. Observational study has been done by Cheng & Ding (2016). Using the flux rope insertion method developed by van Ballegooijen (2004), we construct a series of magnetic field models of the four flare/CME events. Through comparing with non-potential coronal loops observed by SDO/AIA , we find that the critical stable model (i.e.,a magnetic field configuration at the boundary between stable and unstable states in parameter space) and the best-fit preflare model (unstable model) which best matches observations for every case, and we think that the real preflare magnetic field configuration may lie between the two models. Finally we calculate the magnetic energy free energy and magnetic helicity of the two selected models,and study the eruption mechanism.

  12. More than just physical activity: time use clusters and profiles of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol

    2013-09-01

    To describe time use clusters and correlate-cluster profiles of Australian youth. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional national survey. Data were from the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a random sample (n=1853) of 9-16 years old Australians (February-August 2007). Time use data were collected using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults, and collapsed into 17 age-adjusted variables for sex-specific cluster analysis. Cluster associations with socio-demographic, anthropometric, health and dietary variables were analysed. For boys (n=930), the Social tasker cluster was characterised by social interaction and chores & work, the Techno-active cluster by team sport and TV and the Techno-studious cluster by video games and study. Average daily pedometer steps, age and remoteness were significant cluster correlates. For the girls (n=923), the Social screenie cluster was characterised by TV and social interaction, the Quiet actives cluster by quiet time and non-team sport and the Techno-studious cluster by video games and study. Pedometer steps, age, parental income and education, parent-child age difference, "extra foods", fat and fruit intakes were significant correlates. Distinct sex-specific time use clusters and profiles exist among Australian youth. These findings may assist the development of targeted time use interventions to improve health and well-being. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Environment Affects Star Formation: Tracing Activity in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, A.; Brodwin, M.; Atlee, D. W.; Lin, Y.; Chary, R.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Jannuzi, B.; Mancone, C.; Moustakas, J.; Snyder, G. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Weiner, B. J.; Zeimann, G.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging picture of the evolution of cluster galaxies indicates that the epoch of z>1 is a crucial period of active star formation and mass assembly in clusters. In this dissertation, I leverage a uniformly-selected cluster sample from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) with Herschel imaging to analyse the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies over the past ten billion years. This analysis is two-fold: 1) using 274 clusters across the 9 square degree Bootes field, I perform a stacking analysis of mass-limited samples of cluster and field galaxies using wide-field Herschel observations over a long redshift baseline, z=0.3-1.5. I find that the average SF activity in cluster galaxies is evolving faster than in the field, with field-like SF in the cluster cores and enhanced SF activity in the cluster outskirts at z>1.2. By further breaking down my analysis by galaxy mass and type, I determine which mechanisms are capable of driving this evolution. 2) I use unique, deep Herschel imaging of 11 spectroscopically-confirmed clusters from z=1.1-1.8 to study the properties of individual infrared bright cluster galaxies as a function of redshift and cluster-centric radius. Combined with ancillary data, I determine the star formation, dust, and AGN properties of the most active cluster galaxies and tie the evolution of these properties back to the environment by comparing to field populations. By combining these two approaches, I constrain cluster galaxy properties during a pivotal epoch of dust-obscured star formation activity and mass assembly in some of the most extreme structures in the Universe.

  14. Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.

  15. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many ...

  16. Advancing health-related cluster analysis methodology: quantification of pairwise activity cluster similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Maher, Carol; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2015-03-01

    To date, most health-related time-use research has investigated behaviors in isolation; more recently, however, researchers have begun to conceptualize behaviors in the form of multidimensional patterns or clusters. The study employed 2 techniques: radar graphs and centroid vector length, angles and distance to quantify pairwise time-use cluster similarities among adolescents living in Australia (N = 1853) and in New Zealand (N = 679). Based on radar graph shape, 2 pairs of clusters were similar for both boys and girls. Using vector angles (VA), vector length (VL) and centroid distances (CD), 1 pair for each sex was considered most similar (boys: VA = 63°, VL = 44 and 50 units, and CD = 48 units; girls: VA = 23°, VL = 65 and 85 units, and CD = 36 units). Both methods employed to determine similarity had strengths and weaknesses. The description and quantification of cluster similarity is an important step in the research process. An ability to track and compare clusters may provide greater understanding of complex multidimensional relationships, and in relation to health behavior clusters, present opportunities to monitor and to intervene.

  17. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  18. A Monster CME Obscuring a Demon Star Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian D.; Garraffo, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    We explore the scenario of a coronal mass ejection (CME) being the cause of the observed continuous X-ray absorption of the 1997 August 30 superflare on the eclipsing binary Algol (the Demon Star). The temporal decay of the absorption is consistent with absorption by a CME undergoing self-similar evolution with uniform expansion velocity. We investigate the kinematic and energetic properties of the CME using the ice cream cone model for its three-dimensional structure in combination with the observed profile of the hydrogen column density decline with time. Different physically justified length scales were used that allowed us to estimate lower and upper limits of the possible CME characteristics. Further consideration of the maximum available magnetic energy in starspots leads us to quantify its mass as likely lying in the range 2× {10}21 {--} 2× {10}22 g and kinetic energy in the range 7× {10}35 {--} 3× {10}38 erg. The results are in reasonable agreement with extrapolated relations between flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy derived for solar CMEs.

  19. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  20. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  1. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  2. Hinode/XRT and Stereo Observations of the May 2007 Coronal Wave-cme-dimming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma; Engell, A. J.; Wills-Davey, M. J.; Grigis, P.; Testa, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report observations of the first diffuse coronal wave detected by Hinode/XRT. The event occurred near the West solar limb on 23 May 2007, originating from active region (AR) 10956. The bright emission expanded both to the East and South of the AR. We combine the XRT results with data from STEREO (B) and a potential magnetic field extrapolation to understand the global magnetic field connectivity. We consider that the brightenings seen to the East and South of the source AR are generated by different physical processes, due to the distinct magnetic environments in these regions. We attribute the brightening to the East of the AR to compression and channelling of the plasma along large-scale loops. The brightening to the South of the AR expands across the quiet Sun, making the southern component a likely candidate for a classical diffuse coronal wave. We analyse the bright front in STEREO/EUVI 171, 195 and 284 A images, as well as in XRT data, finding it to be largely co-spatial in all bandpasses. The expansion velocity of the diffuse bright front is 250 (± 85) km/s. We also exploit the near-limb properties of this event by combining STEREO/COR1 and EUVI data to derive a full picture of the low-coronal development of the eruption. The COR1 data show that the southern-most outer edge of the CME is progressively displaced southward. The core coronal dimmings map to the bright core of the CME; the secondary coronal dimmings map to the CME cavity; and the diffuse coronal "wave” maps to the outermost edge of the expanding CME shell. The analysis of this near-limb event has implications for understanding earlier eruptions originating from the same AR. In particular, we present a new analysis of the 19 May 2007 event. NASA grants NNX09AB11G and NNH07AB97C supported this work.

  3. Radial Diffusion study of the 1 June 2013 CME event using MHD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Hudson, M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Li, Z.; Boyd, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The June 1, 2013 storm was a CME-shock driven geomagnetic storm (Dst = -119 nT) that caused a dropout affecting all radiation belt electron energies measured by the Energetic Particle, Composition and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) instrument on Van Allen Probes at higher L-shells following dynamic pressure enhancement in the solar wind. Lower energies (up to about 700 keV) were enhanced by the storm while MeV electrons were depleted throughout the belt. We focus on depletion through radial diffusion caused by the enhanced ULF wave activity due to the CME-shock. This study utilities the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, a 3D global magnetospheric simulation code based on the ideal MHD equations, coupled with the Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupler (MIX) and Rice Convection Model (RCM). The MHD electric and magnetic fields with equations described by Fei et al. [JGR, 2006] are used to calculate radial diffusion coefficients (DLL). These DLL values are input into a radial diffusion code to recreate the dropouts observed by the Van Allen Probes. The importance of understanding the complex role that ULF waves play in radial transport and the effects of CME-driven storms on the relativistic energy electrons in the radiation belts can be accomplished using MHD simulations to obtain diffusion coefficients, initial phase space density and the outer boundary condition from the ECT instrument suite and a radial diffusion model to reproduce observed fluxes which compare favorably with Van Allen Probes ECT measurements.

  4. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many attacks might in part represent an adaptive response to pain. The nocturnal melatonin maximum was lower during cluster periods than in remission. This finding, and the dysautonomic signs during attacks, may reflect a change of the vegetative tone in a hyposympathetic direction. Images PMID:3572435

  5. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Natalia P. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Bulteau, Anne Laure [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Salazar, Julio [Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Etienne C. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Nunez, Marco T., E-mail: mnunez@uchile.cl [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  6. Spontaneous cluster activity in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, Jens C; Reveles Jensen, Kristian; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A distinctive property of the cerebellar system is olivocerebellar modules, where synchronized electrical activity in neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) evokes organized activity in the cerebellar cortex. However, the exact function of these modules, and how they are developed, is still...... calcium transients. The spatiotemporal activity pattern was occasionally organized in clusters of co-active neighbouring neurons, with regular (16/min) and irregular (2-3/min) repeating cluster activity in the dmcc and PO, respectively. IO clusters had a diameter of 100-170 µm, lasted ~1 s, and increased......-active with separate clusters at different times. The coherence between calcium transients in IO neurons decreased with Euclidean distance between the cells reaching low values at 100-200 µm distances. Intracellular recordings from IO neurons during cluster formation revealed the presence of spikelet-like potentials...

  7. Active Semisupervised Clustering Algorithm with Label Propagation for Imbalanced and Multidensity Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Leng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of most of the existing semisupervised clustering algorithms based on small size of labeled dataset is low when dealing with multidensity and imbalanced datasets, and labeling data is quite expensive and time consuming in many real-world applications. This paper focuses on active data selection and semisupervised clustering algorithm in multidensity and imbalanced datasets and proposes an active semisupervised clustering algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses an active mechanism for data selection to minimize the amount of labeled data, and it utilizes multithreshold to expand labeled datasets on multidensity and imbalanced datasets. Three standard datasets and one synthetic dataset are used to demonstrate the proposed algorithm, and the experimental results show that the proposed semisupervised clustering algorithm has a higher accuracy and a more stable performance in comparison to other clustering and semisupervised clustering algorithms, especially when the datasets are multidensity and imbalanced.

  8. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  9. Reactivity and Catalytic Activity of Hydrogen Atom Chemisorbed Silver Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Dar; Pal, Sourav

    2015-06-18

    Metal clusters of silver have attracted recent interest of researchers as a result of their potential in different catalytic applications and low cost. However, due to the completely filled d orbital and very high first ionization potential of the silver atom, the silver-based catalysts interact very weakly with the reacting molecules. In the current work, density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrogen atom chemisorption on the reactivity and catalytic properties of inert silver clusters. Our results affirm that the hydrogen atom chemisorption leads to enhancement in the binding energy of the adsorbed O2 molecule on the inert silver clusters. The increase in the binding energy is also characterized by the decrease in the Ag-O and increase in the O-O bond lengths in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Pertinent to the increase in the O-O bond length, a significant red shift in the O-O stretching frequency is also noted in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Moreover, the hydrogen atom chemisorbed silver clusters show low reaction barriers and high heat of formation of the final products for the environmentally important CO oxidation reaction as compared to the parent catalytically inactive clusters. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding gold and hydrogen atom chemisorbed gold clusters obtained at the same level of theory. It is expected the current computational study will provide key insights for future advances in the design of efficient nanosilver-based catalysts through the adsorption of a small atom or a ligand.

  10. Clusters of activated microglia in normal-appearing white matter show signs of innate immune activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Horssen Jack

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In brain tissues from multiple sclerosis (MS patients, clusters of activated HLA-DR-expressing microglia, also referred to as preactive lesions, are located throughout the normal-appearing white matter. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the frequency, distribution and cellular architecture of preactive lesions using a large cohort of well-characterized MS brain samples. Methods Here, we document the frequency of preactive lesions and their association with distinct white matter lesions in a cohort of 21 MS patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to gain further insight into the cellular and molecular composition of preactive lesions. Results Preactive lesions were observed in a majority of MS patients (67% irrespective of disease duration, gender or subtype of disease. Microglial clusters were predominantly observed in the vicinity of active demyelinating lesions and are not associated with T cell infiltrates, axonal alterations, activated astrocytes or blood–brain barrier disruption. Microglia in preactive lesions consistently express interleukin-10 and TNF-α, but not interleukin-4, whereas matrix metalloproteases-2 and −9 are virtually absent in microglial nodules. Interestingly, key subunits of the free-radical-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase-2 were abundantly expressed in microglial clusters. Conclusions The high frequency of preactive lesions suggests that it is unlikely that most of them will progress into full-blown demyelinating lesions. Preactive lesions are not associated with blood–brain barrier disruption, suggesting that an intrinsic trigger of innate immune activation, rather than extrinsic factors crossing a damaged blood–brain barrier, induces the formation of clusters of activated microglia.

  11. Introduction of the cluster model of organisation of activity of light industry enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippov Mykhaylo I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the world experience of introduction of the cluster model of activity of enterprises. It considers main prerequisites of creation and prospects of activity of clusters in light industry in Ukraine. It justifies application of the cluster approach in Ukraine, which is a necessary condition for revival of the domestic production, increase of efficiency of innovation development of regions and achievement of a high level of economic development and competitiveness. It provides proposals on improvement of the state policy of development of innovation clusters for increase of competitiveness of economy and ensuring entry of Ukraine into the circle of economically developed countries of the world.

  12. Quality framework proposal for Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Naomi G.; Arfman, John F.; Limary, Siviengxay

    2008-09-01

    This report proposes the first stage of a Quality Framework approach that can be used to evaluate and document Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects. The first stage of the Quality Framework defines two tools that will be used to evaluate a CME project. The first tool is used to decompose a CME project into its essential elements. These elements can then be evaluated for inherent quality by looking at the subelements that impact their level of quality maturity or rigor. Quality Readiness Levels (QRLs) are used to valuate project elements for inherent quality. The Framework provides guidance for the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders for CME project prerequisites that help to ensure the proper level of confidence in the deliverable given its intended use. The Framework also Provides a roadmap that defined when and how the Framework tools should be applied. Use of these tools allow the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders to understand what elements the project will use to execute the project, the inherent quality of the elements, which of those are critical to the project and why, and the risks associated to the project's elements.

  13. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 Extreme Space Weather Event: What if This Extremely Rare CME Was Earth Directed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (approx. 1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the SpaceWeather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME.We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  14. Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Didactic CME and Practice Change: Don't Throw that Baby out Quite yet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.

    2012-01-01

    Skepticism exists regarding the role of continuing medical education (CME) in improving physician performance. The harshest criticism has been reserved for didactic CME. Reviews of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of CME conclude that formal or didactic modes of education have little or no impact on clinical practice. This has led…

  16. N2 activation on Al metal clusters: catalyzing role of BN-doped graphene support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Pal, Sourav; Krishnamurty, Sailaja

    2016-10-12

    The successful sustenance of life demands an ambient abiotic process for N2 activation and dissociation. The Bosch-Haber process remains the only abiotic and synthetic means for N2 activation and its fixation. Metal nanoclusters have been recently reported for activating molecular nitrogen. Interestingly, the metal clusters explored so far for N2 activation are free clusters and, hence, are practically not applicable by experimental chemists. Using density functional theory (DFT) based methodology, we propose a potential catalytic system for di-nitrogen activation, viz. supported Al clusters. Al clusters supported on BN doped graphene sheets are seen to activate N2 molecule with a red shift in the N-N stretching frequency up to 874 cm(-1) with activation barriers as low as 1.14 eV.

  17. A Tiny Eruptive Filament as a Flux-Rope Progenitor and Driver of a Large-Scale CME and Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kochanov, A. A.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Prosovetsky, D. V.; Egorov, Y. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2016-04-01

    A solar eruptive event SOL2010-06-13 observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been extensively discussed in the contexts of the CME development and an associated extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave-like transient in terms of a shock driven by the apparent CME rim. Continuing the analysis of this event, we have revealed an erupting flux rope, studied its properties, and detected wave signatures inside the developing CME. These findings have allowed us to establish new features in the genesis of the CME and associated EUV wave and to reconcile all of the episodes into a single causally related sequence. i) A hot 11 MK flux rope developed from the structures initially associated with a compact filament system. The flux rope expanded with an acceleration of up to 3 km s-2 one minute before a hard X-ray burst and earlier than any other structures, reached a velocity of 420 km s-1, and then decelerated to about 50 km s-1. ii) The CME development was driven by the expanding flux rope. Closed coronal structures above the rope got sequentially involved in the expansion from below upwards, came closer together, and apparently disappeared to reveal their common envelope, the visible rim, which became the outer boundary of the cavity. The rim was probably associated with the separatrix surface of a magnetic domain, which contained the pre-eruptive filament. iii) The rim formation was associated with a successive compression of the upper active-region structures into the CME frontal structure (FS). When the rim was formed, it resembled a piston. iv) The disturbance responsible for the consecutive CME formation episodes was excited by the flux rope inside the rim, and then propagated outward. EUV structures arranged at different heights started to accelerate, when their trajectories in the distance-time diagram were crossed by that of the fast front of this disturbance. v) Outside the rim and FS, the disturbance propagated like

  18. High catalytic activity of palladium nanoparticle clusters supported on a spherical polymer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, Elza D; Salnikov, Vadim V; Mukhitova, Rezeda K; Zuev, Yuriy F; Osin, Yuriy N; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Ziganshina, Albina Y; Konovalov, Alexander I

    2015-09-04

    In this communication we report the synthesis of Pd nanoparticle clusters achieved via the assembly of Pd nanoparticles on the surface of a spherical polymer network. The network exhibits flexibility and adapts to the cluster formation. The nanoclusters display high catalytic activity toward p-nitrophenol reduction and the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction.

  19. Multi-cellular natural killer (NK) cell clusters enhance NK cell activation through localizing IL-2 within the cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miju; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hye Mi; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Multi-cellular cluster formation of natural killer (NK) cells occurs during in vivo priming and potentiates their activation to IL-2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this synergy within NK cell clusters remains unclear. We employed lymphocyte-laden microwell technologies to modulate contact-mediated multi-cellular interactions among activating NK cells and to quantitatively assess the molecular events occurring in multi-cellular clusters of NK cells. NK cells in social microwells, which allow cell-to-cell contact, exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling compared with those in lonesome microwells, which prevent intercellular contact. Further, CD25, an IL-2R α chain, and lytic granules of NK cells in social microwells were polarized toward MTOC. Live cell imaging of lytic granules revealed their dynamic and prolonged polarization toward neighboring NK cells without degranulation. These results suggest that IL-2 bound on CD25 of one NK cells triggered IL-2 signaling of neighboring NK cells. These results were further corroborated by findings that CD25-KO NK cells exhibited lower proliferation than WT NK cells, and when mixed with WT NK cells, underwent significantly higher level of proliferation. These data highlights the existence of IL-2 trans-presentation between NK cells in the local microenvironment where the availability of IL-2 is limited.

  20. Thermal Chemistry of Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(L) Complexes (L = Lewis Base).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabulyak, Diana; Handford, Rex C; Holmes, Aaron S; Levesque, Taleah M; Wakeham, Russell J; Patrick, Brian O; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C

    2017-01-03

    The complexes trans-Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(L) (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) result from the treatment of Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)2 in n-pentane with H2 (∼1 atm) in the presence of a Lewis base, L. The designation of a particular geometrical isomer as cis or trans indicates the relative positions of the alkyl and hydrido ligands in the base of a four-legged piano-stool molecular structure. The thermal behavior of these complexes is markedly dependent on the nature of L. Some of them can be isolated at ambient temperatures [e.g., L = P(OMe)3, P(OPh)3, or P(OCH2)3CMe]. Others undergo reductive elimination of CMe4 via trans to cis isomerization to generate the 16e reactive intermediates Cp*W(NO)(L). These intermediates can intramolecularly activate a C-H bond of L to form 18e cis complexes that may convert to the thermodynamically more stable trans isomers [e.g., Cp*W(NO)(PPh3) initially forms cis-Cp*W(NO)(H)(κ(2)-PPh2C6H4) that upon being warmed in n-pentane at 80 °C isomerizes to trans-Cp*W(NO)(H)(κ(2)-PPh2C6H4)]. Alternatively, the Cp*W(NO)(L) intermediates can effect the intermolecular activation of a substrate R-H to form trans-Cp*W(NO)(R)(H)(L) complexes [e.g., L = P(OMe)3 or P(OCH2)3CMe; R-H = C6H6 or Me4Si] probably via their cis isomers. These latter activations are also accompanied by the formation of some Cp*W(NO)(L)2 disproportionation products. An added complication in the L = P(OMe)3 system is that thermolysis of trans-Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(P(OMe)3) results in it undergoing an Arbuzov-like rearrangement and being converted mainly into [Cp*W(NO)(Me)(PO(OMe)2)]2, which exists as a mixture of two isomers. All new complexes have been characterized by conventional and spectroscopic methods, and the solid-state molecular structures of most of them have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses.

  1. The development of innovation activities clusters in Russia and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Lesnik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative development becomes the main tendency of the modern world economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the development of Russian and Czech clusters engaged in innovation activities. Innovative cluster is one of the most effective forms for reaching a high level of competitiveness. Development of the cluster as a new form of managing, economic interaction and connections allows to reach social and economic effect. The whole point of the innovative cluster is that the enterprises and the organizations merge with each other and create a new product or service and put means in development. Cooperation between companies allows toreduce costs for its development and researches with the commercialization of the new good or service in the future. The activity of the cluster has a constructive nature, which consists in the majority of participants of innovative cluster do not compete among themselves; they work for the common objective. Innovative clusters exist not only in the developed countries, but also in the developing states. Innovative activity in the developed countries arose earlier and began to form rapider. The innovative clusters have promoted the development of the European countries. Domination of the clusters in the economy is significant both for national, and for a regional economy, where high geographical concentration of the interconnected industries is observed. The cluster approach gives the effective tool for the achievement of main goals: increase of the level of profitableness of the region and employment of the population, promotes strengthening of the competitive advantages of separate companies and all economy as a whole.

  2. [Long-life learning for medical specialists doctors in Europe: CME, DPC and qualification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Bernard; Maisonneuve, Hervé

    2011-04-01

    The Union européenne des médecins spécialistes (UEMS) has a mandate to lead the quality of care in Europe and harmonise the qualifications of specialists doctors. In 2000, UEMS has set the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (EACCME), with the objective to accredit educational events and facilitate the reciprocity of CME credits obtained by attending international medical conferences. In 2010, UEMS has set the European Accreditation Council for Medical Specialist Qualification (EACMSQ). This 2-year pilot project concerns three specialties with the goal to harmonise the competencies' assessment. In 2010, 35 countries are UEMS members, corresponding to 1,5 millions specialists doctors. Each of the 38 medical specialties has a 'section' and a four-members' board. Since 2000, the Europe developed the CPD concepts, and definitions were customised per country and health systems. The Rome group defined the CPD: "Continuing professional development is the educative means of updating, developing and enhancing how doctors apply the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in their working lives. This includes CME, professional and managerial (non-clinical) competencies, and all elements of Good Medical Practice". The learning concepts must be better developed in the health care systems as it has been done in other sectors of activity. Learning is the concept considering that it's no more possible to characterise the learner as a sponge absorbing information. The virtuous cycle of CME is well-known: assess his professional needs; set the needs and objectives; implement an educational plan with the right methods; conduct the actions and get the data; assess the events according to levels (participation, satisfaction, learning, performance, patient's health, population's health). Financing of events usually is shared between payers: state, insurers, industries, doctors but in fine, the public is the major payer. Education must be independent from

  3. 4-D modeling of CME expansion and EUV dimming observed with STEREO/EUVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Aschwanden

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first attempt to model the kinematics of a CME launch and the resulting EUV dimming quantitatively with a self-consistent model. Our 4-D-model assumes self-similar expansion of a spherical CME geometry that consists of a CME front with density compression and a cavity with density rarefaction, satisfying mass conservation of the total CME and swept-up corona. The model contains 14 free parameters and is fitted to the 25 March 2008 CME event observed with STEREO/A and B. Our model is able to reproduce the observed CME expansion and related EUV dimming during the initial phase from 18:30 UT to 19:00 UT. The CME kinematics can be characterized by a constant acceleration (i.e., a constant magnetic driving force. While the observations of EUVI/A are consistent with a spherical bubble geometry, we detect significant asymmetries and density inhomogeneities with EUVI/B. This new forward-modeling method demonstrates how the observed EUV dimming can be used to model physical parameters of the CME source region, the CME geometry, and CME kinematics.

  4. Improving the diagnostic workup of hyponatremia in the setting of kidney disease: a continuing medical education (CME) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestaneh, Ladan; Neugarten, Joel; Southern, William; Kargoli, Faraj; Raff, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder and is associated with mortality. We examined the frequency of appropriate testing in response to an episode of inpatient hyponatremia in a large urban hospital to better inform our educational intervention. We then evaluated the impact of a live CME activity with a focus on CKD- and ESRD-associated hyponatremia physiology, on diagnostic practices of audience hospitalist attendings. We performed a retrospective database analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in 2014 to examine the performance of hospital staff in response to hyponatremia across all CKD stages. We then did a comparative analysis of diagnostic workup orders for hyponatremic patients admitted to audience members of a live CME activity in the 4 months prior as compared to the 4 months after the activity. The prevalence of hyponatremia was 27% in a cohort of hospitalized patients: 41% of these hyponatremia inpatients had CKD, and 11.4% had ESRD. Overall less than 10% of patients had orders written for serum and urine osmolality without a differential pattern based on CKD or ESRD diagnosis. Among the patients admitted to the CME audience hospitalists, urine/serum osmolality and urine sodium orders occurred infrequently overall and did not differ after vs. before the lecture. The frequency of appropriate diagnostic orders written in response to an episode of hyponatremia was very low and did not vary based on degree of CKD. A CME activity with an emphasis on the role of CKD/ESRD in diagnostic accuracy did not improve the order quality in a group of audience hospitalists. Efforts to improve the diagnostic workup of hyponatremia with concomitant kidney disease are crucial to proper management of these patients.

  5. Consequences of Surface Oxophilicity of Ni, Ni-Co, and Co Clusters on Methane Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weifeng; Ghoussoub, Mireille; Singh, Chandra Veer; Chin, Ya-Huei Cathy

    2017-05-24

    This study describes a new C-H bond activation pathway during CH4-CO2 reactions on oxophilic Ni-Co and Co clusters, unlike those established previously on Ni clusters. The initial C-H bond activation remains as the sole kinetically relevant step on Ni-Co, Ni, and Co clusters, but their specific reaction paths vary. On Ni clusters, C-H bond activation occurs via an oxidative addition step that involves a three-center (H3C···*···H)⧧ transition state, during which a Ni-atom inserts into the C-H bond and donates its electron density into the C-H bond's antibonding orbital. Ni-Co clusters are more oxophilic than Ni; thus, their surfaces are covered with oxygen adatoms. An oxygen adatom and a vicinal Co-atom form a metal-oxygen site-pair that cleaves the C-H bond via a σ bond metathesis reaction, during which the Co inserts into the C-H bond while the oxygen abstracts the leaving H-atom in a concerted, four-center (H3C···*···H···O*)⧧ transition state. Similarly, Co clusters also catalyze the σ bond metathesis step, but much less effectively because of their higher oxophilicities, much stronger binding to oxygen, and less effective hydrogen abstraction than Ni-Co clusters. On Ni-Co and Co clusters, the pseudo-first-order rate coefficients are single-valued functions of the CO2-to-CO ratio (or H2O-to-H2 ratio), because this ratio prescribes the oxygen chemical potentials and the relative abundances of metal-oxygen site-pairs through the water-gas shift equilibrium. The direct involvement of reactive oxygen in the kinetically relevant step leads to more effective CH4 turnovers and complete elimination of coke deposition on Ni-Co bimetallic clusters.

  6. Cluster Analysis of the Rat Olfactory Bulb Activity in Response to Different Odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasconi, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Auffarth, B.; Sberveglieri, G.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    With the goal of deepen in the understanding of coding of chemical information in the olfactory system, a large data set consisting of rat's olfactory bulb activity values in response to several different volatile compounds has been analyzed by fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Clustering should help to discover groups of glomeruli that are similary activated according to their response profiles across the odorants. To investigate the significance of the achieved fuzzy partitions we developed and applied a novel validity approach based on cluster stability. Our results show certain level of glomerular clustering in the olfactory bulb and indicate that exist a main chemo-topic subdivision of the glomerular layer in few macro-area which are rather specific to particular functional groups of the volatile molecules.

  7. Proposal for a graded approach to disclosure of interests in accredited CME/CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Griebenow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disclosing conflicts of interest (COIs is an important step in the management of COIs and is considered to be crucial to the trustworthiness of presenters. There are significant variations in disclosure procedures regarding the following:a. How COI is assessed in declaration forms (e.g. type of question, respondent awarenessb. Type of relationshipsc. Detailing of information to program committee membersThese variations in procedures have in effect led toa. Underreporting of COIb. Reducing the informational value of declared COI to participantsThus, it has been the aim of the authors to propose a basic formula for a minimum standard declaration of financial COI, with the potential to be applicable to all types of accredited continuing medical education (CME as well as to all individuals (e.g. speakers, authors involved in planning and conduct of CME activities. This approach should also serve as basis for more elaborate disclosures as well as strategies for management of conflict of interests adapted to the risk of bias.Furthermore, we also propose a basic set of items to be declared as nonfinancial interests.

  8. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array and Implications for Cluster Physics and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kale, Ruta; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B.; Pandge, Mahadev; Sharma, Prateek; Malik, Manzoor A.; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2017-12-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback is regarded as an important non-gravitational process in galaxy clusters, providing useful constraints on large-scale structure formation. It modifies the structure and energetics of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and hence its understanding is crucially needed in order to use clusters as high precision cosmological probes. In this context, particularly keeping in mind the upcoming high quality radio data expected from radio surveys like Square Kilometre Array (SKA) with its higher sensitivity, high spatial and spectral resolutions, we review our current understanding of AGN feedback, its cosmological implications and the impact that SKA can have in revolutionizing our understanding of AGN feedback in large-scale structures. Recent developments regarding the AGN outbursts and its possible contribution to excess entropy in the hot atmospheres of groups and clusters, its correlation with the feedback energy in ICM, quenching of cooling flows and the possible connection between cool core clusters and radio mini-halos, are discussed. We describe current major issues regarding modeling of AGN feedback and its impact on the surrounding medium. With regard to the future of AGN feedback studies, we examine the possible breakthroughs that can be expected from SKA observations. In the context of cluster cosmology, for example, we point out the importance of SKA observations for cluster mass calibration by noting that most of z>1 clusters discovered by eROSITA X-ray mission can be expected to be followed up through a 1000 hour SKA1-mid programme. Moreover, approximately 1000 radio mini halos and ˜ 2500 radio halos at z<0.6 can be potentially detected by SKA1 and SKA2 and used as tracers of galaxy clusters and determination of cluster selection function.

  9. Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR From Campylobacter Jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, R.; Su, C.-C.; Shi, F.; McDermott, G.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, E.W.

    2009-06-01

    The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 {angstrom}) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 {angstrom} long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation.

  10. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CME VELOCITIES AND DECAMETER RADIO BURSTS PARAMETERS FROM URAN-4 OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Galanin, V. V.; E. A. Isaeva; Kravetz, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the research of connection between the coronal mass ejections (CME) with the IV type continual decameter bursts parameters. As the parameters characterizing the CME velocity, we used the integrated flux of the radio bursts and background intensity on 20 and 25 MHz frequencies. The analysis demonstrated that the connection between the CME velocity and IV type bursts increases, if we take into account the intensity of the radio bursts and background on two polar...

  11. Prediction of in vitro and in vivo oestrogen receptor activity using hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, hierarchical clustering classification models were developed to predict in vitro and in vivo oestrogen receptor (ER) activity. Classification models were developed for binding, agonist, and antagonist in vitro ER activity and for mouse in vivo uterotrophic ER bindi...

  12. Modeling, Stability Analysis and Active Stabilization of Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    . This model can be also used to synthesis and study dynamics of control loops in dc MGs and also dc MG clusters. An active stabilization method is proposed to be implemented as a dc active power filter (APF) inside the MGs in order to not only increase damping of dc MGs at the presence of CPLs but also...

  13. Experimental activation of the sphenopalatine ganglion provokes cluster-like attacks in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Barløse, Mads; Guo, Song

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundHigh frequency (HF) stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an emerging abortive treatment for cluster headache (CH) attacks. HF SPG stimulation is thought to exert its effect by physiologically blocking parasympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that low frequency (LF) SPG...... stimulation may activate the SPG, causing increased parasympathetic outflow and thereby provoking cluster attacks in CH patients.MethodsIn a double-blind randomized cross-over study, seven CH patients implanted with an SPG neurostimulator were randomly allocated to receive HF or LF stimulation for 3 min on 2...... separate days. We recorded headache characteristics and autonomic symptoms during and after stimulation.ResultsSix patients completed the study. Three out of six patients (50%) reported ipsilateral cluster-like attacks during or within 30 min of LF SPG stimulation. These cluster-like attacks were all...

  14. Substrate induced reconstruction and activation of platinum clusters: A systematic DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Sandeep; Majumder, Chiranjib

    2017-11-01

    The fundamental understanding of the electronic and geometric structures of small platinum clusters on metal oxide support is important to design the futuristic Pt-based novel materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Here we report a systematic theoretical study on the trend in the structural and electronic properties of alumina supported Ptn (n = 1-7 and 10) clusters with a focus to highlight the effect on the substrate. All calculations were carried out using the plane wave based pseudo-potential approach. The model for the support has been designed by using Al-terminated α-Al2O3 (0001) surface which is the most stable surface termination under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The results show that the binding of Pt atom with the Al2O3 surface releases 1.84 eV energy which is significantly higher than atomic adsorption energy of other noble metal atoms (Ag, Au, and Pd). As a consequence, the equilibrium geometries of free Ptn clusters (n = 3-7) are significantly altered on the alumina surface. Whilst Pt10 cluster favors tetracapped prism structure in the gas phase, on alumina support it prefers a layered structure. The geometrical changes of Pt clusters on the alumina surface have been attributed to the energy balance between the Pt-Pt and Pt-substrate interactions. The nature of interaction between the Ptn clusters and surface has been verified using the electronic density of states analysis. Surface induced electronic charge on the deposited cluster results in red shift in its energy levels, indicating electron rich activation of platinum clusters. The inclusion of spin-orbit coupling(SOC) significantly changes the electronic structure of gas phase platinum cluster; however, the extent of SOC influence reduces due to interfacial bonding with alumina support.

  15. The 26 December 2001 Solar Eruptive Event Responsible for GLE63: III. CME, Shock Waves, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Uralov, A. M.; Klein, K.-L.; Kochanov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The SOL2001-12-26 moderate solar eruptive event (GOES importance M7.1, microwaves up to 4000 sfu at 9.4 GHz, coronal mass ejection (CME) speed 1446 km s-1) produced strong fluxes of solar energetic particles and ground-level enhancement (GLE) of cosmic-ray intensity (GLE63). To find a possible reason for the atypically high proton outcome of this event, we study multi-wavelength images and dynamic radio spectra and quantitatively reconcile the findings with each other. An additional eruption probably occurred in the same active region about half an hour before the main eruption. The latter produced two blast-wave-like shocks during the impulsive phase. The two shock waves eventually merged around the radial direction into a single shock traced up to 25 R_{⊙} as a halo ahead of the expanding CME body, in agreement with an interplanetary Type II event recorded by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) experiment on the Wind spacecraft. The shape and kinematics of the halo indicate an intermediate regime of the shock between the blast wave and bow shock at these distances. The results show that i) the shock wave appeared during the flare rise and could accelerate particles earlier than usually assumed; ii) the particle event could be amplified by the preceding eruption, which stretched closed structures above the developing CME, facilitated its lift-off and escape of flare-accelerated particles, enabled a higher CME speed and stronger shock ahead; iii) escape of flare-accelerated particles could be additionally facilitated by reconnection of the flux rope, where they were trapped, with a large coronal hole; and iv) the first eruption supplied a rich seed population accelerated by a trailing shock wave.

  16. Clustering-based ensemble learning for activity recognition in smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Anna; Nugent, Chris; Bi, Yaxin; Wu, Shengli

    2014-07-10

    Application of sensor-based technology within activity monitoring systems is becoming a popular technique within the smart environment paradigm. Nevertheless, the use of such an approach generates complex constructs of data, which subsequently requires the use of intricate activity recognition techniques to automatically infer the underlying activity. This paper explores a cluster-based ensemble method as a new solution for the purposes of activity recognition within smart environments. With this approach activities are modelled as collections of clusters built on different subsets of features. A classification process is performed by assigning a new instance to its closest cluster from each collection. Two different sensor data representations have been investigated, namely numeric and binary. Following the evaluation of the proposed methodology it has been demonstrated that the cluster-based ensemble method can be successfully applied as a viable option for activity recognition. Results following exposure to data collected from a range of activities indicated that the ensemble method had the ability to perform with accuracies of 94.2% and 97.5% for numeric and binary data, respectively. These results outperformed a range of single classifiers considered as benchmarks.

  17. Active exploration and keypoint clustering for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.W.; Ypma, J; de Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    Object recognition is a challenging problem for artificial systems. This is especially true for objects that are placed in cluttered and uncontrolled environments. To challenge this problem, we discuss an active approach to object recognition. Instead of passively observing objects, we use a robot

  18. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    developed a SCEC Community Velocity Model server based on Internet standards (XML, SOAP, and WSDL) to provide access to the SCEC Community Velocity Model. We have also continued development of the SCEC Fault Information System (SCEC/FIS) to provide access to the SCEC Community Fault Model and the SCEC Fault Activity Database. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) [Minster et al., this meeting]. This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data sets and their metadata. A browser-based computational pathway assembly web site has been developed [Gupta et al., this meeting]. Users can compose SHA calculations and call SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. By assembling a series of computational steps, users can develop complex computational pathways the validity of which can be verified with an ontology-based pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration to support analysis and validation of data sets includes 4D wave propagation visualization software based on OpenGL [Thiebaux et al., this meeting] and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes and faults.

  19. Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.

