WorldWideScience

Sample records for cm s-1 potential

  1. Physics at 1034 cm-2 s-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the detector studies at Snowmass-84 have rightfully concentrated on detailed studies of individual interactions - their rates, signatures, and backgrounds. Depending on the physics and the detector components, there seems to be agreement that general-purpose detectors will likely be able to accept luminosities up to 10 32-33 cm -2 s -1 . The purpose of this paper is to show how the physics reach of the SSC is extended by going to a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , to take a first look at what sort of detector could be used at this luminosity, and to discuss how one might trigger on interesting events in the presence of many overlapping minimum bias events. We will assume that the SSC turns on at 10 31 or 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , with an increase of luminosity to 10 33 over a period of a few years as the machine and detectors become better understood. Thus, the lower mass scale will have been explored and we can set our thresholds high when running 10 34

  2. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Hao; Benedick, Andrew J; Fendel, Peter; Glenday, Alexander G; Kärtner, Franz X; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-04-03

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm s(-1) (ref. 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, a precision of approximately 5 cm s(-1) is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Pérot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40-GHz (approximately 1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1-GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or 'astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm s(-1) in astronomical radial velocity measurements.

  3. Highly accurate potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, rovibrational energy levels, and infrared line list for {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} up to 8000 cm{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xinchuan, E-mail: Xinchuan.Huang-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite No. 100, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Schwenke, David W., E-mail: David.W.Schwenke@nasa.gov [MS T27B-1, NAS Facility, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: Xinchuan.Huang-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [MS 245-1, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σ{sub RMS}) for all J = 0–80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm{sup −1}. Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm{sup −1}. Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%–90%. Our predictions for {sup 34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins, higher energy {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins and missing {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict {sup 32/34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins below 5500 cm{sup −1} with 0.01–0.03 cm{sup −1} uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The K{sub a}-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO{sub 2} IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO{sub 2} lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  4. LHCb Upgrades and operation at 1034 cm-2 s-1 luminosity –A first study

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Baglin, Vincent; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Claudet, Serge; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; De Maria, Riccardo; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Karastathis, Nikos; Lindner, Rolf; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Redaelli, Stefano; Roesler, Stefan; Sanchez Galan, Francisco; Thomas, Eric; Tsinganis, Andrea; Wollmann, Daniel; Wilkinson, Guy; Schwarz, Philip; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Presently, the LHCb experiment at IP8 operates at reduced luminosity (~4.0 1032 cm-2 s-1) compared to ATLAS and CMS experiments. The LHCb collaboration is proposing an Upgrade II during HL-LHC operation, where the beams at IP8 will collide at high-luminosity (~1-2 1034 cm-2 s-1), comparable to the present high-luminosity regions IP1&IP5. The LHCb experiment aims to collect more than 300 fb-1 by the end of the HL-LHC operation. A feasibility study of operating IP8 at high-luminosity whilst preserving the performance at IP1 and IP5 and on the impact to the LHC machine and experimental cavern was done. Optics studies shows that solutions allowing to reach an integrated luminosity of 40 to 50 fb-1 per year to LHCb/IP8 at the cost of a reduction of about 5% in the integrated luminosity of the main experiments ATLAS and CMS, under the assumption that there are no lifetime limitations besides burn-off, are feasible. Energy deposition in the machine elements of the IR straight section 8 and LHC infrastructure and...

  5. Accuracy of free energies of hydration using CM1 and CM3 atomic charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udier-Blagović, Marina; Morales De Tirado, Patricia; Pearlman, Shoshannah A; Jorgensen, William L

    2004-08-01

    Absolute free energies of hydration (DeltaGhyd) have been computed for 25 diverse organic molecules using partial atomic charges derived from AM1 and PM3 wave functions via the CM1 and CM3 procedures of Cramer, Truhlar, and coworkers. Comparisons are made with results using charges fit to the electrostatic potential surface (EPS) from ab initio 6-31G* wave functions and from the OPLS-AA force field. OPLS Lennard-Jones parameters for the organic molecules were used together with the TIP4P water model in Monte Carlo simulations with free energy perturbation theory. Absolute free energies of hydration were computed for OPLS united-atom and all-atom methane by annihilating the solutes in water and in the gas phase, and absolute DeltaGhyd values for all other molecules were computed via transformation to one of these references. Optimal charge scaling factors were determined by minimizing the unsigned average error between experimental and calculated hydration free energies. The PM3-based charge models do not lead to lower average errors than obtained with the EPS charges for the subset of 13 molecules in the original study. However, improvement is obtained by scaling the CM1A partial charges by 1.14 and the CM3A charges by 1.15, which leads to average errors of 1.0 and 1.1 kcal/mol for the full set of 25 molecules. The scaled CM1A charges also yield the best results for the hydration of amides including the E/Z free-energy difference for N-methylacetamide in water. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  7. Excited argon 1s5 production in micro-hollow cathode discharges for use as potential rare gas laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard D.; Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    The diode-pumped rare gas laser (DPRGL) has been suggested as a potential high-gain, high-energy laser which requires densities on the order of 1013 cm-3 at pressures around 1 atmosphere for efficient operation. Argon 1s5 number densities have been measured in micro-hollow cathode discharges with electrode gaps of 127 and 254 μm and hole diameters from 100-400 μm. The dependency of the metastable argon (1s5) density on total gas pressure, electrode gap distance and hole diameter were explored. The measured densities were all in the range of 0.5 - 2 × 1013 cm-3 with the 400 μm hole diameters being the lowest.

  8. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Carbonyl Sulfide from 4800 to 8000 cm -1and New Global Analysis of 16O 12C 32S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rbaihi, E.; Belafhal, A.; Vander Auwera, J.; Naı̈m, S.; Fayt, A.

    1998-09-01

    We have measured the FT spectrum of natural OCS from 4800 to 8000 cm-1with a near Doppler resolution and a line-position accuracy between 2 and 8 × 10-4cm-1. For the normal isotopic species16O12C32S, 37 vibrational transitions have been analyzed for both frequencies and intensities. We also report six bands of16O12C34S, five bands of16O13C32S, two bands of16O12C33S, and two bands of18O12C32S. Important effective Herman-Wallis terms are explained by the anharmonic resonances between closely spaced states. As those results complete the study of the Fourier transform spectra of natural carbonyl sulfide from 1800 to 8000 cm-1, a new global rovibrational analysis of16O12C32S has been performed. We have determined a set of 148 molecular parameters, and a statistical agreement is obtained with all the available experimental data.

  9. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  10. X-ray detection with Micromegas with background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S; Calvet, D.; Dafni, T.; Diago, A.; Druillole, F.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D.C.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jourde, D.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Mols, J.P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodríguez, A.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Yildiz, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Micromegas detectors are an optimum technological choice for the detection of low energy x-rays. The low background techniques applied to these detectors yielded remarkable background reductions over the years, being the CAST experiment beneficiary of these developments. In this document we report on the latest upgrades towards further background reductions and better understanding of the detectors' response. The upgrades encompass the readout electronics, a new detector design and the implementation of a more efficient cosmic muon veto system. Background levels below 10$^{-6}$keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ have been obtained at sea level for the first time, demonstrating the feasibility of the expectations posed by IAXO, the next generation axion helioscope. Some results obtained with a set of measurements conducted in the x-ray beam of the CAST Detector Laboratory will be also presented and discussed.

  11. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  12. Choice of Surgical Procedure for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer ≤ 1 cm or > 1 to 2 cm Among Lobectomy, Segmentectomy, and Wedge Resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Chenyang; Shen, Jianfei; Ren, Yijiu

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: According to the lung cancer staging project, T1a (≤ 2 cm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be additionally classified into ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm groups. This study aimed to investigate the surgical procedure for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. METHODS: We identified 15...... multiple prognostic factors. RESULTS: OS and LCSS favored lobectomy compared with segmentectomy or wedge resection in patients with NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. Multivariable analysis showed that segmentectomy and wedge resection were independently associated with poorer OS and LCSS than lobectomy...... for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. With sublobar resection, lower OS and LCSS emerged for NSCLC > 1 to 2 cm after wedge resection, whereas similar survivals were observed for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm. Multivariable analyses showed that wedge resection is an independent risk factor of survival for NSCLC > 1 to 2 cm...

  13. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of 18O-Enriched Carbonyl Sulfide from 1825 to 2700 cm -1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugariu, T.; Naı̈m, S.; Fayt, A.; Bredohl, H.; Blavier, J.-F.; Dubois, I.

    1998-06-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform spectrum of carbonyl sulfide from 1825 to 2700 cm-1, using a sample enriched in both18O (94.0%) and17O (1.54%). A careful calibration yields a line-position accuracy between 1.5 and 3.0 10-5cm-1. We have observed and analyzed 118 infrared bands of which 93 are measured for the first time: 55 for18O12C32S, 20 for18O12C34S, 11 for18O12C33S, 1 for18O12C36S, 12 for17O12C32S, 4 for17O12C34S, 2 for17O12C33S, and 13 for18O13C32S. Intensities are also reported and analyzed for all those bands. The intensity accuracy is better than 10%, and the precision of approximately 1% allows us to determine some Herman-Wallis coefficients.

  14. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-07

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 2,7-Diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, a new organic semiconductor for air-stable organic field-effect transistors with mobilities up to 2.0 cm2 V(-1) s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimiya, Kazuo; Ebata, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Katsuhiro; Izawa, Takafumi; Otsubo, Tetsuo; Kunugi, Yoshihito

    2006-10-04

    Vapor-deposited thin films of a newly developed sulfur-containing heteroarene, 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT), were used as an active layer of OFETs, which showed excellent FET characteristics in ambient conditions with mobilities of approximately 2.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 and Ion/Ioff of 107.

  16. Carma 1 CM Line Survey of Orion-Kl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted the first 1 cm (27-35 GHz) line survey of the Orion-KL region by an array. With a primary beam of ˜4.5 arcminutes, the survey looks at a region ˜166,000 AU (0.56 pc) across. The data have a resolution of ˜6 arcseconds on the sky and 97.6 kHz(1.07-0.84 km/s) in frequency. This region of frequency space is much less crowded than at 3mm or 1mm frequencies and contains the fundamental transitions of several complex molecular species, allowing us to probe the largest extent of the molecular emission. We present the initial results, and comparison to 3mm results, from several species including, dimethyl ether [(CH_3)_2O], ethyl cyanide [C_2H_5CN], acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], SO, and SO_2.

  17. Pulsed WIP electron gun. Final report: design phase 1 x 70 cm cooled WIP electron gun, 1 December 1978--2 February 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.; Gresko, L.

    1979-01-01

    Presented here are design criteria for a full scale (70 cm) WIP electron gun system capable of long run operation with the following specifications: foil area approx. 70 x 1 cm, electron beam current density approx. 1 A/cm 2 , pulse length 2 , voltage -150 kV, voltage droop < 10%, Rep rate approx. 10 KHz, power approx. 20 kW, run time approx. 30 min, and jitter approx. 10 μs

  18. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain.

  19. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Moon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain.