  20. Coronal Magnetic Field Profiles from Shock-CME Standoff Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphs observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and driven shocks in white light images.From these observations the shocks speed and the shocks standoff distance from the CMEs leading edge can be derived. Using these quantities, theoretical relationships between the shocks Alfvenic Mach number MA and standoff distance, and empirical radial profiles for the solar wind velocity and number density, the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock can be calculated. These profiles cannot be measured directly. We test the accuracy of this method for estimating the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock by simulating a sample CME that occurred on 29 November 2013 using the three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solar wind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme code, retrieving shock-CME standoff distances from the simulation, and comparing the estimated and simulated radial magnetic field profiles. We find good agreement between the two profiles (within +/-30%) between 1.8 and 10R.Our simulations confirm that a linear relationship exists between the standoff distance and the inverse compression ratio at the shock. We also find very good agreement between the empirical and simulated radial profiles of the number density and speed of the solar wind and inner corona.

  1. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-03-25

    Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Data were used from 1480 parent-child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8-11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters were positively related to

  2. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  3. Preparation of Aun quantum clusters with catalytic activity in β-cyclodextrin polyurethane nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Diego Andrade; Kubota, Tatiana; Santos, Douglas C; Araujo, Marcia V G; Teixeira, Zaine; Gimenez, Iara F

    2016-01-20

    Here we report the use of β-cyclodextrin polyurethane nanosponges cross-linked with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as a template for the preparation of Aun quantum clusters, by the core-etching of glutathione-capped Au nanoparticles. The study of temporal evolution of the core-etching process using different Au concentrations indicated that formation of Aun clusters embedded in the nanosponge is favored by the use of lower Au concentrations, since it began at shorter times and lead to higher cluster loading. An estimation of the number of Au atoms based on the maximum photoluminescence wavelength suggested that, depending on the Au concentration and the core etching time, clusters with 11-15 atoms were formed. After excluding the possibility of an inclusion complex formation, evaluation of the catalytic activity of nanosponge-loaded Aun clusters toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol has shown that the reaction is catalyzed by the Aun clusters with no induction time, following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation and adsorption of CO{sub 2} on copper surfaces and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Seema; Dharmvir, Keya, E-mail: keya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014 (India); Goel, Neetu [Department of Chemistry, Center of Advanced Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The activation and adsorption of CO{sub 2} over Cu{sub n} clusters have been investigated by first principle calculations. Results of these calculations are compared with the previous studies of adsorption of CO{sub 2} on Cu (hkl) surfaces [Wang et al. Surface Science 570 (2004) 205–217]. We find that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed over the clusters in comparison with Cu (hkl) surfaces. The Cu13 cluster in particular dissociates the CO{sub 2} molecule adsorbed on the one of the caps of the icosahedron into CO and atomic oxygen. This activated configuration can act as a precursor to reactions leading to hydrocarbon fuels from CO{sub 2}.

  5. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  6. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  7. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  8. KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF THE CME RECONNECTION OUTFLOW LAYER IN THE LOW CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nykyri, Katariina [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hannah, Iain G., E-mail: claire.foullon@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature ({approx}11.6 MK), and high flow shear ({approx}680 km s{sup -1}) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

  9. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  10. Preliminary structural studies of the transcriptional regulator CmeR from Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chih-Chia [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shi, Feng [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Ruoyu; Li, Ming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDermott, Gerry [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Yu, Edward W., E-mail: ewyu@iastate.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Zhang, Qijing [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator CmeR from C. jejuni has been purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å. In Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the CmeR regulatory protein controls transcription of the multidrug transporter gene operon cmeABC. CmeR belongs to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The 210-residue CmeR consists of two functional motifs: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. It is predicted that the DNA-binding domain interacts directly with target promoters, while the C-terminal motif interacts with inducing ligands (such as bile salts). As an initial step towards confirming this structural model, recombinant CmeR protein containing a 6×His tag at the N-terminus was crystallized. Crystals of ligand-free CmeR belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.4, b = 57.6, c = 93.3 Å. Diffraction was observed to at least 2.2 Å at 100 K. Analysis of the detailed CmeR structure is currently in progress.

  11. Controlling catalytic activity of gold cluster on MgO thin film for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zijing; Yan, Lei; Li, Zi; Ma, Wei; Lu, Gang; Meng, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    We propose that supported gold clusters on MgO thin film can potentially serve as an efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. The catalytic activity of the gold cluster is enhanced by excess electrons occupying its quantum well states (QWSs) and can be controlled by varying the oxide thickness, introducing defects/doping in the substrate, and modulating the plasmonic response of the Au cluster. We find that the bonding between the water molecule and certain QWSs can significantly reduce the water splitting energy barrier in its ground state. More importantly, the water splitting is nearly spontaneous when the QWS is photoexcited. First-principles real-time electron dynamics simulations reveal that the excited QWS in the supported gold cluster has a long lifetime on the scale of picoseconds. Generation of activated hydrogen atoms is predicted to occur spontaneously following photoexcitation, and the yield of H2 gas is maintained by enriching hydrogen concentration without poisoning the catalyst. These results illustrate promising routes for promoting photocatalysis via engineering the energy levels of supported metal clusters.

  12. Production of novel fusarielins by ectopic activation of the polyketide synthase 9 cluster in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster spe...... of compounds has not previously been reported from F. graminearum or linked to a biosynthetic gene in any fungal species. The toxicity of the three novel fusarielins was examined against colorectal cancer cell lines where fusarielin H was more potent than fusarielin F and G.......Like many other filamentous fungi, Fusarium graminearum has the genetic potential to produce a vast array of unknown secondary metabolites. A promising approach to determine the nature of these is to activate silent secondary metabolite gene clusters through constitutive expression of cluster...... and metabolite analyses where aurofusarin and its intermediates are normally among the most abundant compounds. The system was used for constitutive expression of the local transcription factor from the PKS9 cluster (renamed FSL) leading to production of three novel fusarielins, F, G and H. This group...

  13. Effect of Water Clustering on the Activity of Candida antarctica Lipase B in Organic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindrila Dutta Banik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial water activity of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether medium on CALB (Candida antarctica lipase B catalyzed esterification reaction is investigated using experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The experimental kinetic studies show that the initial reaction rate of CALB-catalyzed esterification reaction between butyric acid and ethanol decreases with increasing initial water activity of the medium. The highest rate of esterification is observed at the lowest water activity studied. MD simulations were performed to gain a molecular insight on the effect of initial water activity on the rate of CALB-catalyzed reaction. Our results show that hydration has an insignificant effect on the structure and flexibility of CALB. Rather, it appears that water molecules bind to certain regions (“hot spots” on the CALB surface and form clusters. The size of the water clusters at these hot spot regions gradually increase and expand with increasing water activity. Consequently, the surface area of CALB covered by the water molecules also increases. Specifically, our results indicate that a particular water cluster located close to the active site partially cover the binding pocket of substrate at high water activity. As a consequence, the effective concentration of substrate at the catalytic site decreases. Therefore, the reaction rate slows down with increasing water activity, which correlates well with the observed decrease in the experimentally determined initial reaction rate.

  14. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Thomas Mickala Bourobou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  15. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-05-21

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  16. Concurrent Validity of the Kuder Career Search Activity Preference Scales and Career Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    Results of the online Kuder Career Search (KCS) were compared with concurrent measures of career interest and self-efficacy for 197 college freshmen. The KCS Activity Preference Scales related as expected. The rank order of KCS Career Clusters correlated with the ranks of the concurrent interest scales. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  17. The performance evaluation of novices : The importance of competence in specific work activity clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    In this study, we examine the relationships between newcomers' competence in specific work activity clusters and the evaluation of their performance. Longitudinal data were gathered on 92 novice nurses from themselves and from the senior staff at three stages: before entering the job, 6 weeks after

  18. Solvent-induced lone pair activity tuning and vapoluminescence in a Pt2Pb cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Jesús R; Lalinde, Elena; Martín, Antonio; Moreno, M Teresa; Ruiz, Santiago; Sánchez, Sergio; Shahsavari, Hamid R

    2013-06-04

    We report a novel cluster, [{Pt(C6F5)(bzq)}2Pb(Spy)2] 1, that displays reversible vapoluminescence to specific organic vapours; this behaviour can be related to the stereochemical activity of the lone pair around the Pb(II) in the ground state and to the distinct distortion of the coordination environment (1 and 1-solvent) upon photoexcitation.

  19. E-learning for occupational physicians' CME: a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Gri, Tommaso; Pagani, Marco; Imbriani, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the results of the evaluation of an e-learning CME course in the field of Occupational Medicine. In particular the following aspects have been investigated: If and how the course contents have met the educational users' needs; The effectiveness of the course in terms of knowledge improvement; Users' behaviour. Attendance data and results of a sample of 1128 attendees have been analyzed via ad hoc developed tools for direct inspection of Moodle CMS database. The results document the effectiveness of the e-learning course, as regards meeting the educational needs of physicians and also the improvement in terms of knowledge and problem solving skill acquisition. Users' behaviour has revealed a certain tendency for passing the tests, more than for pursuing the best possible result. Interaction with the tutor is low.

  20. Succes med e-læring - CME-modellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Johannsen Duus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 4: Undervisere og e-læring - problemer og perspektiver, september - december 2004, red. Poul Gøtke og Annette Lorentsen. ISSN 1603-5518. HD-studiet i afsætningsøkonomi og udenrigshandel (HD (A/U lokaliseret ved Center of Market Economics (CME på Handelshøjskolen i København er et eksempel på en virtuel uddannelse, der anvender helt nye læringsprincipper, som man ikke finder andre steder. Denne artikel giver en kort introduktion til studiet og dets særlige karakteristika. Der fokuseres derefter på studiets idégrundlag, faktorerne bag studiets udvikling til virtuel uddannelse og på de særlige krav, som må stilles til lærerkorpset. Afslutningsvis ses der på rekrutteringen og uddannelsen af virtuelle lærere.

  1. Blended learning in CME: the perception of GP trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pas, E; Meinema, J G; Visser, M R M; van Dijk, N

    2016-05-01

    Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical Education (CME) course in evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study reports on our experience and investigated the factors influencing the perception on usefulness and logistics of blended learning for learners in CME. In total, 170 GP trainers participated in the intervention. We used questionnaires, observations during the four face-to-face meetings and evaluations in the e-course over one year. Additionally we organised focus groups to gain insight in some of the outcomes of the questionnaires and interpretations of the observations. The GP trainers found the design and the educational method (e-course in combination with meetings) attractive, instructive and complementary. Factors influencing their learning were (1) educational design, (2) educational method, (3) topic of the intervention, (4) time (planning), (5) time (intervention), (6) learning style, (7) technical issues, (8) preconditions and (9) level of difficulty. A close link between daily practice and the educational intervention was considered an important precondition for the success of the intervention in this group of learners. GP trainers were positive about blended learning: they found e-learning a useful way to gain knowledge and the meetings a pleasant way of transferring the knowledge into practice. Although some preconditions should be taken into consideration during its development and implementation, they would participate in similarly designed learning in the future.

  2. RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS: IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN LUMINOSITY AND CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.; Croston, J. H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hardcastle, M. J.; Jarvis, M. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kraft, R. P.; Evans, D. A., E-mail: J.Croston@soton.ac.uk [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present here the first results from the Chandra ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN) Large Project, characterizing the cluster environments of a sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 0.5 that covers three decades of radio luminosity. This is the first systematic X-ray environmental study at a single epoch, and has allowed us to examine the relationship between radio luminosity and cluster environment without the problems of Malmquist bias. We have found a weak correlation between radio luminosity and host cluster X-ray luminosity, as well as tentative evidence that this correlation is driven by the subpopulation of low-excitation radio galaxies, with high-excitation radio galaxies showing no significant correlation. The considerable scatter in the environments may be indicative of complex relationships not currently included in feedback models.

  3. Active learning for semi-supervised clustering based on locally linear propagation reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Po-Yi

    2015-03-01

    The success of semi-supervised clustering relies on the effectiveness of side information. To get effective side information, a new active learner learning pairwise constraints known as must-link and cannot-link constraints is proposed in this paper. Three novel techniques are developed for learning effective pairwise constraints. The first technique is used to identify samples less important to cluster structures. This technique makes use of a kernel version of locally linear embedding for manifold learning. Samples neither important to locally linear propagation reconstructions of other samples nor on flat patches in the learned manifold are regarded as unimportant samples. The second is a novel criterion for query selection. This criterion considers not only the importance of a sample to expanding the space coverage of the learned samples but also the expected number of queries needed to learn the sample. To facilitate semi-supervised clustering, the third technique yields inferred must-links for passing information about flat patches in the learned manifold to semi-supervised clustering algorithms. Experimental results have shown that the learned pairwise constraints can capture the underlying cluster structures and proven the feasibility of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. C-H bond activation by aluminum oxide cluster anions, an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Hua; Ma, Tong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Na; He, Sheng-Gui

    2013-08-21

    Aluminum oxide cluster anions are produced by laser ablation and reacted with n-butane in a fast flow reactor. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to detect the cluster distribution before and after the reactions. Aluminum oxide clusters Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻ can react with n-C₄H₁₀ to produce Al₂O4,6H⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻, respectively, while cluster Al₃O₆⁻ reacts with n-C₄H₁₀ to produce both the Al₃O₆H⁻ and Al₃O₆H₂⁻. The theoretical calculations are performed to study the structures and bonding properties of clusters Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O6,7⁻ as well as the reaction mechanism of Al₂O₄⁻ + n-C₄H₁₀. The calculated results show that the mononuclear oxygen-centred radicals (O⁻˙) on Al₂O4,6⁻ and Al₃O₇⁻, and oxygen-centred biradical on Al₃O₆⁻ are the active sites responsible for the observed hydrogen atom abstraction reactivity. Furthermore, mechanism investigation of the O⁻˙ generation in Al₃O₇⁻ upon O₂ molecule adsorption on un-reactive Al₃O₅⁻ is performed by theoretical calculations.

  5. Magnetic field-induced T cell receptor clustering by nanoparticles enhances T cell activation and stimulates antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perica, Karlo; Tu, Ang; Richter, Anne; Bieler, Joan Glick; Edidin, Michael; Schneck, Jonathan P

    2014-03-25

    Iron-dextran nanoparticles functionalized with T cell activating proteins have been used to study T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. However, nanoparticle triggering of membrane receptors is poorly understood and may be sensitive to physiologically regulated changes in TCR clustering that occur after T cell activation. Nano-aAPC bound 2-fold more TCR on activated T cells, which have clustered TCR, than on naive T cells, resulting in a lower threshold for activation. To enhance T cell activation, a magnetic field was used to drive aggregation of paramagnetic nano-aAPC, resulting in a doubling of TCR cluster size and increased T cell expansion in vitro and after adoptive transfer in vivo. T cells activated by nano-aAPC in a magnetic field inhibited growth of B16 melanoma, showing that this novel approach, using magnetic field-enhanced nano-aAPC stimulation, can generate large numbers of activated antigen-specific T cells and has clinically relevant applications for adoptive immunotherapy.

  6. Combining STEREO SECCHI COR2 and HI1 images for automatic CME front edge tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirnosov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available COR2 coronagraph images are the most commonly used data for coronal mass ejection (CME analysis among the various types of data provided by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory SECCHI (Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation suite of instruments. The field of view (FOV in COR2 images covers 2–15 solar radii (Rs that allow for tracking the front edge of a CME in its initial stage to forecast the lead-time of a CME and its chances of reaching the Earth. However, estimating the lead-time of a CME using COR2 images gives a larger lead-time, which may be associated with greater uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty, CME front edge tracking should be continued beyond the FOV of COR2 images. Therefore, heliospheric imager (HI1 data that covers 15–90 Rs FOV must be included. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method that takes both COR2 and HI1 images into account and combine the results to track the front edges of a CME continuously. The method consists of two modules: pre-processing and tracking. The pre-processing module produces a set of segmented images, which contain the signature of a CME, for both COR2 and HI1 separately. In addition, the HI1 images are resized and padded, so that the center of the Sun is the central coordinate of the resized HI1 images. The resulting COR2 and HI1 image set is then fed into the tracking module to estimate the position angle (PA and track the front edge of a CME. The detected front edge is then used to produce a height-time profile that is used to estimate the speed of a CME. The method was validated using 15 CME events observed in the period from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for CME front edge tracking in both COR2 and HI1 images. Using this method, the CME front edge can now be tracked automatically and continuously in a much larger range, i.e., from 2 to 90 Rs, for the first time. These

  7. Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non-equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; Raymond, J. C.; Reale, F.

    The Coronal Mass Ejections are plasma clouds expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary medium. We study the propagation of shock waves in the solar corona generated during Coronal Mass Ejections by means of a numerical multi-dimensional MHD model. The model describes the MHD evolution of a compressible plasma in an ambient magnetic field including tensor thermal conduction, radiative losses as main physical effects. We use the MHD version of the FLASH parallel hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, originally developed at the University of Chicago USA). The code is highly modular and made efficiently parallel with the Message Passing Interface library. We analyze the diagnostic signatures of shock fronts generated by supersonic CME fragments detectable with the UltraViolet Coronagraphic Spectrometer on board the SoHO mission. To this aim we perform 3D MHD simulations of the shock propagation for the time it takes to cross the UVCS slit positioned at a distance of a few solar radii from the solar surface. In the presence of highly effective thermal conduction the simulation takes 200000 time steps to cover 1000 s of evolution. Considering a 3-D domain of 256x256x512 grid cells this kind of simulations requires thousands of hours of computer time and therefore high performance computing (HPC) systems. The simulations were run on the CINECA IBM/SP5 HPC cluster within the INAF/CINECA agreement. We show simulation results and some implications for UVCS observations.

  8. A Human Activity Recognition System Based on Dynamic Clustering of Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Manzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition is an important area in computer vision, with its wide range of applications including ambient assisted living. In this paper, an activity recognition system based on skeleton data extracted from a depth camera is presented. The system makes use of machine learning techniques to classify the actions that are described with a set of a few basic postures. The training phase creates several models related to the number of clustered postures by means of a multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM, trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO. The classification phase adopts the X-means algorithm to find the optimal number of clusters dynamically. The contribution of the paper is twofold. The first aim is to perform activity recognition employing features based on a small number of informative postures, extracted independently from each activity instance; secondly, it aims to assess the minimum number of frames needed for an adequate classification. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-60 and the Telecommunication Systems Team (TST Fall detection dataset. The number of clusters needed to model each instance ranges from two to four elements. The proposed approach reaches excellent performances using only about 4 s of input data (~100 frames and outperforms the state of the art when it uses approximately 500 frames on the CAD-60 dataset. The results are promising for the test in real context.

  9. Practice-related changes in neural activation patterns investigated via wavelet-based clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinae; Park, Cheolwoo; Dyckman, Kara A.; Lazar, Nicole A.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Li, Qingyang; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and specifically, activation changes across time associated with practice-related cognitive control during eye movement tasks. Experimental design Participants were engaged in antisaccade performance (generating a glance away from a cue) while fMR images were acquired during two separate time points: 1) at pre-test before any exposure to the task, and 2) at post-test, after one week of daily practice on antisaccades, prosaccades (glancing towards a target) or fixation (maintaining gaze on a target). Principal observations The three practice groups were compared across the two time points, and analyses were conducted via the application of a model-free clustering technique based on wavelet analysis. This series of procedures was developed to avoid analysis problems inherent in fMRI data and was composed of several steps: detrending, data aggregation, wavelet transform and thresholding, no trend test, principal component analysis and K-means clustering. The main clustering algorithm was built in the wavelet domain to account for temporal correlation. We applied a no trend test based on wavelets to significantly reduce the high dimension of the data. We clustered the thresholded wavelet coefficients of the remaining voxels using the principal component analysis K-means clustering. Conclusion Over the series of analyses, we found that the antisaccade practice group was the only group to show decreased activation from pre- to post-test in saccadic circuitry, particularly evident in supplementary eye field, frontal eye fields, superior parietal lobe, and cuneus. PMID:22505290

  10. Comparison of CME and ICME Structures Derived from Remote-Sensing and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, V.; Mrotzek, N.

    2017-11-01

    We present results from the comparison of the near-Sun and in situ analysis of two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with different 3D orientations and solar source region characteristics. The CME on 14 July 2000, the so-called Bastille Day storm, a well-studied event, was observed from a single-point perspective by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). It caused a major geomagnetic storm with a peak Kp of 9. The CME originated from a magnetic bipolar photospheric source region with the polarity inversion line being oriented rather parallel to the heliographic equator. In contrast, the CME on 29 September 2013, which caused a geomagnetic storm with a peak Kp intensity of 8-, originated from a magnetic quadrupolar photospheric source region with the polarity inversion line between the two bipoles almost vertically oriented with respect to the heliographic equator. The results of a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) analysis of the CMEs near the Sun are compared with the minimum variance analysis (MVA) of the magnetic field structure of the interplanetary CME (ICME) measured in situ near Earth's orbit. The results are in good agreement for the September 2013 CME and ICME, whereas the July 2000 ICME appears substantially inclined near Earth's orbit. The discrepancy can likely be explained taking into account kinks in the CME's near-Sun structure of the CME that expands into the interplanetary medium.

  11. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Le Ngoc, Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Nguyen Viet, Ha; Larson Williams, Anna; Nguyen Van, Tan; McNabb, Marion; Tran Thi Ngoc, Lien; Falconer, Ariel; An Phan Ha, Hai; Rohr, Julia; Hoang, Hai; Michiel, James; Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tam; Bird, Liat; Pham Vu, Hoang; Yeshitla, Mahlet; Ha Van, Nhu; Sabin, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations. The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy. 638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average times spent

  12. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gill

    Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS-based mobile CME (mCME intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations.The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later. Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy.638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%. Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average

  13. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: Cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and

  14. An approach to functionally relevant clustering of the protein universe: Active site profile-based clustering of protein structures and sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Stacy T; Westwood, Brian M; Leuthaeuser, Janelle B; Turner, Brandon E; Nguyendac, Don; Shea, Gabrielle; Kumar, Kiran; Hayden, Julia D; Harper, Angela F; Brown, Shoshana D; Morris, John H; Ferrin, Thomas E; Babbitt, Patricia C; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2017-04-01

    Protein function identification remains a significant problem. Solving this problem at the molecular functional level would allow mechanistic determinant identification-amino acids that distinguish details between functional families within a superfamily. Active site profiling was developed to identify mechanistic determinants. DASP and DASP2 were developed as tools to search sequence databases using active site profiling. Here, TuLIP (Two-Level Iterative clustering Process) is introduced as an iterative, divisive clustering process that utilizes active site profiling to separate structurally characterized superfamily members into functionally relevant clusters. Underlying TuLIP is the observation that functionally relevant families (curated by Structure-Function Linkage Database, SFLD) self-identify in DASP2 searches; clusters containing multiple functional families do not. Each TuLIP iteration produces candidate clusters, each evaluated to determine if it self-identifies using DASP2. If so, it is deemed a functionally relevant group. Divisive clustering continues until each structure is either a functionally relevant group member or a singlet. TuLIP is validated on enolase and glutathione transferase structures, superfamilies well-curated by SFLD. Correlation is strong; small numbers of structures prevent statistically significant analysis. TuLIP-identified enolase clusters are used in DASP2 GenBank searches to identify sequences sharing functional site features. Analysis shows a true positive rate of 96%, false negative rate of 4%, and maximum false positive rate of 4%. F-measure and performance analysis on the enolase search results and comparison to GEMMA and SCI-PHY demonstrate that TuLIP avoids the over-division problem of these methods. Mechanistic determinants for enolase families are evaluated and shown to correlate well with literature results. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  15. Activity-induced clustering in model dumbbell swimmers: the role of hydrodynamic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Akira; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    Using a fluid-particle dynamics approach, we numerically study the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the collective dynamics of active suspensions within a simple model for bacterial motility: each microorganism is modeled as a stroke-averaged dumbbell swimmer with prescribed dipolar force pairs. Using both simulations and qualitative arguments, we show that, when the separation between swimmers is comparable to their size, the swimmers' motions are strongly affected by activity-induced hydrodynamic forces. To further understand these effects, we investigate semidilute suspensions of swimmers in the presence of thermal fluctuations. A direct comparison between simulations with and without hydrodynamic interactions shows these to enhance the dynamic clustering at a relatively small volume fraction; with our chosen model the key ingredient for this clustering behavior is hydrodynamic trapping of one swimmer by another, induced by the active forces. Furthermore, the density dependence of the motility (of both the translational and rotational motions) exhibits distinctly different behaviors with and without hydrodynamic interactions; we argue that this is linked to the clustering tendency. Our study illustrates the fact that hydrodynamic interactions not only affect kinetic pathways in active suspensions, but also cause major changes in their steady state properties.

  16. Using hierarchical clustering methods to classify motor activities of COPD patients from wearable sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly John J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in miniature sensor technology have led to the development of wearable systems that allow one to monitor motor activities in the field. A variety of classifiers have been proposed in the past, but little has been done toward developing systematic approaches to assess the feasibility of discriminating the motor tasks of interest and to guide the choice of the classifier architecture. Methods A technique is introduced to address this problem according to a hierarchical framework and its use is demonstrated for the application of detecting motor activities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. Accelerometers were used to collect data for 10 different classes of activity. Features were extracted to capture essential properties of the data set and reduce the dimensionality of the problem at hand. Cluster measures were utilized to find natural groupings in the data set and then construct a hierarchy of the relationships between clusters to guide the process of merging clusters that are too similar to distinguish reliably. It provides a means to assess whether the benefits of merging for performance of a classifier outweigh the loss of resolution incurred through merging. Results Analysis of the COPD data set demonstrated that motor tasks related to ambulation can be reliably discriminated from tasks performed in a seated position with the legs in motion or stationary using two features derived from one accelerometer. Classifying motor tasks within the category of activities related to ambulation requires more advanced techniques. While in certain cases all the tasks could be accurately classified, in others merging clusters associated with different motor tasks was necessary. When merging clusters, it was found that the proposed method could lead to more than 12% improvement in classifier accuracy while retaining resolution of 4 tasks. Conclusion Hierarchical

  17. Interdisciplinary CME: is the need evident? Results of the evaluation of CME articles in the Journal of the German Medical Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard Christ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicine has become more and more specialised over the last decades, which in turn has increased the need for interdisciplinary information exchange. The aim of this study is to describe the extent of the need for interdisciplinary knowledge transfer in a contemporary medical specialist population. Methods. We analysed reading by medical specialty of 53 accredited continuing medical education (CME articles published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt (“Journal of the German Medical Association”, which is available to all German physicians. Results. In all, 86,340 physicians participated 1,007,923 times by reading one or more of the 53 articles. In fewer than 50% of all cases, 89.5% of all participants read content belonging to their specialty (rated by self-assessment. The highest percentage of interdisciplinary use of print CME was found in the group of physicians working neither in ambulatory care nor in hospitals, that is, those physicians working in the public health area, with public authorities, etc. Linear regression analysis in the biggest group of specialists (internal medicine showed a tendency for more interdisciplinary use in the group of younger participants, female physicians, and those working in ambulatory care. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a somewhat unexpectedly high interdisciplinary use of medical information from freely available CME articles. The extent of interdisciplinary use of information most probably reflects an individual need of similar magnitude. These findings should stimulate CME providers more often to plan interdisciplinary CME independent of the mode of presentation.

  18. Connection Between the CME Velocities and Decameter Radio Bursts Parameters from URAN-4 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The paper reports the results of the research of connection between the coronal mass ejections (CME) with the IV type continual decameter bursts parameters. As the parameters characterizing the CME velocity, we used the integrated flux of the radio bursts and background intensity on 20 and 25 MHz frequencies. The analysis demonstrated that the connection between the CME velocity and IV type bursts increases, if we take into account the intensity of the radio bursts and background on two polarizations at a given frequency. In this case, the correlation coefficient is ≍ 0.75.

  19. The role of outsourcing in the mechanism of economic security activities of cluster formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the concept of “outsourcing”, “economic safety’, “cluster formation”. Outsourcing is defined as external influences that contribute to the effective operation of the enterprise. The economic essence of "outsourcing" in the research and domestic practice, which has hitherto manifested itself only as a method of attracting temporary workers in the field. On the example of the dairy industry is studied safe operation as sustainable, and competitive Bozrikova their behavior with regard to outsourcing. Studied the differences of the processes of cooperation, subcontracting and clustering. Stated that cooperation and subcontracting are the component parts outsourcing, which covers the process of production or provision of services; the outsourcing justifies: the transfer of technical functions or business processes, and thus part of the risks transferred to the outsourcing provider. An example of adaptive modeling outsourcing, suggesting that in the future, the projected volume of production, processing and sales of dairy products manufactured by the enterprises of dairy industry of the Voronezh region belonging to a cluster will be reduced through the introduction of a mechanism of outsourcing. It proves that the risk of bankruptcy of enterprises on the basis of adaptive models. The application of the mechanism of outsourcing in order to increase the economic security, in particular, such of its functions as the transmission of external organizations not only certain social functions (such as the use of temporary workers, but also the activities of the business processes to optimize all kinds of resources and concentration of efforts on the core activities of each company within the cluster APK. Analysis conducted by the authors suggests: in the future, the projected volume of production, processing and sales of dairy products manufactured by the enterprises of agriculture, dairy production and trade of the Voronezh

  20. Proximity of the manganese cluster of photosystem II to the redox-active tyrosine YZ.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, M L; Ball, J. A.; Randall, D W; Britt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Electron spin echo electron-nuclear double resonance (ESE-ENDOR) experiments performed on a broad radical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal observed in photosystem II particles depleted of Ca2+ indicate that this signal arises from the redox-active tyrosine YZ. The tyrosine EPR signal width is increased relative to that observed in a manganese-depleted preparation due to a magnetic interaction between the photosystem II manganese cluster and the tyrosine radical. The manganese clus...

  1. Contact-based ligand-clustering approach for the identification of active compounds in virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantsyzov AB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexey B Mantsyzov,1 Guillaume Bouvier,2 Nathalie Evrard-Todeschi,1 Gildas Bertho11Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne, Paris, France; 2Institut Pasteur, Paris, FranceAbstract: Evaluation of docking results is one of the most important problems for virtual screening and in silico drug design. Modern approaches for the identification of active compounds in a large data set of docked molecules use energy scoring functions. One of the general and most significant limitations of these methods relates to inaccurate binding energy estimation, which results in false scoring of docked compounds. Automatic analysis of poses using self-organizing maps (AuPosSOM represents an alternative approach for the evaluation of docking results based on the clustering of compounds by the similarity of their contacts with the receptor. A scoring function was developed for the identification of the active compounds in the AuPosSOM clustered dataset. In addition, the AuPosSOM efficiency for the clustering of compounds and the identification of key contacts considered as important for its activity, were also improved. Benchmark tests for several targets revealed that together with the developed scoring function, AuPosSOM represents a good alternative to the energy-based scoring functions for the evaluation of docking results.Keywords: scoring, docking, virtual screening, CAR, AuPosSOM

  2. CME/CNE Article: A Framework of Care in Multiple Sclerosis, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Philip J.; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bennett, Susan E.; Cutter, Gary; Fenton, Kaylan; Lublin, Fred; Northrop, Dorothy; Rintell, David; Walker, Bryan D.; Weigel, Megan; Zackowski, Kathleen; Jones, David E.

    2016-01-01

    CME/CNE Information Activity Available Online: To access the article, post-test, and evaluation online, go to http://www.cmscscholar.org. Target Audience: The target audience for this activity is physicians, physician assistants, nursing professionals, and other health-care providers involved in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Learning Objectives: Apply new information about MS to a comprehensive individualized treatment plan for patients with MS Integrate the team approach into long-term planning in order to optimize rehabilitation care of patients with MS Accreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA), and Delaware Media Group. The CMSC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The CMSC designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NPA designates this enduring material for 1.0 Continuing Nursing Education credit. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosures: Francois Bethoux, MD, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of MS Care (IJMSC), has served as Physician Planner for this activity. He has received royalties from Springer Publishing and has received intellectual property rights from Biogen. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant

  3. CME-Associated Radio Bursts from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely associated with various types of radio bursts from the Sun. All radio bursts are due to nonthermal electrons, which are accelerated during the eruption of CMEs. Radio bursts at frequencies below about 15 MHz are of particular interest because they are associated with energetic CMEs that contribute to severe space weather. The low-frequency bursts need to be observed primarily from space because of the ionospheric cutoff. The main CME-related radio bursts are associated are: type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines, type II bursts due to electrons accelerated in shocks, and type IV bursts due to electrons trapped in post-eruption arcades behind CMEs. This paper presents a summary of results obtained during solar cycle 23 primarily using the white-light coronagraphic observations from the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the WAVES experiment on board Wind. Particular emphasis will be placed on what we can learn about particle acceleration in the coronal and interplanetary medium by analyzing the CMEs and the associated radio bursts.

  4. Application of the continuing education systems project. CME as organization development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzilotti, S S; Finestone, A J

    1985-04-01

    Temple University's Office of Continuing Medical Education and 18 affiliated institutions implemented the Continuing Education Systems Project (CESP), in order to improve the quality of CME. As a result of the findings, it is proposed that the CME unit be accepted and supported not merely as an adjunct educational service for physicians but as an agent of the hospital's organizational development. Accordingly, the role of the CME unit is one of facilitator of change, functioning as a system feedback mechanism and coordinator of planned change. It is suggested that community hospitals need to develop a CME unit capable of integrating the resources of the institution in order to meet organizational, as well as individual and social needs. This is of particular importance in the face of new federal interventions in the health care field, which create the potential for conflicts between the physician and the hospital.

  5. Online continuing medical education (CME) for GPs: does it work? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Kirby, Catherine N; Schattner, Peter; Piterman, Leon

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of online continuing medical education (CME) designed to improve healthcare professionals' care of patients. The effects of online educational interventions targeted at general practitioners (GP), however, have not been systematically reviewed. A computer search was conducted through seven databases for studies assessing changes in GPs' knowledge and practice, or patient outcomes following an online educational intervention. Eleven studies met the eligibility criteria. Most studies (8/11, 72.7%) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following outcomes: satisfaction, knowledge or practice change. There was little evidence for the impact of online CME on patient outcomes. Variability in study design, characteristics of online and outcome measures limited conclusions on the effects of online CME. Online CME could improve GP satisfaction, knowledge and practices but there are very few well-designed studies that focus on this delivery method of GP education.

  6. Effects of physical activity on schoolchildren's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resaland, Geir K; Aadland, Eivind; Moe, Vegard Fusche; Aadland, Katrine N; Skrede, Turid; Stavnsbo, Mette; Suominen, Laura; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Glosvik, Øyvind; Andersen, John R; Kvalheim, Olav M; Engelsrud, Gunn; Andersen, Lars B; Holme, Ingar M; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Kriemler, Susi; van Mechelen, Willem; McKay, Heather A; Ekelund, Ulf; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework. Academic performance in numeracy, reading and English was measured using standardized Norwegian national tests. Physical activity was measured objectively by accelerometry. We found no effect of the intervention on academic performance in primary analyses (standardized difference 0.01-0.06, p>0.358). Subgroup analyses, however, revealed a favorable intervention effect for those who performed the poorest at baseline (lowest tertile) for numeracy (p=0.005 for the subgroup∗group interaction), compared to controls (standardized difference 0.62, 95% CI 0.19-1.07). This large, rigorously conducted cluster RCT in 10-year-old children supports the notion that there is still inadequate evidence to conclude that increased physical activity in school enhances academic achievement in all children. Still, combining physical activity and learning seems a viable model to stimulate learning in those academically weakest schoolchildren. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  8. Active trachoma among children in Mali: Clustering and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägi, Mathieu; Schémann, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Momo, Germain; Sacko, Doulaye; Traoré, Lamine; Malvy, Denis; Viel, Jean-François

    2010-01-19

    Active trachoma is not uniformly distributed in endemic areas, and local environmental factors influencing its prevalence are not yet adequately understood. Determining whether clustering is a consistent phenomenon may help predict likely modes of transmission and help to determine the appropriate level at which to target control interventions. The aims of this study were, therefore, to disentangle the relative importance of clustering at different levels and to assess the respective role of individual, socio-demographic, and environmental factors on active trachoma prevalence among children in Mali. We used anonymous data collected during the Mali national trachoma survey (1996-1997) at different levels of the traditional social structure (14,627 children under 10 years of age, 6,251 caretakers, 2,269 households, 203 villages). Besides field-collected data, environmental variables were retrieved later from various databases at the village level. Bayesian hierarchical logistic models were fit to these prevalence and exposure data. Clustering revealed significant results at four hierarchical levels. The higher proportion of the variation in the occurrence of active trachoma was attributable to the village level (36.7%), followed by household (25.3%), and child (24.7%) levels. Beyond some well-established individual risk factors (age between 3 and 5, dirty face, and flies on the face), we showed that caretaker-level (wiping after body washing), household-level (common ownership of radio, and motorbike), and village-level (presence of a women's association, average monthly maximal temperature and sunshine fraction, average annual mean temperature, presence of rainy days) features were associated with reduced active trachoma prevalence. This study clearly indicates the importance of directing control efforts both at children with active trachoma as well as those with close contact, and at communities. The results support facial cleanliness and environmental

  9. Active trachoma among children in Mali: Clustering and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Hägi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active trachoma is not uniformly distributed in endemic areas, and local environmental factors influencing its prevalence are not yet adequately understood. Determining whether clustering is a consistent phenomenon may help predict likely modes of transmission and help to determine the appropriate level at which to target control interventions. The aims of this study were, therefore, to disentangle the relative importance of clustering at different levels and to assess the respective role of individual, socio-demographic, and environmental factors on active trachoma prevalence among children in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used anonymous data collected during the Mali national trachoma survey (1996-1997 at different levels of the traditional social structure (14,627 children under 10 years of age, 6,251 caretakers, 2,269 households, 203 villages. Besides field-collected data, environmental variables were retrieved later from various databases at the village level. Bayesian hierarchical logistic models were fit to these prevalence and exposure data. Clustering revealed significant results at four hierarchical levels. The higher proportion of the variation in the occurrence of active trachoma was attributable to the village level (36.7%, followed by household (25.3%, and child (24.7% levels. Beyond some well-established individual risk factors (age between 3 and 5, dirty face, and flies on the face, we showed that caretaker-level (wiping after body washing, household-level (common ownership of radio, and motorbike, and village-level (presence of a women's association, average monthly maximal temperature and sunshine fraction, average annual mean temperature, presence of rainy days features were associated with reduced active trachoma prevalence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly indicates the importance of directing control efforts both at children with active trachoma as well as those with close contact, and at

  10. Accurate Annotation of Remote Sensing Images via Active Spectral Clustering with Little Expert Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Song Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging problem to efficiently interpret the large volumes of remotely sensed image data being collected in the current age of remote sensing “big data”. Although human visual interpretation can yield accurate annotation of remote sensing images, it demands considerable expert knowledge and is always time-consuming, which strongly hinders its efficiency. Alternatively, intelligent approaches (e.g., supervised classification and unsupervised clustering can speed up the annotation process through the application of advanced image analysis and data mining technologies. However, high-quality expert-annotated samples are still a prerequisite for intelligent approaches to achieve accurate results. Thus, how to efficiently annotate remote sensing images with little expert knowledge is an important and inevitable problem. To address this issue, this paper introduces a novel active clustering method for the annotation of high-resolution remote sensing images. More precisely, given a set of remote sensing images, we first build a graph based on these images and then gradually optimize the structure of the graph using a cut-collect process, which relies on a graph-based spectral clustering algorithm and pairwise constraints that are incrementally added via active learning. The pairwise constraints are simply similarity/dissimilarity relationships between the most uncertain pairwise nodes on the graph, which can be easily determined by non-expert human oracles. Furthermore, we also propose a strategy to adaptively update the number of classes in the clustering algorithm. In contrast with existing methods, our approach can achieve high accuracy in the task of remote sensing image annotation with relatively little expert knowledge, thereby greatly lightening the workload burden and reducing the requirements regarding expert knowledge. Experiments on several datasets of remote sensing images show that our algorithm achieves state

  11. Measuring classroom management expertise (CME of teachers: A video-based assessment approach and statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes König

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at developing and exploring a novel video-based assessment that captures classroom management expertise (CME of teachers and for which statistical results are provided. CME measurement is conceptualized by using four video clips that refer to typical classroom management situations in which teachers are heavily challenged (involving the challenges to manage transitions, instructional time, student behavior, and instructional feedback and by applying three cognitive demands posed on respondents when responding to test items related to the video clips (accuracy of perception, holistic perception, and justification of action. Research questions are raised regarding reliability, testlet effects (related to the four video clips applied for measurement, intercorrelations of cognitive demands, and criterion-related validity of the instrument. Evidence is provided that (1 using a video-based assessment CME can be measured in a reliable way, (2 the CME total score represents a general ability that is only slightly influenced by testlet effects related to the four video clips, (3 the three cognitive demands conceptualized for the measurement of CME are highly intercorrelated, and (4 the CME measure is positively correlated with declarative-conceptual general pedagogical knowledge (medium effect size, whereas it shows only small size correlations with non-cognitive teacher variables.