  20. Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of ηc(1S, 2S) and ψ(1S, 2S) states: local-potential description of the charmonium system revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochi, Kazuki; Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    The quark potential models with an energy-independent central potential have been successful for understanding the conventional charmonium states especially below the open charm threshold. As one might consider, however, the interquark potential is in general energy-dependent, and its tendency gets stronger in higher lying states. Confirmation of whether the interquark potential is energy-independent is also important to verify the validity of the quark potential models. In this talk, we examine the energy dependence of the charmonium potential, which can be determined from the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitudes of cc̅ mesons in lattice QCD.We first calculate the BS amplitudes of radially excited charmonium states, the ηc(2S) and ψ(2S) states, using the variational method and then determine both the quark kinetic mass and the charmonium potential within the HAL QCD method. Through a direct comparison of charmonium potentials determined from both the 1S and 2S states, we confirm that neither the central nor spin-spin potential shows visible energy dependence at least up to 2S state.

  1. An empirical spectroscopic database for acetylene in the regions of 5850-6341 cm-1 and 7000-9415 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Campargue, A.

    2017-12-01

    Six studies have been recently devoted to a systematic analysis of the high-resolution near infrared absorption spectrum of acetylene recorded by Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy (CRDS) in Grenoble and by Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FTS) in Brussels and Hefei. On the basis of these works, in the present contribution, we construct an empirical database for acetylene in the 5850-9415 cm-1 region excluding the 6341-7000 cm-1 interval corresponding to the very strong ν1+ν3 manifold. Our database gathers and extends information included in our CRDS and FTS studies. In particular, the intensities of about 1700 lines measured by CRDS in the 7244-7920 cm-1 region are reported for the first time together with those of several bands of 12C13CH2 present in natural isotopic abundance in the acetylene sample. The Herman-Wallis coefficients of most of the bands are derived from a fit of the measured intensity values. A recommended line list is provided with positions calculated using empirical spectroscopic parameters of the lower and upper energy vibrational levels and intensities calculated using the derived Herman-Wallis coefficients. This approach allows completing the experimental list by adding missing lines and improving poorly determined positions and intensities. As a result the constructed line list includes a total of 11113 transitions belonging to 150 bands of 12C2H2 and 29 bands of 12C13CH2. For comparison the HITRAN database in the same region includes 869 transitions of 14 bands, all belonging to 12C2H2. Our weakest lines have an intensity on the order of 10-29 cm/molecule, about three orders of magnitude smaller than the HITRAN intensity cut off. Line profile parameters are added to the line list which is provided in HITRAN format. The comparison of the acetylene database to the HITRAN2012 line list or to results obtained using the global effective operator approach is discussed in terms of completeness and accuracy.

  2. Quinoline-Flanked Diketopyrrolopyrrole Copolymers Breaking through Electron Mobility over 6 cm2 V-1 s-1 in Flexible Thin Film Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhenjie; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Hanlin; Ding, Shang; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Zhen, Yonggang; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-03-01

    Herein, the design and synthesis of novel π-extended quinoline-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) [abbreviated as QDPP] motifs and corresponding copolymers named PQDPP-T and PQDPP-2FT for high performing n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in flexible organic thin film devices are reported. Serving as DPP-flankers in backbones, quinoline is found to effectively tune copolymer optoelectric properties. Compared with TDPP and pyridine-flanked DPP (PyDPP) analogs, widened bandgaps and strengthened electron deficiency are achieved. Moreover, both hole and electron mobility are improved two orders of magnitude compared to those of PyDPP analogs (PPyDPP-T and PPyDPP-2FT). Notably, featuring an all-acceptor-incorporated backbone, PQDPP-2FT exhibits electron mobility of 6.04 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , among the highest value in OFETs fabricated on flexible substrates to date. Moreover, due to the widened bandgap and strengthened electron deficiency of PQDPP, n-channel on/off ratio over 10 5 with suppressed hole transport is first realized in the ambipolar DPP-based copolymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of the NO3 radical from 2000 to 3000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Fujimori, Ryuji; Tang, Jian; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    The present paper reports high-resolution spectroscopic study of the 14NO3 radical in the 2000-3000 cm-1 region, where eight E‧-A2‧ bands from the ground state are observed. Three bands at 2206, 2246, and 2377 cm-1 are analyzed for the first time, and assigned to the ν1 + 3ν4, 2ν2 + 2ν4, and ν3 + 3ν4 bands, respectively. Bands at 2024, 2155, 2518, and 2585 cm-1 are reassigned to the ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, ν1 + ν3 + ν4, and 2ν3 + ν4 bands, respectively, by adopting the new ν3 vibrational frequency of 1055 cm-1 lower than the previous ν3 = 1492 cm-1. The band at 2902 cm-1 is observed for the first time and assigned to the ν1 + ν3 + 2ν4 band which is the ν1 combined band with the 1927 cm-1 band. Band intensities observed in the 2000-3000 cm-1 region are attributed to the intensity borrowing from the B˜2E‧ -X˜2 A2‧ electronic transition through the vibronic interaction. Although the ν3 fundamental band has not been observed due to the cancelation of vibrational intensity and borrowed intensity, the 2ν3 band becomes stronger than ν3 by a factor of more than 50. Perturbation effects are recognized for the bands observed except for the 2206 cm-1 and 2377 cm-1 bands, and are analyzed by taking into account the Coriolis interaction in the most cases. However, the 2024 cm-1 band is free from the Coriolis interaction, and the v1-v3 interaction is incorporated in the analysis, leading to the 2ν1 frequency of 2008.8 cm-1, which is close to the energy value of 2010 cm-1 observed by a laser induced fluorescence study.

  4. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  5. Measurement of the 1S-2S frequency in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildum, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A first precise measurement of the 1S-2S energy interval in atomic hydrogen was obtained by observing the 1S-2S transition in an atomic beam by pulsed Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy and using an interferometrically calibrated line of 130 Te 2 at 486 nm as the references. The measured 1S-2S frequency is 2,466,061 395.6(4.9)MHz. With the calculated 1S Lamb shift, the 1S-2S frequency yields a value for the Rydberg constant, R/sub ∞/ = 109,737.314 92(22) cm -1 , which is not in good agreement with the most recent previously measured value, 109,737.315 44(11) cm -1 , obtained by S.R. Amin et al. It is, however, in good agreement with a previous Rydberg value, 109,737.315 04(32) cm -1 , measured by J.E.M. Goldsmith. If the Rydberg constant is taken as given, the 1S-2S frequency determines a value for the 1S Lamb shift. With Amin's Rydberg, the measured Lamb shift is 8161.0(5.4) MHz, in poor agreement with the theoretical value of 8149.43(8) MHz. With Goldsmith's Rydberg, the measurement Lamb shift is 8151.0(8.7) MHz, in good agreement with theory

  6. Imaging of Hsp70-positive tumors with cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrmann MK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathias K Gehrmann,1 Melanie A Kimm,2 Stefan Stangl,1 Thomas E Schmid,1 Peter B Noël,2 Ernst J Rummeny,2 Gabriele Multhoff11Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Real-time imaging of small tumors is still one of the challenges in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of clinical outcome. Targeting novel biomarkers that are selectively expressed on a large variety of different tumors but not normal cells has the potential to improve the imaging capacity of existing methods such as computed tomography. Herein, we present a novel technique using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody-conjugated spherical gold nanoparticles for quantification of the targeted uptake of gold nanoparticles into membrane Hsp70-positive tumor cells. Upon binding, cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles but not nanoparticles coupled to an isotype-matched IgG1 antibody or empty nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by highly malignant Hsp70 membrane-positive mouse tumor cells. After 24 hours, the cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles are found to be enriched in the perinuclear region. Specificity for membrane Hsp70 was shown by using an Hsp70 knockout tumor cell system. Toxic side effects of the cmHsp70.1-conjugated nanoparticles are not observed at a concentration of 1–10 µg/mL. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate whether cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles are suitable for the detection of membrane-Hsp70-positive tumors in vivo.Keywords: heat shock protein 70, tumor biomarker, theranostics, multimodal CT, multispectral CT, k-edge

  7. Small nodules (1-2 cm) in liver cirrhosis: Characterization with contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada)], E-mail: taekyoung.kim@uhn.on.ca; Wilson, Stephanie R. [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic efficacy of arterial phase contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for characterizing small hepatic nodules (1-2 cm) in patients with high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Over 12 months, CEUS was performed in 59 patients at high-risk for HCC with small hepatic nodules (1-2 cm; mean, 1.5 cm). Based only on arterial phase (<45 s) vascular intensity and pattern, lesions were prospectively diagnosed as HCC if there was hypervascularity without known features of hemangioma. The diagnosis of HCC was made regardless of the presence or absence of washout. Verification of diagnosis was made by liver transplantation (n = 13), biopsy (n = 12), resection (n = 3) or clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 12 months (n = 31). Results: At of the time of CEUS, the 59 nodules were diagnosed as HCC in 26 and benign lesions in 33, including 20 regenerative/dysplastic nodules (RN/DN), 11 hemangiomas, and 2 focal fat sparing. All 26 nodules with arterial phase hypervascularity without hemangioma-like features were HCC. However, CEUS misdiagnosed HCC as RN/DN in 4 cases with arterial iso- (n = 3) or hypovascularity (n = 1). CEUS correctly diagnosed all 11 hemangiomas. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for diagnosing HCC were 86.7, 100, and 93.2%. Conclusions: Arterial phase vascular intensity and pattern of CEUS are highly accurate for the diagnosis of small (1-2 cm) HCC and hemangioma in liver cirrhosis. On CEUS, arterial phase hypervascularity without a hemangioma-pattern alone may be sufficient for diagnosis of small HCC. Infrequent iso/hypovascular HCC may erroneously suggest RN/DN necessitating biopsy or close follow-up.

  8. Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance between 4000-10000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, J.; Coleman, M. D.; Gardiner, T.; Shine, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The near-infrared solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is an important input into simulations of weather and climate; the distribution of energy throughout this region of the spectrum influences atmospheric heating rates and the global hydrological cycle through absorption and scattering by water vapour. Current measurements by a mixture of ground-based and space-based instruments show differences of around 10% in the 4000-7000 cm-1 region, with no resolution to this controversy in sight. This work presents observations of SSI taken using a ground-based Fourier Transform spectrometer between 4000-10000 cm-1 at a field site in Camborne, UK, with particular focus on a rigorously defined uncertainty budget. While there is good agreement between this work and the commonly-used ATLAS3 spectrum between 7000-10000 cm-1, the SSI is systematically lower by 10% than ATLAS3 between 4000-7000 cm-1, with no overlap within the k = 2 measurement uncertainties.

  9. Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y. C.; Faber, A. J.; de Waal, H.; Kik, P. G.; Polman, A.

    1997-11-01

    Erbium-doped multicomponent phosphate glass waveguides were deposited by rf sputtering techniques. The Er concentration was 5.3×1020cm-3. By pumping the waveguide at 980 nm with a power of ˜21 mW, a net optical gain of 4.1 dB at 1.535 μm was achieved. This high gain per unit length at low pump power could be achieved because the Er-Er cooperative upconversion interactions in this heavily Er-doped phosphate glass are very weak [the upconversion coefficient is (2.0±0.5)×10-18 cm3/s], presumably due to the homogeneous distribution of Er in the glass and due to the high optical mode confinement in the waveguide which leads to high pump power density at low pump power.

  10. DICKE’S SUPERRADIANCE IN ASTROPHYSICS. I. THE 21 cm LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, Fereshteh; Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    We have applied the concept of superradiance introduced by Dicke in 1954 to astrophysics by extending the corresponding analysis to the magnetic dipole interaction characterizing the atomic hydrogen 21 cm line. Although it is unlikely that superradiance could take place in thermally relaxed regions and that the lack of observational evidence of masers for this transition reduces the probability of detecting superradiance, in situations where the conditions necessary for superradiance are met (close atomic spacing, high velocity coherence, population inversion, and long dephasing timescales compared to those related to coherent behavior), our results suggest that relatively low levels of population inversion over short astronomical length-scales (e.g., as compared to those required for maser amplification) can lead to the cooperative behavior required for superradiance in the interstellar medium. Given the results of our analysis, we expect the observational properties of 21 cm superradiance to be characterized by the emission of high-intensity, spatially compact, burst-like features potentially taking place over short periods ranging from minutes to days.

  11. Cm3+-F- interaction in a mixed system of methanol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, I.; Watanabe, T.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suganuma, H.

    2003-01-01

    The stability constants (β 1 ) of the monofluoro complex of Cm(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water using the solvent extraction technique. The values of Inβ 1 increase as the molar fraction of methanol (X s ) in the mixed solvent increases. The variation in the stability constants mainly depends on the solvation of F - and slightly depends on both (1) the solvation of cations in connection with the complexation of CmF 2+ and (2) the electrostatic attraction of Cm 3+ -F - . The variation in Inβ 1 for Cm(III) due to the effect of both (1) and (2) is similar to that for Sm(III). By variation of Inβ 1 the coordination number in the primary hydration sphere (CN) of Cm(III) decreased from a value between CN = 9 and CN = 8 to CN = 8, at about X s = 0.02. The X s value of the inflection point of the CN for Cm is slightly lower than X s = 0.06 for Sm(III) and X s = 0.03 for Eu(III), previously obtained. (author)

  12. Investigation of 1-cm dose equivalent for photons behind shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1991-03-01

    The ambient dose equivalent at 1-cm depth, assumed equivalent to the 1-cm dose equivalent in practical dose estimations behind shielding slabs of water, concrete, iron or lead for normally incident photons having various energies was calculated by using conversion factors for a slab phantom. It was compared with the 1-cm depth dose calculated with the Monte Carlo code EGS4. It was concluded from this comparison that the ambient dose equivalent calculated by using the conversion factors for the ICRU sphere could be used for the evaluation of the 1-cm dose equivalent for the sphere phantom within 20% errors. Average and practical conversion factors are defined as the conversion factors from exposure to ambient dose equivalent in a finite slab or an infinite one, respectively. They were calculated with EGS4 and the discrete ordinates code PALLAS. The exposure calculated with simple estimation procedures such as point kernel methods can be easily converted to ambient dose equivalent by using these conversion factors. The maximum value between 1 and 30 mfp can be adopted as the conversion factor which depends only on material and incident photon energy. This gives the ambient dose equivalent on the safe side. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  14. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Carbonyl Sulfide from 3700 to 4800 cm -1and Selection of a Line-Pointing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naı̈m, S.; Fayt, A.; Bredohl, H.; Blavier, J.-F.; Dubois, I.

    1998-11-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform spectrum of natural OCS from 3700 to 4800 cm-1with a near Doppler resolution and a line-position accuracy between 4 and 8 × 10-5cm-1. For the normal isotopic species, 37 vibrational transitions have been analyzed for both frequencies and intensities. We also report 15 bands of OC34S, eight bands of O13CS, nine bands of OC33S, and two bands of18OCS. Important effective Herman-Wallis terms are explained on the basis of eigenvectors. A comparison of different line-pointing programs is also presented.

  15. 11.72-sq cm Active-Area Wafer Interconnected PiN Diode Pulsed at 64 kA Dissipates 382 J and Exhibits an Action of 1.7 MA(sup 2)-s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    calculated action exceeded 1.7 MA2 -s. Preliminary efforts on high voltage diode interconnection have produced quarter wafer interconnected PiN...was packaged in a “hockey-puck” configuration and pulsed to 64 kA, dissipating 382 J with a calculated action exceeding 1.7 MA2 -s. II. FULL...epitaxial layers are utilized. 11.72-cm2 Active-area Wafer Interconnected PiN Diode pulsed at 64 kA dissipates 382 J and exhibits an action of 1.7 MA2 -s

  16. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water Hosing Experiment with 1 Sv equivalent of Freshening Control Expt: 100 yrs After Hosing: 300 yrs.

  17. Linking vascular disorders and Alzheimer’s disease: Potential involvement of BACE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sarah L.; Vassar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown. However, specific risk factors have been identified, and aging is the strongest AD risk factor. The majority of cardiovascular events occur in older people and a close relationship between vascular disorders and AD exists. Amyloid plaques, composed of the beta amyloid peptide (Aβ), are hallmark lesions in AD and evidence indicates that Aβ plays a central role in AD pathophysiology. The BACE1 enzyme is essential for Aβ generation, and BACE1 levels are elevated in AD brain. The cause(s) of this BACE1 elevation remains undetermined. Here we review the potential contribution of vascular disease to AD pathogenesis. We examine the putative vasoactive properties of Aβ and how the cellular changes associated with vascular disease may elevate BACE1 levels. Despite increasing evidence, the exact role(s) vascular disorders play in AD remains to be determined. However, given that vascular diseases can be addressed by lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, the potential benefits of these therapies in delaying the clinical appearance and progression of AD may warrant investigation. PMID:18289733

  18. The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models: HadCM3@Bristol v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Paul J.; Armstrong, Edward; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Bradshaw, Catherine D.; Bragg, Fran; Crucifix, Michel; Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Day, Jonathan J.; Farnsworth, Alex; Gordon, Chris; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kennedy, Alan T.; Lord, Natalie S.; Lunt, Dan J.; Marzocchi, Alice; Parry, Louise M.; Pope, Vicky; Roberts, William H. G.; Stone, Emma J.; Tourte, Gregory J. L.; Williams, Jonny H. T.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding natural and anthropogenic climate change processes involves using computational models that represent the main components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. These models have become increasingly computationally expensive as resolution is increased and more complex process representations are included. However, to gain robust insight into how climate may respond to a given forcing, and to meaningfully quantify the associated uncertainty, it is often required to use either or both ensemble approaches and very long integrations. For this reason, more computationally efficient models can be very valuable tools. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the suite of climate models based around the HadCM3 coupled general circulation model. This model was developed at the UK Met Office and has been heavily used during the last 15 years for a range of future (and past) climate change studies, but has now been largely superseded for many scientific studies by more recently developed models. However, it continues to be extensively used by various institutions, including the BRIDGE (Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment) research group at the University of Bristol, who have made modest adaptations to the base HadCM3 model over time. These adaptations mean that the original documentation is not entirely representative, and several other relatively undocumented configurations are in use. We therefore describe the key features of a number of configurations of the HadCM3 climate model family, which together make up HadCM3@Bristol version 1.0. In order to differentiate variants that have undergone development at BRIDGE, we have introduced the letter B into the model nomenclature. We include descriptions of the atmosphere-only model (HadAM3B), the coupled model with a low-resolution ocean (HadCM3BL), the high-resolution atmosphere-only model (HadAM3BH), and the regional model (HadRM3B). These also include

  19. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd–Ga–O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ≥10 cm{sup 2 }V{sup −1 }s{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hyanagi@yamanashi.ac.jp [Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa [Division of Material and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-16, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-16, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-16, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd–Ga–O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5–4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ≥10 cm{sup 2 }V{sup −1 }s{sup −1}. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu{sub 2}O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  20. Metallographic study of reconstitution welding in inserts of 1 cm{sup 3}; Estudio metalografico de soldaduras de reconstitucion en insertos de 1 cm{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Garcia R, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the welding metallographic study carried out in Charpy test tubes reconstituted with notch in 'V', used in the surveillance programs of the vessel in nucleo electric plants is described. Inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} are used, where the inserts are usually rectangular of minimum 18 millimeters of length. The importance of using inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} is that the mechanical properties can be measured in another direction of the vessel steel, when changing the direction or sense of the notch in 'V' or the face where this notch is made in the insert. (Author)

  1. Leveraging the NLM map from SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM to facilitate adoption of ICD-10-CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, F Phil; Schaeffer, Molly; Rifai, Dorothy; Doroshenko, Victoria; Goldberg, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    Develop and test web services to retrieve and identify the most precise ICD-10-CM code(s) for a given clinical encounter. Facilitate creation of user interfaces that 1) provide an initial shortlist of candidate codes, ideally visible on a single screen; and 2) enable code refinement. To satisfy our high-level use cases, the analysis and design process involved reviewing available maps and crosswalks, designing the rule adjudication framework, determining necessary metadata, retrieving related codes, and iteratively improving the code refinement algorithm. The Partners ICD-10-CM Search and Mapping Services (PI-10 Services) are SOAP web services written using Microsoft's.NET 4.0 Framework, Windows Communications Framework, and SQL Server 2012. The services cover 96% of the Partners problem list subset of SNOMED CT codes that map to ICD-10-CM codes and can return up to 76% of the 69,823 billable ICD-10-CM codes prior to creation of custom mapping rules. We consider ways to increase 1) the coverage ratio of the Partners problem list subset of SNOMED CT codes and 2) the upper bound of returnable ICD-10-CM codes by creating custom mapping rules. Future work will investigate the utility of the transitive closure of SNOMED CT codes and other methods to assist in custom rule creation and, ultimately, to provide more complete coverage of ICD-10-CM codes. ICD-10-CM will be easier for clinicians to manage if applications display short lists of candidate codes from which clinicians can subsequently select a code for further refinement. The PI-10 Services support ICD-10 migration by implementing this paradigm and enabling users to consistently and accurately find the best ICD-10-CM code(s) without translation from ICD-9-CM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signalling: Role in bone biology and potential therapeutic target for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartawi, Ziad; Schipani, Ernestina; Ryan, Katie B; Waeber, Christian

    2017-11-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) affects cellular functions in most systems. Interest in its therapeutic potential has increased following the discovery of its G protein-coupled receptors and the recent availability of agents that can be safely administered in humans. Although the role of S1P in bone biology has been the focus of much less research than its role in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, it is becoming clear that this lipid influences many of the functions, pathways and cell types that play a key role in bone maintenance and repair. Indeed, S1P is implicated in many osteogenesis-related processes including stem cell recruitment and subsequent differentiation, differentiation and survival of osteoblasts, and coupling of the latter cell type with osteoclasts. In addition, S1P's role in promoting angiogenesis is well-established. The pleiotropic effects of S1P on bone and blood vessels have significant potential therapeutic implications, as current therapeutic approaches for critical bone defects show significant limitations. Because of the complex effects of S1P on bone, the pharmacology of S1P-like agents and their physico-chemical properties, it is likely that therapeutic delivery of S1P agents will offer significant advantages compared to larger molecular weight factors. Hence, it is important to explore novel methods of utilizing S1P agents therapeutically, and improve our understanding of how S1P and its receptors modulate bone physiology and repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallographic study of reconstitution welding in inserts of 1 cm3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Garcia R, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the welding metallographic study carried out in Charpy test tubes reconstituted with notch in 'V', used in the surveillance programs of the vessel in nucleo electric plants is described. Inserts of 1 cm 3 are used, where the inserts are usually rectangular of minimum 18 millimeters of length. The importance of using inserts of 1 cm 3 is that the mechanical properties can be measured in another direction of the vessel steel, when changing the direction or sense of the notch in 'V' or the face where this notch is made in the insert. (Author)

  4. Neptune's microwave spectrum from 1 mm to 20 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.; Richmond, M.

    1989-01-01

    Total flux densities and disk-averaged brightness temperatures have been tabulated on the basis of VLA observations of Neptune at 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelengths; a recalibration is also conducted of previous observations in order to accurately ascertain the spectral shape of this planet, which is found to have increasing brightness temperature with increasing wavelength, in contrast with that of Uranus. If all the detected emission is atmospheric thermal radiation, ammonia abundance must either be a factor of about 50 lower than the solar N value throughout the Neptune atmosphere, or the planet must emit about 0.3-0.5 mJy synchrotron radiation at 20 cm; the latter possibility is consistent with a planetary magnetic field strength of about 0.5 G at the surface. 39 refs

  5. High-Resolution Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of OCS in the 12 000-13 000 cm -1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchart, S.; Hadj Bachir, I.; Huet, T. R.; Olafsson, A.; Destombes, J.-L.; Naı¨m, S.; Fayt, A.