  12. A Comparison of Ground Level Event e/p and Fe/O Ratios with Associated Solar Flare and CME Characteristics (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    the solar corona . When this picture was challenged by a survey of large SEP events through 2005 showing a broad range of event Fe/O values at E > 25...which requires the higher seed particle threshold energies of remnant flare particles in the corona (Tylka and Lee 2006). If the concept of extending...analytic approach is to compare the particle abundance parameters statistically with various flare, active region (AR), and CME param- eters given in Table

  13. Student profiling on university co-curricular activities using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajenthran, Hemabegai A./P.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    In higher learning institutions, the co-curricular programs are needed for the graduation besides the standard academic programs. By actively participating in co-curricular, students can attain many of soft skills and proficiencies besides learning and adopting campus environment, community and traditions. Co-curricular activities are implemented by universities mainly for the refinement of the academic achievement along with the social development. This studies aimed to analyse the academic profile of the co-curricular students among uniform units. The main objective of study is to develop a profile of student co-curricular activities in uniform units. Additionally, several variables has been selected to serve as the characteristics for student co-curricular profile. The findings of this study demonstrate the practicality of clustering technique to investigate student's profiles and allow for a better understanding of student's behavior and co-curriculum activities.

  14. Establishment of the Inducible Tet-On System for the Activation of the Silent Trichosetin Gene Cluster in Fusarium fujikuroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Janevska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The PKS-NRPS-derived tetramic acid equisetin and its N-desmethyl derivative trichosetin exhibit remarkable biological activities against a variety of organisms, including plants and bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The equisetin biosynthetic gene cluster was first described in Fusarium heterosporum, a species distantly related to the notorious rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi. Here we present the activation and characterization of a homologous, but silent, gene cluster in F. fujikuroi. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that this cluster does not contain the equisetin N-methyltransferase gene eqxD and consequently, trichosetin was isolated as final product. The adaption of the inducible, tetracycline-dependent Tet-on promoter system from Aspergillus niger achieved a controlled overproduction of this toxic metabolite and a functional characterization of each cluster gene in F. fujikuroi. Overexpression of one of the two cluster-specific transcription factor (TF genes, TF22, led to an activation of the three biosynthetic cluster genes, including the PKS-NRPS key gene. In contrast, overexpression of TF23, encoding a second Zn(II2Cys6 TF, did not activate adjacent cluster genes. Instead, TF23 was induced by the final product trichosetin and was required for expression of the transporter-encoding gene MFS-T. TF23 and MFS-T likely act in consort and contribute to detoxification of trichosetin and therefore, self-protection of the producing fungus.

  15. ULF wave activity during the 2003 Halloween superstorm: multipoint observations from CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Zesta, E.; Papadimitriou, C.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2012-12-01

    We examine data from a topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail) for signatures of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves during the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached ~-380 nT. We use a suite of wavelet-based algorithms, which are a subset of a tool that is being developed for the analysis of multi-instrument multi-satellite and ground-based observations to identify ULF waves and investigate their properties. Starting from the region of topside ionosphere, we first present three clear and strong signatures of Pc3 ULF wave activity (frequency 15-100 mHz) in CHAMP tracks. We then expand these three time intervals for purposes of comparison between CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail Pc3 observations but also to be able to search for Pc4-5 wave signatures (frequency 1-10 mHz) into Cluster and Geotail measurements in order to have a more complete picture of the ULF wave occurrence during the storm. Due to the fast motion through field lines in a low Earth orbit (LEO) we are able to reliably detect Pc3 (but not Pc4-5) waves from CHAMP. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ULF wave observations from a topside ionosphere mission are compared to ULF wave observations from magnetospheric missions. Our study provides evidence for the occurrence of a number of prominent ULF wave events in the Pc3 and Pc4-5 bands during the storm and offers a platform to study the wave evolution from high altitudes to LEO. The ULF wave analysis methods presented here can be applied to observations from the upcoming Swarm multi-satellite mission of ESA, which is anticipated to enable joint studies with the Cluster mission.

  16. ULF wave activity during the 2003 Halloween superstorm: multipoint observations from CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine data from a topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail for signatures of ultra low frequency (ULF waves during the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached ~−380 nT. We use a suite of wavelet-based algorithms, which are a subset of a tool that is being developed for the analysis of multi-instrument multi-satellite and ground-based observations to identify ULF waves and investigate their properties. Starting from the region of topside ionosphere, we first present three clear and strong signatures of Pc3 ULF wave activity (frequency 15–100 mHz in CHAMP tracks. We then expand these three time intervals for purposes of comparison between CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail Pc3 observations but also to be able to search for Pc4–5 wave signatures (frequency 1–10 mHz into Cluster and Geotail measurements in order to have a more complete picture of the ULF wave occurrence during the storm. Due to the fast motion through field lines in a low Earth orbit (LEO we are able to reliably detect Pc3 (but not Pc4–5 waves from CHAMP. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ULF wave observations from a topside ionosphere mission are compared to ULF wave observations from magnetospheric missions. Our study provides evidence for the occurrence of a number of prominent ULF wave events in the Pc3 and Pc4–5 bands during the storm and offers a platform to study the wave evolution from high altitudes to LEO. The ULF wave analysis methods presented here can be applied to observations from the upcoming Swarm multi-satellite mission of ESA, which is anticipated to enable joint studies with the Cluster mission.

  17. Multifunctional Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Redox-Active Rhenium Octahedral Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Yulia M; Gayfulin, Yakov M; Kovalenko, Konstantin A; Samsonenko, Denis G; van Leusen, Jan; Korolkov, Ilya V; Fedin, Vladimir P; Mironov, Yuri V

    2018-02-05

    The redox-active rhenium octahedral cluster unit [Re 6 Se 8 (CN) 6 ] 4- was combined with Gd 3+ ions and dicarboxylate linkers in novel types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that display a set of functional properties. The hydrolytically stable complexes [{Gd(H 2 O) 3 } 2 (L)Re 6 Se 8 (CN) 6 ]·nH 2 O (1, L = furan-2,5-dicarboxylate, fdc; 2, L = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate, tdc) exhibit a 3D framework of trigonal symmetry where 1D chains of [{Gd(H 2 O) 3 } 2 (L)] 4+ are connected by [Re 6 Se 8 (CN) 6 ] 4- clusters. Frameworks contain spacious channels filled with H 2 O. Solvent molecules can be easily removed under vacuum to produce permanently porous solids with high volumetric CO 2 uptake and remarkable CO 2 /N 2 selectivity at room temperature. The frameworks demonstrate an ability for reversible redox transformations of the cluster fragment. The orange powders of compounds 1 and 2 react with Br 2 , yielding dark-green powders of [{Gd(H 2 O) 3 } 2 (L)Re 6 Se 8 (CN) 6 ]Br·nH 2 O (3, L = fdc; 4, L = tdc). Compounds 3 and 4 are isostructural with 1 and 2 and also have permanently porous frameworks but display different optical, magnetic, and sorption properties. In particular, oxidation of the cluster fragment "switches off" its luminescence in the red region, and the incorporation of Br - leads to a decrease of the solvent-accessible volume in the channels of 3 and 4. Finally, the green powders of 3 and 4 can be reduced back to the orange powders of 1 and 2 by reaction with hydrazine, thus displaying a rare ability for fully reversible chemical redox transitions. Compounds 1-4 are mentioned as a new class of redox-active cluster-based MOFs with potential usage as multifunctional materials for gas separation and chemical contamination sensors.

  18. Solar and interplanetary activities of isolated and non-isolated coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendict Lawrance, M.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Umapathy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report our results on comparison of two halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) associated with X-class flares of similar strength (X1.4) but quite different in CME speed and acceleration, similar geo-effectiveness but quite different in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) intensity. CME1 (non-isolated) was associated with a double event in X-ray flare and it was preceded by another fast halo CME of speed = 2684 km/s (pre-CME) associated with X-ray flare class X5.4 by 1 h from the same location. Since this pre-CME was more eastern, interaction with CME1 and hitting the earth were not possible. This event (CME1) has not suffered the cannibalism since pre-CME has faster speed than post-CME. Pre-CME plays a very important role in increasing the intensity of SEP and Forbush Decrease (FD) by providing energetic seed particles. So, the seed population is the major difference between these two selected events. CME2 (isolated) was a single event. We would like to address on the kinds of physical conditions related to such CMEs and their associated activities. Their associated activities such as, type II bursts, SEP, geomagnetic storm and FD are compared. The following results are obtained from the analysis. (1) The CME leading edge height at the start of metric/DH type II bursts are 2 R⊙/ 4 R⊙ for CME1, but 2 R⊙/ 2.75 R⊙ for CME2. (2) Peak intensity of SEP event associated with the two CMEs are quite different: 6530 pfu for CME1, but 96 pfu for CME2. (3) The Forbush decrease occurred with a minimum decrease of 9.98% in magnitude for CME1, but 6.90% for CME2. (4) These two events produced similar intense geomagnetic storms of intensity of Dst index -130 nT. (5) The maximum southward magnetic fields corresponding to Interplanetary CME (ICME) of these two events are nearly the same, but there is difference in Sheath Bz maximum (-14.2, -6.9 nT). (6) The time-line chart of the associated activities of two CMEs show some difference in the time delay between the onsets of

  19. Identification of novel mureidomycin analogues via rational activation of a cryptic gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 15998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingjuan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jihui; Liu, Hao; Hong, Bin; Tan, Huarong; Niu, Guoqing

    2015-09-15

    Antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to tackle the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. An important source of new antimicrobials is the large repertoire of cryptic gene clusters embedded in microbial genomes. Genome mining revealed a napsamycin/mureidomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in the chromosome of Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 15998. The cryptic gene cluster was activated by constitutive expression of a foreign activator gene ssaA from sansanmycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. strain SS. Expression of the gene cluster was verified by RT-PCR analysis of key biosynthetic genes. The activated metabolites demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against the highly refractory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and characterization of the metabolites led to the discovery of eight acetylated mureidomycin analogues. To our surprise, constitutive expression of the native activator gene SSGG_02995, a ssaA homologue in S. roseosporus NRRL 15998, has no beneficial effect on mureidomycin stimulation. This study provides a new way to activate cryptic gene cluster for the acquisition of novel antibiotics and will accelerate the exploitation of prodigious natural products in Streptomyces.

  20. In vitro antileukemic activity of novel adenosine derivatives bearing boron cluster modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk, Jolanta D; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Mieczkowski, Adam; Błoński, Jerzy Z; Kiliańska, Zofia M; Robak, Tadeusz; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2016-11-01

    A series of adenosine derivatives bearing a boron cluster were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against primary peripheral mononuclear cells from the blood of 17 patients with leukemias (16 CLL and 1 very rare PLL), as well as from 5 healthy donors used as a control. Among the tested agents, two, i.e., compounds 1 and 2, displayed high in vitro cytotoxicity and proapoptotic potential on leukemic cells, with only scarce activity being seen against control cells. Biological tests related to apoptosis revealed the activation of the main execution apoptotic enzyme, procaspase-3, in CLL and PLL cells exposed to compounds 1 and 2. Moreover, the above compounds indicated high activity in the proteolysis of the apoptotic markers PARP-1 and lamin B1, fragmentation of DNA, and the induction of some changes in the expression of the Mcl-1, protein apoptosis regulator in comparison with control cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D Polarized Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections: Chirality of a CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; de Koning, C. A.; Elliott, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a direct polarimetric determination of the chirality of a coronal mass ejection (CME), using the physics of Thomson scattering applied to synoptic polarized images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories/COR2 coronagraph. We confirmed the determination using in situ magnetic field measurements of the same CME with the ACE spacecraft. CME chirality is related to the helicity ejected from the solar corona along with the mass and field entrained in the CME. It is also important to prediction of the space-weather-relevant Z component of the CME magnetic field. Hence, remote measurement of CME chirality is an important step toward both understanding CME physics and predicting geoeffectiveness of individual CMEs. The polarimetric properties of Thomson scattering are well known and can, in principle, be used to measure the 3D structure of imaged objects in the solar corona and inner heliosphere. However, reduction of that principle to practice has been limited by the twin difficulties of background subtraction and the signal-to-noise ratio in coronagraph data. Useful measurements of the 3D structure require relative photometry at a few percent precision level in each linear polarization component of the K corona. This corresponds to a relative photometric precision of order 10-4 in direct images of the sky before subtraction of the F corona and related signal. Our measurement was enabled by recent developments in signal processing, which enable a better separation of the photometric signal from noise in the synoptic COR2 data. We discuss the relevance of this demonstration measurement to future instrument requirements, and to the future measurements of 3D structures in CMEs and other solar wind features.

  2. Hand motor activity, cognition, mood, and the rest-activity rhythm in dementia A clustered RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Knol, Dirk L.; Hol, Elly M.; Swaab, Dick F.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical activity such as walking may exert a positive impact on cognition and behaviour in older persons with dementia, but due to the frailty of the population it may be worthwhile to consider other motor activities as well. Objective: Examining the effects of]land motor activity on

  3. Activity Begins in Childhood (ABC) - inspiring healthy active behaviour in preschoolers: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Barrowman, Nick; Naylor, Patti Jean; Yaya, Sanni; Harvey, Alysha; Grattan, Kimberly P; Goldfield, Gary S

    2014-07-29

    Today's children are more overweight than previous generations and physical inactivity is a contributing factor. Modelling and promoting positive behaviour in the early years is imperative for the development of lifelong health habits. The social and physical environments where children spend their time have a powerful influence on behaviour. Since the majority of preschool children spend time in care outside of the home, this provides an ideal setting to examine the ability of an intervention to enhance movement skills and modify physical activity behaviour. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the Activity Begins in Childhood (ABC) intervention delivered in licensed daycare settings alone or in combination with a parent-driven home physical activity-promotion component to increase preschoolers' overall physical activity levels and, specifically, the time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. This study is a single site, three-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial design with a daycare centre as the unit of measurement (clusters). All daycare centres in the National Capital region that serve children between the ages of 3 and 5, expressing an interest in receiving the ABC intervention will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: i) ABC program delivered at a daycare centre only, ii) ABC program delivered at daycare with a home/parental education component, or iii) regular daycare curriculum. This study will recruit 18 daycare centres, 6 in each of the three groups. The intervention will last approximately 6 months, with baseline assessment prior to ABC implementation and follow-up assessments at 3 and 6 months. Physical activity is an acknowledged component of a healthy lifestyle and childhood experiences as it has an important impact on lifelong behaviour and health. Opportunities for physical activity and motor development in early childhood may, over the lifespan, influence the

  4. Reanalysis of climate influences on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Mathieu; Caron, Louis-Philippe; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2017-04-01

    We analyze, using Poisson regressions, the main climate influences on North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. The analysis is performed using not only various time series of basin-wide storm counts but also various series of regional clusters, taking into account shortcomings of the hurricane database through estimates of missing storms. The analysis confirms that tropical cyclones forming in different regions of the Atlantic are susceptible to different climate influences. We also investigate the presence of trends in these various time series, both at the basin-wide and cluster levels, and show that, even after accounting for possible missing storms, there remains an upward trend in the eastern part of the basin and a downward trend in the western part. Using model selection algorithms, we show that the best model of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the recent past is constructed using Atlantic sea surface temperature and upper tropospheric temperature, while for the 1878-2015 period, the chosen covariates are Atlantic sea surface temperature and El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We also note that the presence of these artificial trends can impact the selection of the best covariates. If the underlying series shows an upward trend, then the mean Atlantic sea surface temperature captures both interannual variability and the upward trend, artificial or not. The relative sea surface temperature is chosen instead for stationary counts. Finally, we show that the predictive capability of the statistical models investigated is low for U.S. landfalling hurricanes but can be considerably improved when forecasting combinations of clusters whose hurricanes are most likely to make landfall.

  5. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eNetzker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs, which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies ‘talk’ between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  6. Clustered Mutation Signatures Reveal that Error-Prone DNA Repair Targets Mutations to Active Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supek, Fran; Lehner, Ben

    2017-07-27

    Many processes can cause the same nucleotide change in a genome, making the identification of the mechanisms causing mutations a difficult challenge. Here, we show that clustered mutations provide a more precise fingerprint of mutagenic processes. Of nine clustered mutation signatures identified from >1,000 tumor genomes, three relate to variable APOBEC activity and three are associated with tobacco smoking. An additional signature matches the spectrum of translesion DNA polymerase eta (POLH). In lymphoid cells, these mutations target promoters, consistent with AID-initiated somatic hypermutation. In solid tumors, however, they are associated with UV exposure and alcohol consumption and target the H3K36me3 chromatin of active genes in a mismatch repair (MMR)-dependent manner. These regions normally have a low mutation rate because error-free MMR also targets H3K36me3 chromatin. Carcinogens and error-prone repair therefore redistribute mutations to the more important regions of the genome, contributing a substantial mutation load in many tumors, including driver mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Formation and Early Evolution of a CME and the Associated Shock on 2014 January 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Shi, Tong; Su, Wei; Ding, Mingde

    2017-08-01

    We study the formation and early evolution of a limb coronal mass ejection (CME) and its associated shock wave that occurred on 2014 January 8. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images provided by AIA on board \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory} disclose that the CME first appears as a bubble-like structure. Subsequently, its expansion forms the CME and causes a quasi-circular EUV wave. Both the CME and the wave front are clearly visible at all of the AIA EUV passbands. Through a detailed kinematical analysis, it is found that the expansion of the CME undergoes two phases: a first phase with a strong but transient lateral over-expansion followed by a second phase with a self-similar expansion. The temporal evolution of the expansion velocity coincides very well with the variation of the 25--50 keV hard X-ray (HXR) flux of the associated flare, which indicates that magnetic reconnection most likely plays an important role in driving the expansion. Moreover, we find that, when the velocity of the CME reaches $\\sim$600 km s$^{-1}$, the EUV wave starts to evolve into a shock wave, which is evidenced by the appearance of a type II radio burst. Interestingly, we also notice an unusual solar radio signal at $\\sim$4 GHz that is similar to the pattern of a type II radio burst but drifts to higher frequencies at a rate of $\\sim$0.3 MHz per second during about 7 minutes. Its derived density is $\\sim$5$\\times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ and increases slowly with time. Joint imaging observations of HXR and EUV help to locate the loop-top region and calculate its thermal proprieties, including slowly increasing densities ($\\sim$5$\\times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$) and temperatures ($\\sim$14 MK). The similar results obtained from two different ways above imply the possibility of this scenario: plasma blobs that are ejected along the current sheet via magnetic reconnection collide with underlying flare loops that are undergoing chromospheric evaporation. Finally, we also study the thermal

  8. Detailed Radio Imaging of a CME with the Murchison Widefield Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen; Oberoi, Divya; Morgan, John; Crowley, Meagan; Benkevitch, Leonid; Lonsdale, Colin; McCauley, Patrick; Winter, Henry; Cairns, Iver

    2017-04-01

    Solar radio observations allow us to constrain the dynamics of high energy electron beams accelerated in both flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). In particular, the synchrotron emission from erupting flux ropes should give important information about the distributions of energetic electrons trapped in the cores of CMEs. The Murchison Widefield Array is one of several new radio interferometric instruments, and is particularly well-suited to imaging the Sun and solar transients at multiple frequency channels between 80 and 300 MHz. This instrument holds great promise for improving the status of direct CME imaging in the radio. Here we present imaging observations with high frequency and time resolution of a CME, which occurred on November 4, 2015. The observations allow us to obtain detailed frequency spectra of the plasma and synchrotron emission. In addition, such observations may provide independent information about the thermal electron density, as well as the magnetic field strength in the CME flux rope. Finally, these observations provide information about the detailed evolution and kinematics of the CME and its flux rope in its early stages. The new observations demonstrate the capability of the MWA to contribute to the monitoring and detailed analysis of solar eruptions through its high sensitivity, high dynamic range radio imaging.

  9. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East-California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Mendel, J. Trevor [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Patton, David R., E-mail: ekhabibo@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  10. Promoting Physical Activity With the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Kenney, Erica L; deBlois, Madeleine E; Thayer, Julie C; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    Millions of children attend after-school programs in the United States. Increasing physical activity levels of program participants could have a broad effect on children's health. To test the effectiveness of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative in increasing children's physical activity levels in existing after-school programs. Cluster-randomized controlled trial with matched program pairs. Baseline data were collected September 27 through November 12, 2010, with follow-up data collected April 25 through May 27, 2011. The dates of our analysis were March 11, 2014, through August 18, 2015. The setting was 20 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts. All children 5 to 12 years old in participating programs were eligible for study inclusion. Ten programs participated in a series of three 3-hour learning collaborative workshops, with additional optional opportunities for training and technical assistance. Change in number of minutes and bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and sedentary activity and change in total accelerometer counts between baseline and follow-up. Participants with complete data were 402 racially/ethnically diverse children, with a mean age of 7.7 years. Change in the duration of physical activity opportunities offered to children during program time did not differ between conditions (-1.2 minutes; 95% CI, -14.2 to 12.4 minutes; P = .87). Change in moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes accumulated by children during program time did not differ significantly by intervention status (-1.0; 95% CI, -3.3 to 1.3; P = .40). Total minutes per day of vigorous physical activity (3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.7; P physical activity minutes in bouts (4.1; 95% CI, 2.7-5.6; P physical activity, they successfully made existing time more vigorously active for children receiving the intervention. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01396473.

  11. Longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescence: Migrations towards different weight cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Devís-Devís

    Full Text Available This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescents, specifically their migrations towards a different weight cluster. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year study. A clustering Self-Organized Maps Analysis was performed to visualize changes in subjects' characteristics between the first and second assessment, and how adolescents were grouped. Also a classification tree was used to identify the behavioral characteristics of the groups that changed their weight cluster. Results indicated that boys were more active and less sedentary than girls. Boys were especially keen to technological-based activities while girls preferred social-based activities. A moderate competing effect between sedentary behaviors and physical activities was observed, especially in girls. Overweight and obesity were negatively associated with physical activity, although a small group of overweight/obese adolescents showed a positive relationship with vigorous physical activity. Cluster migrations indicated that 22.66% of adolescents changed their weight cluster to a lower category and none of them moved in the opposite direction. The behavioral characteristics of these adolescents did not support the hypothesis that the change to a lower weight cluster was a consequence of an increase in time devoted to physical activity or a decrease in time spent on sedentary behavior. Physical activity and sedentary behavior does not exert a substantial effect on overweight and obesity. Therefore, there are other ways of changing to a lower-weight status in adolescents apart from those in which physical activity and sedentary behavior are involved.

  12. Hand motor activity, cognition, mood, and the rest-activity rhythm in dementia: a clustered RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Knol, Dirk L; Hol, Elly M; Swaab, Dick F; Scherder, Erik J A

    2009-01-23

    Physical activity such as walking may exert a positive impact on cognition and behaviour in older persons with dementia, but due to the frailty of the population it may be worthwhile to consider other motor activities as well. Examining the effects of hand motor activity on cognition, mood and the rest-activity rhythm in older persons with dementia. Sixty-one older nursing home residents with dementia (mean age 84.6 years) were randomly assigned to either a hand movement program (experimental) or read aloud program (control) for 30min, 5 days a week, during 6 weeks. Neuropsychological tests, mood questionnaires, and actigraphy data were assessed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and again after 6 weeks. Apolipoprotein epsilon (ApoE) genotype was determined. Scores on neuropsychological tests were combined and formed specific Cognitive domains. Symptoms of depression and anxiety formed the Mood domain. Actigraphy variables composed the Rest-activity domain. In mixed model analyses no significant group x time interactions were found on either the Cognitive, Mood or Rest-activity domains in the intention-to-treat analysis. In the per protocol analysis, that included people who attended at least 80% of the sessions, mood improved only in the experimental group. No significant time x group x ApoE interaction effects were found in either analysis. In older nursing home residents with dementia, increased attendance to the hand movement program appeared to have a positive effect on mood. Hand motor activity is a type of activity that can be applied at a large scale.

  13. Application of space-time scan statistics to describe geographic and temporal clustering of visible drug activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Jennings, Jacky M; Latkin, Carl A; Gomez, Marisela B; Mehta, Shruti H

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge of the geographic and temporal clustering of drug activity can inform where health and social services are needed and can provide insight on the potential impact of local policies on drug activity. This ecologic study assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of drug activity in Baltimore, Maryland, prior to and following the implementation of a large urban redevelopment project in East Baltimore, which began in 2003. Drug activity was measured by narcotic calls for service at the neighborhood level. A space-time scan statistic approach was used to identify statistically significant clusters of narcotic calls for service across space and time, using a discrete Poisson model. After adjusting for economic deprivation and housing vacancy, clusters of narcotic calls for service were identified among neighborhoods located in Southeast, Northeast, Northwest, and West Baltimore from 2001 to 2010. Clusters of narcotic calls for service were identified among neighborhoods located in East Baltimore from 2001 to 2003, indicating a decrease in narcotic calls thereafter. A large proportion of clusters occurred among neighborhoods located in North and Northeast Baltimore after 2003, which indicated a potential spike during this time frame. These findings suggest potential displacement of drug activity coinciding with the initiation of urban redevelopment in East Baltimore. Space-time scan statistics should be used in future research to describe the potential implications of local policies on drug activity.

  14. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Meads, David M; West, Robert M

    2011-04-11

    Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B=-1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B=-2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B=.18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. © 2011 McEachan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Cath

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396

  16. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-28

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed.

  17. Role of the Support Effects on the Catalytic Activity of Gold Clusters: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Taketsugu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the support effects play a crucial role in the gold nanocatalysis. Two types of support are considered—the “inert” support of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN with the N and B vacancy defects and the “active” support of rutile TiO2(110. It is demonstrated that Au and Au2 can be trapped effectively by the vacancy defects in h-BN. In that case, the strong adsorption on the surface defects is accompanied by the charge transfer to/from the adsorbate. The excess of the positive or negative charge on the supported gold clusters can considerably promote their catalytic activity. Therefore gold clusters supported on the defected h-BN surface can not be considered as pseudo-free clusters. We also demonstrate that the rutile TiO2(110 support energetically promotes H2 dissociation on gold clusters. We show that the formation of the OH group near the supported gold cluster is an important condition for H2 dissociation. We demonstrate that the active sites towards H2 dissociation on the supported Aun are located at corners and edges of the gold cluster in the vicinity of the low coordinated oxygen atoms on TiO2(110. Thus catalytic activity of a gold nanoparticle supported on the rutile TiO2(110 surface is proportional to the length of the perimeter interface between the nanoparticle and the support.

  18. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni CmeC outer membrane channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chih-Chia; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Long, Feng; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W

    2014-07-01

    As one of the world's most prevalent enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni is a major causative agent of human enterocolitis and is responsible for more than 400 million cases of diarrhea each year. The impact of this pathogen on children is of particular significance. Campylobacter has developed resistance to many antimicrobial agents via multidrug efflux machinery. The CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily, plays a major role in drug resistant phenotypes of C. jejuni. This efflux complex spans the entire cell envelop of C. jejuni and mediates resistance to various antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of C. jejuni CmeC, the outer membrane component of the CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux system. The structure reveals a possible mechanism for substrate export. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  20. The angular clustering of WISE-selected active galactic nuclei: Different halos for obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Astronómicas, de la Tierra, y del Espacio (ICATE), 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of ∼170,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 – W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 μm flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGNs and to have a mean redshift of (z) = 1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE AGNs is roughly similar to that of optical AGNs. We cross-match these objects with the photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog and distinguish obscured sources with r – W2 > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGNs. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGNs are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find that obscured sources at (z) ∼ 0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 ± 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGNs at (z) ∼ 1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 ± 0.6 and inhabit halos of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGNs inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGNs, and they are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  1. Validation of the CME Geomagnetic Forecast Alerts Under the COMESEP Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbović, Mateja; Srivastava, Nandita; Rao, Yamini K.; Vršnak, Bojan; Devos, Andy; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-08-01

    Under the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU FP7) project Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP, http://comesep.aeronomy.be), an automated space weather alert system has been developed to forecast solar energetic particles (SEP) and coronal mass ejection (CME) risk levels at Earth. The COMESEP alert system uses the automated detection tool called Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) to detect potentially threatening CMEs, a drag-based model (DBM) to predict their arrival, and a CME geoeffectiveness tool (CGFT) to predict their geomagnetic impact. Whenever CACTus detects a halo or partial halo CME and issues an alert, the DBM calculates its arrival time at Earth and the CGFT calculates its geomagnetic risk level. The geomagnetic risk level is calculated based on an estimation of the CME arrival probability and its likely geoeffectiveness, as well as an estimate of the geomagnetic storm duration. We present the evaluation of the CME risk level forecast with the COMESEP alert system based on a study of geoeffective CMEs observed during 2014. The validation of the forecast tool is made by comparing the forecasts with observations. In addition, we test the success rate of the automatic forecasts (without human intervention) against the forecasts with human intervention using advanced versions of the DBM and CGFT (independent tools available at the Hvar Observatory website, http://oh.geof.unizg.hr). The results indicate that the success rate of the forecast in its current form is unacceptably low for a realistic operation system. Human intervention improves the forecast, but the false-alarm rate remains unacceptably high. We discuss these results and their implications for possible improvement of the COMESEP alert system.

  2. A Facile Synthesis of Graphene-WO3 Nanowire Clusters with High Photocatalytic Activity for O2 Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS techniques. The photocatalytic oxygen (O2 evolution properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by measuring the amount of evolved O2 from water splitting. The graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters exhibited enhanced performance compared to pure WO3 nanowire clusters for O2 evolution. The amount of evolved O2 from water splitting after 8 h for the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters is ca. 0.345 mmol/L, which is more than 1.9 times as much as that of the pure WO3 nanowire clusters (ca. 0.175 mmol/L. The high photocatalytic activity of the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters was attributed to a high charge transfer rate in the presence of graphene.

  3. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of the CME

    OpenAIRE

    Toneev, V. D.; Voronyuk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the local ${\\cal P}$ and ${\\cal CP}$ violation in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions in a large energy range is estimated within a simple phenomenological model. It is expected that at LHC the Chiral Magnetic effect (CME) will be about 20 times weaker than at RHIC. In the lower energy range this effect should vanish sharply at energy somewhere above the top SPS one. To elucidate CME background effects a transport model including magnetic field evolution is put forward.

  4. Flare-CME characteristics from Sun to Earth combining observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Thalmann, Julia K.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Tschernitz, Johannes; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the well observed flare-CME event from October 1, 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of action - from Sun to Earth - for a better understanding of the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere from SDO and ground-based instruments associated to the flare-CME and also track the CME signature offlimb from combined EUV and white-light data with STEREO. By applying 3D reconstruction techniques (GCS, total mass) to stereoscopic STEREO-SoHO coronagraph data, we track the temporal and spatial evolution of the CME in interplanetary space and derive its geometry and 3D-mass. We combine the GCS and Lundquist model results to derive the axial flux and helicity of the MC from in situ measurements (Wind). This is compared to nonlinear force-free (NLFF) model results as well as to the reconnected magnetic flux derived from the flare ribbons (flare reconnection flux) and the magnetic flux encompassed by the associated dimming (dimming flux). We find that magnetic reconnection processes were already ongoing before the start of the impulsive flare phase, adding magnetic flux to the flux rope before its final eruption. The dimming flux increases by more than 25% after the end of the flare, indicating that magnetic flux is still added to the flux rope after eruption. Hence, the derived flare reconnection flux is most probably a lower limit for estimating the magnetic flux within the flux rope. We obtain that the magnetic helicity and axial magnetic flux are reduced in interplanetary space by ˜50% and 75%, respectively, possibly indicating to an erosion process. A mass increase of 10% for the CME is observed over the distance range from about 4-20 Rs. The temporal evolution of the CME associated core dimming regions supports the scenario that fast outflows might supply additional mass to the rear part of the CME.

  5. The Sound of Silence: Activating Silent Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Marine Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jerry Reen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the rich harvest of marine microbial ecosystems has the potential to both safeguard the existence of our species for the future, while also presenting significant lifestyle benefits for commercial gain. However, while significant advances have been made in the field of marine biodiscovery, leading to the introduction of new classes of therapeutics for clinical medicine, cosmetics and industrial products, much of what this natural ecosystem has to offer is locked in, and essentially hidden from our screening methods. Releasing this silent potential represents a significant technological challenge, the key to which is a comprehensive understanding of what controls these systems. Heterologous expression systems have been successful in awakening a number of these cryptic marine biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs. However, this approach is limited by the typically large size of the encoding sequences. More recently, focus has shifted to the regulatory proteins associated with each BGC, many of which are signal responsive raising the possibility of exogenous activation. Abundant among these are the LysR-type family of transcriptional regulators, which are known to control production of microbial aromatic systems. Although the environmental signals that activate these regulatory systems remain unknown, it offers the exciting possibility of evoking mimic molecules and synthetic expression systems to drive production of potentially novel natural products in microorganisms. Success in this field has the potential to provide a quantum leap forward in medical and industrial bio-product development. To achieve these new endpoints, it is clear that the integrated efforts of bioinformaticians and natural product chemists will be required as we strive to uncover new and potentially unique structures from silent or cryptic marine gene clusters.

  6. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J; Visscher, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. Using physical activity to teach math and spelling lessons was studied in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Participants were 499 children (mean age 8.1 years) from second- and third-grade classes of 12 elementary schools. At each school, a second- and third-grade class were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group participated in F&V lessons for 2 years, 22 weeks per year, 3 times a week. The control group participated in regular classroom lessons. Children's academic achievement was measured before the intervention started and after the first and second intervention years. Academic achievement was measured by 2 mathematics tests (speed and general math skills) and 2 language tests (reading and spelling). After 2 years, multilevel analysis showed that children in the intervention group had significantly greater gains in mathematics speed test (P elementary school children and are therefore a promising new way of teaching. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Conformation and catalytic activity of nickel-carbon cluster for ethanol dissociation in carbon nanotube synthesis: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Satoru; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2017-07-01

    Conformation and catalytic activity of nickel-carbon binary clusters are investigated to shed light on important questions on the carbon nanotube growth. Carbon atoms tend to stay at the surface of the binary cluster and form carbon chains with increasing carbon concentration. The binary clusters have lower catalytic activity for ethanol dehydrogenation compared to pure nickel clusters due to the strong electron negativity of carbon atoms. Moreover, the Csbnd C bond dissociation in typical fragment molecules, which is a key reaction of carbon nanotube growth via alcohol CVD, is inhibited on the binary cluster due to the increase of the backward reaction.

  8. Organizational Change in Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluation of a CME Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L.; Durfee, Janet M.; Ho, Samuel B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment…

  9. The Integrated Joslin Performance Improvement/CME Program: A New Paradigm for Better Diabetes Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie A.; Beaser, Richard S.; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of…

  10. Medical Education and Communication Companies Involved in CME: An Updated Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric D.; Overstreet, Karen M.; Parochka, Jacqueline N.; Lemon, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical Education and Communication Companies (MECCs) represent approximately 21% of the providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), yet relatively little is known about these organizations in the greater continuing medical education (CME) community. Two prior studies described them,…

  11. [Conflict of interest in continuing medical education - Studies on certified CME courses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Laura Marianne; Weidringer, Johann Wilhelm; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Although the problem of conflict of interest in medical education is discussed intensively, few valid data have been published on how to deal with the form, content, funding, sponsorship, and the influence of economic interests in continuing medical education (CME). Against this background, we carried out an analysis of data which had been documented for the purpose of certification by a German Medical Association. A central aim of the study was to obtain evidence of possible influences of economic interests on continuing medical education. Furthermore, strategies for quality assurance of CME contents and their implementation were to be examined. We analyzed all registration data for courses certified in the category D ("structured interactive CME via print media, online media and audiovisual media") by the Bavarian Chamber of Physicians in 2012. To measure the effects of conflict of interest, relationships between topics of training and variables relating to the alleged self-interest of the organizer/sponsor (for example, drug sales in a group of physicians) were statistically verified. These data were taken from the Bavarian Medical Statistics 2012 and the GKV-Arzneimittelschnellinformation. In 2012, a total of 734 CME course offerings have been submitted for 51 medical specialties by 30 course suppliers in the Bavarian Medical Association. To ensure the neutrality of interests of the CME courses the course suppliers signed a cooperation treaty ensuring their compliance with defined behavior towards the Bavarian Medical Association concerning sponsorship. The correlation between course topics and drug data suggests that course suppliers tend to submit topics that are economically attractive to them. There was a significant correlation between the number of CME courses in a specific field and the sales from drug prescriptions issued by physicians in the respective field. The results show that neutrality of interests regarding continuing medical education is

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of griseofulvin analogues as inhibitors of centrosomal clustering in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnest, Mads H; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene; Terp, Anette H; Larsen, Thomas O; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads H

    2009-05-28

    Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34 griseofulvin analogues as inhibitors of centrosomal clustering. The variations in the griseofulvin structure cover five positions, namely the 4, 5, 2', 3', and 4' positions. Modification of the 4 and 5 positions affords inactive molecules. The enol ether must be at the 2' position, and the 4' position needs to be sp(2) hybridized. The most active analogues were the 2'-benzyloxy and 2'-(4-methylbenzyloxy) analogues as well as the oxime of the former with a 25-fold increase of activity compared to griseofulvin. Comparison of the results obtained in this work with prior reported growth inhibition data for dermatophytic fungi showed both similarities and differences.