    1999-08-01

    A spectrum of natural OCS has been recorded in the near-infrared region using the laser photoacoustic technique. The source is a titanium-sapphire laser pumped by an Ar+ laser. The tunable 1.5 W beam was sent through the photoacoustic cell. This windowless longitudinal resonant cell was designed with two λ/4 buffer volumes at both ends in order to reduce the noise and so to increase the sensitivity (αmin ≈ 10-9 cm-1). The spectrum of OCS, at a pressure of 90 Torr, has been recorded in the regions 11 953-12 084, 12 829-12 890, and 12 998-13 001 cm-1. In addition to the 0006-0000 band of 16O12C32S recently identified by Ch. Hornberger, B. Boor, R. Stuber, W. Demtröder, S. Naı̈m, and A. Fayt, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 179, 237-245, 1996, new weaker bands have been observed: 0405-0000, 1 1003-0000, 1006-0000, 1405-0000, 0206-0000, and 0116-0110, and also the 0006-0000 band of 16O12C34S. Effective state parameters are deduced from the band-by-band least-squares fits. The new data have also been introduced in the global analysis which takes into account the l-type resonance and the main anharmonic interactions and so allows a full understanding of the perturbations and the intensity transfers.

  6. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite and implications for the CO-CM relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumard, Noël; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-05-01

    High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule Δ17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (Δ17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s poor H2O ice (∼0.3-0.4× the CI dust; Δ17O > 0‰) and at dust enrichments of ∼300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.

  7. LIF excitation spectra for S 0 → S 1 transition of deuterated anthranilic acid COOD, ND 2 in supersonic-jet expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, Przemysław; Leśniewski, Sebastian; Andrzejak, Marcin; Góra, Maciej; Cias, Pawel; Weģrzynowicz, Adam; Najbar, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation spectrum for the S 0 → S 1 transition of anthranilic acid molecules deuterated in the substituent groups (COOD, ND 2) was investigated. Analysis of the LIF spectrum allowed for the assignment of the six most prominent fundamental in-plane modes of frequencies up to ca. 850 cm. The experimental results show good correlation with the frequency changes upon deuteration computed with CIS (CI-Singles) and TD-DFT for the S 1 state. Deuteration induced red-shifts of the identified fundamental bands are used for examination of the alternative assignments proposed in earlier studies. Potential energy distributions (PED) and overlaps of the in-plane normal modes with frequencies below 850 cm indicate that the correspondence of the respective vibrations of the deuterated and non-deuterated molecule is very good. A blue-shift of the 00 transition due to the isotopic substitution, is equal to 47 cm. This relatively large value is caused primarily by a significant decrease of the N-H stretching frequency associated with the increase of strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bond upon the electronic excitation. The deuteration shift of the 00 band was interpreted in terms of the differences of the zero point energy (ZPE) between the S 0 and S 1 electronic states, computed with DFT and TD-DFT methods, respectively.

  8. The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models: HadCM3@Bristol v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Valdes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding natural and anthropogenic climate change processes involves using computational models that represent the main components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. These models have become increasingly computationally expensive as resolution is increased and more complex process representations are included. However, to gain robust insight into how climate may respond to a given forcing, and to meaningfully quantify the associated uncertainty, it is often required to use either or both ensemble approaches and very long integrations. For this reason, more computationally efficient models can be very valuable tools. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the suite of climate models based around the HadCM3 coupled general circulation model. This model was developed at the UK Met Office and has been heavily used during the last 15 years for a range of future (and past climate change studies, but has now been largely superseded for many scientific studies by more recently developed models. However, it continues to be extensively used by various institutions, including the BRIDGE (Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment research group at the University of Bristol, who have made modest adaptations to the base HadCM3 model over time. These adaptations mean that the original documentation is not entirely representative, and several other relatively undocumented configurations are in use. We therefore describe the key features of a number of configurations of the HadCM3 climate model family, which together make up HadCM3@Bristol version 1.0. In order to differentiate variants that have undergone development at BRIDGE, we have introduced the letter B into the model nomenclature. We include descriptions of the atmosphere-only model (HadAM3B, the coupled model with a low-resolution ocean (HadCM3BL, the high-resolution atmosphere-only model (HadAM3BH, and the regional model (HadRM3B

  9. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  10. The elusive 2s3s1S level in B II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I; Awaya, Y; Ekberg, J O; Kink, I; Mannervik, S; Ryabtsev, A N

    2003-01-01

    It has been known for nearly 30 years that the theoretical and experimental values for the energy of the 2s3s 1 S level in singly ionized boron, B II, differ strongly. Since there is much better agreement for other B II levels, it has been concluded that the experimental value for 2s3s 1 S must be revised. Despite a number of recordings over the years of sliding-spark, hollow cathode and beam-foil spectra, this level has not been located. We have now performed another beam-foil experiment, using higher resolution and sensitivity than in most previous studies. By combining these new data with previous results, we have identified transitions from the 2s4p, 2s5p and 2p3s 1 P levels to 2s3s 1 S, the excitation energy (137 622 ± 3 cm -1 ) of which is now well established and in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions

  11. The radiation shielding potential of CI and CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel T.

    2017-03-01

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) pose a serious limit on the duration of deep space human missions. A shield composed of a bulk mass of material in which the incident particles deposit their energy is the simplest way to attenuate the radiation. The cost of bringing the sufficient mass from the Earth's surface is prohibitive. The shielding properties of asteroidal material, which is readily available in space, are investigated. Solution of Bethe's equation is implemented for incident protons and the application in composite materials and the significance of various correction terms are discussed; the density correction is implemented. The solution is benchmarked and shows good agreement with the results in literature which implement more correction terms within the energy ranges considered. The shielding properties of CI and CM asteroidal taxonomy groups and major asteroidal minerals are presented in terms of stopping force. The results show that CI and CM chondrites have better stopping properties than Aluminium. Beneficiation is discussed and is shown to have a significant effect on the stopping power.

  12. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  13. Uranium sandwich targets of 0.1 to 100 mg.cm-2 prepared by electron beam gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folger, H.; Klemm, J.

    1978-01-01

    Metallic uranium layers of 0.1 to 100 mg.cm -2 between different backings and protecting layers were prepared for bombardments with heavy ions such as argon, krypton, xenon, lead, or uranium at energies of up to 8 MeV/u at the UNILAC of the GSI. An experimental set-up for the preparation of thick and oxygen-free sandwich targets using a 6 kVA electron beam gun was installed in a high vacuum apparatus. Then deposition and evaporation rates for uranium were investigated as a function of the electron beam gun power. It turned out that reproducible evaporation rates of up to 7 mg.s -1 were achieved when uranium pieces of 20 to 40 grams were used. Specific evaporation rates and vapor pressures for different temperatures were calculated. Some of these data are compared to measured values, especially evaporation rates at the evaporation point. The preparation, composition, and usage of uranium sandwich targets is described in detail. It concerns uranium layers of 0.1 to 100 mg.cm -2 deposited onto backings of carbon, titanium, nickel, gold, or glass. Evaporated films of carbon, titanium, nickel, or gold of 0.01 to 0.2 mg.cm -2 are used to protect the uranium layers from oxidation

  14. Patch testing with 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) formaldehyde instead of 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2) detects significantly more contact allerg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontén, Ann; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    .To validate earlier patch test results for comparison of 1% (wt/vol) and 2% (wt/vol) formaldehyde in water, and to investigate co-reactivity with quaternium-15. Materials and methods.In 12 dermatology clinics, 3591 patients were routinely patch tested simultaneously with 2.0% (wt/vol) (0.60 mg/cm(2) ) and 1.......0% (wt/vol) (0.30 mg/cm(2) ) formaldehyde. Micropipettes were used for delivering the exact dosage of the allergen. Results.Significantly more patients reacted to 2.0% formaldehyde than to 1.0% (3.4% versus 1.8%, p

  15. Evaluation of 1cm dose equivalent rate using a NaI(Tl) scintilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1990-01-01

    A method for evaluating 1 cm dose equivalent rates from a pulse height distribution obtained by a 76.2mmφ spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was described. Weak leakage radiation from nuclear facilities were also measured and dose equivalent conversion factor and effective energy of leakage radiation were evaluated from 1 cm dose equivalent rate and exposure rate. (author)

  16. S1(1A1)<--S0(1A1) transition of benzo[g,h,i]perylene in supersonic jets and rare gas matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillé, G; Arold, M; Staicu, A; Krasnokutski, S; Huisken, F; Henning, Th; Tan, X; Salama, F

    2007-05-07

    The study of the S1(1A1)argon matrices. The comparison of the redshifts determined for either transition reveals that the polarizability of BghiP is larger in its S2 than in its S1 state. Bandwidths of 2.7 cm-1 measured in supersonic jets, which provide conditions relevant for astrophysics, are similar to those of most diffuse interstellar bands. The electronic transitions of BghiP are found to lie outside the ranges covered by present databases. From the comparison between experimental spectra and theoretical computations, it is concluded that the accuracy of empirical and ab initio approaches in predicting electronic energies is still not sufficient to identify astrophysically interesting candidates for spectroscopic laboratory studies.