  13. The MOF-driven synthesis of supported palladium clusters with catalytic activity for carbene-mediated chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R.; Mon, Marta; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Boronat, Mercedes; Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; Corma, Avelino; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Gascon, Jorge; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2017-07-01

    The development of catalysts able to assist industrially important chemical processes is a topic of high importance. In view of the catalytic capabilities of small metal clusters, research efforts are being focused on the synthesis of novel catalysts bearing such active sites. Here we report a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd4 clusters with mixed-valence 0/+1 oxidation states, stabilized and homogeneously organized within the walls of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The resulting solid catalyst outperforms state-of-the-art metal catalysts in carbene-mediated reactions of diazoacetates, with high yields (>90%) and turnover numbers (up to 100,000). In addition, the MOF-supported Pd4 clusters retain their catalytic activity in repeated batch and flow reactions (>20 cycles). Our findings demonstrate how this synthetic approach may now instruct the future design of heterogeneous catalysts with advantageous reaction capabilities for other important processes.

  14. {Ta12}/{Ta16} cluster-containing polytantalotungstates with remarkable photocatalytic H2 evolution activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujun; Liu, Shumei; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Yiwei; Tang, Qun; Shi, Zhan; Ouyang, Shuxin; Ye, Jinhua

    2012-12-05

    Four novel polytantalotungstates K(5)Na(4)[P(2)W(15)O(59)(TaO(2))(3)]·17H(2)O (1), K(8)Na(8)H(4)[P(8)W(60)Ta(12)(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(8)O(236)]·42H(2)O (2), Cs(3)K(3.5)H(0.5)[SiW(9)(TaO(2))(3)O(37)]·9H(2)O (3), and Cs(10.5)K(4)H(5.5)[Ta(4)O(6)(SiW(9)Ta(3)O(40))(4)]·30H(2)O (4) were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 3 are tris-(peroxotantalum)-substituted Dawson- and Keggin-type derivatives, whereas 2 and 4 are tetrameric oligomers containing respectively an unprecedented {Ta(12)} and {Ta(16)} cluster core. The photocatalytic activities of 2 and 4 for H(2) evolution from water were evaluated. The significantly enhanced performance against the control K(6)[P(2)W(18)O(62)] can be attributed to the modulation of the electronic structures of these novel POMs by Ta incorporation. The highest activity observed so far with the use of 2 can be further rationalized by the presence of distorted heptacoordinate Ta atoms in the form of TaO(7) pentagonal bipyramid.

  15. Pair and Cluster Formation in Hybrid Active-Passive Matter Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Ryan; Garcia, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Systems composed of self-propelling entities, dubbed active matter, are ubiquitous in nature, from flocks of birds and schools of fish to swarms of bacteria and catalytic nanomotors. These systems (both biological and industrial) have applications ranging from micron-scale cargo manipulation and directed transport to water remediation and material processing. When added to a solution with passive (non-self-propelling) particles, active matter leads to new and altered system properties. For example, the diffusion of passive particles increases by orders of magnitude in typical systems, leading to a raised effective temperature. Additionally, particles that normally repel each other exhibit effective attractions which can lead to pair formation and clustering. The nature of these effects depends on both the mechanical collisions of swimmers and the hydrodynamic flow fields they propagate. We computationally examine the effect and dependence of various system parameters, such as particle shape and density, on these properties. This work was funded by NIH grant GM086801 and NSF grant MCB-1050966.

  16. SETTING OF TASK OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF A MACHINE-BUILDING CLUSTER COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Romanenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the development of methodological approaches to the management of machine-building enterprise on the basis of cost reduction, optimization of the portfolio of orders and capacity utilization in the process of operational management. Evaluation of economic efficiency of such economic entities of the real sector of the economy is determined, including the timing of orders, which depend on the issues of building a production facility, maintenance of fixed assets and maintain them at a given level. Formulated key components of economic-mathematical model of industrial activity and is defined as the optimization criterion. As proposed formula accumulating profits due to production capacity and technology to produce products current direct variable costs, the amount of property tax and expenses appearing as a result of manifestations of variance when performing replacement of production tasks for a single period of time. The main component of the optimization of the production activity of the enterprise on the basis of this criterion is the vector of direct variable costs. It depends on the number of types of products in the current portfolio of orders, production schedules production, the normative time for the release of a particular product available Fund time efficient production positions, the current valuation for certain groups of technological operations and the current priority of operations for the degree of readiness performed internal orders. Modeling of industrial activity based on the proposed provisions would allow the enterprises of machine-building cluster, active innovation, improve the efficient use of available production resources by optimizing current operations at the high uncertainty of the magnitude of the demand planning and carrying out maintenance and routine repairs.

  17. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-01

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed.Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter

  18. Metabolic risk profiles created using cluster analysis are differentially associated with physical activity: The ARIC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity tend to cluster together and predict cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and premature mortality. This clustering has led to multiple definitions of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). While the definitions agree on the ...

  19. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that

  20. The 987P gene cluster in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contains an STpa transposon that activates 987P expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, P; Woodward, M J; van Zijderveld, F G; de Graaf, F K

    1990-03-01

    The genetic determinant for the production of 987P fimbriae has been cloned into pBR322. Analysis of frequently occurring deletions in the resultant recombinant plasmid, pPK180, revealed that the 987P gene cluster contains a transposon that encodes the synthesis of heat-stable enterotoxin STpa and is flanked by inverted repeats of IS1. Hybridization experiments with STpa- and 987P-specific probes demonstrated that a variety of STpa+ 987P+ wild-type Escherichia coli strains contained contiguous STpa-987P DNA, most likely on their chromosome. Transcription of the 987P gene cluster appeared to be activated by the adjacent IS1 element.

  1. Brightest cluster galaxies in cosmological simulations: achievements and limitations of active galactic nuclei feedback models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Borgani, Stefano; Cui, Weiguang

    2013-12-01

    We analyse the basic properties of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) produced by state of the art cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations. These simulations have been run with different subgrid physics included. Here we focus on the results obtained with and without the inclusion of the prescriptions for supermassive black hole growth and of the ensuing active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback. The latter process goes in the right direction of decreasing significantly the overall formation of stars. However, BCGs end up still containing too much stellar mass, a problem that increases with halo mass, and having an unsatisfactory structure. This is in the sense that their effective radii are too large, and that their density profiles feature a flattening on scales much larger than observed. We also find that our model of thermal AGN feedback has very little effect on the stellar velocity dispersions, which turn out to be very large. Taken together, these problems, which to some extent can be recognized also in other numerical studies typically dealing with smaller halo masses, indicate that on one hand present day subresolution models of AGN feedback are not effective enough in diminishing the global formation of stars in the most massive galaxies, but on the other hand they are relatively too effective in their centres. It is likely that a form of feedback generating large-scale gas outflows from BCGs precursors, and a more widespread effect over the galaxy volume, can alleviate these difficulties.

  2. The Use of Cluster Analysis for Non-Continuous Variables in the Assessment of Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activities in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewska Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity, along with proper nutrition, is a very important element in child development. Lack of everyday, regular physical activity among young people is a public health problem. The aim of the study was to use cluster analysis to assess the relationship between nutrition and physical activity levels of primary school children. The study included 682 students from randomly selected elementary schools and was performed using a proprietary questionnaire during the 2013/2014 school year. The questionnaire contained questions about eating habits and physical activity, as well as the socio-economic conditions of families. Clusters of students of similar dietary habits were identified using cluster analysis and subsequently compared in terms of physical activity level. We identified four clusters, characterized by relative internal homogeneity and at the same time variability between one another in terms of number of meals throughout the day and time of their consumption. The most important characteristic of Cluster 1 was eating four meals a day including breakfast, which is the most important meal of the day. The diets of children in Cluster 2 abounded with raw vegetables and fruits. Students in Cluster 3 were characterized by a regular and varied diet. The least appropriate behaviour in the field of nutrition was observed among students belonging to Cluster 4. Cluster analysis in the studied population allowed relationships between dietary habits and physical activity to be described. By using the UIAF indicator (Moderate to Intense Physical Activity, a statistically significant association between the eating habits of the children and their physical activity levels was observed. A sufficient level of physical activity was observed in most students belonging to Cluster 3, and high levels of physical activity were observed in a small percentage of children belonging Cluster 4. An average level of physical activity was observed in a high

  3. Deriving the radial distances of wide coronal mass ejections from elongation measurements in the heliosphere – application to CME-CME interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Roussev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present general considerations regarding the derivation of the radial distances of coronal mass ejections (CMEs from elongation angle measurements such as those provided by SECCHI and SMEI, focusing on measurements in the Heliospheric Imager 2 (HI-2 field of view (i.e. past 0.3 AU. This study is based on a three-dimensional (3-D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD simulation of two CMEs observed by SECCHI on 24–27 January 2007. Having a 3-D simulation with synthetic HI images, we are able to compare the two basic methods used to derive CME positions from elongation angles, the so-called "Point-P" and "Fixed-φ" approximations. We confirm, following similar works, that both methods, while valid in the most inner heliosphere, yield increasingly large errors in HI-2 field of view for fast and wide CMEs. Using a simple model of a CME as an expanding self-similar sphere, we derive an analytical relationship between elongation angles and radial distances for wide CMEs. This relationship is simply the harmonic mean of the "Point-P" and "Fixed-φ" approximations and it is aimed at complementing 3-D fitting of CMEs by cone models or flux rope shapes. It proves better at getting the kinematics of the simulated CME right when we compare the results of our line-of-sights to the MHD simulation. Based on this approximation, we re-analyze the J-maps (time-elongation maps in 26–27 January 2007 and present the first observational evidence that the merging of CMEs is associated with a momentum exchange from the faster ejection to the slower one due to the propagation of the shock wave associated with the fast eruption through the slow eruption.

  4. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    regions of the clusters that is~3 times lower than the field value. This fraction increases with clustercentric distance before becoming consistent with the field at ~2.5r500. Our data exhibit similar radial trends to those observed for star formation and optically selected AGN in cluster member galaxies...

  5. CME Flux Rope and Shock Identifications and Locations: Comparison of White Light Data, Graduated Cylindrical Shell Model, and MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Xie, Hong; St. Cyr, O. C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are major transient phenomena in the solar corona that are observed with ground-based and spacecraft-based coronagraphs in white light or with in situ measurements by spacecraft. CMEs transport mass and momentum and often drive shocks. In order to derive the CME and shock trajectories with high precision, we apply the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to fit a flux rope to the CME directed toward STEREO A after about 19:00 UT on 29 November 2013 and check the quality of the heliocentric distance-time evaluations by carrying out a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the same CME with the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. Heliocentric distances of the CME and shock leading edges are determined from the simulated white light images and magnetic field strength data. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed heliocentric distances, showing that the GCS model and the BATS-R-US simulation approach work very well and are consistent. In order to assess the validity of CME and shock identification criteria in coronagraph images, we also compute synthetic white light images of the CME and shock. We find that the outer edge of a cloud-like illuminated area in the observed and predicted images in fact coincides with the leading edge of the CME flux rope and that the outer edge of a faint illuminated band in front of the CME leading edge coincides with the CME-driven shock front.

  6. Mitochondrial Iron-Sulfur Cluster Activity and Cytosolic Iron Regulate Iron Traffic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Joshua D; Lindahl, Paul A

    2015-11-06

    An ordinary differential equation-based mathematical model was developed to describe trafficking and regulation of iron in growing fermenting budding yeast. Accordingly, environmental iron enters the cytosol and moves into mitochondria and vacuoles. Dilution caused by increasing cell volume is included. Four sites are regulated, including those in which iron is imported into the cytosol, mitochondria, and vacuoles, and the site at which vacuolar Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III). The objective of this study was to determine whether cytosolic iron (Fecyt) and/or a putative sulfur-based product of iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) activity was/were being sensed in regulation. The model assumes that the matrix of healthy mitochondria is anaerobic, and that in ISC mutants, O2 diffuses into the matrix where it reacts with nonheme high spin Fe(II) ions, oxidizing them to nanoparticles and generating reactive oxygen species. This reactivity causes a further decline in ISC/heme biosynthesis, which ultimately gives rise to the diseased state. The ordinary differential equations that define this model were numerically integrated, and concentrations of each component were plotted versus the concentration of iron in the growth medium and versus the rate of ISC/heme biosynthesis. Model parameters were optimized by fitting simulations to literature data. The model variant that assumed that both Fecyt and ISC biosynthesis activity were sensed in regulation mimicked observed behavior best. Such "dual sensing" probably arises in real cells because regulation involves assembly of an ISC on a cytosolic protein using Fecyt and a sulfur species generated in mitochondria during ISC biosynthesis and exported into the cytosol. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Active spacecraft potential control for Cluster – implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging of a spacecraft modifies the distribution of electrons and ions before the particles enter the sensors mounted on the spacecraft body. The floating potential of magnetospheric satellites in sunlight very often reaches several tens of volts, making measurements of the cold (several eV component of the ambient ions impossible. The plasma electron data become contaminated by large fluxes of photoelectrons attracted back into the sensors. The Cluster spacecraft are equipped with emitters of the liquid metal ion source type, producing indium ions at 5 to 9 keV energy at currents of some tens of microampere. This current shifts the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft to moderately positive values. The design and principles of the operation of the instrument for active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC are presented in detail. Experience with spacecraft potential control from the commissioning phase and the first two months of the operational phase are now available. The instrument is operated with constant ion current for most of the time, but tests have been carried out with varying currents and a "feedback" mode with the instrument EFW, which measures the spacecraft potential . That has been reduced to values according to expectations. In addition, the low energy electron measurements show substantially reduced fluxes of photoelectrons as expected. The flux decrease in photoelectrons returning to the spacecraft, however, occurs at the expense of an enlarged sheath around the spacecraft which causes problems for boom-mounted probes.Key words. Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; Instruments and techniques; Active perturbation experiments

  8. Active spacecraft potential control for Cluster – implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Torkar

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging of a spacecraft modifies the distribution of electrons and ions before the particles enter the sensors mounted on the spacecraft body. The floating potential of magnetospheric satellites in sunlight very often reaches several tens of volts, making measurements of the cold (several eV component of the ambient ions impossible. The plasma electron data become contaminated by large fluxes of photoelectrons attracted back into the sensors. The Cluster spacecraft are equipped with emitters of the liquid metal ion source type, producing indium ions at 5 to 9 keV energy at currents of some tens of microampere. This current shifts the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft to moderately positive values. The design and principles of the operation of the instrument for active spacecraft potential control (ASPOC are presented in detail. Experience with spacecraft potential control from the commissioning phase and the first two months of the operational phase are now available. The instrument is operated with constant ion current for most of the time, but tests have been carried out with varying currents and a "feedback" mode with the instrument EFW, which measures the spacecraft potential . That has been reduced to values according to expectations. In addition, the low energy electron measurements show substantially reduced fluxes of photoelectrons as expected. The flux decrease in photoelectrons returning to the spacecraft, however, occurs at the expense of an enlarged sheath around the spacecraft which causes problems for boom-mounted probes.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; Instruments and techniques; Active perturbation experiments

  9. Non-Linear Optically Active Metal Clusters in Nanoscaled Systems Including Self-Assembled Organic Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Jett, S. D.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2000-01-01

    are initially monitored in ultrahigh vacuum by comparison of calculated with measured polarization-dependent extinction spectra. We find that at low surface temperatures (150 K) the cluster growth is very similar to growth directly on insulating substrates. With increasing surface temperature the size...... distribution of the clusters changes. A quantitative evaluation of ambient-air measurements with scanning force microscopy (SFM) supports the conclusions from optical spectroscopy. Field-enhancement effects at the surface of the clusters facilitate the observation of second harmonic (SH) light. From angular...

  10. Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andalsvik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady interplanetary conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia for the purpose of monitoring magnetic deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0–4.5 mV m−1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP, Φ (Boyle = 115 kV during Earth passage of an interplanetary CME (ICME, choosing an 4-h interval where the magnetic field pointed continuously south-west (Bz < 0; By < 0. The combination of continuous monitoring of ground magnetic deflections and the F13 cross-track ion drift observations in the polar cap allows us to infer the temporal CPCP structure on time scales less than the ~10 min duration of F13 polar cap transits. We arrived at the following estimates of the dayside and nightside contributions to the CPCP (CPCP = CPCP/day + CPCP/night under two intervals of substorm activity: CPCP/day ~110 kV; CPCP/night ~50 kV (45% CPCP increase during substorms. The temporal CPCP structure during one of the

  11. Asp1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe binds a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster which inhibits inositol pyrophosphate 1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanchen; Nair, Vasudha S; Holland, Ashley A; Capolicchio, Samanta; Jessen, Henning J; Johnson, Michael K; Shears, Stephen B

    2015-10-27

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are widely distributed protein cofactors that are vital to cellular biochemistry and the maintenance of bioenergetic homeostasis, but to our knowledge, they have never been identified in any phosphatase. Here, we describe an iron-sulfur cluster in Asp1, a dual-function kinase/phosphatase that regulates cell morphogenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Full-length Asp1, and its phosphatase domain (Asp1(371-920)), were each heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The phosphatase activity is exquisitely specific: it hydrolyzes the 1-diphosphate from just two members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-InsP) signaling family, namely, 1-InsP7 and 1,5-InsP8. We demonstrate that Asp1 does not hydrolyze either InsP6, 2-InsP7, 3-InsP7, 4-InsP7, 5-InsP7, 6-InsP7, or 3,5-InsP8. We also recorded 1-phosphatase activity in a human homologue of Asp1, hPPIP5K1, which was heterologously expressed in Drosophila S3 cells with a biotinylated N-terminal tag, and then isolated from cell lysates with avidin beads. Purified, recombinant Asp1(371-920) contained iron and acid-labile sulfide, but the stoichiometry (0.8 atoms of each per protein molecule) indicates incomplete iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We reconstituted the Fe-S cluster in vitro under anaerobic conditions, which increased the stoichiometry to approximately 2 atoms of iron and acid-labile sulfide per Asp1 molecule. The presence of a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster in Asp1(371-920) was demonstrated by UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined that this [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster is unlikely to participate in redox chemistry, since it rapidly degraded upon reduction by dithionite. Biochemical and mutagenic studies demonstrated that the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster substantially inhibits the phosphatase activity of Asp1, thereby increasing its net kinase activity.

  12. Detailed Analysis of a GE Oeffective ICME Triggered by the March 15, 2013 CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşliu-Ionescu, Diana; Mariş Muntean, Georgeta; Lǎcǎtuş, Daniela A.; Paraschiv, Alin R.; Mierla, Marilena

    2014-03-01

    We present in this paper a detailed analysis of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that was registered on March 15, 2013 in LASCO-C2 images. It propagated into the interplanetary space towards the Earth and it was followed by a geomagnetic storm defined by a minimum Dst = -132 nT on March 17, 2013. We apply the forward model (Thernisien et al., 2006) to compute the real speed and direction of propagation. We apply a modified version of the regression model (Srivastava, 2005) to compute the probability that this CME will trigger a super-intense geomagnetic storm and we found a 100% probability to have an intense storm with a minimum Dst value between -150 nT and -200 nT. This probability is not in accordance with the observations and we believe that to be a direct consequence of the small data-base our model was trained on.

  13. Organizational change in management of hepatitis C: evaluation of a CME program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L; Durfee, Janet M; Ho, Samuel B

    2006-01-01

    Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment practices, multispecialty collaboration, and organizational change. Quantitative measures were used to assess changes in knowledge and treatment confidence, and site-specific organizational changes were qualitatively evaluated. The CME program included a preassessment of current HCV knowledge and care; a 2-day preceptorship; and follow-up with coaching calls at 1, 3, and 6 months. Program attendees included 54 medical and mental health providers from 28 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Knowledge following the CME program increased significantly. In 93% of the sites, there were organizational changes such as HCV support group-initiated group education, in-service training, improvement in patient notification or scheduling processes, hiring of new clinical staff, development of a business plans, and discussions about changes with administration. Of all sites, 15 (54%) changed existing antiviral treatment protocols, 18 (64%) established collaborative relationships, and almost half (13/28) established regular use of depression and alcohol use screening tools. Major barriers to change included lack of administrative support or resources (or both) and difficulty collaborating with mental health colleagues. This multifaceted CME program with follow-up coaching calls significantly increased individual knowledge and confidence scores and resulted in improved clinic processes and structures. Organizational change was facilitated by the development of an action plan. The major change agent was a nurse; the primary deterrent was an administrator.

  14. Active chromatin hub of the mouse alpha-globin locus forms in a transcription factory of clustered housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Ling; Xin, Li; Song, Wei; Di, Li-Jun; Liu, Guang; Wu, Xue-Song; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2006-07-01

    RNA polymerases can be shared by a particular group of genes in a transcription "factory" in nuclei, where transcription may be coordinated in concert with the distribution of coexpressed genes in higher-eukaryote genomes. Moreover, gene expression can be modulated by regulatory elements working over a long distance. Here, we compared the conformation of a 130-kb chromatin region containing the mouse alpha-globin cluster and their flanking housekeeping genes in 14.5-day-postcoitum fetal liver and brain cells. The analysis of chromatin conformation showed that the active alpha1 and alpha2 globin genes and upstream regulatory elements are in close spatial proximity, indicating that looping may function in the transcriptional regulation of the mouse alpha-globin cluster. In fetal liver cells, the active alpha1 and alpha2 genes, but not the inactive zeta gene, colocalize with neighboring housekeeping genes C16orf33, C16orf8, MPG, and C16orf35. This is in sharp contrast with the mouse alpha-globin genes in nonexpressing cells, which are separated from the congregated housekeeping genes. A comparison of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancies showed that active alpha1 and alpha2 gene promoters have a much higher RNA Pol II enrichment in liver than in brain. The RNA Pol II occupancy at the zeta gene promoter, which is specifically repressed during development, is much lower than that at the alpha1 and alpha2 promoters. Thus, the mouse alpha-globin gene cluster may be regulated through moving in or out active globin gene promoters and regulatory elements of a preexisting transcription factory in the nucleus, which is maintained by the flanking clustered housekeeping genes, to activate or inactivate alpha-globin gene expression.

  15. Alpha6beta4 integrin crosslinking induces EGFR clustering and promotes EGF-mediated Rho activation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward Wendy A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α6β4 integrin is overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer and plays an important role in tumor cell motility and invasion. EGFR is also overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer, and crosstalk between α6β4 integrin and EGFR appears to be important in tumor progression. Methods We evaluated the effects of α6β4 crosslinking on the distribution and function of EGFR in breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Receptor distribution was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, and ligand-mediated EGFR signaling was evaluated using Western blots and a Rho pull-down assay. Results Antibody-mediated crosslinking of α6β4 integrin was sufficient to induce cell-surface clustering of not only α6β4 but also EGFR in nonadherent cells. The induced clustering of EGFR was observed minimally after 5 min of integrin crosslinking but was more prominent after 15 min. EGFR clustering had minimal effect on the phosphorylation of Akt or Erk1,2 in response to EGF in suspended cells or in response to HB-EGF in adherent cells. However, EGFR clustering induced by crosslinking α6β4 had a marked effect on Rho activation in response to EGF. Conclusion Crosslinking α6β4 integrin in breast carcinoma cells induces EGFR clustering and preferentially promotes Rho activation in response to EGF. We hypothesize that this integrin-EGFR crosstalk may facilitate tumor cell cytoskeletal rearrangements important for tumor progression.

  16. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynth...... of a lanthipeptide, a carotenoid, five terpenoid compounds, an ectoine, a siderophore and a spore pigment-associated gene cluster to their respective biosynthesis products....

  17. Measure the Propagation of a Halo CME and Its Driven Shock with the Observations from a Single Perspective at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Inhester, Bernd; Feng, Li; Liu, Siming; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (full-halo CME) event that happened on 2011 February 15, making use of white-light observations by three coronagraphs and radio observations by Wind/WAVES. We applied three different methods to reconstruct the propagation direction and traveling distance of the CME and its driven shock. We measured the kinematics of the CME leading edge from white-light images observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Aand B, tracked the CME-driven shock using the frequency drift observed by Wind/WAVES together with an interplanetary density model, and obtained the equivalent scattering centers of the CME by the polarization ratio (PR) method. For the first time, we applied the PR method to different features distinguished from LASCO/C2 polarimetric observations and calculated their projections onto white-light images observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. By combining the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) forward modeling with the PR method, we proposed a new GCS-PR method to derive 3D parameters of a CME observed from a single perspective at Earth. Comparisons between different methods show a good degree of consistence in the derived 3D results.

  18. Preparation of aligned W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowire clusters with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ning [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis & Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao, Yafei, E-mail: zhaoyafei007@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis & Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Lu, Yanjie [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Zhu, Guangshan, E-mail: zhugs@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis & Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Aligned W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowire clusters were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. • W{sub 18}O{sub 49} has unique structure, high degree of crystallinity and large surface area. • W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowire clusters exhibited high photocatalytic degradation activity. - Abstract: The aligned W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowire clusters were synthesized via a facile and economic ethanol-assisted hydrothermal method using peroxopolytungstic acid as precursor. Results show that the as-prepared W{sub 18}O{sub 49} exhibits a high yield and ultrathin structure with preferential growth direction along [0 1 0]. The amount of peroxopolytungstic acid and reaction time play significant role on the morphology of W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowires. The nanowires have unique structure, high degree of crystallinity, large specific surface area, and large number of defects such as oxygen vacancies, which are responsible for their high photocatalytic performance for degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic conversion of methylene blue can reach above 98% after degradation. W{sub 18}O{sub 49} also exhibits good photodegradation stability after five cycles of reuse. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanowire clusters are expected to be a promising material for applications in the field of environment.

  19. Modeling clustered activity increase in amyloid-beta positron emission tomographic images with statistical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhi S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepideh Shokouhi,1 Baxter P Rogers,1 Hakmook Kang,2 Zhaohua Ding,1 Daniel O Claassen,3 John W Mckay,1 William R Riddle1On behalf of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative1Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USABackground: Amyloid-beta (Aβ imaging with positron emission tomography (PET holds promise for detecting the presence of Aβ plaques in the cortical gray matter. Many image analyses focus on regional average measurements of tracer activity distribution; however, considerable additional information is available in the images. Metrics that describe the statistical properties of images, such as the two-point correlation function (S2, have found wide applications in astronomy and materials science. S2 provides a detailed characterization of spatial patterns in images typically referred to as clustering or flocculence. The objective of this study was to translate the two-point correlation method into Aβ-PET of the human brain using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB to characterize longitudinal changes in the tracer distribution that may reflect changes in Aβ plaque accumulation.Methods: We modified the conventional S2 metric, which is primarily used for binary images and formulated a weighted two-point correlation function (wS2 to describe nonbinary, real-valued PET images with a single statistical function. Using serial 11C-PiB scans, we calculated wS2 functions from two-dimensional PET images of different cortical regions as well as three-dimensional data from the whole brain. The area under the wS2 functions was calculated and compared with the mean/median of the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR. For three-dimensional data, we compared the area under the wS2 curves with the subjects’ cerebrospinal fluid measures.Results: Overall, the longitudinal changes in wS2

  20. Cluster galaxy population evolution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: brightest cluster galaxies, stellar mass distribution, and active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Oguri, Masamune; Chen, Kai-Feng; Tanaka, Masayuki; Chiu, I.-non; Huang, Song; Kodama, Tadayuki; Leauthaud, Alexie; More, Surhud; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Lihwai; Miyazaki, Satoshi; HSC Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The unprecedented depth and area surveyed by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC-SSP) have enabled us to construct and publish the largest distant cluster sample out to z~1 to date. In this exploratory study of cluster galaxy evolution from z=1 to z=0.3, we investigate the stellar mass assembly history of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and evolution of stellar mass and luminosity distributions, stellar mass surface density profile, as well as the population of radio galaxies. Our analysis is the first high redshift application of the top N richest cluster selection, which is shown to allow us to trace the cluster galaxy evolution faithfully. Our stellar mass is derived from a machine-learning algorithm, which we show to be unbiased and accurate with respect to the COSMOS data. We find very mild stellar mass growth in BCGs, and no evidence for evolution in both the total stellar mass-cluster mass correlation and the shape of the stellar mass surface density profile. The clusters are found to contain more red galaxies compared to the expectations from the field, even after the differences in density between the two environments have been taken into account. We also present the first measurement of the radio luminosity distribution in clusters out to z~1.

  1. Using a Linux Cluster for Parallel Simulations of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T.F.; Pryds, N.; Smith, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a Comsol Multiphysics model on a Linux computer Cluster. The Magnetic Refrigerator (MR) is a special type of refrigerator with potential to reduce the energy consumption of household refrigeration by a factor of two or more. To conduct numerical analysis...

  2. Near infrared emission from molecule-like silver clusters confined in zeolite A assisted by thermal activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com; Imakita, Kenji; Rong Gui, Sa Chu; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    Strong and broad near infrared (NIR) emission peaked at ~855 nm upon optimal excitation at 342 nm has been observed from molecule-like silver clusters (MLSCs) confined in zeolite A assisted by thermal activation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of NIR emission peaked at longer than 800 nm from MLSCs confined in solid matrices. The decay time of the NIR emission is over 10 μs, which indicates that it is a spin-forbidden transition. The ~855 nm NIR emission shows strong dependence on the silver loading concentration and the thermal activation temperature.

  3. Klastery kak forma prostranstvennoj organizacii jekonomicheskoj dejatel'nosti: teorija voprosa i jempiricheskie nabljudenija [Clusters as a Form of Spatial Organisation of Economic Activity: Theory and Practical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at explaining the clustering of economic activity using instruments of new institutional economics, taking into account well-known descriptive characteristics of the cluster, as well as recent developments in research on hybrid institutional agreements, primarily, the research conducted by Michael Porter, Claude Ménard and others.

  4. Feasibility of an incentive scheme to promote active travel to school: a pilot cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, Samuel; Arnott, Bronia; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Namdeo, Anil; McColl, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain, 19% of trips to primary school within 1 mile, and 62% within 1-2 miles, are by car. Active travel to school (ATS) offers a potential source of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study tested the feasibility of an intervention to promote ATS in 9-10 year olds and associated trial procedures. A parallel cluster randomised pilot trial was conducted over 9 weeks in two schools from a low-income area in northeast England. Measures included daily parental ATS reports (optionally by SMS) and child ATS reports, as well as accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+). At baseline, all children were asked to wear the accelerometer for the same week; in the post-randomisation phase, small subsamples were monitored each week. In the 2 weeks when a child wore the accelerometer, parents also reported the start and finish times of the journey to school. The intervention consisted of a lottery-based incentive scheme; every ATS day reported by the parent, whether by paper or SMS, corresponded to one ticket entered into a weekly £5 voucher draw. Before each draw session, the researcher prepared the tickets and placed them into an opaque bag, from which one was randomly picked by the teacher at the draw session. Four schools replied positively (3.3%, N = 123) and 29 participants were recruited in the two schools selected (33.0%, N = 88). Participant retention was 93.1%. Most materials were returned on time: accelerometers (81.9%), parental reports (82.1%) and child reports (97.9%). Draw sessions lasted on average 15.9 min (IQR 10-20) and overall session attendance was 94.5%. Parent-child report agreement regarding ATS was moderate (k = 0.53, CI 95% 0.45; 0.60). Differences in minutes of accelerometer-assessed MVPA between parent-reported ATS and non-ATS trips were assessed during two timeframes: during the journey to school based on the times reported by the parent (U = 390.5, p trips were also significant for each of the timeframes considered

  5. A new L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster with chromospheric activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garrido, A.; Lodieu, N.; Rebolo, R.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Our aim is to identify brown dwarf members of the nearby Hyades open star cluster to determine the photometric and spectroscopic properties of brown dwarfs at moderately old ages and extend the knowledge of the substellar mass function of the cluster. Methods: We cross-matched the 2MASS and AllWISE public catalogues and measured proper motions to identify low-mass stars and brown dwarf candidates in an area of radius eight degrees around the central region of the Hyades cluster. We identified objects with photometry and proper motions consistent with cluster membership. For the faintest (J = 17.2 mag) most promising astrometric and photometric low-mass candidate 2MASS J04183483+2131275, with a membership probability of 94.5%, we obtained low-resolution (R = 300-1000) and intermediate-resolution (R = 2500) spectroscopy with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Results: From the low-resolution spectra we determined a L5.0 ± 0.5 spectral type, consistent with the available photometry. In the intermediate dispersion spectrum we detected Hα in emission (marginally resolved with a full width half maximum of 2.8 Å) and determined a log (LHα/Lbol) = -6.0 dex. From Hα we obtained a radial velocity of 38.0 ± 2.9 km s-1, which combined with the proper motion leads to space velocities which are fully consistent with membership in the Hyades cluster. We also report a detection in the H2 band by the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. Using evolutionary models we determine from the available photometry of the object a mass in the range 0.039-0.055 M⊙. Brown dwarfs with masses below 0.055 M⊙ should fully preserve its initial lithium content, and indeed the spectrum at 6708 Å may show a feature consistent with lithium preservation; however, a higher S/N is needed to confirm this point. Conclusions: We have identified a new high-probability L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster. This is the first relatively old L5 brown dwarf with a well-determined age (500-700 Myr

  6. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Clusters On This Page What is a cancer cluster? ... the number of cancer cases in the suspected cluster Many reported clusters include too few cancer cases ...

  7. CLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF OFFICER'S BEHAVIOURS IN LONDON POLICE FOOT PATROL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this small paper we aim at presenting a framework of conceptual representation and clustering analysis of police officers’ patrol pattern obtained from mining their raw movement trajectory data. This have been achieved by a model developed to accounts for the spatio-temporal dynamics human movements by incorporating both the behaviour features of the travellers and the semantic meaning of the environment they are moving in. Hence, the similarity metric of traveller behaviours is jointly defined according to the stay time allocation in each Spatio-temporal region of interests (ST-ROI to support clustering analysis of patrol behaviours. The proposed framework enables the analysis of behaviour and preferences on higher level based on raw moment trajectories. The model is firstly applied to police patrol data provided by the Metropolitan Police and will be tested by other type of dataset afterwards.

  8. White spot syndrome virus entry is dependent on multiple endocytic routes and strongly facilitated by Cq-GABARAP in a CME-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304

  9. A new day for CME/CPD in Canada: proceedings from the 1st Canada Regional Conference of the Global Alliance for Medical Education in Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Murray

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995, with the aim of advancing innovation in medical education. The 1st GAME Canada regional conference was held in Montreal on May 22, 2015, under the leadership of Suzanne Murray, who acted as programme chair, and GAME president Lisa Sullivan. The conference brought together a broad array of speakers and panellists, including experts from academic centres, health systems, accreditors, private organizations, and industry. Thirty-one key stakeholders participated in the event, demonstrating a strong commitment towards the improvement of best practice in continuing medical education (CME/continuing professional development (CPD. The conference included diverse presentations providing opportunities for reflection and discussion throughout the day. The participants actively took part in stimulating discussions that covered a large range of topics, including the need for enhanced networking and opportunities to learn from others, the challenges of assessment and the potential solutions, interprofessional education and competencies, and, finally, the future of a Canadian CME/CPD organization.

  10. A cross-sectional cluster analysis of the combined association of physical activity and sleep with sociodemographic and health characteristics in mid-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayward, Anna T; Duncan, Mitch J; Brown, Wendy J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Burton, Nicola W

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify how different patterns of physical activity, sleep duration and sleep quality cluster together, and to examine how the identified clusters differ in terms of socio-demographic and health characteristics. Participants were adults from Brisbane, Australia, aged 42-72 years who reported their physical activity, sleep duration, sleep quality, socio-demographic and health characteristics in 2011 (n=5854). Two-step Cluster Analyses were used to identify clusters. Cluster differences in socio-demographic and health characteristics were examined using chi square tests (psleep duration and poor sleep quality, had the poorest health characteristics and a high proportion of participants with low physical activity. Physical activity, sleep duration and sleep quality cluster together in distinct patterns and clusters of poor behaviours are associated with poor health status. Multiple health behaviour change interventions which target both physical activity and sleep should be prioritised to improve health outcomes in mid-aged adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of CME to impact self-reported changes in the evaluation and management of anaemia in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Farmer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III prompted the recognition of geriatric anaemia as a public health concern since ~10% of people aged 65 years or older were anaemic. The objective of this study was to design and implement a continuing medical education (CME event that motivates and guides Primary Care Health Practitioners (PCHPs to adopt medical practices that improve outcomes among geriatric patients with anaemia by employing effective diagnostic workup. Research design and methods. A total of 4196 PCHPs participated in 11 highly interactive 75-minute live conferences conducted throughout the US from 2011 through 2013 that featured case-based interactive discussions on the workup of microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anaemia by a PCHP and local haematologist expert. A standardised diagnostic algorithm for geriatric anaemia was used and distributed as a handout at the live activity. A reinforcing mobile application based on this algorithm was introduced in 2012. Main outcome measures. Data from participants were gathered immediately after the event, 10–12 weeks post-event, and 1–3 years post-event. Outcomes were evaluated according to Moore's levels. Chi-squared analyses compared the proportion of respondents who committed to one or more of the five major behavioural changes over time. Results. The Chi-squared test analysed data from each of the three timelines for five medical behavioural changes. A comparison of participants’ responses showed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of responders committing to behavioural change #1, “Avoid indiscriminant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents” and #5, “Refer patients with unexplained mild anaemia to a haematologist” from post-event to 1–3 years (p<0.001 (see Table 2. The proportion of respondents who committed to the other three behavioural changes remained consistent over time, suggesting that actual change

  12. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  13. The Blob Connection: Searching for Low Coronal Signatures of Solar Post-CME Blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole E.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Webb, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Bright linear structures, thought to be indicators of a current sheet (CS), are often seen in Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) white-light data in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In a subset of these post-CME structures, relatively bright blobs are seen moving outward along the rays. These blobs have been interpreted as consequences of the plasmoid instability in the CS, and can help us to understand the dynamics of the reconnection. We examine several instances, taken largely from the SOHO/LASCO CME-rays Catalog, where these blobs are clearly visible in white-light data. Using radially filtered, difference, wavelet enhanced, and multiscale Gaussian normalized images to visually inspect Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data in multiple wavelengths, we look for signatures of material that correspond both temporally and spatially to the later appearance of the blobs in LASCO/C2. Constraints from measurements of the blobs allow us to predict the expected count rates in DN pixel-1 s-1 for each AIA channel. The resulting values would make the blobs bright enough to be detectable at 1.2 R ⊙. However, we do not see conclusive evidence for corresponding blobs in the AIA data in any of the events. We do the same calculation for the “cartwheel CME,” an event in which blobs were seen in X-rays, and find that our estimated count rates are close to those observed. We suggest several possibilities for the absence of the EUV blobs including the formation of the blob higher than the AIA field of view, blob coalescence, and overestimation of blob densities.

  14. Evaluation of Speakers at a National Continuing Medical Education (CME Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannette Collins, MD, MEd, FCCP

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluations of a national radiology continuing medical education (CME course in thoracic imaging were analyzed to determine what constitutes effective and ineffective lecturing. Methods and Materials: Evaluations of sessions and individual speakers participating in a five-day course jointly sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA were tallied by the RSNA Department of Data Management and three members of the STR Training Committee. Comments were collated and analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative comments and common themes related to ineffective lecturing. Results: Twenty-two sessions were evaluated by 234 (75.7% of 309 professional registrants. Eighty-one speakers were evaluated by an average of 153 registrants (range, 2 – 313. Mean ratings for 10 items evaluating sessions ranged from 1.28 – 2.05 (1=most positive, 4=least positive; SD .451 - .902. The average speaker rating was 5.7 (1=very poor, 7=outstanding; SD 0.94; range 4.3 – 6.4. Total number of comments analyzed was 862, with 505 (58.6% considered positive and 404 (46.9% considered negative (the total number exceeds 862 as a “comment” could consist of both positive and negative statements. Poor content was mentioned most frequently, making up 107 (26.5% of 404 negative comments, and applied to 51 (63% of 81 speakers. Other negative comments, in order of decreasing frequency, were related to delivery, image slides, command of the English language, text slides, and handouts. Conclusions: Individual evaluations of speakers at a national CME course provided information regarding the quality of lectures that was not provided by evaluations of grouped presentations. Systematic review of speaker evaluations provided specific information related to the types and frequency of features related to ineffective lecturing. This information can be used to design CME course evaluations, design future CME

  15. A minimal nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78 enables expression of active nitrogenase in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    Full Text Available Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase, an enzyme complex comprising two component proteins that contains three different metalloclusters. Diazotrophs contain a common core of nitrogen fixation nif genes that encode the structural subunits of the enzyme and components required to synthesize the metalloclusters. However, the complement of nif genes required to enable diazotrophic growth varies significantly amongst nitrogen fixing bacteria and archaea. In this study, we identified a minimal nif gene cluster consisting of nine nif genes in the genome of Paenibacillus sp. WLY78, a gram-positive, facultative anaerobe isolated from the rhizosphere of bamboo. We demonstrate that the nif genes in this organism are organized as an operon comprising nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV and that the nif cluster is under the control of a σ(70 (σ(A-dependent promoter located upstream of nifB. To investigate genetic requirements for diazotrophy, we transferred the Paenibacillus nif cluster to Escherichia coli. The minimal nif gene cluster enables synthesis of catalytically active nitrogenase in this host, when expressed either from the native nifB promoter or from the T7 promoter. Deletion analysis indicates that in addition to the core nif genes, hesA plays an important role in nitrogen fixation and is responsive to the availability of molybdenum. Whereas nif transcription in Paenibacillus is regulated in response to nitrogen availability and by the external oxygen concentration, transcription from the nifB promoter is constitutive in E. coli, indicating that negative regulation of nif transcription is bypassed in the heterologous host. This study demonstrates the potential for engineering nitrogen fixation in a non-nitrogen fixing organism with a minimum set of nine nif genes.

  16. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator Rμ, is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and Rμ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many-body components of T and Rμ via active orbitals and which recover much of the relevant non-dynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects in applications involving potential energy surfaces (PESs) along bond breaking coordinates, for the

  17. Improving depression care for ethnic and racial minorities: a concept for an intervention that integrates CME planning with improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donald E; Overstreet, Karen M; Like, Robert C; Kristofco, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek treatment in the primary care setting. Research in the past 15 years has shown that dramatic improvement in the management of patients with depression is possible. Advances in pharmacotherapy and delivery of depression care have been reported, but few currently benefit members of ethnic and racial minorities. Educating physicians and other health professionals has been suggested as one approach to address the issues related to disparities in depression care. There is little evidence, however, that education alone is effective. The authors of this article believe that incorporating physician learning activities that are planned using approaches that have been shown to be effective in interventions currently demonstrating some success in improving depression care provided to ethnic and racial minorities will enhance the impact and sustainability of these interventions. This article--the conclusion of this supplement--will describe an intervention concept that integrates a quality improvement model (the Institute for Health Improvement's Breakthrough Series Collaborative model) with an evidence-based approach to planning CME and supports the integration by using action inquiry technologies and community-based participatory research methods. Relevant approaches from implementation research are discussed, and suggestions for testing the intervention concept are provided.

  18. Addressing life long learning needs of neurologist in the emerging world: a case study of an innovative CME program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, Abi

    2008-03-15

    What leadership roles can transnational medical professional societies play in addressing the life long learning needs of health professionals in emerging world? The World Federation of Neurology (WFN) provides neurological education programme in countries with unmet neurological training needs, in an effort to improve the knowledge and skills of neurologists. The WFN's experience provides a unique study to exemplify how global stakeholders collaborate with each other to deliver CME and to improve the quality of health care services. A multi-stage programme evaluation was undertaken to explore the WFN CME, in an effort to: a) understand how global CME programmes are organized, and b) understand the success factors and the challenges of delivering global CME. The programme evaluation was conducted between June 2005 and March 2006. The preliminary results were shared with the WFN education committee and national coordinators and international experts to check and confirm the findings from the study. The study results reveal that global CME programmes could be designed effectively with minimum costs. These programmes contribute to meeting the continued learning needs of neurologists in resource poor settings. Further, the WFN initiative provides, some initial evidence that these programs can contribute to systems level improvements.

  19. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Improvement of activity and stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by introducing an aromatic cluster at the surface of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaboddin, Mohammad Esmaeil; Khajeh, Khosro; Maleki, Monireh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2017-10-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChABC I) has been shown to depolymerize a variety of glycosaminoglycan substrates and promote regeneration of damaged spinal cord. However, to date, intrathecal delivery methods have been suboptimal largely due to enzyme instability which necessitates repeated administration to the injured loci. Among the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine has been shown to be more effective in creation of stable clusters and further stabilize of the proteins. Bioinformatics approaches have been used to examine the effect of an extra aromatic cluster at the surface of ChABC I. In this study two amino acids i.e., Asn806 and Gln810 were mutated to tyrosine and to alanine as negative control. In this way, four variants i.e., N806Y/Q810Y, N806A/Q810Y, N806Y/Q810A and N806A/Q810A were created. The results showed that N806Y/Q810Y mutation improved both activity and thermal stability of the enzyme while Ala substitution reduced the enzyme activity and destabilized it. Structural analysis of mutants showed an increase in intrinsic fluorescence intensity and secondary structure content of N806Y/Q810Y mutant when compared to the wild type enzyme indicating a more rigid structure of this variant. Moreover, the N806Y/Q810Y enzyme displayed a remarkable resistance against trypsin degradation with a half-life (t1/2) of 45.0min versus 32.5min of wild-type. In conclusion, the data revealed that structural features and activity of ChABC I can be improved by introducing appropriate aromatic clusters at the surface of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. H2/D2 exchange reaction on mono-disperse Pt clusters: enhanced activity from minute O2 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Jakob Nordheim; Rötzer, Marian David; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    significantly. XPS and ISS before and after reaction suggest little or no sintering during reaction. A reaction pathway is suggested based on DFT. H2 desorption is identified as the rate-limiting step and O2 is confirmed as the source of the increased activity. The binding energy of platinum atoms in a SiO2......The H2/D2 exchange reaction was studied on mono-disperse Pt8 clusters in a μ-reactor. The chemical activity was studied at temperatures varying from room temperature to 180 °C using mass spectrometry. It was found that minute amounts of O2 in the gas stream increased the chemical activity...

  2. Efficient active waveguiding properties of Mo6 nano-cluster-doped polymer nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, J.; Huby, N.; Amela-Cortes, M.; Molard, Y.; Garreau, A.; Cordier, S.; Bêche, B.; Duvail, J.-L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate 1D nanostructures based on a Mo6@SU8 hybrid nanocomposite in which photoluminescent Mo6 clusters are embedded in the photosensitive SU8 resist. Tens of micrometers long Mo6@SU8-based tubular nanostructures were fabricated by the wetting template method, enabling the control of the inner and outer diameter to about 190 nm and 240 nm respectively, as supported by structural and optical characterizations. The image plane optical study of these nanotubes under optical pumping highlights the efficient waveguiding phenomenon of the red luminescence emitted by the clusters. Moreover, the wave vector distribution in the Fourier plane determined by leakage radiation microscopy gives additional features of the emission and waveguiding. First, the anisotropic red luminescence of the whole system can be attributed to the guided mode along the nanotube. Then, a low-loss propagation behavior is evidenced in the Mo6@SU8-based nanotubes. This result contrasts with the weaker waveguiding signature in the case of UV210-based nanotubes embedding PFO (poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)). It is attributed to the strong reabsorption phenomenon, owing to overlapping between absorption and emission bands in the semi-conducting conjugated polymer PFO. These results make this Mo6@SU8 original class of nanocomposite a promising candidate as nanosources for submicronic photonic integration.

  3. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems.

  4. A cluster randomized control trial to assess the impact of active learning on child activity, attention control, and academic outcomes: The Texas I-CAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M; Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    Active learning is designed to pair physical activity with the teaching of academic content. This has been shown to be a successful strategy to increase physical activity and improve academic performance. The existing designs have confounded academic lessons with physical activity. As a result, it is impossible to determine if the subsequent improvement in academic performance is due to: (1) physical activity, (2) the academic content of the active learning, or (3) the combination of academic material taught through physical activity. The Texas I-CAN project is a 3-arm, cluster randomized control trial in which 28 elementary schools were assigned to either control, math intervention, or spelling intervention. As a result, each intervention condition serves as an unrelated content control for the other arm of the trial, allowing the impact of physical activity to be separated from the content. That is, schools that perform only active math lessons provide a content control for the spelling schools on spelling outcomes. This also calculated direct observations of attention and behavior control following periods of active learning. This design is unique in its ability to separate the impact of physical activity, in general, from the combination of physical activity and specific academic content. This, in combination with the ability to examine both proximal and distal outcomes along with measures of time on task will do much to guide the design of future, school-based interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclotide structure-activity relationships: qualitative and quantitative approaches linking cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity to the clustering of physicochemical forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A; Göransson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    .... Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides...

  6. [CME-certified online education in Germany - status in ophthalmology 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, D M

    2012-06-01

    The use of the internet is becoming more and more important in every aspect of daily life, also in professional education. Online education and face-to-face learning have proven to be equally efficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of online education in the German-speaking internet 2011. The terms "ophthalmology", "online-education", "continuing medical education" and "CME" (partly in German language) were searched by an internet-search engine. The first 100 pages were visited. Pages were evaluated in respect of quality and quantity, authorship and possible influence of sponsors. Only 9 of the first 100 hits had an actual offer for ophthalmology. Nearly all of these were websites of ophthalmological scientific journals. The content represented the same educational format (pictures and text) as in the print issue. CME-certified online education can be found in Germany as offspring of print issues only. The content is identical with educational texts in the print issues. An enlargement of the offer, which uses the possibilities of modern internet technology is highly probable. This estimation is supported by the growing use of the internet and developments on English-speaking websites for online-education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  8. Clustering of 3D-Structure Similarity Based Network of Secondary Metabolites Reveals Their Relationships with Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtana, Yuki; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Huang, Ming; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Horai, Hisayuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Morita Hirai, Aki; Lange, Klaus W; Kibinge, Nelson K; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    Developing database systems connecting diverse species based on omics is the most important theme in big data biology. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Family Databases, which are utilized in a number of researches in metabolomics. In the present study, we have developed a network-based approach to analyze relationships between 3D structure and biological activity of metabolites consisting of four steps as follows: construction of a network of metabolites based on structural similarity (Step 1), classification of metabolites into structure groups (Step 2), assessment of statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 3), and 2-dimensional clustering of the constructed data matrix based on statistically significant relations between structure groups and biological activities (Step 4). Applying this method to a data set consisting of 2072 secondary metabolites and 140 biological activities reported in KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB, we obtained 983 statistically significant structure group-biological activity pairs. As a whole, we systematically analyzed the relationship between 3D-chemical structures of metabolites and biological activities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The relationship between activating affects, inhibitory affects, and self-compassion in patients with Cluster C personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Elisabeth; Stiles, Tore C; McCullough, Leigh; Svartberg, Martin; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark

    2011-09-01

    In the short-term dynamic psychotherapy model termed "Affect Phobia Treatment," it is assumed that increase in patients' defense recognition, decrease in inhibitory affects (e.g., anxiety, shame, guilt), and increase in the experience of activating affects (e.g., sadness, anger, closeness) are related to enhanced self-compassion across therapeutic approaches. The present study aimed to test this assumption on the basis of data from a randomized controlled trial, which compared a 40-session short-term dynamic psychotherapy (N = 25) with 40-session cognitive treatment (N = 25) for outpatients with Cluster C personality disorders. Patients' defense recognition, inhibitory affects, activating affects, and self-compassion were rated with the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (McCullough et al., 2003b) in Sessions 6 and 36. Results showed that increase in self-compassion from early to late in therapy significantly predicted pre- to post-decrease in psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal problems, and personality pathology. Decrease in levels of inhibitory affects and increase in levels of activating affects during therapy were significantly associated with higher self-compassion toward the end of treatment. Increased levels of defense recognition did not predict higher self-compassion when changes in inhibitory and activating affects were statistically controlled for. There were no significant interaction effects with type of treatment. These findings support self-compassion as an important goal of psychotherapy and indicate that increase in the experience of activating affects and decrease in inhibitory affects seem to be worthwhile therapeutic targets when working to enhance self-compassion in patients with Cluster C personality disorders. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Generation of spectral clusters in a mixture of noble and Raman-active gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Pooria; Abdolvand, Amir; St J Russell, Philip

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H2, D2, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 μJ of energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 rovibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2.2 THz. Such a spectrally dense and compact fiber-based source is ideal for applications where closely spaced narrow-band laser lines with high spectral power density are required, such as in spectroscopy and sensing. When the HC-PCF is filled with a H2-D2 mixture, the Raman comb spans the spectral region from the deep UV (280 nm) to the near infrared (1000 nm).

  11. Generation of Spectral Clusters in a Mixture of Noble and Raman-Active Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Pooria; Russell, Philip St J

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H2, D2, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 uJ energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 ro-vibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2 THz. Such a spectrally dense and compact fiber-based source is ideal for applications where closely spaced narrow-band laser lines with high spectral power density are required, such as in spectroscopy and sensing. When the HC-PCF is filled with a H2-D2 mixture the Raman comb spans the spectral region from the deep UV (280 nm) to the near infrared (1000 nm).

  12. Statistical study of the storm time radiation belt evolution during Van Allen Probes era: CME- versus CIR-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Chen; Hudson, Mary K.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Qin, Mu-Rong; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Sun, Wei-Jie

    2017-08-01

    Coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven or corotating interaction region (CIR)-driven storms can change the electron distributions in the radiation belt dramatically, which can in turn affect the spacecraft in this region or induce geomagnetic effects. The Van Allen Probes twin spacecraft, launched on 30 August 2012, orbit near the equatorial plane and across a wide range of L∗ with apogee at 5.8 RE and perigee at 620 km. Electron data from Van Allen Probes MagEIS and REPT instruments have been binned every 6 h at L∗=3 (defined as 2.5 < L∗<3.5), 4 (3.5 < L∗<4.5), 5 (4.5 < L∗<5.5). The superposed epoch analysis shows that (1) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=3 for energy channels below 1 MeV than CIR storms; (2) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels above 1 MeV than CIR storms; (3) CIR storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels below 1 MeV than CME storms; (4) intense CME induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 400 keV at L∗=3; (5) intense CIR induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 200 keV at L∗=4. These results are consistent with a general picture of enhanced convection over a longer period for CIR storms which increased flux closer to geosynchronous orbit consistent with earlier studies, while CME storms likely produce deeper penetration of enhanced flux and local heating which is greater at higher energies at lower L∗.

  13. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Highly Specific Interactions between Actinomycetes To Activate Specialized Metabolic Gene Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, David A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomes of actinomycetes contain numerous gene clusters potentially able to encode the production of many antibiotics and other specialized metabolites that are not expressed during growth under typical laboratory conditions. Undoubtedly, this reflects the soil habitat of these organisms, which is highly complex physically, chemically, and biotically; the majority of the compounds that make up the specialized metabolome are therefore adaptive only under specific conditions. While there have been numerous previous reports of “waking up” the “sleeping” gene clusters, many involving genetic interventions or nutritional challenges, the role of competing microorganisms has been comparatively little studied. Now, Traxler et al. [M. F. Traxler, J. D. Watrous, T. Alexandrov, P. C. Dorrestein, and R. Kolter, mBio 4(4):e00459-13, 2013, doi:10.1128/mBio.00459-13] have used the recently described technique of microscale imaging mass spectrometry to analyze in detail the stimulation of specialized metabolite production by the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by growth in proximity to other actinomycetes. The striking finding from these experiments was that growth of S. coelicolor close to each of the five other actinomycetes studied caused it to produce many specialized metabolites that were not made when it was grown in isolation and that the majority of the compounds were interaction specific, i.e., they occurred only in one of the five pairwise combinations, emphasizing the highly specific nature of the interactions. These observations contribute substantially to the increasing awareness of communication between microorganisms in complex natural communities, as well as auguring well for the discovery of useful specialized metabolites based on microbial interactions. PMID:24003180

  14. A STUDY ON INFORMAL MARKET CLUSTER ACTIVITIES CONCENTRATING AROUND MENDI MARKET AREA: IS RELOCATION THE BEST OPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undiri Kima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating and concentrating around the local market. The conclusion suggests that the relationships of the informal sector, street vendors, and local market should be promoted through an appropriate inclusive policy and regulatory environment.The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating

  15. Light-dependent activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by reversible phosphorylation in cluster roots of white lupin plants: diurnal control in response to photosynthate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Michael W; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Plaxton, William C

    2016-04-10

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly regulated enzyme that controls carbohydrate partitioning to organic acid anions (malate, citrate) excreted in copious amounts by cluster roots of inorganic phosphate (Pi)-deprived white lupin plants. Excreted malate and citrate solubilize otherwise inaccessible sources of mineralized soil Pi for plant uptake. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that (1) PEPC is post-translationally activated by reversible phosphorylation in cluster roots of illuminated white lupin plants, and (2) light-dependent phosphorylation of cluster root PEPC is associated with elevated intracellular levels of sucrose and its signalling metabolite, trehalose-6-phosphate. White lupin plants were cultivated hydroponically at low Pi levels (≤1 µm) and subjected to various light/dark pretreatments. Cluster root PEPC activity andin vivophosphorylation status were analysed to assess the enzyme's diurnal, post-translational control in response to light and dark. Levels of various metabolites, including sucrose and trehalose-6-phosphate, were also quantified in cluster root extracts using enzymatic and spectrometric methods. During the daytime the cluster root PEPC was activated by phosphorylation at its conserved N- terminal seryl residue. Darkness triggered a progressive reduction in PEPC phosphorylation to undetectable levels, and this was correlated with 75-80 % decreases in concentrations of sucrose and trehalose-6- phosphate. Reversible, light-dependent regulatory PEPC phosphorylation occurs in cluster roots of Pi-deprived white lupin plants. This likely facilitates the well-documented light- and sucrose-dependent exudation of Pi-solubilizing organic acid anions by the cluster roots. PEPC'sin vivophosphorylation status appears to be modulated by sucrose translocated from CO2-fixing leaves into the non-photosynthetic cluster roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  16. Local Field Potential Modeling Predicts Dense Activation in Cerebellar Granule Cells Clusters under LTP and LTD Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Shyam; Lombardo, Paola; Solinas, Sergio; Naldi, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2011-01-01

    Local field-potentials (LFPs) are generated by neuronal ensembles and contain information about the activity of single neurons. Here, the LFPs of the cerebellar granular layer and their changes during long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP and LTD) were recorded in response to punctate facial stimulation in the rat in vivo. The LFP comprised a trigeminal (T) and a cortical (C) wave. T and C, which derived from independent granule cell clusters, co-varied during LTP and LTD. To extract information about the underlying cellular activities, the LFP was reconstructed using a repetitive convolution (ReConv) of the extracellular potential generated by a detailed multicompartmental model of the granule cell. The mossy fiber input patterns were determined using a Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm. The major component of the LFP was generated by the granule cell spike Na+ current, which caused a powerful sink in the axon initial segment with the source located in the soma and dendrites. Reproducing the LFP changes observed during LTP and LTD required modifications in both release probability and intrinsic excitability at the mossy fiber-granule cells relay. Synaptic plasticity and Golgi cell feed-forward inhibition proved critical for controlling the percentage of active granule cells, which was 11% in standard conditions but ranged from 3% during LTD to 21% during LTP and raised over 50% when inhibition was reduced. The emerging picture is that of independent (but neighboring) trigeminal and cortical channels, in which synaptic plasticity and feed-forward inhibition effectively regulate the number of discharging granule cells and emitted spikes generating “dense” activity clusters in the cerebellar granular layer. PMID:21818278

  17. Cerium dioxide-supported gold catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation: Synthesis, reactivity, activation, and characterization for site-isolated mononuclear species and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Guerrero, Veronica Illeana

    Site-isolated, mononuclear gold complexes supported on CeO 2 were synthesized by adsorption of Au(CH3)2(acac) (acac is acetylacetonate, C5H7O2) on partially dehydroxylated CeO2 powder (giving the "as-prepared" sample). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and infrared (IR) spectroscopies gave evidence that the as-prepared sample contained gold complexes that were structural analogues of the organometallic precursor. The as-prepared sample did not show any detectable activity for CO oxidation catalysis at room temperature. However, the as-prepared sample was active at 353 K. The activity increased and reached conversions of about 100% within 10 h of operation in a flow reactor. The catalyst was stable for more than 96 h. EXAFS data indicate the formation of gold clusters as the catalyst functioned. The cluster diameter increased with time on stream, and clusters of approximately 9, 15, 17, and 26 Au atoms each, on average, were found in samples that had been on stream for 24, 36, 48, and 96 h, respectively. XANES data show that the gold was reduced as the clusters formed. Kinetics experiments carried out with the activated catalyst showed the roles of CO, O2, and CO2. The reaction order in CO is slightly negative, and CO2 inhibits the reaction. Apparent activation energies were determined for CO oxidation catalyzed by the mononuclear gold species and the gold clusters. The activation energy characterizing the latter is a third of that characterizing the mononuclear gold species, which are much less active than the clusters. This work provides the first clear demonstration of the separate catalytic characteristics of supported gold complexes and supported gold clusters.

  18. Membership, lithium and chromospheric activity of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665 from GES (Gaia-ESO Survey) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Garrido, M.; Montes, D.; Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Gónzalez Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665, focusing on their membership, lithium abundance and level of chromospheric activity and possible accretion. We use the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and radial velocity) delivered by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) consortium in the four internal data release (iDR4) to select the members of these clusters among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. Chromospheric activity criterium, and iterative process between radial velocity distribution and lithium-temperature diagram are applied to determinate what objects are members or non members of the clusters. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify some field contaminant lithium-rich giants.

  19. Metastable β-Bi2O3 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity from polynuclear bismuth oxido clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Maik; Schulze, Steffen; Hietschold, Michael; Mehring, Michael

    2013-01-28

    The synthesis of nanoscaled β-Bi(2)O(3) starting from the bismuth oxido clusters [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)](NO(3))(6)·H(2)O, [Bi(22)O(26)(OSiMe(2)(t)Bu)(14)], [Bi(38)O(45)(NO(3))(20)(DMSO)(28)](NO(3))(4)·4DMSO and [Bi(38)O(45)(OMc)(24)(DMSO)(9)]·2DMSO·7H(2)O (OMc = O(2)CC(3)H(5)) under ambient conditions is reported. The metal oxido clusters are regarded as ideal precursors for β-Bi(2)O(3) due to their structural relationship with the latter. Nevertheless, different bismuth oxide polymorphs are accessible dependent on the hydrolysis protocol. Hydrolysis over a period of 18 h gave stable α-Bi(2)O(3) whereas after 3 min an amorphous material is observed. Annealing of the amorphous material at 370 °C gave nanoscaled β-Bi(2)O(3). An unusual high reactivity of the β-Bi(2)O(3) particles with SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) is observed at temperatures above 400 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction studies, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption measurements are used for characterization of the as-prepared β-Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles. The properties of the β-Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles depend on the starting bismuth oxido clusters with regard to particle size and optical band gap. The β-Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles show excellent photocatalytic activity as demonstrated by dye decomposition (rhodamine B, methyl orange, methylene blue and orange G) under visible light.

  20. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  1. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J,; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using

  2. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are generated by active oscillators clustered in frequency plateaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Wit, Hero; van Dijk, Pim

    It is commonly assumed that the active process linked to hair-cell motility is an important factor contributing to SOAEs. A chain of coupled, active and nonlinear oscillators with tonotopic organization can be used to account for key aspects of cochlear processing, including SOAEs and related phe...

  3. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  4. Ensemble averaged structure-function relationship for nanocrystals: effective superparamagnetic Fe clusters with catalytically active Pt skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shastri, Sarvjit; Park, Hyun-Uk; Kwon, Young-Uk; Skumryev, Vassil

    2017-10-19

    Practical applications require the production and usage of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) in large ensembles. Besides, due to their cluster-bulk solid duality, metallic NCs exhibit a large degree of structural diversity. This poses the question as to what atomic-scale basis is to be used when the structure-function relationship for metallic NCs is to be quantified precisely. We address the question by studying bi-functional Fe core-Pt skin type NCs optimized for practical applications. In particular, the cluster-like Fe core and skin-like Pt surface of the NCs exhibit superparamagnetic properties and a superb catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction, respectively. We determine the atomic-scale structure of the NCs by non-traditional resonant high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Using the experimental structure data we explain the observed magnetic and catalytic behavior of the NCs in a quantitative manner. Thus we demonstrate that NC ensemble-averaged 3D positions of atoms obtained by advanced X-ray scattering techniques are a very proper basis for not only establishing but also quantifying the structure-function relationship for the increasingly complex metallic NCs explored for practical applications.

  5. Promoting physical activity in high-poverty neighborhood parks: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn P; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Raaen, Laura; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    Although physical activity can help mitigate or prevent multiple chronic diseases, most people in the U.S., especially high-poverty minority groups, engage in insufficient levels of physical activity. To test ways to promote more physical activity in high-poverty area public parks we conducted a randomized controlled intervention trial. After completing baseline measures of park-based physical activity using systematic direct observation three times/day each month for six months and assessing preferences for park programming among 1445 residents living within 1 mile of study parks, we randomized 48 parks in high poverty neighborhoods in the City of Los Angeles, California during 2013-2014 to four study arms: 1) free physical activity classes over a 6-month period, 2) a frequent user program where participants could win prizes based upon the number of visits they made to the park, 3) both the programs, and 4) neither one (control condition). We re-measured park use in 2014-2015 using the same methods during the six months the intervention programs were in operation. A total of 2047 free park classes were offered attracting 16,718 participants. The frequent user programs enrolled 1452 individuals and prizes were awarded to 830. Residents in the two study arms with free classes were more likely to report being aware of and participating in park-based physical activity programs; however, overall observed park-based physical activity increased similarly across all study arms. The process evaluation uncovered several barriers to program implementation, including inconsistent scheduling of classes, partly due to safety concerns among instructors. Multiple social factors interfere with leisure time physical activity among low-income populations, suggesting modest interventions may be insufficient to overcome these issues. Although new park programs can attract users, new programs alone may be insufficient to increase overall park use in low-income neighborhoods at times

  6. Bond Activation and Hydrogen Evolution from Water through Reactions with M3S4 (M = Mo, W) and W3S3 Anionic Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Corrine A; Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2017-03-02

    Transition metal sulfides (TMS) are being investigated with increased frequency because of their ability to efficiently catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction. We have studied the trimetallic TMS cluster ions, Mo3S4-, W3S4-, and W3S3-, and probed their efficiency for bond activation and hydrogen evolution from water. These clusters have geometries that are related to the edge sites on bulk MoS2 surfaces that are known to play a role in hydrogen evolution. Using density functional theory, the electronic structures of these clusters and their chemical reactivity with water have been investigated. The reaction mechanism involves the initial formation of hydroxyl and thiol groups, hydrogen migration to form an intermediate with a metal hydride bond, and finally, combination of a hydride and a proton to eliminate H2. Using this mechanism, free energy profiles of the reactions of the three metal clusters with water have been constructed. Unlike previous reactivity studies of other related cluster systems, there is no overall energy barrier in the reactions involving the M3S4 systems. The energy required for the rate-determining step of the reaction (the initial addition of the cluster by water) is lower than the separated reactants (-0.8 kcal/mol for Mo and -5.1 kcal/mol for W). They confirm the M3S4- cluster's ability to efficiently activate the chemical bonds in water to release H2. Though the W3S3- cluster is not as efficient at bond activation, it provides insights into the factors that contribute to the success of the M3S4 anionic systems in hydrogen evolution.

  7. Star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.

    2006-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of

  8. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  9. A study of a long duration B9 flare-CME event and associated shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Chen, P. F.; Fulara, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.

    2018-01-01

    We present and discuss here the observations of a small long duration GOES B-class flare associated with a quiescent filament eruption, a global EUV wave and a CME on 2011 May 11. The event was well observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GONG H α , STEREO and Culgoora spectrograph. As the filament erupted, ahead of the filament we observed the propagation of EIT wave fronts, as well as two flare ribbons on both sides of the polarity inversion line (PIL) on the solar surface. The observations show the co-existence of two types of EUV waves, i.e., a fast and a slow one. A type II radio burst with up to the third harmonic component was also associated with this event. The evolution of photospheric magnetic field showed flux emergence and cancellation at the filament site before its eruption.

  10. In Situ Heating of the 2007 May 19 CME Ejecta Detected by STEREO/PLASTIC and ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    conditions in the corona during the CME eruption. Rakowski, Laming & Lepri (2007) modeled the charge states of 8 ICMEs from the event list of Lynch et al...first type Let us assume that Bφ scale with time as an arbitrary function of the expansion param- eter , Bφ ∝ f(α/α0). The first type of solutions has Ar

  11. Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

  12. Assessing the gap between current and desirable needs in TUMS* CME Unit: participants' viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the limited resources for medical education it seems reasonable to specify the exact educational needs and make sure that these needs are met. In this respect determining priorities and appropriate educational strategies and teaching methods allows for optimum use of limited available resources. Purpose: To determine the perceived educational priorities and effective educational methods for five groups of medical care providers with respect to their views. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the perceived knowledge, and preferences of the participants. Five valid and reliable questionnaires were developed, verified by 4 CME experts, filled out during the planned programs and on receiving their temporary of final certificates by each participant in the relevant subgroup. SPSS 9.0 was used for the analysis of collected data. Results: Of the 3300 medical care providers who received the questionnaires, 2687 filled them out. The overall response rate was 81%. Educational needs based on the priorities in the questionnaires included required educational methods and techniques for the five subgroups and specific priorities for each subgroup. Among the most requested methods were: lectures accompanied by video (54.1%, lectures followed by questions and answers (49.3%, case presentations (37.5%, educational workshops (37.4%, education through the internet (26.4%, conventional lectures (23.9%, morning reports (16.4%, and education in the field (15.1%. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics were relevant to determine educational priorities and learning methods. For the most-preferred learning needs, the five subgroups suggested different topics. The observation suggests that the participants assess their learning needs closely related to their perceived job requirements. However, these perceived needs may not be well related to the participants, actual level of knowledge or skill Key words: NEEDS ASSESSMENT

  13. Laboratory Simulations of CME-Solar Wind Interactions Using a Coaxial Gun and Background Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B. H.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D.; Gilmore, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and predicting solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is of critical importance for mitigating their disruptive behavior on ground- and space-based technologies. While predictive models of CME propagation and evolution have relied primarily on sparse in-situ data along with ground and satellite images for validation purposes, emerging laboratory efforts have shown that CME-like events can be created with parameters applicable to the solar regime that may likewise aid in predictive modeling. A modified version of the coaxial plasma gun from the Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) [A. G. Lynn, Y. Zhang, S. C. Hsu, H. Li, W. Liu, M. Gilmore, and C. Watts, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 53 (2007)] will be used in conjunction with the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) basic plasma science device in order to observe the magnetic characteristics of CMEs as they propagate through the solar wind. The evolution of these interactions will be analyzed using a multi-tip Langmuir probe array, a 33-position B-dot probe array, and a high speed camera. The results of this investigation will be used alongside the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US 3-D MHD numerical code, which will be used to perform simulations of the coaxial plasma gun experiment. The results of these two approaches will be compared in order to validate the capabilities of the BATS-R-US code as well as to further our understanding of magnetic reconnection and other processes that take place as CMEs propagate through the solar wind. The details of the experimental setup as well as the analytical approach are discussed.

  14. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  15. Fuel mediated solution combustion synthesis of ZnO supported gold clusters and nanoparticles and their catalytic activity and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanu, T Inakhunbi; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T

    2014-11-21

    Nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles and semiconductor ZnO with wurtzite structure, made by solution combustion synthesis (SCS), as a function of the Zn/fuel ratio with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as fuel exhibit the presence of both nanoparticles and clusters. Atomic gold clusters present on the surface of ZnO nanorods which can be identified by XPS and SEM are easily monitored and characterized by positive ion MALDI experiments as mostly odd numbered clusters, Au3 to Au11 in decreasing amounts. Low concentrations of the fuel produce AuClO and nanoparticles (NPs), with no clusters. Au-ZnO nanocomposites at all [Au] exhibit single blue shifted plasmon absorption and corresponding photoluminescence (PL). Increasing particle size prefers surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scattering of metal that could lead to PL enhancement; however, available ZnO surface in the Au-ZnO composite becomes more important than the particle size of the composite with higher [Au]. The catalytic activity of these Au-ZnO nanocomposites tested on 4-nitrophenol clearly revealed the presence of an intermediate with both NPs and clusters playing different roles. An in vitro study of cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines revealed that these gold nanostructures have turned out to be powerful nanoagents for destruction of cancer cells even with small amounts of gold particles/clusters. The nanorods of ZnO, known to be nontoxic to normal cells, play a lesser role in the anticancer activity of these Au-ZnO nanocomposites.

  16. A primary school active break programme (ACTI-BREAK): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-09-19

    Levels of overall physical activity have been shown to decline across childhood. Schools are considered ideal settings to promote physical activity as children spend a large amount of their waking hours at school. Time-efficient physical activity strategies that demonstrate a positive impact on academic-related outcomes are needed to enable physical activity to be prioritised in the school day. The ACTI-BREAK programme requires classroom teachers to integrate active breaks; 5-min bursts of moderate-intensity physical activity into their classroom routine. Active breaks have been shown to be effective in improving academic-related outcomes, a potentially appealing aspect for teachers and schools. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the ACTI-BREAK programme on children's academic achievement. Secondary aims are to explore the impact of ACTI-BREAK on children's on-task behaviour and objectively measured physical activity levels. ACTI-BREAK is a 6-week, classroom-based, physical activity intervention. This pilot trial of the programme will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled design. Government primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia will be invited to participate in the programme in 2017. Randomisation will occur at the school level, with the aim to recruit six schools (three intervention and three control). The ACTI-BREAK programme is theoretically grounded, and was developed with input and guidance from current primary school teachers. Teachers from the intervention schools will receive a 45-min training session and be asked to incorporate ACTI-BREAKS into their classroom routine three times per day for 6 weeks. Intervention support will be provided via assisted delivery. The primary outcomes will be children's academic achievement in mathematics and reading. Children's on-task behaviour and school-day physical activity will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Process evaluation will also be

  17. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  18. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of V2O5 Cluster Modified N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Toluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V2O5 cluster-modified N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2/V2O5 nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by a facile impregnation-calcination method. The effects of V2O5 cluster loading content on visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were investigated for degradation of toluene in air. The results showed that the visible light activity of N-doped TiO2 was significantly enhanced by loading V2O5 clusters. The optimal V2O5 loading content was found to be 0.5 wt.%, reaching a removal ratio of 52.4% and a rate constant of 0.027 min−1, far exceeding that of unmodified N-doped TiO2. The enhanced activity is due to the deposition of V2O5 clusters on the surface of N-doped TiO2. The conduction band (CB potential of V2O5 (0.48 eV is lower than the CB level of N-doped TiO2 (−0.19 V, which favors the photogenerated electron transfer from CB of N-doped TiO2 to V2O5 clusters. This function of V2O5 clusters helps promote the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The present work not only displays a feasible route for the utilization of low cost V2O5 clusters as a substitute for noble metals in enhancing the photocatalysis but also demonstrates a facile method for preparation of highly active composite photocatalyst for large-scale applications.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic activity and cytocompatibility of Au25(Capt)18clusters photoexcited by blue LED light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Saori; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nishida, Erika; Takita, Hiroko; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Ushijima, Natsumi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au 25 (Capt) 18 ) clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation were evaluated. 1 O 2 generation of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420-460 nm) was detected by a methotrexate (MTX) probe. The antimicrobial effects of photoexcited Au clusters (0, 5, 50, and 500 μg/mL) on oral bacterial cells, such as Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , and Porphyromonas gingivalis , were assessed by morphological observations and bacterial growth experiments. Cytotoxicity testing of Au clusters and blue LED irradiation was then performed against NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the biological performance of Au clusters (500 μg/mL) was compared to an organic dye photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB; 10 and 100 μg/mL). We confirmed the 1 O 2 generation ability of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters through the fluorescence spectra of oxidized MTX. Successful application of photoexcited Au clusters to aPDT was demonstrated by dose-dependent decreases in the turbidity of oral bacterial cells. Morphological observation revealed that application of Au clusters stimulated destruction of bacterial cell walls and inhibited biofilm formation. Aggregation of Au clusters around bacterial cells was fluorescently observed. However, photoexcited Au clusters did not negatively affect the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of mammalian cells, particularly at lower doses. In addition, application of Au clusters demonstrated significantly better cytocompatibility compared to MB. We found that a combination of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters and blue LED irradiation exhibited good antimicrobial effects through 1 O 2

  20. Antimicrobial photodynamic activity and cytocompatibility of Au25(Capt)18 clusters photoexcited by blue LED light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Saori; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nishida, Erika; Takita, Hiroko; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Ushijima, Natsumi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au25(Capt)18) clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen (1O2). Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation were evaluated. 1O2 generation of Au25(Capt)18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420–460 nm) was detected by a methotrexate (MTX) probe. The antimicrobial effects of photoexcited Au clusters (0, 5, 50, and 500 μg/mL) on oral bacterial cells, such as Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were assessed by morphological observations and bacterial growth experiments. Cytotoxicity testing of Au clusters and blue LED irradiation was then performed against NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the biological performance of Au clusters (500 μg/mL) was compared to an organic dye photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB; 10 and 100 μg/mL). We confirmed the 1O2 generation ability of Au25(Capt)18 clusters through the fluorescence spectra of oxidized MTX. Successful application of photoexcited Au clusters to aPDT was demonstrated by dose-dependent decreases in the turbidity of oral bacterial cells. Morphological observation revealed that application of Au clusters stimulated destruction of bacterial cell walls and inhibited biofilm formation. Aggregation of Au clusters around bacterial cells was fluorescently observed. However, photoexcited Au clusters did not negatively affect the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of mammalian cells, particularly at lower doses. In addition, application of Au clusters demonstrated significantly better cytocompatibility compared to MB. We found that a combination of Au25(Capt)18 clusters and blue LED irradiation exhibited good antimicrobial effects through 1O2 generation and biosafe

  1. Effect of Water Clustering on the Activity of Candida antarctica Lipase B in Organic Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of initial water activity of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) medium on CALB (Candida antarctica lipase B) catalyzed esterification reaction is investigated using experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The experimental kinetic studies show that the initial...