  17. Centre-of-mass corrections for the harmonic S+V potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    Center-of-Mass corrections to the mass spectrum and static properties of low-lying S-wave baryoins are discussed in the context of a relativistic, independent quark model, based on a Dirac equation, with equally mixed scalar and vector confining potential of harmomic type. A more stisfactory fitting of the parameters involved is obtained, as compared with previous treatments which CM corrections were neglected. (Author) [pt

  18. Interpretation of the Raman spectra of the glassy states of SixS1−x and SixSe1−x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, V. Radhika; Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2013-01-01

    We use the density-functional theory to make models of Si x S y and Si x Se y for the values of x,y = 1–6. The vibrational frequencies are calculated for each model. The stable clusters are selected on the basis of positive vibrational frequencies. In the case of Si x S 1−x , the values of the vibrational frequencies calculated from the first principles for Si 2 S(triangular)cluster of atoms, 364.1 cm1 and 380.8 cm1 , agree with the experimentally measured values of 367 cm1 and 381 cm1 , indicating that Si 2 S clusters occur in the glassy state of SiS. The calculated values of the vibrational frequencies of SiSe 4 (pyramidal) which agree with the experimental Raman frequencies of glassy Si x Se 1−x are 114, 166 and 361 cm1 . The calculated values for Si 2 Se 4 (bipyramidal) which agree with the experimental data of Si x Se 1−x are 166 and 464 cm1 . In Si 4 Se (pyramidal) the values 246 and 304 cm1 agree with the measured values. In Si 4 Se 2 (bipyramidal), the calculated values 162, 196 and 304 cm1 agree with the measured values. The calculated values of 473 cm1 for Si 6 Se 2 (bipyramidal) also agree with the experimentally measured values. We thus find that pyramidal structures are present in the amorphous Si x Se 1−x glassy state. - Highlights: • A first principles calculation is performed to calculate the vibrational frequencies. • The calculated frequencies of clusters agree with measured Raman values. • The structures, bond lengths and symmetries are determined. • The importance of Jahn–Teller effect in SiS and in SiSe is clearly seen. • The clusters of SiS and SiSe are found to stabilize in different symmetries

  19. Dipole polarizability of 2 3S1 and 2 1S0 metastable helium measured by the electric deflection time-of-flight method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, D.A.; Zorn, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The static dipole polarizability of helium atoms in the metastable 2 3 S 1 and 2 1 S 0 states has been determined by measuring the deflection of a beam of excited helium atoms that is caused by an inhomogeneous electric field of known properties. The necessary velocity distribution information is obtained from time-of-flight measurements, and a resonance quenching technique made it possible to distinguish the singlet and triplet components of the beam. The results, α(2 3 S 1 ) = (44.6 +- 3) x 10 -24 cm 3 and α(2 1 S 0 ) = (108 +- 13) x 10 -24 cm 3 , agree with the theoretical value that has been used to calibrate earlier polarizability measurements of the alkali metals and the heavier noble gases

  20. Tests of the Tully-Fisher relation. 1: Scatter in infrared magnitude versus 21 cm width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Raychaudhury, Somak; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry; Vogt, Nicole P.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the precision of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) using a sample of galaxies in the Coma region of the sky, and find that it is good to 5% or better in measuring relative distances. Total magnitudes and disk axis ratios are derived from H and I band surface photometry, and Arecibo 21 cm profiles define the rotation speeds of the galaxies. Using 25 galaxies for which the disk inclination and 21 cm width are well defined, we find an rms deviation of 0.10 mag from a linear TFR with dI/d(log W(sub c)) = -5.6. Each galaxy is assumed to be at a distance proportional to its redshift, and an extinction correction of 1.4(1-b/a) mag is applied to the total I magnitude. The measured scatter is less than 0.15 mag using milder extinction laws from the literature. The I band TFR scatter is consistent with measurement error, and the 95% CL limits on the intrinsic scatter are 0-0.10 mag. The rms scatter using H band magnitudes is 0.20 mag (N = 17). The low width galaxies have scatter in H significantly in excess of known measurement error, but the higher width half of the galaxies have scatter consistent with measurement error. The H band TFR slope may be as steep as the I band slope. As the first applications of this tight correlation, we note the following: (1) the data for the particular spirals commonly used to define the TFR distance to the Coma cluster are inconsistent with being at a common distance and are in fact in free Hubble expansion, with an upper limit of 300 km/s on the rms peculiar line-of-sight velocity of these gas-rich spirals; and (2) the gravitational potential in the disks of these galaxies has typical ellipticity less than 5%. The published data for three nearby spiral galaxies with Cepheid distance determinations are inconsistent with our Coma TFR, suggesting that these local calibrators are either ill-measured or peculiar relative to the Coma Supercluster spirals, or that the TFR has a varying form in different locales.

  1. Conformational analysis and global warming potentials of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol from absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Paul J.; Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Absorption cross-sections of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) were derived from Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from 530 to 3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 300-362 K. These results were compared to previously published experimental measurements made at room temperature and to a theoretical spectrum from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Good agreement is found between the experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. The only temperature dependence observed was in the amplitude of some of the absorption peaks due to the changing ratio of the stable conformations of HFIP. This temperature dependence does not result in a significant trend in integrated band strength as a function of temperature. The average value for integrated band strength is found to be (2.649 ± 0.065)x10-16 cm molecule-1 for HFIP over the spectral range of 595 to 3010 cm-1. Radiative efficiency (RE) and the global warming potential (GWP) for HFIP were also derived. A RE of 0.293 ± 0.059 Wm-2ppbv-1 is derived, which leads to a GWP100 of 188 in the range of 530 to 3000 cm-1. The DFT calculation is linearly adjusted to match the experimental spectrum. Using this adjusted DFT spectrum to expand the range below 530 to 0 cm-1 , increases the RE to 0.317 ± 0.063 Wm-2ppbv-1 and the GWP100 to 203.

  2. Detection of the Galactic Warm Neutral Medium in HI 21cm absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Kanekar, Nissim; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Roy, Nirupam

    2018-05-01

    We report a deep Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) search for Galactic HI 21cm absorption towards the quasar B0438-436, yielding the detection of wide, weak HI 21cm absorption, with a velocity-integrated HI 21cm optical depth of 0.0188 ± 0.0036 km s-1. Comparing this with the HI column density measured in the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey gives a column density-weighted harmonic mean spin temperature of 3760 ± 365 K, one of the highest measured in the Galaxy. This is consistent with most of the HI along the sightline arising in the stable warm neutral medium (WNM). The low peak HI 21cm optical depth towards B0438-436 implies negligible self-absorption, allowing a multi-Gaussian joint decomposition of the HI 21cm absorption and emission spectra. This yields a gas kinetic temperature of T_k ≤ (4910 ± 1900) K, and a spin temperature of T_s = (1000 ± 345) K for the gas that gives rise to the HI 21cm absorption. Our data are consistent with the HI 21cm absorption arising from either the stable WNM, with T_s ≪ T_k, T_k ≈ 5000 K, and little penetration of the background Lyman-α radiation field into the neutral hydrogen, or from the unstable neutral medium, with T_s ≈ T_k ≈ 1000K.

  3. Potentiation of C1-esterase inhibitor by heparin and interactions with C1s protease as assessed by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mohsen; Struble, Evi; Zhou, Zhaohua; Karnaukhova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a multifunctional plasma protein with a wide range of inhibitory and non-inhibitory properties, mainly recognized as a key down-regulator of the complement and contact cascades. The potentiation of C1-INH by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulates a broad spectrum of C1-INH activities in vivo both in normal and disease states. SCOPE OF RESEARCH: We have studied the potentiation of human C1-INH by heparin using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), circular dichroism (CD) and a functional assay. To advance a SPR for multiple-unit interaction studies of C1-INH we have developed a novel (consecutive double capture) approach exploring different immobilization and layout. Our SPR experiments conducted in three different design versions showed marked acceleration in C1-INH interactions with complement protease C1s as a result of potentiation of C1-INH by heparin (from 5- to 11-fold increase of the association rate). Far-UV CD studies suggested that heparin binding did not alter C1-INH secondary structure. Functional assay using chromogenic substrate confirmed that heparin does not affect the amidolytic activity of C1s, but does accelerate its consumption due to C1-INH potentiation. This is the first report that directly demonstrates a significant acceleration of the C1-INH interactions with C1s due to heparin by using a consecutive double capture SPR approach. The results of this study may be useful for further C-INH therapeutic development, ultimately for the enhancement of current C1-INH replacement therapies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Determination of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, G.A.; McRae, G.A

    2000-07-01

    Hydrogen atoms are ablated from zirconium alloys into the gas phase by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and photo-ionized with three photons at 243 nm via the two-photon 1s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} resonant transition. A determination of the effective 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section is necessary to quantify the hydrogen atom density in the ablation plume. A measurement of the ion signal vs photo-ionization beam energy is fitted to an expression derived from the rate equations. The temporal and spatial properties of the photo-ionization laser beam, transit of the H atoms through the beam, and detector geometry are taken into account. The effective two-photon cross-section for this experimental configuration, derived with the rate equation formalism, is 3.3 {+-} 0.8 X 10{sup -28} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1}. This compares well with the ab initio prediction of 5 {+-} 1 X 10{sup -28} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1} under these experimental conditions. (author)

  5. Determination of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, G.A.; McRae, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms are ablated from zirconium alloys into the gas phase by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and photo-ionized with three photons at 243 nm via the two-photon 1s 2 S 1/2 -2s 2 S 1/2 resonant transition. A determination of the effective 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section is necessary to quantify the hydrogen atom density in the ablation plume. A measurement of the ion signal vs photo-ionization beam energy is fitted to an expression derived from the rate equations. The temporal and spatial properties of the photo-ionization laser beam, transit of the H atoms through the beam, and detector geometry are taken into account. The effective two-photon cross-section for this experimental configuration, derived with the rate equation formalism, is 3.3 ± 0.8 X 10 -28 cm 4 W -1 . This compares well with the ab initio prediction of 5 ± 1 X 10 -28 cm 4 W -1 under these experimental conditions. (author)

  6. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  7. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m 2 with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm 2 . Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed

  8. Planarizing cytosine: The S1 state structure, vibrations, and nonradiative dynamics of jet-cooled 5,6-trimethylenecytosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Maria A.; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Blancafort, Lluís; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    We measure the S0 → S1 spectrum and time-resolved S1 state nonradiative dynamics of the "clamped" cytosine derivative 5,6-trimethylenecytosine (TMCyt) in a supersonic jet, using two-color resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), UV/UV holeburning, and ns time-resolved pump/delayed ionization. The experiments are complemented with spin-component scaled second-order approximate coupled cluster (SCS-CC2), time-dependent density functional theory, and multi-state second-order perturbation-theory (MS-CASPT2) ab initio calculations. While the R2PI spectrum of cytosine breaks off ˜500 cm-1 above its 000 band, that of TMCyt extends up to +4400 cm-1 higher, with over a hundred resolved vibronic bands. Thus, clamping the cytosine C5-C6 bond allows us to explore the S1 state vibrations and S0 → S1 geometry changes in detail. The TMCyt S1 state out-of-plane vibrations ν1', ν3', and ν5' lie below 420 cm-1, and the in-plane ν11', ν12', and ν23' vibrational fundamentals appear at 450, 470, and 944 cm-1. S0 → S1 vibronic simulations based on SCS-CC2 calculations agree well with experiment if the calculated ν1', ν3', and ν5' frequencies are reduced by a factor of 2-3. MS-CASPT2 calculations predict that the ethylene-type S1S0 conical intersection (CI) increases from +366 cm-1 in cytosine to >6000 cm-1 in TMCyt, explaining the long lifetime and extended S0 → S1 spectrum. The lowest-energy S1S0 CI of TMCyt is the "amino out-of-plane" (OPX) intersection, calculated at +4190 cm-1. The experimental S1S0 internal conversion rate constant at the S1(v'=0 ) level is kI C=0.98 -2.2 ṡ1 08 s-1, which is ˜10 times smaller than in 1-methylcytosine and cytosine. The S1(v'=0 ) level relaxes into the T1(3π π *) state by intersystem crossing with kI S C=0.41 -1.6 ṡ1 08 s-1. The T1 state energy is measured to lie 24 580 ±560 cm-1 above the S0 state. The S1(v'=0 ) lifetime is τ =2.9 ns, resulting in an estimated fluorescence quantum yield of Φf l=24 %. Intense

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the energy region 50,000-95,000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anuvab; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    A consolidated study of the VUV absorption spectra of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the 50,000-95,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation is presented. Rydberg series and vibronic analysis are carried out and supported by quantum chemical calculations. The broad absorption band of CH2Cl2 in the region 50,000-60,000 cm-1 is attributed to the valence states 11B2, 11B1 and 11A1. Most of the bands in the 60,000-95,000 cm-1 region are fitted to Rydberg series of ns, np and nd type converging to the first four ionization potentials 11.320, 11.357, 12.152 and 12.271 eV of CH2Cl2 arising from excitation of an electron from one of the four outermost Cl non-bonding orbitals (2b1, 3b2, 1a2 and 4a1). Vertical excited states of CH2Cl2 calculated using TDDFT are correlated with experimentally observed electronic states based on the symmetries of the initial and final MOs involved in a transition. A few Rydberg transitions viz. 2b1→5s, 4p, 5p, 6p; 3b2→4p, 5p; 1a2→4p are accompanied by vibronic features. Observed vibronic bands are assigned mainly to the CCl symmetric stretch (ν3‧) mode with smaller contributions from the CH symmetric stretch (ν1‧), CH2 bend (ν2‧) and CH2 wag (ν8‧) modes. Assignments are corroborated by comparison with the VUV absorption spectrum of the deuterated isotopologue CD2Cl2, reported here for the first time. The high underlying intensities seen in several sub-regions are explained by valence or valence-Rydberg mixed type transitions predicted with high oscillator strengths by the TDDFT calculations.