  2. Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

  3. CmeABC Multidrug Efflux Pump Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance and Promotes Campylobacter jejuni Survival and Multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen that is recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The widespread use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter. In addition to a role in multidrug resistance (MDR), the Campylobacter CmeABC resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump may be involved in virulence. As a vehicle for pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for investigations of bacterial survival in the environment and the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and Acanthamoeba polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility. IMPORTANCE The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications for human health. In this study, we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and to multiply inside Acanthamoeba polyphaga; since these microorganisms can coexist in the same environment (e.g., on poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter. Our data suggest that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated synergistic effects of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role in both the antibiotic resistance and the virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered a good target for the development of antibacterial

  4. CmeABC multidrug efflux pump contributes to antibiotic resistance and promotes Campylobacter jejuni survival and multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and A. polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga, but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility.Importance The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications to human health. In this study we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and multiply inside Acanthamoeba. polyphaga Since these microorganisms can co-exist in the same environment (e.g. in poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter Our data suggests that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump also plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated a synergistic effect of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role both in antibiotic resistance and virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered as a good target for the development of antibacterial drugs against this

  5. Prospective effects of pedometer use and class competitions on physical activity in youth: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchert, Vivien; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James; Weisser, Burkhard; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the immediate effects of a school-based multi-component program to foster a physically active lifestyle in adolescence. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-assessment in 2014, 29 schools with 1162 8th grade students (48% girls) from Germany were included. Age ranged from 12 to 17 years (M=13.74; SD=0.67). While the control group attended education as usual, students in the intervention group received pedometers and took part in a class competition over a time period of 12 weeks. Classes with the most steps and best creative ideas to promote physical activity in everyday life were awarded. Primary outcomes included out-of-school sports activities (h/week), moderate to vigorous physical activity (days/week with a minimum of 60 min), active commuting (min/day), doing chores (min/day), and sedentary behavior (h/day) assessed through self-administered questionnaires as well as cardiorespiratory fitness measured using the 20-m shuttle-run test (completed laps). Significant interaction terms between group and wave of assessment were found on out-of-school sports activities (b=-1.09 [-1.89; -0.29], p=0.008), moderate to vigorous physical activity (b=-0.29 [-0.47; -0.10], p=0.002), and active commuting (b=-20.41 [-32.32; -8.49], p=0.001): students in the intervention group showed a higher increase of physical activity levels than students in the control group. The intervention effect on cardiorespiratory fitness missed significance marginally (b=-1.52 [-3.14; 0.98], p=0.065), There was no effect on students' sedentary behavior (b=0.06 [-0.72; 0.84], p=0.881). An easy to administer school-based physical activity program (12 weeks) may enhance students' leisure-time physical activity. ISRCTN49482118. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender-specific effects of physical activity on children's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resaland, G K; Moe, V F; Bartholomew, J B; Andersen, L B; McKay, H A; Anderssen, S A; Aadland, E

    2017-11-29

    Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015. Academic performance in numeracy, reading, and English was measured and a composite score was calculated. Children were split into low, middle and high academic performing tertiles. 3-way-interactions for group (intervention, control)∗gender (boys, girls)∗academic performance (tertiles) were investigated using mixed model regression. There was a significant, 3-way-interaction (p=0.044). Both boys (ES=0.11) and girls (ES=0.18) in the low performing tertile had a similar beneficial trend. In contrast, middle (ES=0.03) and high performing boys (ES=0.09) responded with small beneficial trends, while middle (ES=-0.11) and high performing girls (ES=-0.06) responded with negative trends. ASK was associated with a significant increase in academic performance for low performing children. It is likely that active learning benefited children most in need of adapted education but it may have a null or negative effect for those girls who are already performing well in the sedentary classroom. Differences in gendered responses are discussed as a possible explanation for these results. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclotide Structure–Activity Relationships: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Linking Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity to the Clustering of Physicochemical Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Göransson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity. PMID:24682019

  8. Identification of a genetic cluster influencing memory performance and hippocampal activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2006-03-14

    Experimental work in animals has shown that memory formation depends on a cascade of molecular events. Here we show that variability of human memory performance is related to variability in genes encoding proteins of this signaling cascade, including the NMDA and metabotrobic glutamate receptors, adenylyl cyclase, CAMKII, PKA, and PKC. The individual profile of genetic variability in these signaling molecules correlated significantly with episodic memory performance (P < 0.00001). Moreover, functional MRI during memory formation revealed that this genetic profile correlated with activations in memory-related brain regions, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The present study indicates that genetic variability in the human homologues of memory-related signaling molecules contributes to interindividual differences in human memory performance and memory-related brain activations.

  9. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to promote physical activity in adolescents: the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola D. Ridgers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent technological advances provide an alternative yet underutilised opportunity for promoting physical activity in youth. The primary aim of the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA Study is to examine the short- and longer-term impact of a wearable activity monitor combined with digital behaviour change resources on adolescents’ daily physical activity levels. Methods/Design RAW-PA is a 12 week, multicomponent physical activity intervention that utilises a popular activity tracker (Fitbit® Flex and supporting digital materials that will be delivered online via social media. The resources target key behaviour change techniques. The intervention structure and components have been informed by participatory research principles. RAW-PA will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design with schools as the unit of randomisation. Twelve schools located in Melbourne, Australia, will allocated to either the intervention or wait-list control group. The target sample size is 300 Year 8 adolescents (aged 13–14 years. Participants’ moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity will be the primary outcome. Survey measures will be completed. Process factors (e.g. feasibility, acceptability/appeal, fidelity will also be collected. Discussion To our knowledge, this study will provide some of the first evidence concerning the effect of wearable activity trackers and digital behaviour change resources on adolescents’ physical activity levels. This study will provide insights into the use of such technologies for physical activity promotion, which may have a significant impact on health education, promotion, practice and policy. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12616000899448 . Date of registration: July 7, 2016.

  10. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to promote physical activity in adolescents: the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Ball, Kylie; Macfarlane, Susie; Lai, Samuel K; Richards, Kara; Ngan, Winsfred; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-04

    Recent technological advances provide an alternative yet underutilised opportunity for promoting physical activity in youth. The primary aim of the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study is to examine the short- and longer-term impact of a wearable activity monitor combined with digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' daily physical activity levels. RAW-PA is a 12 week, multicomponent physical activity intervention that utilises a popular activity tracker (Fitbit® Flex) and supporting digital materials that will be delivered online via social media. The resources target key behaviour change techniques. The intervention structure and components have been informed by participatory research principles. RAW-PA will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design with schools as the unit of randomisation. Twelve schools located in Melbourne, Australia, will allocated to either the intervention or wait-list control group. The target sample size is 300 Year 8 adolescents (aged 13-14 years). Participants' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity will be the primary outcome. Survey measures will be completed. Process factors (e.g. feasibility, acceptability/appeal, fidelity) will also be collected. To our knowledge, this study will provide some of the first evidence concerning the effect of wearable activity trackers and digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' physical activity levels. This study will provide insights into the use of such technologies for physical activity promotion, which may have a significant impact on health education, promotion, practice and policy. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12616000899448 . Date of registration: July 7, 2016.

  11. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a physical activity loyalty scheme for behaviour change maintenance: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Brennan, Sarah F; Tang, Jianjun; Smith, Oliver J; Murray, Jennifer; Tully, Mark A; Patterson, Chris; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Prior, Lindsay; French, David P; Adams, Jean; McIntosh, Emma; Kee, Frank

    2016-07-22

    Increasing physical activity in the workplace can provide employee physical and mental health benefits, and employer economic benefits through reduced absenteeism and increased productivity. The workplace is an opportune setting to encourage habitual activity. However, there is limited evidence on effective behaviour change interventions that lead to maintained physical activity. This study aims to address this gap and help build the necessary evidence base for effective, and cost-effective, workplace interventions. This cluster randomised control trial will recruit 776 office-based employees from public sector organisations in Belfast and Lisburn city centres, Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated by cluster to either the Intervention Group or Control Group (waiting list control). The 6-month intervention consists of rewards (retail vouchers, based on similar principles to high street loyalty cards), feedback and other evidence-based behaviour change techniques. Sensors situated in the vicinity of participating workplaces will promote and monitor minutes of physical activity undertaken by participants. Both groups will complete all outcome measures. The primary outcome is steps per day recorded using a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701) for 7 consecutive days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes include health, mental wellbeing, quality of life, work absenteeism and presenteeism, and use of healthcare resources. Process measures will assess intervention "dose", website usage, and intervention fidelity. An economic evaluation will be conducted from the National Health Service, employer and retailer perspective using both a cost-utility and cost-effectiveness framework. The inclusion of a discrete choice experiment will further generate values for a cost-benefit analysis. Participant focus groups will explore who the intervention worked for and why, and interviews with retailers will elucidate their views on the sustainability

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a physical activity loyalty scheme for behaviour change maintenance: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth F. Hunter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in the workplace can provide employee physical and mental health benefits, and employer economic benefits through reduced absenteeism and increased productivity. The workplace is an opportune setting to encourage habitual activity. However, there is limited evidence on effective behaviour change interventions that lead to maintained physical activity. This study aims to address this gap and help build the necessary evidence base for effective, and cost-effective, workplace interventions. Methods/design This cluster randomised control trial will recruit 776 office-based employees from public sector organisations in Belfast and Lisburn city centres, Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated by cluster to either the Intervention Group or Control Group (waiting list control. The 6-month intervention consists of rewards (retail vouchers, based on similar principles to high street loyalty cards, feedback and other evidence-based behaviour change techniques. Sensors situated in the vicinity of participating workplaces will promote and monitor minutes of physical activity undertaken by participants. Both groups will complete all outcome measures. The primary outcome is steps per day recorded using a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701 for 7 consecutive days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes include health, mental wellbeing, quality of life, work absenteeism and presenteeism, and use of healthcare resources. Process measures will assess intervention “dose”, website usage, and intervention fidelity. An economic evaluation will be conducted from the National Health Service, employer and retailer perspective using both a cost-utility and cost-effectiveness framework. The inclusion of a discrete choice experiment will further generate values for a cost-benefit analysis. Participant focus groups will explore who the intervention worked for and why, and interviews with

  13. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Peter L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area. Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools. The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54, age (p = .17, BMI (p = .59, waist

  14. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  15. Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Aki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Taichiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Takebayashi, Toru; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-06-30

    To examine the relation between lifestyle and the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnostic components in a general population, and to find a means of preventing the development of MetS components. We examined baseline data from 3,365 participants (2,714 men and 651 women) aged 19 to 69 years who underwent a physical examination, lifestyle survey, and blood chemical examination. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We defined four components for MetS in this study as follows: 1) high BP: systolic BP > or = 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration or = 150 mg/dL, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) Impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar level > or = 110 mg/d, or if less than 8 hours after meals > or = 140 mg/dL), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2). Those who had 0 to 4 MetS diagnostic components accounted for 1,726, 949, 484, 190, and 16 participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors contributing to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b=0.600, p physical activity was inversely associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components, whereas smoking was not associated.

  16. Activity-dependent formation and location of voltage-gated sodium channel clusters at a CNS nerve terminal during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Berret, Emmanuelle; Kim, Jun Hee

    2017-02-01

    In auditory pathways, the precision of action potential (AP) propagation depends on axon myelination and high densities of voltage-gated Na (Nav) channels clustered at nodes of Ranvier. Changes in Nav channel expression at the heminode, the final node before the nerve terminal, can alter AP invasion into the presynaptic terminal. We studied the activity-dependent formation of Nav channel clusters before and after hearing onset at postnatal day 12 in the rat and mouse auditory brain stem. In rats, the Nav channel cluster at the heminode formed progressively during the second postnatal week, around hearing onset, whereas the Nav channel cluster at the nodes was present before hearing onset. Initiation of heminodal Nav channel clustering was correlated with the expression of scaffolding protein ankyrinG and paranodal protein Caspr. However, in whirler mice with congenital deafness, heminodal Nav channels did not form clusters and maintained broad expression, but Nav channel clustering was normal at the nodes. In addition, a clear difference in the distance from the heminodal Nav channel to the calyx across the mediolateral axis of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) developed after hearing onset. In the medial MNTB, where neurons respond best to high-frequency sounds, the heminodal Nav channel cluster was located closer to the terminal than in the lateral MNTB, where neurons respond best to low-frequency sounds. Thus sound-mediated neuronal activities are potentially associated with the refinement of the heminode adjacent to the presynaptic terminal in the auditory brain stem. Clustering of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels and their distribution along the axon, specifically at the unmyelinated axon segment next to the nerve terminal, are essential for tuning propagated action potentials. Nav channel clusters near the nerve terminal and their location as a function of neuronal position along the mediolateral axis are controlled by auditory inputs after

  17. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition programme in retirement villages: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Anne-Marie; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy H; Kerr, Deborah A; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter A

    2014-09-25

    Physical activity levels of Australia's ageing population are declining and coincidentally rates of overweight and obesity are increasing. Adequate levels of physical activity and a healthy diet are recognised as important lifestyle factors for the maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases. Retirement village (RV) residents rarely engage in physical activity and nutrition programmes offered, with poor attendance and low use of existing facilities such as on-site fitness centres and classes and nutrition seminars. The RV provides a unique setting to access and engage with this older target group, to test the effectiveness of strategies to increase levels of physical activity, improve nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. This cluster-randomised controlled trial will evaluate a physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight management intervention for insufficiently active ('not achieving 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week') adults aged 60-75 residing in RV's. A total of 400 participants will be recruited from 20 randomly selected RV's in Perth, Western Australia. Villages will be assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10) each containing 200 participants. The Retirement Village Physical Activity and Nutrition for Seniors (RVPANS) programme is a home-based physical activity and nutrition programme that includes educational resources, along with facilitators who will motivate and guide the participants during the 6-month intervention. Descriptive statistics and mixed regression models will be performed to assess the intervention effects. This trial will evaluate an intervention for the modification of health risk factors in the RV setting. Such research conducted in RV's has been limited. Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR128/2012). Dissemination of the study results will occur through publications, reports, conference presentations and community

  18. Towards Cluster-Assembled Materials of True Monodispersity in Size and Chemical Environment: Synthesis, Dynamics and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT This project by the Physical Chemistry group at TUM focused on the surface dynamics of size-selected clusters...Technische Universität München This project by the Physical Chemistry group at TUM focused on the surface dynamics of size- selected clusters, studied with...implementation can now routinely be used and has been applied for first investigations of surface reactions and cluster diffusion. In parallel to these

  19. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  20. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Griseofulvin Analogues as Inhibitors of Centrosomal Clustering in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34 griseoful......Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34...

  1. Self-assembled monolayer of organic iodine on a Au surface for attachment of redox-active metal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Dubey, Manish; Bernasek, Steven L; Dismukes, G Charles

    2007-07-17

    The attachment of a bifunctional iodo-organo-phosphinate compound to gold (Au) surfaces via chemisorption of the iodine atom is described and used to chelate a redox-active metal cluster via the phosphinate group. XPS, AFM, and electrochemical measurements show that (4-iodo-phenyl)phenyl phosphinic acid (IPPA) forms a tightly bound self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au surfaces. The surface coverage of an IPPA monolayer on Au was quantified by an electrochemical method and found to be 0.40 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm2, roughly corresponding to 0.4 monolayers. We show that the Au/IPPA SAM, but not the underivatized Au, adsorbs Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 from solution by a phosphinate exchange reaction to yield Au/IPPA/Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)5 SAM. The resulting SAM is firmly bound and not removed by sonication, as confirmed by manganese XPS (Mn 2p1/2) and by AFM. Electrochemistry confirms that Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 is anchored on the Au/IPPA surface and that redox chemistry can be mediated between the electrode and the surface-attached complex. Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6 contains the reactive Mn4O46+ cubane core, a redox-active bioinspired catalyst.

  2. Pulmonary parenchyma segmentation in thin CT image sequences with spectral clustering and geodesic active contour model based on similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nana; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhao, Huilan; Qiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    While the popular thin layer scanning technology of spiral CT has helped to improve diagnoses of lung diseases, the large volumes of scanning images produced by the technology also dramatically increase the load of physicians in lesion detection. Computer-aided diagnosis techniques like lesions segmentation in thin CT sequences have been developed to address this issue, but it remains a challenge to achieve high segmentation efficiency and accuracy without much involvement of human manual intervention. In this paper, we present our research on automated segmentation of lung parenchyma with an improved geodesic active contour model that is geodesic active contour model based on similarity (GACBS). Combining spectral clustering algorithm based on Nystrom (SCN) with GACBS, this algorithm first extracts key image slices, then uses these slices to generate an initial contour of pulmonary parenchyma of un-segmented slices with an interpolation algorithm, and finally segments lung parenchyma of un-segmented slices. Experimental results show that the segmentation results generated by our method are close to what manual segmentation can produce, with an average volume overlap ratio of 91.48%.

  3. Double-stranded endonuclease activity in Bacillus halodurans clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fran; Haitjema, Charles; Huang, Qingqiu; DeLisa, Matthew P; Ke, Ailong

    2012-10-19

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against extrachromosomal genetic elements. Cas2 is a universally conserved core CRISPR-associated protein required for the acquisition of new spacers for CRISPR adaptation. It was previously characterized as an endoribonuclease with preference for single-stranded (ss)RNA. Here, we show using crystallography, mutagenesis, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the Bacillus halodurans Cas2 (Bha_Cas2) from the subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR instead possesses metal-dependent endonuclease activity against double-stranded (ds)DNA. This activity is consistent with its putative function in producing new spacers for insertion into the 5'-end of the CRISPR locus. Mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that a single divalent metal ion (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)), coordinated by a symmetric Asp pair in the Bha_Cas2 dimer, is involved in the catalysis. We envision that a pH-dependent conformational change switches Cas2 into a metal-binding competent conformation for catalysis. We further propose that the distinct substrate preferences among Cas2 proteins may be determined by the sequence and structure in the β1-α1 loop.

  4. Ethylene C-H Bond Activation by Neutral Mn2O5 Clusters under Visible Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2016-05-05

    A photo excitation fast flow reactor coupled with a single-photon ionization (118 nm, 10.5 eV) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) instrument is used to investigate reactions of neutral MnmOn clusters with C2H4 under visible (532 nm) light irradiation. Association products Mn2O5(C2H4) and Mn3O6,7(C2H4) are observed without irradiation. Under light irradiation, the Mn2O5(C2H4) TOFMS feature decreases, and a new species, Mn2O5H2, is observed. This light-activated reaction suggests that the visible radiation can induce the chemistry, Mn2O5 + C2H4 + hv(532 nm) → Mn2O5*(C2H4) → Mn2O5H2 + C2H2. High barriers (0.67 and 0.59 eV) are obtained on the ground-state potential energy surface (PES); the reaction is barrierless and thermodynamically favorable on the first excited-state PES, as performed by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The calculational and experimental results suggest that Mn2O5-like structures on manganese oxide surfaces are the appropriate active catalytic sites for visible light photocatalysis of ethylene dehydrogenation.

  5. Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2017-07-11

    The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical

  6. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  7. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might increase your risk. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  8. Clustering of body composition, blood pressure and physical activity in Portuguese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Santos, Daniel; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Souza, Michele Caroline; Diego, Vincent Paul; Maia, José

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: (i) to identify familial resemblances in body fat, blood pressure (BP) and total physical activity (TPA); (ii) to estimate the magnitude of their genetic and environmental influences; and (iii) to investigate shared familial aggregation among these phenotypes. The sample comprised 260 nuclear families from Portugal. Body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. BP was measured by an oscillometric device. TPA was estimated by the Baecke questionnaire. Familial correlation analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate maximal heritability, genetic and environmental correlations. Familial intra-trait correlations ranged from 0.15-0.38. Genetic and common environmental factors explained from 30%--44% of fat mass depots and BP and 24% of TPA. Genetic correlations were significant between BP and the fat mass traits (p < 0.05). Environmental correlations were statistically significant between diastolic BP and total body fat, trunk fat and arm fat (p < 0.05) and TPA and other phenotypes. The results suggest familial resemblance in the variation of body fat, BP and TPA, showing partial pleiotropic effects in the variation in body fat phenotypes and BP. TPA only shares common environmental influences with BP and body fat traits.

  9. Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of photo-activated adenylate cyclase nano-clusters from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2012-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Protein color center emissions were observed in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 900 nm from nano-clusters of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adenylyl cyclase nPAC in aqueous pH 7.5 buffer dissolved only to nano-clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-cluster size was determined by light attenuation (scattering) measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the nano-clusters was growing by coalescing during observation period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In nPAC nano-clusters color centers were present in emission range of 360-900 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nPAC color center emission is compared with fluorescent protein emission. - Abstract: The spectroscopic characteristics of BLUF (BLUF = sensor of blue light using flavin) domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC = Naegleria photo-activated cyclase) samples from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain is studied at room temperature. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic development in the dark was investigated over two weeks. Attenuation coefficient spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence excitation distributions were measured. Thawing of frozen nPAC samples gave solutions with varying protein nano-cluster size and varying flavin, tyrosine, tryptophan, and protein color-center emission. Protein color-center emission was observed in the wavelength range of 360-900 nm with narrow emission bands of small Stokes shift and broad emission bands of large Stokes shift. The emission spectra evolved in time with protein nano-cluster aging.

  10. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseng, Marta Næss

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  11. Active versus passive adverse event reporting after pediatric chiropractic manual therapy: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety performance can be assessed with several systems, including passive and active surveillance. Passive surveillance systems provide opportunity for health care personnel to confidentially and voluntarily report incidents, including adverse events, occurring in their work environment. Active surveillance systems systematically monitor patient encounters to seek detailed information about adverse events that occur in work environments; unlike passive surveillance, active surveillance allows for collection of both numerator (number of adverse events) and denominator (number of patients seen) data. Chiropractic manual therapy is commonly used in both adults and children, yet few studies have been done to evaluate the safety of chiropractic manual therapy for children. In an attempt to evaluate this, this study will compare adverse event reporting in passive versus active surveillance systems after chiropractic manual therapy in the pediatric population. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to enroll 70 physicians of chiropractic (unit of randomization) to either passive or active surveillance system to report adverse events that occur after treatment for 60 consecutive pediatric (13 years of age and younger) patient visits (unit of analysis). A modified enrollment process with a two-phase consent procedure will be implemented to maintain provider blinding and minimize dropouts. The first phase of consent is for the provider to confirm their interest in a trial investigating the safety of chiropractic manual therapy. The second phase ensures that they understand the specific requirements for the group to which they were randomized. Percentages, incidence estimates, and 95% confidence intervals will be used to describe the count of reported adverse events in each group. The primary outcome will be the number and quality of the adverse event reports in the active versus the passive surveillance group. With 80% power and 5% one-sided significance

  12. Two-year longitudinal analysis of a cluster randomized trial of physical activity promotion by general practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Grandes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity promotion programme carried out by general practitioners with inactive patients in routine care.Pragmatic, cluster randomised clinical trial conducted in eleven public primary care centres in Spain. Fifty-six general practitioners (GPs were randomly assigned to intervention (29 or standard care (27 groups. They assessed the physical activity level of a systematic sample of patients in routine practice and recruited 4317 individuals (2248 intervention and 2069 control who did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Intervention GPs provided advice to all patients and a physical activity prescription to the subgroup attending an additional appointment (30%. A third of these prescriptions were opportunistically repeated. Control GPs provided standard care. Primary outcome measure was the change in self-reported physical activity from baseline to six, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. A total of 3691 patients (85% were included in the longitudinal analysis and overall trends over the whole 24 month follow-up were significantly better in the intervention group (p<0.01. The greatest differences with the control group were observed at six months (adjusted difference 1.7 MET*hr/wk [95% CI, 0.8 to 2.6], 25 min/wk [95% CI, 11.3 to 38.4], and a 5.3% higher percentage of patients meeting minimum recommendations [95% CI: 2.1% to 8.8%] NNT = 19. These differences were not statistically significant at 12 and 24 months. No differences were found in secondary outcomes. A significant difference was maintained until 24 months in the proportion of patients achieving minimum recommendation in the subgroup that received a repeat prescription (adjusted difference 10.2%, 95% CI 1.5% to 19.4%.General practitioners are effective at increasing the level of physical activity among their inactive patients during the initial six-months of

  13. Physical activity after commitment lotteries: examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-02-26

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week, three-arm trial across six company gyms, we tested if commitment lotteries with behavioral economic underpinnings would promote physical activity among overweight adults. In previous work, we presented an effective 26-week intervention. In the present paper we analyzed maintenance of goal attainment at 52-week follow-up and the development of weight over time. We compared weight and goal attainment (gym attendance ≥ 2 per week) between three arms that-in the intervention period- consisted of (I) weekly short-term lotteries for 13 weeks; (II) the same short-term lotteries in combination with an additional long-term lottery after 26 weeks; and (III) a control arm without lottery-deadlines. After a successful 26-week intervention, goal attainment declined between weeks 27 and 52 in the long-term lottery arm, but remained higher than in the control group. Goal attainment did not differ between the short-term lottery arm and control arm. Weight declined slightly in all arms in the first 13 weeks of the trial and remained stable from there on. Commitment lotteries can support regular gym attendance up to 52 weeks, but more research is needed to achieve higher levels of maintenance and weight loss.

  14. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  15. A cluster randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents' physical activity and motivation in physical education: results of the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Sanders, Taren; Peralta, Louisa R; Bennie, Andrew; Jackson, Ben; Taylor, Ian M; Lubans, David R

    2013-11-01

    Physical education (PE) programs aim to promote physical activity (PA) and reach most school-aged youth. However, PA levels within PE lessons are often low. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of three self-determination theory-based motivational strategies on PA and sedentary behavior, as well as their hypothesized antecedents during PE lessons. Data were collected in Sydney, Australia (October-December 2011). After baseline testing, teachers (n=16) and their classes (n=288 students; M=13.6 years, 50.4% male) were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategy conditions: (1) explaining relevance; (2) providing choice; (3) complete free choice; or (4) usual practice. Teachers then delivered the assigned strategy. Primary outcomes were accelerometer-assessed PA and student motivation during lessons. Secondary outcomes included sedentary behavior, perceptions of teachers' support and psychological needs satisfaction. The 'free choice' intervention increased PA (pPE lessons. © 2013.

  16. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  17. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  18. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Freia; Fischer, Joachim E; Hoffmann, Kristina; Renz-Polster, Herbert

    2010-01-31

    With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and individual levels. Teacher

  19. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bakker, I.; Mechelen, W. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness.Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an

  20. Cost-effectiveness of a long-term Internet-delivered worksite health promotion programme on physical activity and nutrition: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); S. Polinder (Suzanne); F.J. Bredt (Folef); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the

  1. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities : a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Wijck, Ruud; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically

  2. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-Speet, M. van; Evenhuis, H.M.; Empelen, P. van; Wijck, R. van; Echteld, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health

  3. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: A study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Schijndel-Speet (Marieke); H.M. Evenhuis (Heleen); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); R. van Wijck (Ruud); M.A. Echteld (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  5. The bacterial Entner-Doudoroff pathway does not replace glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to the lack of activity of iron-sulfur cluster enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisch, Feline; Boles, Eckhard

    2014-02-10

    Replacement of the glycolytic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a bacterial Entner-Doudoroff pathway (EDP) would result in lower ATP production and therefore a lower biomass yield is expected that would further allow higher products yields in the fermentation of sugars. To establish catabolism of glucose via the EDP in S. cerevisiae requires expression of only two additional enzyme activities, 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (PGDH) and KDPG aldolase. In this work, KDPG aldolase from Escherichia coli could be successfully expressed in the yeast cytosol with very high enzyme activity. Nevertheless, simultaneous expression of KDPG aldolase and a codon optimized PGDH gene of E. coli could not replace glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway in growth experiments. It could be shown that this was due to the very low enzyme activity of PGDH. This bacterial enzyme is a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster protein. Several attempts to improve the availability of iron-sulfur clusters or iron in the yeast cells, to attract the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery to Leu1-PGDH fusion proteins or to localize the PGDH in the mitochondria did not result in improved enzyme activities. From our results we conclude that establishing functional expression of iron-sulfur cluster enzymes will be a major task for the integration of the EDP and other biochemical pathways in yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Iontophoretic transport of associates based on porous Keplerate-type cluster polyoxometalate Mo72Fe30 and containing biologically active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroushko, A. A.; Gagarin, I. D.; Tonkushina, M. O.; Grzhegorzhevskii, K. V.; Danilova, I. G.; Gette, I. F.; Kim, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of iontophoretic transport through the native membranes of biologically active substances (vitamin B1 and insulin) associated with porous clusters Mo72Fe30 polyoxometalate of the Keplerate type is demonstrated for the first time in an experimental setup. The diffusion coefficient is estimated. The possibility of transferring Keplerate ions with a protective coating of biocompatible polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone is also shown.

  7. Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Greene, Jerry L; Hansen, David M; Gibson, Cheryl A; Sullivan, Debra K; Poggio, John; Mayo, Matthew S; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Herrmann, Stephen D; Honas, Jeffery J; Scudder, Mark R; Betts, Jessica L; Henley, Katherine; Hunt, Suzanne L; Washburn, Richard A

    2017-06-01

    We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years. On average 55min/week of A+PACC lessons were delivered each week across the intervention. Baseline WIAT-III scores (math, reading, spelling) were significantly higher in students in A+PAAC compared with control schools and improved in both groups across 3years. However, linear mixed modeling, accounting for baseline between group differences in WIAT-III scores, ethnicity, family income, and cardiovascular fitness, found no significant impact of A+PAAC on any of the academic achievement outcomes as determined by non-significant group by time interactions. A+PAAC neither diminished or improved academic achievement across 3-years in elementary school children compared with controls. Our target of 100min/week of active lessons was not achieved; however, students attending A+PAAC schools received an additional 55min/week of MVPA which may be associated with both physical and mental health benefits, without a reduction in time devoted to academic instruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A solar type II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction: simultaneous radio and EUV imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yao; Feng, Li; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the 3-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two STEREO spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio imaging data to infer the 3-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the CME EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  9. Theory-based behavioral intervention increases self-reported physical activity in South African men: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Ngwane, Zolani; Zhang, Jingwen; Heeren, G Anita; Icard, Larry D; O'Leary, Ann; Mtose, Xoliswa; Teitelman, Anne; Carty, Craig

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether a health-promotion intervention increases South African men's adherence to physical-activity guidelines. We utilized a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Eligible clusters, residential neighborhoods near East London, South Africa, were matched in pairs. Within randomly selected pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to theory-based, culturally congruent health-promotion intervention encouraging physical activity or attention-matched HIV/STI risk-reduction control intervention. Men residing in the neighborhoods and reporting coitus in the previous 3 months were eligible. Primary outcome was self-reported individual-level adherence to physical-activity guidelines averaged over 6-month and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Data collectors, but not facilitators or participants, were blind to group assignment. Primary outcome intention-to-treat analysis included 22 of 22 clusters and 537 of 572 men in the health-promotion intervention and 22 of 22 clusters and 569 of 609 men in the attention-control intervention. Model-estimated probability of meeting physical-activity guidelines was 51.0% in the health-promotion intervention and 44.7% in attention-matched control (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63), adjusting for baseline prevalence and clustering from 44 neighborhoods. A theory-based culturally congruent intervention increased South African men's self-reported physical activity, a key contributor to deaths from non-communicable diseases in South Africa. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490359. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. H2 binding to the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase studied by multiconfigurational and coupled-cluster methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Geng; Phung, Quan Manh; Hallaert, Simon D; Pierloot, Kristine; Ryde, Ulf

    2017-04-19

    [NiFe] hydrogenases catalyse the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons. This seemingly simple reaction has attracted much attention because of the prospective use of H2 as a clean fuel. In this paper, we have studied how H2 binds to the active site of this enzyme. Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) optimisation was performed to obtain the geometries, using both the TPSS and B3LYP density-functional theory (DFT) methods and considering both the singlet and triplet states of the Ni(ii) ion. To get more accurate energies and obtain a detailed account of the surroundings, we performed calculations with 819 atoms in the QM region. Moreover, coupled-cluster calculations with singles, doubles, and perturbatively treated triples (CCSD(T)) and cumulant-approximated second-order perturbation theory based on the density-matrix renormalisation group (DMRG-CASPT2) were carried out using three models to decide which DFT methods give the most accurate structures and energies. Our calculations show that H2 binding to Ni in the singlet state is the most favourable by at least 47 kJ mol(-1). In addition, the TPSS functional gives more accurate energies than B3LYP for this system.

  11. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  12. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of the Erupting Magnetic Flux in the May 12 1997 CME Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.

    2010-12-01

    The identification of erupting magnetic fluxes in solar CMEs is a big challenge from both computational and theoretical points of view. We have attacked this problem by studying the May 12 1997 CME event with the help of two powerful tools: (1) Our numerical MHD model of erupting magnetic configurations; and (2) Our generalized field line mapping technique for analyzing their magnetic structure. This approach allows us to identify the building blocks of such configurations by computing all their separatrix and quasi-separatrix surfaces that serve as interfaces between such blocks. The latter include, in particular, a flare arcade and erupting magnetic flux rope, which we relate to the observed flare ribbons and EUV dimmings of the event. On the basis of this analysis, we have also estimated the magnetic fluxes associated with these blocks at several moments in time. This provides a solid basis for a very detailed comparison of our MHD model with observational data of this eruption. Such a comparison helps us to verify our model and understand the physical processes and observed peculiarities of this event in conjunction with the dynamics of the underlying magnetic structure.

  14. On the activation energy for the formation of a critical size water cluster in structure I and structure II gas hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Høvring, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering In the present thesis, experiments have been performed in order to study the activation energy for the formation of a stable, critical size water cluster in structure I and structure II gas hydrates. This activation energy represents an energy barrier for the nucleation process forming the required particle (nuclei) size to trigger macroscopic hydrate growth. The experiments were carried out in different laboratory high pressure cells, but of eq...

  15. On the activation energy for the formation of a critical size water cluster in structure I and structure II gas hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Høvring, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In the present thesis, experiments have been performed in order to study the activation energy for the formation of a stable, critical size water cluster in structure I and structure II gas hydrates. This activation energy represents an energy barrier for the nucleation process forming the required particle (nuclei) size to trigger macroscopic hydrate growth. The experiments were carried out in different laboratory high pressure cells, but of equal size and geometry. Studies were conducte...

  16. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  17. About the Clusters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Innovation Clusters Program advises cluster organizations, encourages collaboration between clusters, tracks U.S. environmental technology clusters, and connects EPA programs to cluster needs.

  18. A Comparative Study of Shock Structures for the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. C.; Liou, K.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play an important role in space weather. For example, solar energetic particles are accelerated at the shock and storm sudden commencements are produced by the impingement of the Earth by the shocks. Here, we study shocks associated with two major CME events - the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME events, using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics model (H3DMHD). The H3DMHD (Wu et al. 2007, JGR) combines the kinematic solar wind model (HAF) for regions near the solar surface (2.5-18 Rs) and a 3D magnetohydrodynamics model (Han et al. 1988), which takes output from HAF at 18 Rs and propagates outward up to 1.7 AU. The H3DMHD code has been fully tested and is capable of simulating disturbances propagating in the solar wind. We will focus on the temporal and spatial structure of the CME-driven shocks, including the shock type and strength.

  19. A Hierarchical Relationship between the Fluence Spectra and CME Kinematics in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Radio Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Yashiro, S.; Thakur, N.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2017-09-01

    We report on further evidence that solar energetic particles are organized by the kinematic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)[1]. In particular, we focus on the starting frequency of type II bursts, which is related to the distance from the Sun where the radio emission starts. We find that the three groups of solar energetic particle (SEP) events known to have distinct values of CME initial acceleration, also have distinct average starting frequencies of the associated type II bursts. SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE) have the highest starting frequency (107 MHz), while those associated with filament eruption (FE) in quiescent regions have the lowest starting frequency (22 MHz); regular SEP events have intermediate starting frequency (81 MHz). Taking the onset time of type II bursts as the time of shock formation, we determine the shock formation heights measured from the Sun center. We find that the shocks form on average closest to the Sun (1.51 Rs) in GLE events, farthest from the Sun in FE SEP events (5.38 Rs), and at intermediate distances in regular SEP events (1.72 Rs). Finally, we present the results of a case study of a CME with high initial acceleration (∼3 km s-2) and a type II radio burst with high starting frequency (∼200 MHz) but associated with a minor SEP event. We find that the relation between the fluence spectral index and CME initial acceleration continues to hold even for this minor SEP event.