  10. s-wave scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails falling off faster than -1/r2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-01-01

    For potentials with attractive tails, as occur in typical atomic interactions, we present a simple formula for the s-wave phase shift δ 0 . It exposes a universal dependence of δ 0 (E) on the potential tail and the influence of effects specific to a given potential, which enter via the scattering length a, or equivalently, the noninteger part Δ th of the threshold quantum number n th . The formula accurately reproduces δ 0 (E) from threshold up to the semiclassical regime, far beyond the validity of the effective-range expansion. We derive the tail functions occurring in the formula for δ 0 (E) and demonstrate the validity of the formula for attractive potential tails proportional to 1/r 6 or to 1/r 4 , and also for a mixed potential tail consisting of a 1/r 4 term together with a non-negligible 1/r 6 contribution.

  11. Realistic non-local potentials from inverse scattering theory for the3S1−3D1nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H.L. Groenenboom

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Rank-three and -four separable3S1−3D1potentials have been constructed which reproduce the experimental phase shifts and a realistic deuteron wave function. The off-shell behaviour has been investigated and triton binding energies were calculated.

  12. The electronic states calculated using the sinusoidal potential for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakly, A.; Safta, N.; Mejri, H.; Lamine, A. Ben

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper is dedicated to structures based on Cd 1-x Zn x S. - Abstract: The present work reports on a theoretical investigation of superlattices based on Cd 1-x Zn x S quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. The system to model is assumed to be a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier at the boundary and is studied using a sinusoidal potential. The electronic states of both Γ 1 - (ground) and Γ 2 - (first excited) minibands have been computed as a function of inter-quantum dot separation and Zn composition. An analysis of the results shows that the widths of Γ 1 - and Γ 2 - minibands decrease as the superlattice period and Zn content increase separately. Moreover, the sinusoidal shape of the confining potential accounts for the coupling between quantum dots quantitatively less than the Kronig-Penney potential model.

  13. Acetone n-radical cation internal rotation spectrum: The torsional potential surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, Dana A.; Goodman, Lionel; White, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    The one color REMPI and two color ZEKE-PFI spectra of acetone-d 3 have been recorded. The 3p x Rydberg state of acetone-d 3 lies at 59 362.3 cm-1 and both of the torsional modes are visible in this spectrum. The antigearing Rydberg (a 2 ) mode, v 12 * , has a frequency of 62.5 cm-1, while the previously unobserved gearing (b 1 ) mode, v 17 * , is found at 119.1 cm-1. An ionization potential of 78 299.6 cm-1 for acetone-d 3 has been measured. In acetone-d 3 n-radical cation ground state, the fundamentals of both of the torsional modes have been observed, v 12 + at 51.0 cm-1 and v 17 + at 110.4 cm-1, while the first overtone of v 12 + has been measured at 122.4 cm-1. Deuterium shifts show that v 12 + behaves like a local C 3v rotor, but that v 17 + is canonical. Combining this data with that for acetone-d 0 and aacetone-d 6 has allowed us to fit the observed frequencies to a torsional potential energy surface based on an ab initio C 2v cation ground state geometry. This potential energy surface allows for prediction of the v 17 vibration in acetone-d 0 and acetone-d 6 . The barrier to synchronous rotation is higher in the cation ground state than in the neutral ground state, but significantly lower than in the 3s Rydberg state. The 3p x Rydberg and cation ground state potential energy surfaces are found to be very similar to each other, strongly supporting the contention that the 3p x Rydberg state has C 2v geometry and is a good model for the ion core. The altered 3s Rydberg state potential surface suggests this state has significant valence character. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Separation and recovery of Cm from Cm-Pu mixed oxide samples containing Am impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokazu Hayashi; Hiromichi Hagiya; Mitsuo Akabori; Yasuji Morita; Kazuo Minato

    2013-01-01

    Curium was separated and recovered as an oxalate from a Cm-Pu mixed oxide which had been a 244 Cm oxide sample prepared more than 40 years ago and the ratio of 244 Cm to 240 Pu was estimated to 0.2:0.8. Radiochemical analyses of the solution prepared by dissolving the Cm-Pu mixed oxide in nitric acid revealed that the oxide contained about 1 at% of 243 Am impurity. To obtain high purity curium solution, plutonium and americium were removed from the solution by an anion exchange method and by chromatographic separation using tertiary pyridine resin embedded in silica beads with nitric acid/methanol mixed solution, respectively. Curium oxalate, a precursor compound of curium oxide, was prepared from the purified curium solution. 11.9 mg of Cm oxalate having some amounts of impurities, which are 243 Am (5.4 at%) and 240 Pu (0.3 at%) was obtained without Am removal procedure. Meanwhile, 12.0 mg of Cm oxalate (99.8 at% over actinides) was obtained with the procedure including Am removals. Both of the obtained Cm oxalate sample were supplied for the syntheses and measurements of the thermochemical properties of curium compounds. (author)

  15. Quantum effective potential in S1xR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denardo, G.; Spallucci, E.; Doebner, H.D.

    1981-07-01

    The functional integral formulation of quantum field theory is applied to the study of the vacuum state in spacetimes with S 1 xR 3 topology. Such a global spacetime structure can be physically realized both in flat and in curved spacetime. In the first case one deals with finite temperature quantum field theories (if S 1 is time-like) or with field theories in a spacetime with a compact space dimension (if S 1 is spacelike). When curvature is present, a S 1 time-like dimension is induced by the Wick rotation whenever the metric is endowed with an event horizon, and this leads to the thermal nature of the vacuum in these cases. We shall take into account here only conformally flat spacetimes. Finally we discuss in some details the topological restoration of a spontaneously broken symmetry and the strictly related problem of the mass dynamical generation. (author)

  16. ATLAS L1 Muon Trigger Upgrade with sTGC: Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbaudo, Davide

    2014-01-01

    We describe the upgrade of the ATLAS forward Level 1 (L1) muon trigger planned for the LHC run with luminosity above 2 10 34 cm. This upgrade, which aims at suppressing the fake muon triggers from non-pointing tracks, foresees the installation of a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector in the endcap region. This region of the detector will be instrumented with small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) that will allow to keep the L1 muon trigger rate below 25 kHz. This rate suppression is realized with a two-step trigger system: first, an ultra-fast pad trigger defines the regions of interest containing potential high- p T muon candidates; second, an accurate track measurement is performed with precision readouts from the sTGC strips, providing the required 1 mrad angular resolution. The new, sTGC-based, L1 muon trigger is reviewed. A description of the sTGC detector as well as of its readout system is given. The first results from the simulation of this new trigger system are presented. These studies show that the pad-tr...

  17. Sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor axis is involved in ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lan; Liu, Yixuan; Xie, Lei; Wu, Xia; Qiu, Lihua; Di, Wen

    2017-09-26

    Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of ovarian cancer. However, the function of this axis in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. Here we provided the first evidence that SphK1/S1P/S1PR 1/3 pathway played key roles in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. The expression level of SphK1, but not SphK2, was closely correlated with the microvascular density (MVD) of ovarian cancer tissue. In vitro , the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of ovarian cancer cells could be attenuated by SphK1, but not SphK2, blockage and were restored by the addition of S1P. Moreover, in these cells, we found S1P stimulation induced the angiogenic factor secretion via S1PR 1 and S1PR 3 , but not S1PR 2 . Furthermore, inhibition of S1PR 1/3 , but not S1PR 2 , attenuated the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of the cells. in vivo , blockage of SphK or S1PR 1/3 could attenuate ovarian cancer angiogenesis and inhibit angiogenic factor expression in mouse models. Collectively, the current study showed a novel role of SphK1/S1P/S1PR 1/3 axis within the ovarian cancer, suggesting a new target to block ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

  18. Fourier Transform and Photoacoustic Absorption Spectra of Ethylene within 6035 6210 cm-1: Comparative Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, V.A.; Solodov, A.M.; Petrova, T.M.; Ponomarev, Y.N.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of ethylene absorption spectra with Fourier Transform (FT) and Photoacoustic (PA) spectrometers within 6035-6210 cm -1 are described. The methodology used for building the frequency scale for both spectrometers is presented. The methane absorption spectrum, included into the HITRAN database, was used in both cases to calibrate the frequency scale. Ethylene absorption spectra were obtained with the two recording methods; a coincidence of the measured line center positions was obtained with an accuracy of 0.0005 cm -1

  19. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  20. Am/Cm target glass durability dependence on pH (U). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.; Best, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    At the Westinghouse Savannah River Company near Aiken, South Carolina, a process is being developed to safely vitrify all of the highly radioactive americium/curium (Am/Cm) material and a portion of the other fissile actinide materials stored on site. One goal of this campaign is to provide Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the excess Am/Cm so it can be recycled as opposed to simply disposing of it as waste. The vitrification will allow safe transportation of the Am/Cm to Oak Ridge as well as safe storage once it arrives. The Am/Cm Target glass being used in this project has been specifically designed to be extremely durable in aqueous environments while it can be selectively attacked by nitric acid to recover the valuable Am and Cm isotopes. Similar glass compositions could be used for storage and retrieval of other actinides on the WSRC site. Previous reports have presented the time, temperature, and compositional dependence of the Am/Cm glass durability. This paper will show results from a pH study on the Am/Cm Target glass durability. The data indicate that the Am/Cm Target Glass durability decreases as pH decreases from a neutral reading. These findings support the extraction of the valuable isotopes from the glass using nitric acid

  1. Structure and thermoelectric property of Te doped paracostibite CoSb1-xTexS compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yonghui; Su, Xianli; Liu, Wei; Yan, Yonggao; Fu, Jiefei; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Cheng; Tang, Xinfeng

    2018-06-01

    Paracostibite (CoSbS), a newly developed thermoelectric material, has aroused lots of interest due to its highly earth abundant and inexpensive constituent elements and potential application for thermoelectric power generation in the intermediate temperature range. Herein, a series of CoSb1-xTexS (x = 0-0.09) compounds were prepared by vacuum melting and annealing followed by SPS processing, and the effects of Te doping on the structure and thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. Doping Te on the Sb site increases the carrier concentration up to 7.24 × 1020 cm-3 for CoSb0.93Te0.07S compound which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of un-doped CoSbS, and enhances the power factor. The maximum power factor of 14.07 μW cm-1 K-2 is attained at 900 K. Concomitantly, doping with Te on the Sb site leads to effective scattering of heat carrying phonon, accompanying with a strong suppression of the thermal conductivity with the increase of Te content, resulting in an increase of the ZT. A maximum ZT of 0.43 at 900 K is attained for CoSb0.93Te0.07S compound, which is 139% higher than that of un-doped CoSbS compound.

  2. Dissociation energies and potential energy functions for the ground X {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and “avoided-crossing” A {sup 1}Σ{sup +} states of NaH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walji, Sadru-Dean; Sentjens, Katherine M.; Le Roy, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-28

    A direct-potential-fit analysis of all accessible data for the A {sup 1}Σ{sup +} − X {sup 1}Σ{sup +} system of NaH and NaD is used to determine analytic potential energy functions incorporating the correct theoretically predicted long-range behaviour. These potentials represent all of the data (on average) within the experimental uncertainties and yield an improved estimate for the ground-state NaH well depth of D{sub e} = 15797.4 (±4.3) cm{sup −1}, which is ∼20 cm{sup −1} smaller than the best previous estimate. The present analysis also yields the first empirical determination of centrifugal (non-adiabatic) and potential-energy (adiabatic) Born-Oppenheimer breakdown correction functions for this system, with the latter showing that the A-state electronic isotope shift is −1.1(±0.6) cm{sup −1} going from NaH to NaD.

  3. Chiari malformation Type I surgery in pediatric patients. Part 1: validation of an ICD-9-CM code search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Greenberg, Jacob K; Guerrero, Nicole; Olsen, Margaret A; Shannon, Chevis N; Yarbrough, Chester K; Piccirillo, Jay F; Anderson, Richard C E; Feldstein, Neil A; Wellons, John C; Smyth, Matthew D; Park, Tae Sung; Limbrick, David D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Administrative billing data may facilitate large-scale assessments of treatment outcomes for pediatric Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). Validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code algorithms for identifying CM-I surgery are critical prerequisites for such studies but are currently only available for adults. The objective of this study was to validate two ICD-9-CM code algorithms using hospital billing data to identify pediatric patients undergoing CM-I decompression surgery. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed the validity of two ICD-9-CM code algorithms for identifying pediatric CM-I decompression surgery performed at 3 academic medical centers between 2001 and 2013. Algorithm 1 included any discharge diagnosis code of 348.4 (CM-I), as well as a procedure code of 01.24 (cranial decompression) or 03.09 (spinal decompression or laminectomy). Algorithm 2 restricted this group to the subset of patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of 348.4. The positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of each algorithm were calculated. RESULTS Among 625 first-time admissions identified by Algorithm 1, the overall PPV for CM-I decompression was 92%. Among the 581 admissions identified by Algorithm 2, the PPV was 97%. The PPV for Algorithm 1 was lower in one center (84%) compared with the other centers (93%-94%), whereas the PPV of Algorithm 2 remained high (96%-98%) across all subgroups. The sensitivity of Algorithms 1 (91%) and 2 (89%) was very good and remained so across subgroups (82%-97%). CONCLUSIONS An ICD-9-CM algorithm requiring a primary diagnosis of CM-I has excellent PPV and very good sensitivity for identifying CM-I decompression surgery in pediatric patients. These results establish a basis for utilizing administrative billing data to assess pediatric CM-I treatment outcomes.

  4. Comparison of fibroblast cell regeneration in three different concentrations of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (WJMSCs-CM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untoro, E. G.; Asrianti, D.; Usman, M.; Meidyawati, R.; Margono, A.

    2017-08-01

    Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) have gained interest as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Although many studies have characterized Wharton’s Jelly biologically, the effects of different concentrations in a cultured medium have not yet been compared. Damaged fibroblasts, the primary components of irreversible dental pulpitis, irreversibly impair the ability to regenerate and lead to the disruption of extracellular matrix. This study was performed to evaluate the potency of three WJMSCs-CM concentrations in improving serum-starved fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were cultivated in five passages, and divided into four groups. The first group (the control group) consisted of fibroblast cells that had been treated using starvation methods. The other groups (the treatment groups) were treated with various concentration of WJMSCs-CM (50%, 25% and 12.5%). Proliferative ability was evaluated using a cell count method and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. Cultivation of serum-starved fibroblasts produced significantly higher cell counts in 12.5% WJMSCs-CM compared to the 50% group. It can be concluded that 12.5% WJMSCs-CM is the most efficient concentration for fibroblast proliferation.

  5. Compound-Specific Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios for Amino Acids in CM and CR Chondrites and their use in Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (oD, 013C, and olSN) of organic compounds can revcal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may indicate the most likely of these pathways. We have applied gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H stable isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites: CM1I2 Allan Hills (ALH) 83100, CM2 Murchison, CM2 Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, CM2 Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101, CRZ Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, CRZ Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. We compare the isotopic compositions of amino acids in these meteorites with predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways. We observe trends of decreasing ODC and increasing oD with increasing carbon number in the aH, (l-NH2 amino acids that correspond to predictions made for formation via Streckercyanohydrin synthesis. We also observe light ODC signatures for -alanine, which may indicate either formation via Michael addition or via a pathway that forms primarily small, straight-chain, amine-terminal amino acids (n-ro-amino acids). Higher deuterium enrichments are observed in amethyl amino acids, indicating formation of these amino acids or their precursors in cold interstellar or nebular environments. Finally, individual amino acids are more enriched in deuterium in CR chondrites than CM chondrites, reflecting different parent-body chemistry.

  6. Quasimolecular emission near the Xe(5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance lines induced by collisions with He atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, O. S.; Devdariani, A. Z.; Grigorian, G. M.; Lednev, M. G.; Zagrebin, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    This study is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the quasimolecular emission of Xe*-He and Kr*-He collision pairs near the Xe (5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance atomic lines. The potential curves of the quasimolecules Xe(5p 56s) + He and Kr(4p 55s) + He have been obtained with the use of the effective Hamiltonian and pseudopotential methods. Based on these potential curves the processes of quasimolecular emission of Xe*+He and Kr*+He mixtures have been considered and the spectral distributions I(ħΔω) of photons emitted have been obtained in the framework of quasistatic approximation.

  7. Experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law for mass separations from 2 to 105 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.K.; Newman, R.D.; Spero, R.; Schultz, J.

    1985-01-01

    We report two experiments which test the inverse-square distance dependence of the Newtonian gravitational force law. One experiment uses a torsion balance consisting of a 60-cm-long copper bar suspended at its midpoint by a tungsten wire, to compare the torque produced by copper masses 105 cm from the balance axis with the torque produced by a copper mass 5 cm from the side of the balance bar, near its end. Defining R/sub expt/ to be the measured ratio of the torques due to the masses at 105 cm and 5 cm, and R/sub Newton/ to be the corresponding ratio computed assuming an inverse-square force law, we find deltaequivalent(R/sub expt//R/sub Newton/-1) = (1.2 +- 7) x 10 -4 . Assuming a force deviating from an inverse-square distance dependence by a factor [1+epsilon lnr(cm)], this result implies epsilon = (0.5 +- 2.7) x 10 -4 . An earlier experiment, which has been reported previously, is described here in detail. This experiment tested the inverse-square law over a distance range of approximately 2 to 5 cm, by probing the gravitational field inside a steel mass tube using a copper test mass suspended from the end of a torsion balance bar. This experiment yielded a value for the parameter epsilon defined above: epsilon = (1 +- 7) x 10 -5 . The results of both of these experiments are in good agreement with the Newton- ian prediction. Limits on the strength and range of a Yukawa potential term superimposed on the Newtonian gravitational potential are discussed

  8. Induced absorption spectra of the infrared fundamental band of molecular deuterium at 77 K: S1( J)+S0( J) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, P.G.; Prasad, R.D.G.; Reddy, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The collision-induced spectra of the fundamental band of normal D 2 in the high frequency region 3200--3700 cm -1 were recorded for gas densities in the range 80--140 amagat at 77 K with a 2 m absorption cell. The contribution to the intensity of the band in this region comes from the high frequency wings of quadrupolar transitions S 1 ( J) and Q 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J) with J = 0 and 1, and from the group of transitions S 1 (2) and Q 1 ( J)+S 0 (2) with J = 0, 1, and 2 as well as from the relatively weaker double rotational transitions of the type S 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J); the latter transitions arise from the intermolecular interaction between the anisotropic component of the polarizability of one of the colliding pairs of molecules and the quadrupole field of the other. The experimental profiles were analyzed by assuming appropriate line shape functions and using the theoretical matrix elements of the quadrupole moment, isotropic polarizability, and anisotropy of polarizability of the D 2 molecule. From this analysis the characteristic half-width parameters delta/sub q/2 and delta/sub q/4 of the quadrupolar transitions and the binary and ternary absorption coefficients of the S 1 ( J)+S 0 ( J) transitions have been obtained. The experimental value of the binary absorption coefficient of S 1 (0)+S 0 (0) is (2.2 +- 0.1) x 10 -9 cm -1 amagat -2 and the corresponding theoretical value is 1.53 x 10 -9 cm -1 amagat -2

  9. e+e- collisions at 500 GeV: The physics potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwas, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the physics potential of e + e - colliders in the first phase up to a c.m. energy of √s=500 GeV is assessed. A luminosity of L=10 33 cm -2 sec -1 has been assumed in general, leading to an integrated luminosity of about ∫L=10 fb -1 per year. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  10. REDUNDANT ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS FOR 21 cm COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R., E-mail: jsdillon@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  11. Measurement of total hadronic cross section σ(e+e-→hadrons) in the continuum at the c.m. energy W=9.39 GeV and determination of Γee of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, Z.

    1990-01-01

    This work is based on a study of e + e - collisions in the energy region of Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) resonances. Using the data taken by the Crystal Ball Detector in the continuum below Υ(1S) we have determined the value of R, the ratio of the hadronic cross section to the Born cross section of μ pair production, at c.m. energy W = 9.39 GeV to be R = 3.48±0.04±0.14. This is the most precise measurement of R below the Υ(1S) threshold. Resonance scan data were used to determine the leptonic partial widths Γ ee of Υ(1S) and Υ(2S). We find Γ ee (Υ(1S))=(1.34±0.03±0.06) keV, Γ ee (Υ(2S))=(0.56±0.03±0.02) keV. The method of obtaining Γ ee from the measured excitation curve is not unique. Our results are ∝10% higher than those already published mainly because we used an internally consistent treatment of the radiative corrections. We discuss the effect of applying different theoretical prescriptions for the radiative corrections on Γ ee . Both results presented here require the knowledge of the absolute cross sections to a high precision. Uncertainties in the corrections to the cross section due to detector efficiency constitute the main source of the systematic error. To minimize these uncertainties substantial modifications of the detector simulation program GHEISHA were necessary to obtain a satisfactory description of the data. The modifications may be of importance for other calorimetric experiments. (orig.)