  20. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  1. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Kriemler, Susi; Lenz, Dorothea; Lehmacher, Walter; Hebestreit, Helge

    2010-07-12

    Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20,000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds), media use (questionnaire

  2. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO{sub 2} transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 009 (India); National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India); Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam [Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Tamilnadu 603 103 (India); Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy [Department of Chemistry, The American College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 002 (India); Viswanathan, Balasubramanian, E-mail: bvnathan@iitm.ac.in [National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • On interaction with adsorbate CO{sub 2,} the adsorbent changes its configuration around the metal. • Electron transfer is faster in low coordinative environment of Cu. • CO formation is more favorable on Cu sites with even coordination number. • Cu at coordination number two has a over potential of −0.35 V. - Abstract: Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO at an applied potential of −0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to various value added chemicals.

  3. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and clustered cardiometabolic risk in 10- to 12-year-old school children: the REACH Y6 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Lynne M; Murphy, Marie H; Cunningham, Conor; Breslin, Gavin; Foweather, Lawrence; Gobbi, Rebecca; Graves, Lee E F; Hopkins, Nicola D; Auth, Marcus K H; Stratton, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    (1) Investigate whether clustered cardiometabolic risk score, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), sedentary time (ST), and body mass index Z-scores (BMI Z-scores), differed between participants that met and did not achieve ≥60 min of daily moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). (2) Compare clustered cardiometabolic risk score, BMI Z-score, ST, and MVPA by CRF status. One hundred and one (n = 45 boys) 10- to 12-year-old participants took part in this cross-sectional study, conducted in Liverpool (Summer 2010) and Ulster (Spring 2011) UK. Assessments of blood markers, stature, sitting stature, body mass, waist circumference, flow mediated dilation (FMD), and resting blood pressure (BP) were completed. CRF (VO2 peak) was estimated using an individually calibrated treadmill protocol. Habitual MVPA and ST were assessed using an individually calibrated accelerometer protocol. Clustered cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated using blood markers, FMD (%), BP and anthropometric measures. Participants were classified as active (≥60 min MVPA) or inactive and as fit or unfit. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate differences in cardiometabolic risk, BMI Z-score, CRF, and ST by activity status. MANCOVA was also completed to assess differences in cardiometabolic risk, MVPA, ST, and BMI Z-score by fitness status. Inactive children exhibited significantly higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores and ST, and lower CRF than active children. Unfit participants exhibited significantly higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores, BMI Z-scores and ST and lower MVPA in comparison to fit participants. This study highlights the importance of children achieving 60 min MVPA daily and provides further evidence surrounding the importance of CRF for health. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy D; Mathias, Rasika A; Seeds, Michael C; Herrington, David M; Hixson, James E; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Hawkins, Greg A; Sellers, Matthew; Ainsworth, Hannah C; Sergeant, Susan; Miller, Leslie R; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-01-01

    Levels of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LcPUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3) impact a wide range of biological activities, including immune signaling, inflammation, and brain development and function. Two desaturase steps (Δ6, encoded by FADS2 and Δ5, encoded by FADS1) are rate limiting in the conversion of dietary essential 18 carbon PUFAs (18C-PUFAs) such as LA (18:2, n-6) to AA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) to EPA and DHA. GWAS and candidate gene studies have consistently identified genetic variants within FADS1 and FADS2 as determinants of desaturase efficiencies and levels of LcPUFAs in circulating, cellular and breast milk lipids. Importantly, these same variants are documented determinants of important cardiovascular disease risk factors (total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP and proinflammatory eicosanoids). FADS1 and FADS2 lie head-to-head (5' to 5') in a cluster configuration on chromosome 11 (11q12.2). There is considerable linkage disequilibrium (LD) in this region, where multiple SNPs display association with LcPUFA levels. For instance, rs174537, located ∼ 15 kb downstream of FADS1, is associated with both FADS1 desaturase activity and with circulating AA levels (p-value for AA levels = 5.95 × 10(-46)) in humans. To determine if DNA methylation variation impacts FADS activities, we performed genome-wide allele-specific methylation (ASM) with rs174537 in 144 human liver samples. This approach identified highly significant ASM with CpG sites between FADS1 and FADS2 in a putative enhancer signature region, leading to the hypothesis that the phenotypic associations of rs174537 are likely due to methylation differences. In support of this hypothesis, methylation levels of the most significant probe were strongly associated with FADS1 and, to a lesser degree, FADS2 activities.

  5. DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Howard

    Full Text Available Levels of omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LcPUFAs such as arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4, n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3 impact a wide range of biological activities, including immune signaling, inflammation, and brain development and function. Two desaturase steps (Δ6, encoded by FADS2 and Δ5, encoded by FADS1 are rate limiting in the conversion of dietary essential 18 carbon PUFAs (18C-PUFAs such as LA (18:2, n-6 to AA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3 to EPA and DHA. GWAS and candidate gene studies have consistently identified genetic variants within FADS1 and FADS2 as determinants of desaturase efficiencies and levels of LcPUFAs in circulating, cellular and breast milk lipids. Importantly, these same variants are documented determinants of important cardiovascular disease risk factors (total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP and proinflammatory eicosanoids. FADS1 and FADS2 lie head-to-head (5' to 5' in a cluster configuration on chromosome 11 (11q12.2. There is considerable linkage disequilibrium (LD in this region, where multiple SNPs display association with LcPUFA levels. For instance, rs174537, located ∼ 15 kb downstream of FADS1, is associated with both FADS1 desaturase activity and with circulating AA levels (p-value for AA levels = 5.95 × 10(-46 in humans. To determine if DNA methylation variation impacts FADS activities, we performed genome-wide allele-specific methylation (ASM with rs174537 in 144 human liver samples. This approach identified highly significant ASM with CpG sites between FADS1 and FADS2 in a putative enhancer signature region, leading to the hypothesis that the phenotypic associations of rs174537 are likely due to methylation differences. In support of this hypothesis, methylation levels of the most significant probe were strongly associated with FADS1 and, to a lesser degree, FADS2 activities.

  6. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  7. Increasing students’ physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Ha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students’ MVPA during school physical education. Methods Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students’ MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students’ leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students’ perceptions of the intervention. Discussion The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students’ health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable

  8. NFκB-mediated activation of the cellular FUT3, 5 and 6 gene cluster by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Rickard; Samuelsson, Ebba; Nyström, Kristina

    2017-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 has the ability to induce expression of a human gene cluster located on chromosome 19 upon infection. This gene cluster contains three fucosyltransferases (encoded by FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6) with the ability to add a fucose to an N-acetylglucosamine residue. Little is known regarding the transcriptional activation of these three genes in human cells. Intriguingly, herpes simplex virus type 1 activates all three genes simultaneously during infection, a situation not observed in uninfected tissue, pointing towards a virus specific mechanism for transcriptional activation. The aim of this study was to define the underlying mechanism for the herpes simplex virus type 1 activation of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcription. The transcriptional activation of the FUT-gene cluster on chromosome 19 in fibroblasts was specific, not involving adjacent genes. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB signaling through panepoxydone treatment significantly decreased the induction of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcriptional activation, as did siRNA targeting of p65, in herpes simplex virus type 1 infected fibroblasts. NFκB and p65 signaling appears to play an important role in the regulation of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcriptional activation by herpes simplex virus type 1 although additional, unidentified, viral factors might account for part of the mechanism as direct interferon mediated stimulation of NFκB was not sufficient to induce the fucosyltransferase encoding gene cluster in uninfected cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  10. An internet-supported school physical activity intervention in low socioeconomic status communities: results from the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Diallo, Thierno M O; Maeder, Anthony J; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2017-10-09

    Quality physical education (PE) is the cornerstone of comprehensive school physical activity (PA) promotion programmes. We tested the efficacy of a teacher professional learning intervention, delivered partially via the internet, designed to maximise opportunities for students to be active during PE lessons and enhance adolescents' motivation towards PE and PA. A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with teachers and Grade 8 students from secondary schools in low socioeconomic areas of Western Sydney, Australia. The Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) intervention for secondary school PE teachers included workshops, online learning, implementation tasks and mentoring sessions. The primary outcome was the proportion of PE lesson time that students spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometers at baseline, postintervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance (14-15 months). Secondary outcomes included observed PE teachers' behaviour during lessons, students' leisure-time PA and students' motivation. Students (n=1421) from 14 schools completed baseline assessments and were included in linear mixed model analyses. The intervention had positive effects on students' MVPA during lessons. At postintervention, the adjusted mean difference in the proportion of lesson time spent in MVPA was 5.58% (peffect was 2.64% (peffects on teachers' behaviour, but did not impact students' motivation. AMPED produced modest improvements in MVPA and compares favourably with previous interventions delivered exclusively face-to-face. Online teacher training could help facilitate widespread dissemination of professional learning interventions. ACTRN12614000184673. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Comparison of topological clustering within protein networks using edge metrics that evaluate full sequence, full structure, and active site microenvironment similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthaeuser, Janelle B; Knutson, Stacy T; Kumar, Kiran; Babbitt, Patricia C; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2015-09-01

    The development of accurate protein function annotation methods has emerged as a major unsolved biological problem. Protein similarity networks, one approach to function annotation via annotation transfer, group proteins into similarity-based clusters. An underlying assumption is that the edge metric used to identify such clusters correlates with functional information. In this contribution, this assumption is evaluated by observing topologies in similarity networks using three different edge metrics: sequence (BLAST), structure (TM-Align), and active site similarity (active site profiling, implemented in DASP). Network topologies for four well-studied protein superfamilies (enolase, peroxiredoxin (Prx), glutathione transferase (GST), and crotonase) were compared with curated functional hierarchies and structure. As expected, network topology differs, depending on edge metric; comparison of topologies provides valuable information on structure/function relationships. Subnetworks based on active site similarity correlate with known functional hierarchies at a single edge threshold more often than sequence- or structure-based networks. Sequence- and structure-based networks are useful for identifying sequence and domain similarities and differences; therefore, it is important to consider the clustering goal before deciding appropriate edge metric. Further, conserved active site residues identified in enolase and GST active site subnetworks correspond with published functionally important residues. Extension of this analysis yields predictions of functionally determinant residues for GST subgroups. These results support the hypothesis that active site similarity-based networks reveal clusters that share functional details and lay the foundation for capturing functionally relevant hierarchies using an approach that is both automatable and can deliver greater precision in function annotation than current similarity-based methods. © 2015 The Authors Protein Science

  12. Case Method in COPD education for primary care physicians: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowsky, Hanna; Krakau, Ingvar; Modin, Sonja; Ställberg, Björn; Nager, Anna

    2017-04-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is often undiagnosed and insufficiently managed. Effective forms of continuing medical education (CME) for primary care physicians (PCPs) are necessary to ensure the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice and, thus, improve patients' health. In this study, we will measure the effects of CME by Case Method and compare them against those of traditional lectures and no CME at all through an unblinded, cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT). Thirty-three primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Stockholm, Sweden, with a total of 180 PCPs will be involved. Twenty-two primary PHCCs, will be cluster-randomised into: an intervention group who will receive CME by Case Method (n = 11) and a control group who will receive traditional lectures (n = 11). The remaining PHCCs (n = 11) will be a reference group and will receive no CME. From the intervention and control groups, 460 randomly selected patients with COPD in GOLD stages 2 and 3 will participate, while no patients will be recruited from the reference group. For the patients, smoking status, actual treatment and urgent visits to a health provider due to airway problems will be registered. For the PCPs, professional competence (i.e. knowledge and management skills) in COPD, will be measured using a questionnaire based on current guidelines and guideline implementation problems in clinical practice which has previously been described by the authors. Data will be collected at baseline and at follow-up, which will be after 1.5 years for the patients, and 1 year for the PCPs. Statistical methods for individual-level and cluster-level analyses will be used. COPD is considered a particularly complex clinical challenge involving managing multimorbidity, symptom adaptation, and lifestyle problematisation. Case Method in CME for PCPs may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of COPD on

  13. Effectiveness of YouRAction, an intervention to promote adolescent physical activity using personal and environmental feedback: a cluster RCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Geuchien Prins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study the one and six months effects of the computer-tailored YouRAction (targeting individual level determinants and YouRAction+e (targeting in addition perceived environmental determinants on compliance with the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA guideline and weight status are examined. In addition the use and appreciation of both interventions are studied. METHODS: A three-armed cluster randomized trial was conducted in 2009-2010 with measurements at baseline, one and six months post intervention. School classes were assigned to one of the study arms (YouRaction, YouRAction+e and Generic Information (GI control group. MVPA was derived from self-reports at baseline, one and six months post intervention. Body Mass Index and waist circumference were measured at baseline and six months post intervention in a random sub-sample of the population. Use of the interventions was measured by webserver logs and appreciation by self-reports. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to study the effects of the intervention against the GI control group. ANOVA's and chi-square tests were used to describe differences in use and appreciation between study arms. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant intervention effects on compliance with the MVPA guideline, overweight or WC. Access to the full intervention was significantly lower for YouRAction (24.0% and YouRAction+e (21.7% compared to the GI (54.4%. CONCLUSION: This study could not demonstrate that the YouRAction and YouRAction+e interventions were effective in promoting MVPA or improve anthropometric outcomes among adolescents, compared to generic information. Insufficient use and exposure to the intervention content may be an explanation for the lack of effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1923.

  14. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  15. Hydrogen activation, diffusion, and clustering on CeO{sub 2}(111): A DFT+U study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Torre, Delia [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, C/ Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, Javier [CIC Energigune, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Álava (Spain); Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, C/ Marie Curie 2, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Verónica [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, C/ Marie Curie 2, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pérez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.perez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-07

    We present a comprehensive density functional theory+U study of the mechanisms underlying the dissociation of molecular hydrogen, and diffusion and clustering of the resulting atomic species on the CeO{sub 2}(111) surface. Contrary to a widely held view based solely on a previous theoretical prediction, our results show conclusively that H{sub 2} dissociation is an activated process with a large energy barrier ∼1.0 eV that is not significantly affected by coverage or the presence of surface oxygen vacancies. The reaction proceeds through a local energy minimum – where the molecule is located close to one of the surface oxygen atoms and the H–H bond has been substantially weaken by the interaction with the substrate –, and a transition state where one H atom is attached to a surface O atom and the other H atom sits on-top of a Ce{sup 4+} ion. In addition, we have explored how several factors, including H coverage, the location of Ce{sup 3+} ions as well as the U value, may affect the chemisorption energy and the relative stability of isolated OH groups versus pair and trimer structures. The trimer stability at low H coverages and the larger upward relaxation of the surface O atoms within the OH groups are consistent with the assignment of the frequent experimental observation by non-contact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopies of bright protrusions on three neighboring surface O atoms to a triple OH group. The diffusion path of isolated H atoms on the surface goes through the adsorption on-top of an oxygen in the third atomic layer with a large energy barrier of ∼1.8 eV. Overall, the large energy barriers for both, molecular dissociation and atomic diffusion, are consistent with the high activity and selectivity found recently in the partial hydrogenation of acetylene catalyzed by ceria at high H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ratios.

  16. Approximation Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Approximation Clustering. Clustering within (1+ ε) of the optimum cost. ε is user defined tolerance. For metric spaces even approximating is. hard (below, say 30%). Euclidean k-median in fixed dimension can. be approximated in polynomial time.

  17. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...... sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country....... At the same time, several attempts have been made at promoting the adoption of CSR in MSMEs in Indian industrial clusters. In fact, India has proved to be a kind of laboratory for experimenting with different types of cluster-based CSR and is thus an interesting location in relation to the broader aim...

  18. Effect of a nutrition supplement and physical activity program on pneumonia and walking capacity in Chilean older people: a factorial cluster randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Dangour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with increased risk of poor health and functional decline. Uncertainties about the health-related benefits of nutrition and physical activity for older people have precluded their widespread implementation. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a national nutritional supplementation program and/or a physical activity intervention among older people in Chile.We conducted a cluster randomized factorial trial among low to middle socioeconomic status adults aged 65-67.9 years living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 28 clusters (health centers into the study and recruited 2,799 individuals in 2005 (~100 per cluster. The interventions were a daily micronutrient-rich nutritional supplement, or two 1-hour physical activity classes per week, or both interventions, or neither, for 24 months. The primary outcomes, assessed blind to allocation, were incidence of pneumonia over 24 months, and physical function assessed by walking capacity 24 months after enrollment. Adherence was good for the nutritional supplement (~75%, and moderate for the physical activity intervention (~43%. Over 24 months the incidence rate of pneumonia did not differ between intervention and control clusters (32.5 versus 32.6 per 1,000 person years respectively; risk ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.63; p = 0.99. In intention-to-treat analysis, after 24 months there was a significant difference in walking capacity between the intervention and control clusters (mean difference 33.8 meters; 95% confidence interval 13.9-53.8; p = 0.001. The overall cost of the physical activity intervention over 24 months was US$164/participant; equivalent to US$4.84/extra meter walked. The number of falls and fractures was balanced across physical activity intervention arms and no serious adverse events were reported for either intervention.Chile's nutritional supplementation program for older people is not effective in reducing the

  19. Effect of a nutrition supplement and physical activity program on pneumonia and walking capacity in Chilean older people: a factorial cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, Alan D; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Grundy, Emily; Walker, Damian G; Aedo, Cristian; Sanchez, Hugo; Fletcher, Olivia; Elbourne, Diana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Ageing is associated with increased risk of poor health and functional decline. Uncertainties about the health-related benefits of nutrition and physical activity for older people have precluded their widespread implementation. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a national nutritional supplementation program and/or a physical activity intervention among older people in Chile. We conducted a cluster randomized factorial trial among low to middle socioeconomic status adults aged 65-67.9 years living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 28 clusters (health centers) into the study and recruited 2,799 individuals in 2005 (~100 per cluster). The interventions were a daily micronutrient-rich nutritional supplement, or two 1-hour physical activity classes per week, or both interventions, or neither, for 24 months. The primary outcomes, assessed blind to allocation, were incidence of pneumonia over 24 months, and physical function assessed by walking capacity 24 months after enrollment. Adherence was good for the nutritional supplement (~75%), and moderate for the physical activity intervention (~43%). Over 24 months the incidence rate of pneumonia did not differ between intervention and control clusters (32.5 versus 32.6 per 1,000 person years respectively; risk ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.63; p = 0.99). In intention-to-treat analysis, after 24 months there was a significant difference in walking capacity between the intervention and control clusters (mean difference 33.8 meters; 95% confidence interval 13.9-53.8; p = 0.001). The overall cost of the physical activity intervention over 24 months was US$164/participant; equivalent to US$4.84/extra meter walked. The number of falls and fractures was balanced across physical activity intervention arms and no serious adverse events were reported for either intervention. Chile's nutritional supplementation program for older people is not effective in reducing the incidence of

  20. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Didactic Lecture Versus Online Simulation-Based CME Programs Directed at Improving the Diagnostic Capabilities of Primary Care Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Pam; Crim, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic errors in primary care contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, and billions in costs each year. Improvements in the way practicing physicians are taught so as to optimally perform differential diagnosis can increase patient safety and lower the costs of care. This study represents a comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to CME training directed at improving the primary care practitioner's diagnostic capabilities against seven common and important causes of joint pain. Using a convenience sampling methodology, one group of primary care practitioners was trained by a traditional live, expert-led, multimedia-based training activity supplemented with interactive practice opportunities and feedback (control group). The second group was trained online with a multimedia-based training activity supplemented with interactive practice opportunities and feedback delivered by an artificial intelligence-driven simulation/tutor (treatment group). Before their respective instructional intervention, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic performance of the two groups against a battery of case vignettes presenting with joint pain. Using the same battery of case vignettes to assess postintervention diagnostic performance, there was a slight but not statistically significant improvement in the control group's diagnostic accuracy (P = .13). The treatment group, however, demonstrated a significant improvement in accuracy (P tutor.

  1. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker Ingrid; Verhagen Evert ALM; Jm, Chinapaw Mai; Collard Dorine CM; van Mechelen Willem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative new...

  2. Cell-free H-cluster synthesis and [FeFe] hydrogenase activation: all five CO and CN⁻ ligands derive from tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Kuchenreuther

    Full Text Available [FeFe] hydrogenases are promising catalysts for producing hydrogen as a sustainable fuel and chemical feedstock, and they also serve as paradigms for biomimetic hydrogen-evolving compounds. Hydrogen formation is catalyzed by the H-cluster, a unique iron-based cofactor requiring three carbon monoxide (CO and two cyanide (CN⁻ ligands as well as a dithiolate bridge. Three accessory proteins (HydE, HydF, and HydG are presumably responsible for assembling and installing the H-cluster, yet their precise roles and the biosynthetic pathway have yet to be fully defined. In this report, we describe effective cell-free methods for investigating H-cluster synthesis and [FeFe] hydrogenase activation. Combining isotopic labeling with FTIR spectroscopy, we conclusively show that each of the CO and CN⁻ ligands derive respectively from the carboxylate and amino substituents of tyrosine. Such in vitro systems with reconstituted pathways comprise a versatile approach for studying biosynthetic mechanisms, and this work marks a significant step towards an understanding of both the protein-protein interactions and complex reactions required for H-cluster assembly and hydrogenase maturation.

  3. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school-based cluster randomised controlled trial: effect on potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Anderson, Emma L; Kipping, Ruth R; Campbell, Rona; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Peters, Tim J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-22

    Active for life year 5 (AFLY5) is a school-based intervention, based on social cognitive theory, which aims to promote healthy levels of physical activity and healthy eating by improving a child's self-efficacy to make healthy choices, their knowledge of how to make such choices and prompting parents to support their children to make healthy choices. Previously published results showed no effect on the three primary outcomes and beneficial effects on three of nine secondary outcomes (time spent screen-viewing at weekends, consumption of snacks and of high energy drinks). This paper aims to determine the effect of the intervention on potential mediators. We conducted a cluster RCT of a school-based intervention, with allocation concealed by use of a remote system. The study was undertaken in the South West of England between 2011 and 2013. Participants were school children who were age 8-9 years at baseline assessment and 9-10 years during the intervention. Potential mediators were assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of all materials required for lessons and homeworks and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The ten potential mediators were child-reported self-efficacy for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption, perceived parental logistic support and modelling for their child's physical activity, parental efforts to limit their child's sedentary behaviour and modelling of healthy fruit and vegetable consumption, together with a knowledge assessment. We successfully recruited 60 schools with over 2,221 children; valid data for the 10 mediators were available for 87 % to 96 % of participants. Three of the ten potential mediators were greater in the intervention, compared with the control group: fruit and vegetable self-efficacy 2.2 units (95 % CI: 0.7 to 3.8), assessed on a scale 26 to 130; child-reported maternal limitation of sedentary behaviour 0.5 (0.1 to 0.8), scale 4

  4. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  5. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents' physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Lubans, David R; Peralta, Louisa R; Bennie, Andrew; Sanders, Taren; Lonsdale, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The physical activity (PA) levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE) programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children's motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16) and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1) explaining the relevance of activities; (2) providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3) providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4) usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested within teachers as a random effect. Study

  6. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical activity (PA levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children’s motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT, on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. Methods/design This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16 and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1 explaining the relevance of activities; (2 providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3 providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4 usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested

  7. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  8. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  9. X-Ray Supercavities in the Hydra A Cluster and the Outburst History of the Central Galaxy's Active Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, M.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Houck, J.C.; David, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    A 227 ks Chandra X-ray image of the hot plasma in the Hydra A cluster has revealed an extensive cavity system. The system was created by a continuous outflow or a series of bursts from the nucleus of the central galaxy over the past 200-500 Myr. The cavities have displaced 10% of the plasma within a

  10. Tethered Prominence-CME Systems Captured during the 2012 November 13 and 2013 November 3 Total Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckmüller, Miloslav; Habbal, Shadia R.; Alzate, Nathalia; Emmanouilidis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    We report on white light observations of high latitude tethered prominences acquired during the total solar eclipses of 2012 November 13 and 2013 November 3, at solar maximum, with a field of view spanning several solar radii. Distinguished by their pinkish hue, characteristic of emission from neutral hydrogen and helium, the four tethered prominences were akin to twisted flux ropes, stretching out to the limit of the field of view, while remaining anchored at the Sun. Cotemporal observations in the extreme ultraviolet from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA) clearly showed that the pinkish emission from the cool (≈ {10}4-{10}5 K) filamentary prominences was cospatial with the 30.4 nm He II emission, and was directly linked to filamentary structures emitting at coronal temperatures ≥slant {10}6 K in 17.1 and 19.3 nm. The tethered prominences evolved from typical tornado types. Each one formed the core of different types of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), as inferred from coordinated LASCO C2, C3, and STEREO A and B coronagraph observations. Two of them evolved into a series of faint, unstructured puffs. One was a normal CME. The most striking one was a “light-bulb” type CME, whose three-dimensional structure was confirmed from all four coronagraphs. These first uninterrupted detections of prominence-CME systems anchored at the Sun, and stretching out to at least the edge of the field of view of LASCO C3, provide the first observational confirmation for the source of counter-streaming electron fluxes measured in interplanetary CMEs, or ICMEs.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Szilvia; Dumont, Julie; Spinneker, Andre; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Nova, Esther; Widhalm, Kurt; Moschonis, George; Stehle, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; De Henauw, Stefaan; Molnàr, Dènes; Moreno, Luis A; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dallongeville, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 14.7 +/- 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18 FADS1. In contrast, only the rs968567 minor allele was associated with higher D6D activity (P = 1.5E-6). This finding agrees with an earlier in vitro study showing that the minor allele of rs968567 is associated with a higher FADS2 promoter activity. These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents.

  12. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Disruption of Transcriptional Coactivator Sub1 Leads to Genome-Wide Re-distribution of Clustered Mutations Induced by APOBEC in Active Yeast Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Alok; Polev, Dmitrii E.; Masharsky, Alexey E.; Rogozin, Igor B.; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genomes of species are frequently distributed non-randomly, resulting in mutation clusters, including recently discovered kataegis in tumors. DNA editing deaminases play the prominent role in the etiology of these mutations. To gain insight into the enigmatic mechanisms of localized hypermutagenesis that lead to cluster formation, we analyzed the mutational single nucleotide variations (SNV) data obtained by whole-genome sequencing of drug-resistant mutants induced in yeast diploids by AID/APOBEC deaminase and base analog 6-HAP. Deaminase from sea lamprey, PmCDA1, induced robust clusters, while 6-HAP induced a few weak ones. We found that PmCDA1, AID, and APOBEC1 deaminases preferentially mutate the beginning of the actively transcribed genes. Inactivation of transcription initiation factor Sub1 strongly reduced deaminase-induced can1 mutation frequency, but, surprisingly, did not decrease the total SNV load in genomes. However, the SNVs in the genomes of the sub1 clones were re-distributed, and the effect of mutation clustering in the regions of transcription initiation was even more pronounced. At the same time, the mutation density in the protein-coding regions was reduced, resulting in the decrease of phenotypically detected mutants. We propose that the induction of clustered mutations by deaminases involves: a) the exposure of ssDNA strands during transcription and loss of protection of ssDNA due to the depletion of ssDNA-binding proteins, such as Sub1, and b) attainment of conditions favorable for APOBEC action in subpopulation of cells, leading to enzymatic deamination within the currently expressed genes. This model is applicable to both the initial and the later stages of oncogenic transformation and explains variations in the distribution of mutations and kataegis events in different tumor cells. PMID:25941824

  14. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varganov, Sergey Aleksandrovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  15. A Parametric Study of Erupting Flux Rope Rotation: Modeling the 'Cartwheel CME' on 9 April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of erupting filaments in the solar corona is addressed through a parametric simulation study of unstable, rotating flux ropes in bipolar force-free initial equilibrium. The Lorentz force due to the external shear-field component and the relaxation of tension in the twisted field are the major contributors to the rotation in this model, while reconnection with the ambient field is of minor importance, due to the field's simple structure. In the low-beta corona, the rotation is not guided by the changing orientation of the vertical field component's polarity inversion line with height. The model yields strong initial rotations which saturate in the corona and differ qualitatively from the profile of rotation vs. height obtained in a recent simulation of an eruption without preexisting flux rope. Both major mechanisms writhe the flux rope axis, converting part of the initial twist helicity, and produce rotation profiles which, to a large part, are very similar within a range of shear-twist combinations. A difference lies in the tendency of twist-driven rotation to saturate at lower heights than shear-driven rotation. For parameters characteristic of the source regions of erupting filaments and coronal mass ejections, the shear field is found to be the dominant origin of rotations in the corona and to be required if the rotation reaches angles of order 90 degrees and higher; it dominates even if the twist exceeds the threshold of the helical kink instability. The contributions by shear and twist to the total rotation can be disentangled in the analysis of observations if the rotation and rise profiles are simultaneously compared with model calculations. The resulting twist estimate allows one to judge whether the helical kink instability occurred. This is demonstrated for the erupting prominence in the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008, which has shown a rotation of approximately 115 deg. up to a height of 1.5 Solar R above the photosphere. Out of a range of

  16. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The prob......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side....... The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  17. doped stable clusters a

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    ., showed that Ru-doped. Rh6 cluster is a better catalyst for the activation of methanol compared to pure Rh6. It may be noted that methanol activation occurs via O–H bond dissociation rather than C–H bond.25 Rhodium nano ...

  18. 'Clustering' SIRPα into the plasma membrane lipid microdomains is required for activated monocytes and macrophages to mediate effective cell surface interactions with CD47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Ha

    Full Text Available SIRPα, an ITIMs-containing signaling receptor, negatively regulates leukocyte responses through extracellular interactions with CD47. However, the dynamics of SIRPα-CD47 interactions on the cell surface and the governing mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that while the purified SIRPα binds to CD47 and that SIRPα is expressed on monocytes and monocytic THP-1 or U937, these SIRPα are ineffective to mediate cell binding to immobilized CD47. However, cell binding to CD47 is significantly enhanced when monocytes transmigrating across endothelia, or being differentiated into macrophages. Cell surface labeling reveals SIRPα to be diffused on naïve monocytes but highly clustered on transmigrated monocytes and macrophages. Protein crosslink and equilibrium centrifugation confirm that SIRPα in the latter cells forms oligomerized complexes resulting in increased avidity for CD47 binding. Furthermore, formation of SIRPα complexes/clusters requires the plasma membrane 'lipid rafts' and the activity of Src family kinase during macrophage differentiation. These results together suggest that 'clustering' SIRPα into plasma membrane microdomains is essential for activated monocytes and macrophages to effectively interact with CD47 and initiate intracellular signaling.

  19. CME and the role of the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. Results of a survey of consultant and trainee physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D; Toghill, P; Klär, B

    1996-01-01

    To assess (a) the views of Members and Fellows of the College on the role of reading general medical journals in continuing medical education (CME); (b) the place of the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London (JRCPL) in relation to seven other general medical journals; (c) the possible need for change in the content of the JRCPL and the demand for a systematic series of articles designed specifically for CME; (d) the extent of home ownership and use of computers and of readers' readiness for interactive teaching and electronic books and journals. Distribution of a questionnaire to all Fellows and Collegiate members of the College, mailed with the JRCPL in May 1995. Responses were received from 2,600 (26.4% home recipients and 8.4% overseas recipients). Journal reading was rated the most important form of CME. All eight journals listed play a part in CME, the three weekly journals playing the most prominent role. There was strong support for the introduction of a series of articles covering topics systematically as part of CME. Seventy-six per cent of respondents own a home computer and 40% of these have either a CD-ROM drive or full multimedia facilities. Most use their computers mainly as word-processors and few have access to the Internet or E-mail.

  20. Speed evolution of fast CME/shocks with SOHO/LASCO, WIND/WAVES, IPS and in-situ WIND data: analysis of kilometric type-II emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonzalez-Esparza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast CME/shocks propagating in the interplanetary medium can generate kilometric Type II (km-TII radio emissions at the local plasma frequency and/or its harmonic, so these radio emissions provide a means of remotely tracking CME/shocks. We apply a new analysis technique, using the frequency drift of km-TII spectrum obtained by the Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR of the WIND/WAVES experiment, to infer, at some adequate intervals, the propagation speed of six CME/shocks. We combine these results with previously reported speeds from coronagraph white light and interplanetary scintillation observations, and in-situ measurements, to study the temporal speed evolution of the six events. The speed values obtained by the km-TII analysis are in a reasonable agreement with the speed measurements obtained by other techniques at different heliocentric distance ranges. The combination of all the speed measurements show a gradual deceleration of the CME/shocks as they propagate to 1 AU. This new technique can be useful in studying the evolution of fast CME/shocks when adequate intervals of km-TII emissions are available.

  1. CME/CNE Article: A Framework of Care in Multiple Sclerosis, Part 1: Updated Disease Classification and Disease-Modifying Therapy Use in Specific Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Scott D; Aliotta, Philip J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bennett, Susan E; Cutter, Gary; Fenton, Kaylan; Lublin, Fred; Northrop, Dorothy; Rintell, David; Walker, Bryan D; Weigel, Megan; Zackowski, Kathleen; Jones, David E

    2016-01-01

    Activity Available Online: To access the article, post-test, and evaluation online, go to http://www.cmscscholar.org. The target audience for this activity is physicians, physician assistants, nursing professionals, and other health-care providers involved in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Apply new information about MS to a comprehensive individualized treatment plan for patients with MSIntegrate the team approach into long-term planning in order to optimize rehabilitation care of patients with MSAccreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA), and Delaware Media Group. The CMSC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The CMSC designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s) ™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NPA designates this enduring material for 1.0 Continuing Nursing Education credit. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosures: Francois Bethoux, MD , Editor in Chief of the International Journal of MS Care (IJMSC), has served as Physician Planner for this activity. He has received royalties from Springer Publishing and has received intellectual property rights from Biogen. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP , has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Scott D. Newsome, DO, MSCS

  2. Friedreich's Ataxia Variants I154F and W155R Diminish Frataxin-Based Activation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Barondeau, David P

    2011-11-07

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has been linked to defects in the protein frataxin (Fxn). Most FRDA patients have a GAA expansion in the first intron of their Fxn gene that decreases protein expression. Some FRDA patients have a GAA expansion on one allele and a missense mutation on the other allele. Few functional details are known for the ~15 different missense mutations identified in FRDA patients. Here in vitro evidence is presented that indicates the FRDA I154F and W155R variants bind more weakly to the complex of Nfs1, Isd11, and Isu2 and thereby are defective in forming the four-component SDUF complex that constitutes the core of the Fe-S cluster assembly machine. The binding affinities follow the trend Fxn ~ I154F > W155F > W155A ~ W155R. The Fxn variants also have diminished ability to function as part of the SDUF complex to stimulate the cysteine desulfurase reaction and facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly. Four crystal structures, including the first for a FRDA variant, reveal specific rearrangements associated with the loss of function and lead to a model for Fxn-based activation of the Fe-S cluster assembly complex. Importantly, the weaker binding and lower activity for FRDA variants correlate with the severity of disease progression. Together, these results suggest that Fxn facilitates sulfur transfer from Nfs1 to Isu2 and that these in vitro assays are sensitive and appropriate for deciphering functional defects and mechanistic details for human Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.

  3. A Flexible Method for Production of Stable Atomic Clusters with Variable Size for Chemical and Catalytic Activity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    mobility and mass standards from electrosprays of tetra- alkyl ammonium halides , J. Aerosol Science 36 (2005) 1224–1237. [10] M. F. Jarrold, J.E. Bower...that the chosen size range contains the size targeted for the superconductivity measurements based on the theoretical paper by Kresin, et al. [1...and superconductivity, and ii) a paper by Kresin, et al. [1-2] predicting high superconducting transition temperatures for atomic clusters of

  4. Antisense Activity across the Nesp Promoter is Required for Nespas-Mediated Silencing in the Imprinted Gnas Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte J. Tibbit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macro long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play major roles in gene silencing in inprinted gene clusters. Within the imprinted Gnas cluster, the paternally expressed Nespas lncRNA downregulates its sense counterpart Nesp. To explore the mechanism of action of Nespas, we generated two new knock-in alleles to truncate Nespas upstream and downstream of the Nesp promoter. We show that Nespas is essential for methylation of the Nesp differentially methylated region (DMR, but higher levels of Nespas are required for methylation than are needed for downregulation of Nesp. Although Nespas is transcribed for over 27 kb, only Nespas transcript/transcription across a 2.6 kb region that includes the Nesp promoter is necessary for methylation of the Nesp DMR. In both mutants, the levels of Nespas were extraordinarily high, due at least in part to increased stability, an effect not seen with other imprinted lncRNAs. However, even when levels were greatly raised, Nespas remained exclusively cis-acting. We propose Nespas regulates Nesp methylation and expression to ensure appropriate levels of expression of the protein coding transcripts Gnasxl and Gnas on the paternal chromosome. Thus, Nespas mediates paternal gene expression over the entire Gnas cluster via a single gene, Nesp.

  5. [Web-based collection of educational needs in a medicine department. An intranet survey for planning CME corse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidoni, Laura; Correani, Massimiliano; Candela, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Few evidences about methods to harvest educational needs by health care professionals in internal medicine have been published. In this project the following objectives have been pursued: to express preferences by each health care worker; to evaluate the efficacy of an intranet-based survey in order to structure continuing medical education (CME) planning. We created a form based on 7 questions, exploring the following areas: knowledge, know-how, communication, transversal competencies. This survey, implemented on a google drive platform, was accessible through the Azienda Sanitaria Unica Regione (ASUR) Marche intranet. Each questionnaire was analyzed with Google drive and the results were discussed within Medicine Department Committee. 103/228 health care workers responded to the survey. On the basis of health care workers preferences, financial resources, relevance, untreated topics in the previous 5 years and congruence with ASUR targets, heart failure, malnutrition and non-invasive mechanical ventilation were chosen as main topics for the year 2017 and practical training, internal courses and focus groups were planned. A relevant percentage of health care workers (45%) responded to our online survey and the analysis of the results has been used for planning users-centered educational courses; this approach represents a sure novelty in failure of published experiences about the relationship between collection of needs and CME planning.

  6. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Szilvia; Dumont, Julie; Spinneker, Andre; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Nova, Esther; Widhalm, Kurt; Moschonis, George; Stehle, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; De Henauw, Stefaan; Molnàr, Dènes; Moreno, Luis A.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dallongeville, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.7 ± 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18 ≤ P ≤ 6.1E-5), lower C20:4n-6 levels (7.1E-69 ≤ P ≤ 1.2E-12), and lower D5D activity (7.2E-44 ≤ P ≤ 4.4E-5). All haplotypes carrying the rs174546 minor allele were associated with lower D5D activity, suggesting that this SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with a functional SNP within FADS1. In contrast, only the rs968567 minor allele was associated with higher D6D activity (P = 1.5E-6). This finding agrees with an earlier in vitro study showing that the minor allele of rs968567 is associated with a higher FADS2 promoter activity. These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents. PMID:20427696

  8. A Ca2+ channel differentially regulates Clathrin-mediated and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chi-Kuang; Liu, Yu-Tzu; Lee, I-Chi; Wang, You-Tung; Wu, Ping-Yen

    2017-04-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) are two predominant forms of synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis, elicited by moderate and strong stimuli, respectively. They are tightly coupled with exocytosis for sustained neurotransmission. However, the underlying mechanisms are ill defined. We previously reported that the Flower (Fwe) Ca2+ channel present in SVs is incorporated into the periactive zone upon SV fusion, where it triggers CME, thus coupling exocytosis to CME. Here, we show that Fwe also promotes ADBE. Intriguingly, the effects of Fwe on CME and ADBE depend on the strength of the stimulus. Upon mild stimulation, Fwe controls CME independently of Ca2+ channeling. However, upon strong stimulation, Fwe triggers a Ca2+ influx that initiates ADBE. Moreover, knockout of rodent fwe in cultured rat hippocampal neurons impairs but does not completely abolish CME, similar to the loss of Drosophila fwe at the neuromuscular junction, suggesting that Fwe plays a regulatory role in regulating CME across species. In addition, the function of Fwe in ADBE is conserved at mammalian central synapses. Hence, Fwe exerts different effects in response to different stimulus strengths to control two major modes of endocytosis.

  9. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  10. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  11. On Flare-CME Characteristics from Sun to Earth Combining Remote-Sensing Image Data with In Situ Measurements Supported by Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Thalmann, Julia K.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Tschernitz, Johannes; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). By applying the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) reconstruction method and total mass to stereoscopic STEREO-SOHO ( Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraph data, we track the temporal and spatial evolution of the CME in the interplanetary space and derive its geometry and 3D mass. We combine the GCS and Lundquist model results to derive the axial flux and helicity of the magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements from Wind. This is compared to nonlinear force-free (NLFF) model results, as well as to the reconnected magnetic flux derived from the flare ribbons (flare reconnection flux) and the magnetic flux encompassed by the associated dimming (dimming flux). We find that magnetic reconnection processes were already ongoing before the start of the impulsive flare phase, adding magnetic flux to the flux rope before its final eruption. The dimming flux increases by more than 25% after the end of the flare, indicating that magnetic flux is still added to the flux rope after eruption. Hence, the derived flare reconnection flux is most probably a lower limit for estimating the magnetic flux within the flux rope. We find that the magnetic helicity and axial magnetic flux are lower in the interplanetary space by ˜ 50% and 75%, respectively, possibly indicating an erosion process. A CME mass increase of 10% is observed over a range of {˜} 4 - 20 R_{⊙}. The temporal evolution of the CME

  12. [From the health plan to teaching and learning plan: pathways for the planning of CME in the Provincia Autonoma of Bolzano (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Michele; Hofer, Brigitte

    2010-06-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) proposes a step by step pathway, that represents today an useful methodological reference to make clinical decisions. The authors propose that this methodological approach (define the problem; searche the best evidence; evaluation of the results in conjunction with the skills and experience that the health worker has already acquired; evaluation of the whole process), can be used to guide the questions in the use of CME. CME experience in the Provincia Autonoma of Bolzano (Italy) is shortly reported, emphasizing the involvement of the different stakeholders in planning and verification of teaching and learning.

  13. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Wijck, Ruud; Echteld, Michael A

    2013-08-12

    Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health promotion programme aimed at improving physical activity and increasing fitness among seniors with intellectual disabilities. The Intervention Mapping protocol was used for programme development. After defining the programme's objectives, the following behavioural techniques were selected to achieve them: Tailoring, Education, Modelling, Mirroring, Feedback, Reinforcement and Grading. With professionals and managers of provider services for people with intellectual disabilities, we translated these strategies into a structured day-activity programme, that consisted of a physical activity and an education programme. The programme will be executed in five day-activity centres in groups of eight to ten seniors during eight months, whereas seniors in five other centres receive care as usual. The physical activity level, as measured in number of steps a day, will be used as primary outcome measurement. Secondary outcome measurements include motor fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, morphological and metabolic fitness, ADL, functional deterioration and depressive symptoms. Differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between participants and controls will be analysed using generalized estimation equations, correcting for day-activity center as cluster. This paper provides insight into the development and content of a theory-driven intervention aimed at behavioural change in a population with a low intellectual level. Its evaluation design is described. The programme's applicability to other populations is discussed.

  14. Effects of a multicomponent workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on physical activity among Japanese white collar employees: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-10-24

    Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviours as a determinant of physical and mental health. Although intervention strategies for promoting physical activity among workers are needed, evidence for the effectiveness of multilevel workplace interventions with environmental changes on the promotion of physical activity are still limited due to lack of cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of this study is to investigate effects of a 3-month workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on the improvement in physical activity among Japanese white collar employees. This study will be a two-arm and parallel-group cluster (worksite) RCT. Japanese worksites and employees who are employed by the worksites will be recruited through health insurance associations and chambers of commerce. Worksites that meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. The intervention worksites will be offered the original intervention programme that consists of 13 contents with environmental changes. The control worksites will be able to get three times feedback of the assessment of the amount of physical activity and basic occupational health service in each worksite. The primary outcome will be the total amount of physical activity measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Multilevel latent growth modelling will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of the intervention programme. This study was ethically approved by the research ethics committee of the Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan (No. 11230). Results will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. UMIN000024069; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Gene Sequence Based Clustering Assists in Dereplication of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea Strains with Identical Inhibitory Activity and Antibiotic Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Some microbial species are chemically homogenous, and the same secondary metabolites are found in all strains. In contrast, we previously found that five strains of P. luteoviolacea were closely related by 16S rRNA gene sequence but produced two different antibiotic profiles. The purpose of the p......Some microbial species are chemically homogenous, and the same secondary metabolites are found in all strains. In contrast, we previously found that five strains of P. luteoviolacea were closely related by 16S rRNA gene sequence but produced two different antibiotic profiles. The purpose...... of the present study was to determine whether such bioactivity differences could be linked to genotypes allowing methods from phylogenetic analysis to aid in selection of strains for biodiscovery. Thirteen P. luteoviolacea strains divided into three chemotypes based on production of known antibiotics and four...... correlation to chemotypes and inhibition profiles, while clustering based on concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB, and recA gene sequences resulted in three clusters, two of which uniformly consisted of strains of identical chemotype and inhibition profile. A major time sink in natural products discovery is the effort...

  16. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  17. Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS on fitness and adiposity in children: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina Meyer

    Full Text Available School-based intervention studies promoting a healthy lifestyle have shown favorable immediate health effects. However, there is a striking paucity on long-term follow-ups. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the 3 yr-follow-up of a cluster-randomized controlled school-based physical activity program over nine month with beneficial immediate effects on body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity.Initially, 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland were grouped into an intervention (16 classes from 9 schools, n = 297 children and a control arm (12 classes from 6 schools, n = 205 children after stratification for grade (1st and 5th graders. Three years after the end of the multi-component physical activity program of nine months including daily physical education (i.e. two additional lessons per week on top of three regular lessons, short physical activity breaks during academic lessons, and daily physical activity homework, 289 (58% participated in the follow-up. Primary outcome measures included body fat (sum of four skinfolds, aerobic fitness (shuttle run test, physical activity (accelerometry, and quality of life (questionnaires. After adjustment for grade, gender, baseline value and clustering within classes, children in the intervention arm compared with controls had a significantly higher average level of aerobic fitness at follow-up (0.373 z-score units [95%-CI: 0.157 to 0.59, p = 0.001] corresponding to a shift from the 50th to the 65th percentile between baseline and follow-up, while the immediate beneficial effects on the other primary outcomes were not sustained.Apart from aerobic fitness, beneficial effects seen after one year were not maintained when the intervention was stopped. A continuous intervention seems necessary to maintain overall beneficial health effects as reached at the end of the intervention.ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN15360785.

  18. CME/CPD in the Indian Subcontinent: Proceedings from the 1st regional meeting of Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In today's fast paced environment, continuing medical education (CME and continuing professional development (CPD play a pivotal role in enhancement of clinical practice and patient care. Getting updated with the latest trends and practices has gained utmost importance for today's healthcare professional, be he or she a family physician, a specialist or a super specialist. In addition, the increased awareness of different diseases among the masses due to exposure to information from the media and Internet makes it vital for the healthcare provider to be aware of the latest knowledge and trends so that patients may be provided with the highest quality of treatment.India today boasts of having the largest number of medical schools in the world with an annual student intake of over 50,000 prospective medical professionals. CME in India is at a rudimentary stage in development, but definitely evolving at a rapid pace. Despite the best efforts of the major stakeholders, such as the Medical Council of India (MCI, medical societies, educational institutions and key opinion leaders (KOLs in the field, the CME scenario in India fails to have a systematic and integrated approach to match international standards. There is a huge need gap because the legislation to make CME mandatory has made little progress. One of the many reasons is that each state in India has its own individual norms, and without a federal system there exists no national guideline for appropriate specialty learning that practising doctors require as part of CPD. There is an unmet need for the provision of the right CME for the right doctor group at the right time to create appropriate learning levels. Therefore CME providers in India need guidance to navigate through rough waters with a multi-modal unbiased approach to bring together the needs of the Indian doctors and the needs of the patient population on a common platform.This report summarises the presentations and discussions that

  19. Tagging of Endogenous BK Channels with a Fluorogen-Activating Peptide Reveals β4-Mediated Control of Channel Clustering in Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Pratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BK channels are critical regulators of neuronal activity, controlling firing, neurotransmitter release, cerebellar function, and BK channel mutations have been linked to seizure disorders. Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. Fluorogen-activating peptides (FAPs are well-suited for trafficking and physiological studies due to the binding of malachite green (MG-based dyes with sub-nanomolar affinity to the FAP, resulting in bright, photostable, far-red fluorescence. Cell-excluded MG dyes enable the selective tagging of surface protein and tracking through endocytic pathways. We used CRISPR to insert the FAP at the extracellular N-terminus of BKα in the first exon of its native locus, enabling regulation by the native promoter elements and tag incorporation into multiple splice isoforms. Motor coordination was found to be normal; however, BK channel expression seems to be reduced in some locations. Alternate start site selection or post-translational proteolytic processing resulted in incomplete FAP tagging of the BKα proteins in brain tissues. In Purkinje cell somata, FAP revealed BK channel clustering previously only observed by electron microscopy. Measurement of these clusters in β4+/- and β4-/- mice showed that puncta number and cluster fluorescence intensity on the soma are reduced in β4-/- knockout animals. This novel mouse line provides a versatile fluorescent platform for studying endogenous BK channels in living and fixed tissues. Future studies could apply this line to ex vivo neuronal cultures to study live-cell channel trafficking.

  20. Cluster - Smart Specialization Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    The paper refers to the relationship that is created in the regional economic space, between thecluster phenomenon and that of the strategy of smart specialization; in the process oftransformation of the regional economy, the smart specialization strategies take over clusters’policies and clusters integrate activities specific to areas of technological knowledge.

  1. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of an Unexpected Bacteriolytic Activity of VanX, a Member of the Vancomycin-resistance vanA Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohya, Shihori; Kamioka, Tetsuya; Fujita, Chisako; Maki, Tei; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    VanX is a d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala–d-Ala) dipeptidase encoded in the vancomycin-resistance vanA gene cluster. Here we report that strong bacteriolysis occurred when isolated VanX was expressed in Escherichia coli at temperatures lower than 30 °C, which was unexpected because the vanA operon confers vancomycin resistance by protecting the cell wall. Therefore, we monitored cell lysis by measuring sample turbidity with absorbance at 590 nm and VanX expression using SDS-PAGE. No cell lysis was observed when VanX was expressed, even in large quantities, in the cell inclusion bodies at 37 °C, suggesting that a natively folded VanX is required for lysis. In addition, VanX mutants with suppressed dipeptidase activity did not lyse E. coli cells, confirming that bacteriolysis originated from the dipeptidase activity of VanX. We also observed shape changes in E. coli cells undergoing VanX-mediated lysis with optical microscopy and classified these changes into three classes: bursting, deformation, and leaking fluid. Optical microscopic image analysis fully corroborated our interpretation of the turbidity changes in the samples. From a practical perspective, the finding that VanX expressed in isolation induces cell lysis suggests that inhibitors of VanA and VanH that act downstream from VanX could provide a new class of therapeutic chemicals against bacteria expressing the vancomycin-resistance gene cluster. PMID:25294880

  2. A high-resolution map of the regulator of the complement activation gene cluster on 1q32 that integrates new genes and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine-Suñer, D; Díaz-Guillén, M A; de Villena, F P; Robledo, M; Benítez, J; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen microsatellite markers, including two described here, were used to construct a high-resolution map of the 1q32 region encompassing the regulator of the complement activation (RCA) gene cluster. The RCA genes are a group of related genes coding for plasma and membrane associated proteins that collectively control activation of the complement component C3. We provide here the location of two new genes within the RCA gene cluster. These genes are PFKFB2 that maps 15 kilobases (kb) upstream of the C4BPB gene, and a gene located 4 kb downstream of C4BPA, which seems to code for the 72 000 Mr component of the signal recognition particle (SRP72). Neither of these two genes is related structurally or functionally to the RCA genes. In addition, our map shows the centromere-telomere orientation of the C4BPB/MCP linkage group, which is: centromere-PFKFB2-C4BPB-C4BPA-SRP72-C4BPAL1++ +-C4BPAL2-telomere, and outlines an interval with a significant female-male recombination difference which suggests the presence of a female-specific hotspot(s) of recombination.

  3. Do Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Sleep Duration Predict Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children?- A Part of the OPUS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    Objective To investigate the single and combined associations of physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and sleep duration with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy children. Methods We did a cross-sectional pilot-study of 74 Danish school children aged 8-11 years....... Risk factors included in a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMETscore) were mean z-scores of high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, insulin resistance, and mean arterial blood pressure. Physical activity (counts/min) and sleep duration were assessed for 7 days using an accelerometer. Results Mean...... some of the association and due to low statistical power. Sleep duration does not seem to be associated with cMET-score. The present study indicates that intervention towards lowering of BMI and increasing PA should start already in childhood in order to decrease risk markers of cardiovascular disease....

  4. Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen

    1999-11-01

    The care of patients with cluster headache has at least two goals: 1) immediately abolishing an ongoing attack and 2) stopping or shortening a bout (a cluster period). The fierceness and the relative brevity of the attacks dictate the use of a fast-acting agent. There are probably three agents fulfilling these criteria: sumatriptan (by subcutaneous injection), oxygen (inhaled through a face mask), and ergotamines (by injection or, perhaps, sublingual tablets). An abundance of data from controlled studies as well as recent clinical experience probably favors sumatriptan as the most effective alternative, the most significant drawback being its high cost. Oxygen inhalation is free of side effects and may be effective but is inconvenient to use. Ergotamines in tablet form act less rapidly, and there are more contraindications to their use. In short-term prophylaxis, however, ergotamine may still be a drug of choice if the timing of the attacks allows planned use of the drug shortly before the attack. If the timing is more irregular, steroids may at least temporarily break a cycle (eg, prednisolone, 60 or 80 mg/d, gradually tapered to zero in 3 to 4 weeks). If more long-lasting prophylaxis is needed or expected, lithium carbonate, 900 mg/d, or verapamil, 360 mg/d, both have reasonable response rates. As for chronic cluster headache, lithium probably will still be the drug of choice. For a very limited group of patients with chronic cluster headache, surgery may be a last resort. The best surgical options are probably radiofrequency rhizotomy or microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve.

  5. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  6. FORMATION OF A INNOVATION REGIONAL CLUSTER MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Merzlikina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. As a result of investigation of science and methodical approaches related problems of building and development of innovation clusters there were some issues in functional assignments of innovation and production clusters. Because of those issues, article’s authors differ conceptions of innovation cluster and production cluster, as they explain notion of innovation-production cluster. The main goal of this article is to reveal existing organizational issues in cluster building and its successful development. Based on regional clusters building analysis carried out there was typical practical structure of cluster members interaction revealed. This structure also have its cons, as following: absence cluster orientation to marketing environment, lack of members’ prolonged relations’ building and development system, along with ineffective management of information, financial and material streams within cluster, narrow competence difference and responsibility zones between cluster members, lack of transparence of cluster’s action, low environment changes adaptivity, hard to use cluster members’ intellectual property, and commercialization of hi-tech products. When all those issues listed above come together, it reduces life activity of existing models of innovative cluster-building along with practical opportunity of cluster realization. Because of that, authors offer an upgraded innovative-productive cluster building model with more efficient business processes management system, which includes advanced innovative cluster structure, competence matrix and subcluster responsibility zone. Suggested model differs from other ones by using unified innovative product development control center, which also controls production and marketing realization.

  7. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  8. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention for people with stroke: one year follow-up of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Eriksson, Gunilla; Ekstam, Lisa; Tham, Kerstin; Andersson, Magnus; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Ulla

    2016-08-01

    Compare caregiver burden, provision of informal care, participation in everyday occupations and life satisfaction of caregivers to people with stroke, who either had received a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. A multicentre cluster randomized controlled trial in which 16 rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to deliver a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. Caregiver outcomes were compared cross-sectionally at 12 months and changes in outcomes between three and 12 months after people with stroke were included in the study. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Caregivers of people with stroke enrolled in the trial. A client-centred, activities of daily living intervention aiming to increase agency in daily activities and participation in everyday life for people after stroke. Caregiver Burden Scale, Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, LiSat-11. There were no differences in outcomes between caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living (n = 88) and the usual activities of daily living (n = 95) group at 12 months. The caregiver burden score was 42.7 vs. 41.8, p = 0.75, mean occupational gaps were 3.5 vs. 4.0, p = 0.52 and satisfaction with life was 53% vs. 50%, p = 0.87. There were no differences in changes between three and 12 months. However, within groups there were significant differences in caregiver burden, factor general strain, for caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living group, and in provision of informal care for the usual activities of daily living group. The client-centred intervention did not bring about any difference between caregiver-groups, but within groups some difference was found for caregiver burden and informal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  10. Effectiveness of a walking programme to support adults with intellectual disabilities to increase physical activity: walk well cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A; Mitchell, Fiona; Stalker, Kirsten; Matthews, Lynsay; McConnachie, Alex; Murray, Heather M; Melling, Chris; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-09-29

    Programs to change health behaviours have been identified as one way to reduce health inequalities experienced by disadvantaged groups. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a behaviour change programme to increase walking and reduce sedentary behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities. We used a cluster randomised controlled design and recruited participants over 18 years old and not regularly involved in physical activity from intellectual disabilities community-based organisations. Assessments were carried out blind to allocation. Clusters of participants were randomly allocated to the Walk Well program or a 12-week waiting list control. Walk Well consisted of three face-to-face physical activity consultations incorporating behaviour change techniques, written resources for participants and carers, and an individualised, structured walking programme. The primary outcome measured with accelerometers was change in mean step count per day between baseline and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included percentage time per day sedentary and in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), body mass index (BMI), and subjective well being. One hundred two participants in 50 clusters were randomised. 82 (80.4%) participants completed the primary outcome. 66.7% of participants lived in the most deprived quintile on the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. At baseline, participants walked 4780 (standard deviation 2432) steps per day, spent 65.5% (standard deviation 10.9) of time sedentary and 59% percent had a body mass in the obesity range. After the walking programme, the difference between mean counts of the Walk Well and control group was 69.5 steps per day [95% confidence interval (CI) -1054 to 1193.3]. There were no significant between group differences in percentage time sedentary 1.6% (95% CI -2.984 to 6.102), percentage time in MVPA 0.3% (95% CI -0.7 to 1.3), BMI -0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.8 to 0.4) or subjective well-being 0.3 (95% CI

  11. The X-ray Light-Curves and CME onset of a M2.5 flare of July 6, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Pérez-León, J. E.

    2017-10-01

    A M2.5 solar flare observed by RHESSI in the 6-100 keV range on July 6, 2006 led to a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). Two compact sources at 12-100 keV are seen at the beginning of the flare, whose further evolution fits well in a loop. Also, time-profiles of the flare at radio wavelengths are compared. The X-ray light-curves at different bands in the 6-100 keV range and radio time profiles show some peaks superimposed on smooth variations. The aim of this work is to compare the X-ray light-curves, of fluxes integrated over the whole source, with the physical parameters of the sources of the flare. Yashiro and Gopalswamy (2009) have found that the fraction of flares that produce CME increases with the flare energy. Here, we look for the characteristics of an M2.5 flare that could make it a generator of a CME. The idea is, in future works, to look in the light-curves of similar flares at other stars for these features. It is found that the CME onset takes place around the time when an X-ray source at 12-25 keV of Chromospheric evaporation stagnates at the loop apex, before the main peak at the light-curve at 25-50 keV and at the radio emission curves. Probably, the amount of evaporated plasma could play some role in triggering the CME.

  12. Responsibility of a Filament Eruption for the Initiation of a Flare, CME, and Blast Wave, and its Possible Transformation into a Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Chertok, I. M.; Kalashnikov, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-instrument observations of two filament eruptions on 24 February and 11 May 2011 suggest the following updated scenario for eruptive flare, coronal mass ejection (CME), and shock wave evolution. An initial destabilization of a filament results in stretching out of the magnetic threads belonging to its body that are rooted in the photosphere along the inversion line. Their reconnection leads to i) heating of parts of the filament or its environment, ii) an initial development of the flare cusp, arcade, and ribbons, iii) an increasing similarity of the filament to a curved flux rope, and iv) to its acceleration. Then the pre-eruption arcade enveloping the filament becomes involved in reconnection according to the standard model and continues to form the flare arcade and ribbons. The poloidal magnetic flux in the curved rope developing from the filament progressively increases and forces its toroidal expansion. This flux rope impulsively expands and produces a magnetohydrodynamical disturbance, which rapidly steepens into a shock. The shock passes through the arcade that expands above the filament and then freely propagates for some time ahead of the CME like a decelerating blast wave. If the CME is slow, then the shock eventually decays. Otherwise, the frontal part of the shock changes into the bow-shock regime. This was observed for the first time in the 24 February 2011 event. When reconnection ceases, the flux rope relaxes and constitutes the CME core-cavity system. The expanding arcade develops into the CME frontal structure. We also found that reconnection in the current sheet of a remote streamer forced by the shock passage results in a running flare-like process within the streamer responsible for a type II burst. The development of dimming and various associated phenomena are discussed.

  13. Impact of mutations on the midpoint potential of the [4Fe-4S]+1,+2 cluster and on catalytic activity in electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J; Fielding, Alistair J; Frerman, Frank E; Watmough, Nicholas J; Eaton, Gareth R; Eaton, Sandra S

    2008-01-08

    Electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein that accepts electrons from electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and reduces ubiquinone from the Q-pool. ETF-QO contains a single [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated oxidized enzyme and can be reduced to paramagnetic forms by enzymatic donors or dithionite. Mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in the vicinity of the iron-sulfur cluster of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO. Y501 and T525 are equivalent to Y533 and T558 in the porcine ETF-QO. In the porcine protein, these residues are within hydrogen-bonding distance of the Sgamma of the cysteine ligands to the iron-sulfur cluster. Y501F, T525A, and Y501F/T525A substitutions were made to determine the effects on midpoint potential, activity, and EPR spectral properties of the cluster. The integrity of the mutated proteins was confirmed by optical spectra, EPR g-values, and spin-lattice relaxation rates, and the cluster to flavin point-dipole distance was determined by relaxation enhancement. Potentiometric titrations were monitored by changes in the CW EPR signals of the cluster and semiquinone. Single mutations decreased the midpoint potentials of the iron-sulfur cluster from +37 mV for wild type to -60 mV for Y501F and T525A and to -128 mV for Y501F/T525A. Lowering the midpoint potential resulted in a decrease in steady-state ubiquinone reductase activity and in ETF semiquinone disproportionation. The decrease in activity demonstrates that reduction of the iron-sulfur cluster is required for activity. There was no detectable effect of the mutations on the flavin midpoint potentials.

  14. Impact of Mutations on the Midpoint Potential of the [4Fe-4S]+1,+2 Cluster and on Catalytic Activity in Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF-QO)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Fielding, Alistair J.; Frerman, Frank E.; Watmough, Nicholas J.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein - ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein that accepts electrons from electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and reduces ubiquinone from the Q-pool. ETF-QO contains a single [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated oxidized enzyme and can be reduced to paramagnetic forms by enzymatic donors or dithionite. Mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in the vicinity of the iron-sulfur cluster of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO. Y501 and T525 are equivalent to Y533 and T558 in the porcine ETF-QO. In the porcine protein, these residues are within hydrogen bonding distance of the Sγ of the cysteine ligands to the iron-sulfur cluster. Y501F, T525A, and Y501F/T525A substitutions were made to determine the effects on midpoint potential, activity, and EPR spectral properties of the cluster. The integrity of the mutated proteins was confirmed by optical spectra, EPR g-values, and spin-lattice relaxation rates, and the cluster to flavin point-dipole distance was determined by relaxation enhancement. Potentiometric titrations were monitored by changes in the CW EPR signals of the cluster and semiquinone. Single mutations decreased the mid-point potentials of the iron-sulfur cluster from +37 mV for wild type to −60 mV for Y501F and T525A and to −128 mV for Y501F/T525A. Lowering the midpoint potential resulted in a decrease in steady-state ubiquinone reductase activity and in ETF semiquinone disproportionation. The decrease in activity demonstrates that reduction of the iron-sulfur cluster is required for activity. There was no detectable effect of the mutations on the flavin midpoint potentials. PMID:18069858

  15. Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-08-07

    The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed

  16. Double C-H bond activation of hydrocarbons by a gas phase neutral oxide cluster: the importance of spin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2013-03-21

    The neutral cluster V2O5 is generated and detected in the gas phase. Its reactivity toward butane is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Experimental results show clearly that neutral V2O5 can react with n-butane (C4H10) to generate V2O5H2, indicating double hydrogen atom transfer from C4H10 to V2O5 to produce C4H8. Further experimental evidence indicates that V2O5 is only partially reacted even at very high concentrations of C4H10. Density functional theory (DFT) studies show that the lowest energy triplet state of V2O5 is reactive toward C4H10, whereas the ground state singlet V2O5 is inert. Calculated results are in agreement with experimental findings, and a detailed reaction mechanism is provided. Reactions of V2O5H2 with several oxidants are also studied theoretically to find a path to regenerate V2O5. Neutral (3)V2O5 can also react with C2H6 to form V2O5H2 and C2H4, but only as a minor reaction channel; the major product is the adsorption product V2O5(C2H6).

  17. An active immune defense with a minimal CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-13

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3' handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3' handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5' handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. An Active Immune Defense with a Minimal CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3′ handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3′ handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5′ handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. PMID:25512373

  19. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE): study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Almuth; Sadowski, Katharina; Beyrodt, Melanie; Hanns, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Markus; Langer, Gero; Becker, Christiane; Lautenschläger, Christine; Behrens, Johann

    2010-01-31

    People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group). The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360) as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731.

  20. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  1. Ubiquitination-Linked Phosphorylation of the FANCI S/TQ Cluster Contributes to Activation of the Fanconi Anemia I/D2 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S. Cheung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repair of interstrand crosslinks by the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway requires both monoubiquitination and de-ubiquitination of the FANCI/FANCD2 (FANCI/D2 complex. In the standing model, the phosphorylation of six sites in the FANCI S/TQ cluster domain occurs upstream of, and promotes, FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination. We generated phospho-specific antibodies against three different S/TQ cluster sites (serines 556, 559, and 565 on human FANCI and found that, in contrast to the standing model, distinct FANCI sites were phosphorylated either predominantly upstream (ubiquitination independent; serine 556 or downstream (ubiquitination-linked; serines 559 and 565 of FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination. Ubiquitination-linked FANCI phosphorylation inhibited FANCD2 de-ubiquitination and bypassed the need to de-ubiquitinate FANCD2 to achieve effective interstrand crosslink repair. USP1 depletion suppressed ubiquitination-linked FANCI phosphorylation despite increasing FANCI/D2 monoubiquitination, providing an explanation of why FANCD2 de-ubiquitination is important for function of the FA pathway. Our work results in a refined model of how FANCI phosphorylation activates the FANCI/D2 complex.

  2. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama-Kama, Francisca; Midiwo, Jacob; Nganga, Joseph; Maina, Naomi; Schiek, Elise; Omosa, Leonidah Kerubo; Osanjo, George; Naessens, Jan

    2016-11-04

    Members of 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach. Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution. Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for

  3. Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of regional cluster composition in the economic performance of industries, clusters and regions. On the one hand, diminishing returns to specialization in a location can result in a convergence effect: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be declining in the level of activity of that industry. At the same time, positive spillovers across complementary economic activities provide an impetus for agglomeration: the growth rate of an industry within a r...

  4. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 school based cluster randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Rona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are common in children and are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a school-based intervention that aims to increase levels of physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in school children. Methods/design The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 study is a school-based, cluster RCT that targets school children in Year 5 (age 9-10 years. All state junior/primary schools in the area covered by Bristol City and North Somerset Council are invited to participate; special schools are excluded. Eligible schools are randomised to one of two arms: intervention arm (receive the intervention 2011-2012 and control arm (receive the intervention after the final follow-up assessment, 2013-2014. The primary outcomes of the trial are levels of accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour and questionnaire assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. A number of secondary outcomes will also be measured, including body mass index, waist circumference and overweight/obesity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (prior to intervention when the children are in Year 4, at the end of intervention 'immediate follow-up' and '12 months long-term' follow-up. We will use random effects linear and logistic regression models to compare outcomes by randomised arm. The economic evaluation from a societal perspective will take the form of a cost consequence analysis. Data from focus groups and interviews with pupils, parents and teachers will be used to increase understanding of how the intervention has any effect and is integrated into normal school activity. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information about the public health effectiveness

  5. Can preventive care activities in general practice be sustained when financial incentives and external audit plus feedback are removed? ACCEPt-able: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jane S; Temple-Smith, Meredith; van Driel, Mieke; Law, Matthew; Guy, Rebecca; Bulfone, Liliana; Wood, Anna; Low, Nicola; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Kaldor, John; Gunn, Jane

    2016-09-13

    Financial incentives and audit plus feedback on performance are two strategies commonly used by governments to motivate general practitioners (GP) to undertake specific healthcare activities. However, in recent years, governments have reduced or removed incentive payments without evidence of the potential impact on GP behaviour and patient outcomes. This trial (known as ACCEPt-able) aims to determine whether preventive care activities in general practice are sustained when financial incentives and/or external audit plus feedback on preventive care activities are removed. The activity investigated is annual chlamydia testing for 16- to 29-year-old adults, a key preventive health strategy within this age group. ACCEPt-able builds on a large cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated a 3-year chlamydia testing intervention in general practice. GPs were provided with a support package to facilitate annual chlamydia testing of all sexually active 16- to 29-year-old patients. This package included financial incentive payments to the GP for each chlamydia test conducted and external audit plus feedback on each GP's chlamydia testing rates. ACCEPt-able is a factorial cluster RCT in which general practices are randomised to one of four groups: (i) removal of audit plus feedback-continue to receive financial incentive payments for each chlamydia test; (ii) removal of financial incentive payments-continue to receive audit plus feedback; (iii) removal of financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback; and (iv) continue financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback. The primary outcome is chlamydia testing rate measured as the proportion of sexually active 16- to 29-year-olds who have a GP consultation within a 12-month period and at least one chlamydia test. This will be the first RCT to examine the impact of removal of financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback on the chlamydia testing behaviour of GPs. This trial is particularly timely

  6. Apo2L/TRAIL and the death receptor 5 agonist antibody AMG 655 cooperate to promote receptor clustering and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jonathan D; Kordich, Jennifer J; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Piasecki, Julia; Bush, Tammy L; Sullivan, Timothy; Foltz, Ian N; Chang, Wesley; Douangpanya, Heather; Dang, Thu; O'Neill, Jason W; Mallari, Rommel; Zhao, Xiaoning; Branstetter, Daniel G; Rossi, John M; Long, Alexander M; Huang, Xin; Holland, Pamela M

    2014-08-11

    Death receptor agonist therapies have exhibited limited clinical benefit to date. Investigations into why Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 preclinical data were not predictive of clinical response revealed that coadministration of Apo2L/TRAIL with AMG 655 leads to increased antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The combination of Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 results in enhanced signaling and can sensitize Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells. Structure determination of the Apo2L/TRAIL-DR5-AMG 655 ternary complex illustrates how higher order clustering of DR5 is achieved when both agents are combined. Enhanced agonism generated by combining Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 provides insight into the limited efficacy observed in previous clinical trials and suggests testable hypotheses to reconsider death receptor agonism as a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Would older adults with mild cognitive impairment adhere to and benefit from a structured lifestyle activity intervention to enhance cognition?: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa; Chan, Wai Chi; Leung, Tony; Fung, Ada Wai-Tung; Leung, Edward Man-Fuk

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cognitive and physical activities are associated with better cognition in late life. The present study was conducted to examine the possible benefits of four structured lifestyle activity interventions and compare their effectiveness in optimizing cognition for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This was a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial. 555 community-dwelling Chinese older adults with MCI (295 with multiple-domain deficits (mdMCI), 260 with single-domain deficit (sdMCI)) were recruited. Participants were randomized into physical exercise (P), cognitive activity (C), integrated cognitive and physical exercise (CP), and social activity (S, active control) groups. Interventions comprised of one-hour structured activities three times per week. Primary outcome was Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. Secondary outcomes included Chinese versions of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), delayed recall, Mini-Mental State Examination, Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT) and Disability Assessment for Dementia - Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (DAD-IADL). Percentage adherence to programs and factors affecting adherence were also examined. At 12th month, 423 (76.2%) completed final assessment. There was no change in CDR-SOB and DAD-IADL scores across time and intervention groups. Multilevel normal model and linear link function showed improvement in ADAS-Cog, delayed recall and CVFT with time (peveryday functioning, albeit with some improvements in cognitive scores across time. Higher adherence was associated with greater improvement in cognitive scores. Factors to enhance adherence should be specially considered in the design of psychosocial interventions for older adults with cognitive decline. ClinicalTrials.gov ChiCTR-TRC-11001359.

  8. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  9. The effect of metal cluster deposition route on structure and photocatalytic activity of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on TiO{sub 2} by radiolytic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Marek [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Nadolna, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.nadolna@ug.edu.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Gołąbiewska, Anna [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Mazierski, Paweł [Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Klimczuk, Tomasz [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Remita, Hynd [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS-UMR 8000, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, 91405 Orsay (France); Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Pd-Pt decorated TiO{sub 2} shows the highest activity under visible light among all. • Concurrent addition of metal precursors results in rise of BNPs size and Vis-activity. • Subsequent addition of metal precursors enhances UV–vis stability of modified TiO{sub 2}. • Superoxide radicals are responsible for pollutants degradation over BNPs-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} (P25) was modified with small and relatively monodisperse mono- and bimetallic clusters (Ag, Pd, Pt, Ag/Pd, Ag/Pt and Pd/Pt) induced by radiolysis to improve its photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning transition electron microscopy (STEM) and BET surface area analysis. The effect of metal type (mono- and bimetallic modification) as well as deposition method (simultaneous or subsequent deposition of two metals) on the photocatalytic activity in toluene removal in gas phase under UV–vis irradiation (light-emitting diodes- LEDs) and phenol degradation in liquid phase under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) were investigated. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for TiO{sub 2} co-loaded with platinum (0.1%) and palladium (0.1%) clusters. Simultaneous addition of metal precursors results in formation of larger metal nanoparticles (15–30 nm) on TiO{sub 2} surface and enhances the Vis-induced activity of Ag/Pd-TiO{sub 2} up to four times, while the subsequent metal ions addition results in formation of metal particle size ranging from 4 to 20 nm. Subsequent addition of metal precursors results in formation of BNPs (bimetallic nanoparticle) composites showing higher stability in four cycles of toluene degradation under UV–vis. Obtained results indicated that direct electron transfer from the BNPs to the conduction band of the semiconductor is responsible for

  10. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: a cluster randomised controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klink, J. J. L.; Blonk, R. W. B.; Schene, A. H.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesised that the intervention would be more effective than care as usual in lowering the intensity of symptoms,

  11. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders : a cluster randomised controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, J.J.L. van der; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schene, A.H.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2003-01-01

    To compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesised that the intervention would be more effective than care as usual in lowering the intensity of symptoms,

  12. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus active surveillance for oesophageal cancer: a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Bo Jan; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Boonstra, Jurjen J.; Coene, Peter Paul L. O.; Dekker, Jan Willem T.; Doukas, Michael; van der Gaast, Ate; Heisterkamp, Joos; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A.; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A. P.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Rosman, Camiel; van Sandick, Johanna W.; van der Sangen, Maurice J. C.; Sosef, Meindert N.; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Valkema, Roelf; van der Zaag, Edwin S.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.; Noordman, B. J.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.; Biermann, K.; van der Gaast, A.; Ista, E.; Krak, N. C.; Nuyttens, J. J. M. E.; Polinder, S.; Spaander, M. C. W.; Steyerberg, E. W.; Valkema, R.; Agool, A.; van Baarlen, J.; Hendriksen, E. M.; Hoekstra, Ronald; Kouwenhoven, E. A.; van der Linde, A.; Bartels-Rutten, A.; van Dieren, J.; van Sandick, J.; Snaebjornsson, P.; Vegt, E.; Voncken, F. E. M.; Doornewaard, H.; Erkelens, G. W.; Madretsma, G. S.; van der Zaag, E. S.; ten Broek, M. R. J.; Dallinga, R. J.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Dezentjé, V. O.; de Krijger, R. R.; Neelis, K. J.; Quispel, R.; Creemers, G. J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P.; van der Sangen, M. C.; Schoon, E. J.; Wyndaele, D. N. J.; Buijsen, J.; Riedl, R. G.; Schreurs, W. M. J.; Sosef, M. N.; Oostenbrug, L. E.; Warmerdam, F. A. R. M.; Boonstra, J. J.; Slingerland, M.; de Steur, W. O.; Lips, I. M.; Fiets, W. E.; van der Linde, K.; Nieken, J.; Oppedijk, V.; Pierie, J. P. E. N.; Wolf, R.; Coene, P. P. L. O.; Al Butaihi, I.; Kliffen, M.; Kuiper, E. M. M.; Courrech Staal, E. F.; Janssen, M. J. R.; Liedenbaum, M. H.; van der Post, C.; Radema, S. A.; Rosman, C.; Rütten, H.; Siersema, P. D.; Beerepoot, L. V.; Hazen, W. L.; Heisterkamp, J.; van Oord, J. C.; Rozema, T.; Vermeltfoort, I. A. C.; van der Wurff, A. A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus surgery is a standard treatment for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. With this treatment, 29% of patients have a pathologically complete response in the resection specimen. This provides the rationale for investigating an active surveillance approach.