  12. Incidental, small (< 3 cm), unilocular, pancreatic cysts: Factors that predict lesion progression during imaging surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Go Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jun, Chung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To explore the features that predict size increase and development of potential malignant features in incidentally detected, unilocular cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) less than 3 cm in diameter, during subsequent follow-up. We retrieved data of patients diagnosed with unilocular CPLs less than 3 cm in diameter during the period from November 2003 through December 2014, using a computerized search. All serial CT and MR images were analyzed to identify the number, size, and location of CPLs; dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and occurrence of worrisome features and high-risk stigmata of malignancy in the lesion. The characteristics of CPLs were compared between the increase (i.e., size increase during subsequent follow-up) and no-increase groups. For CPLs in the increase group, subgroup analysis was performed according to the lesion size at the last follow-up (< 3 cm vs. ≥ 3 cm). Among 553 eligible patients, 132 (23.9%) had CPLs that increased in size, and 421 (76.1%) had CPLs that did not, during follow-up. Of the 132, 12 (9.1%) CPLs increased to diameters ≥ 3 cm at the final follow-up. Among the various factors, follow-up duration was a significant independent factor for an interval size increase of CPLs (p < 0.001). In the increase group, initial cyst size was a significant independent factor to predict later size increase to or beyond 3 cm in diameter (p < 0.001), and the initial cyst diameter ≥ 1.5 cm predicted such a growth with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. No significant factors to predict the development of potential malignant features were identified. Follow-up duration was associated with an interval size increase of CPLs. Among the growing CPLs, initial cyst size was associated with future lesion growth to and beyond 3 cm.

  13. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S., E-mail: aisha.vandenabeelen@radboudumc.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, MIRA-Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weijers, G. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Zelst, J.C.M. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Thijssen, J.M. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mann, R.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Korte, C.L. de [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  14. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S.; Weijers, G.; Zelst, J.C.M. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Mann, R.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  15. Gravitational Bohr’s model with Newton’s and Weber’s potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiandho, Yuant, E-mail: yuanttiandho@gmail.com; Triyanta, E-mail: triyanta@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Similarity between Newtonian gravitational force and Coulomb’s force leads one to define gravitational electric and magnetic fields or gravito-electromagnetic fields. Also, one may define a gravitational Bohr’s theory in analogy with the electromagnetic Bohr’s theory for which the latter is quite successful in explaining some properties of hydrogen atom. Unlike to the Coulomb’s force, the Newton‘s force is believed to be an approximated theory of gravity as it is unable to explain the Mercury’s orbit. This paper discusses the gravitational Bohr’s theory by taking into account the Newton’s potential and Weber’s potential; the later is a modified Newton’s gravitational potential that conforms, to some degrees, to the anomaly of the Mercury’s orbit.

  16. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  17. Simulation of 1.5-mm-thick and 15-cm-diameter gated silicon drift X-ray detector operated with a single high-voltage source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hideharu

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution silicon X-ray detectors with a large active area are required for effectively detecting traces of hazardous elements in food and soil through the measurement of the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. The thicknesses and areas of commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are up to 0.5 mm and 1.5 cm2, respectively. We describe 1.5-mm-thick gated SDDs (GSDDs) that can detect photons with energies up to 50 keV. We simulated the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with a Si thickness of 1.5 mm and areas from 0.18 to 168 cm2 at a single high reverse bias. The area of a GSDD could be enlarged simply by increasing all the gate widths by the same multiple, and the capacitance of the GSDD remained small and its X-ray count rate remained high.

  18. Cm-scale Heterogeneity in Degradation - Potential Impact on Leaching of MCPA through a Variably-Saturated Macroporous Clayey Till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Johnsen, Anders R.; Aamand, Jens

    with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 2) preferential flow (including a wormhole) of water with no biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes; 3) simple matrix flow of water with average biodegradation of the MCPA at all nodes, which corresponds to results derived from a conventional homogenized soil sample; 4...... both flow and degradation are associated with macropores/wormholes. Results show that cm-scale heterogeneity in degradation potential with simple matrix flow has a negligible effect on MCPA leaching at one meter below soil surface. By introducing a wormhole in the low-permeable 3D-soil modeling domain......, however, the risk of MCPA-leaching below one meter depth increase drastically with low degradation potential along the wall of macropores/wormholes....

  19. Elucidating dark energy with future 21 cm observations at the epoch of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Oyama, Yoshihiko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), 193, Munjiro, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: oyamayo@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sekiguti@ibs.re.kr, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate how precisely we can determine the nature of dark energy such as the equation of state (EoS) and its time dependence by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations at the epoch of reionization (06.8∼< z ∼<1) such as Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and Omniscope in combination with those from cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae and direct measurement of the Hubble constant. We consider several parametrizations for the EoS and find that future 21 cm observations will be powerful in constraining models of dark energy, especially when its EoS varies at high redshifts.

  20. The 590 cm-1 B_1g feature in underdoped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin C.; Wang, N. L.; Irwin, J. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Pantoja, A. E.; Trodahl, H. J.

    1999-05-01

    Raman scattering studies have been performed on underdoped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+δ. In single crystals underdoped by oxygen removal, a 590 cm-1 peak is observed in the B_1g spectrum. The feature is observed to soften in frequency by 3.8% with isotopic exchange of ^16O by ^18O. In contrast, the 590 cm-1 peak is not observed in crystals underdoped by Y substitution which suggests that it corresponds to a disorder induced vibrational mode. We have also found that underdoping leads to a depletion of low energy spectral weight from regions of the Fermi surface located near the Brillouin zone axes.

  1. Interpretation of the Raman spectra of the glassy states of Si{sub x}S{sub 1−x} and Si{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, V. Radhika [M.L.R. Institute of Technology, Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Dundigal, Hyderabad 500043 (India); Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad [Department of Physics, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur 57000 (Malaysia); Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 50046 (India); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2013-09-16

    We use the density-functional theory to make models of Si{sub x}S{sub y} and Si{sub x}Se{sub y} for the values of x,y = 1–6. The vibrational frequencies are calculated for each model. The stable clusters are selected on the basis of positive vibrational frequencies. In the case of Si{sub x}S{sub 1−x}, the values of the vibrational frequencies calculated from the first principles for Si{sub 2}S(triangular)cluster of atoms, 364.1 cm{sup −1} and 380.8 cm{sup −1}, agree with the experimentally measured values of 367 cm{sup −1} and 381 cm{sup −1}, indicating that Si{sub 2}S clusters occur in the glassy state of SiS. The calculated values of the vibrational frequencies of SiSe{sub 4} (pyramidal) which agree with the experimental Raman frequencies of glassy Si{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} are 114, 166 and 361 cm{sup −1}. The calculated values for Si{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (bipyramidal) which agree with the experimental data of Si{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} are 166 and 464 cm{sup −1}. In Si{sub 4}Se (pyramidal) the values 246 and 304 cm{sup −1} agree with the measured values. In Si{sub 4}Se{sub 2} (bipyramidal), the calculated values 162, 196 and 304 cm{sup −1} agree with the measured values. The calculated values of 473 cm{sup −1} for Si{sub 6}Se{sub 2} (bipyramidal) also agree with the experimentally measured values. We thus find that pyramidal structures are present in the amorphous Si{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} glassy state. - Highlights: • A first principles calculation is performed to calculate the vibrational frequencies. • The calculated frequencies of clusters agree with measured Raman values. • The structures, bond lengths and symmetries are determined. • The importance of Jahn–Teller effect in SiS and in SiSe is clearly seen. • The clusters of SiS and SiSe are found to stabilize in different symmetries.

  2. The methane absorption spectrum near 1.73 μm (5695-5850 cm-1): Empirical line lists at 80 K and 296 K and rovibrational assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, M.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Campargue, A.

    2018-07-01

    The methane absorption spectrum is studied at 297 K and 80 K in the center of the Tetradecad between 5695 and 5850 cm-1. The spectra are recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) with a noise equivalent absorption of about αmin≈ 1.5 × 10-7 cm-1. Two empirical line lists are constructed including about 4000 and 2300 lines at 297 K and 80 K, respectively. Lines due to 13CH4 present in natural abundance were identified by comparison with a spectrum of pure 13CH4 recorded in the same temperature conditions. About 1700 empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were derived from the ratios of the line intensities at 80 K and 296 K. They provide accurate temperature dependence for most of the absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80 K and 296 K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values is illustrated by the clear propensity of the corresponding lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, to be close to integer values. Using an effective Hamiltonian model derived from a previously published ab initio potential energy surface, about 2060 lines are rovibrationnally assigned, adding about 1660 new assignments to those provided in the HITRAN database for 12CH4 in the region.

  3. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and S1P Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmunity and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Han, May H

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that FTY720 also decreases astrogliosis and promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation within the CNS and may have therapeutic benefit to prevent brain atrophy. Since S1P signaling is involved in multiple immune functions, therapies targeting S1P axis may be applicable to treat autoimmune diseases other than MS. Currently, over a dozen selective S1PR and S1P pathway modulators with potentially superior therapeutic efficacy and better side-effect profiles are in the pipeline of drug development. Furthermore, newly characterized molecules such as apolipoprotein M (ApoM) (S1P chaperon) and SPNS2 (S1P transporter) are also potential targets for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Finally, the application of therapies targeting S1P and S1P signaling pathways may be expanded to treat several other immune-mediated disorders (such as post-infectious diseases, post-stroke and post-stroke dementia) and inflammatory conditions beyond their application in primary autoimmune diseases.

  4. On the 590cm-1 B1g feature in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kevin C.; Wang, N. L.; Irwin, J. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Pantoja, A. E.; Trodahl, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    Raman scattering studies have been performed on underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. In single crystals underdoped by oxygen removal, a 590 cm-1 peak is observed in the B1g spectrum. The feature is observed to soften in frequency by 3.8% with isotopic exchange for 16-O by 18-O. In contrast, the 590cm-1 peak is not observed in crystals underdoped by Y substitution which suggests that it correspond to a disorder induced vibrational mode. We have also found that underdoping leads to a depletion of lo...

  5. Estimation of radioactive contaminants in Cm242 and Cm244 isotopic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, V.P.; Makarenko, A.I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation properties of Cm 242 and Cm 244 preparations and the effect on them of possible contaminants are considered. One of the most important requirements for K alpha active fuels for radioisotope thermoelectric batteries is ensuring a low ionizing radiation background. In determining the effect of impurities on the radiation properties of a preparation, quantitative evaluation of certain factors is sufficient. In a Cm 242 preparation it is possible to show that Am 241 and Cm 243 are undesirable impurities. The presence of Am 241 increases the soft gamma output by 20%. The presence of Cm 243 may double the dose rate from an unshielded preparation and increase the hard gamma output 10-fold. The properties of Cm 242 preparations deteriorate when Am 243 and Cm 243 are present

  6. High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, R.S.; Radziemski, L.J.; Flicker, H.; Galbraith, H.W.; Kennedy, R.C.; Nereson, N.G.; Krohn, B.J.; Aldridge, J.P.; King, J.D.; Fox, K.

    1978-01-01

    The ν 3 bands of 187 Os 16 O 4 , 189 Os 16 O 4 , and 192 Os 16 O 4 have been recorded using both a Michelson interferometer (resolution 0.06 cm -1 ) and a tunable semiconductor diode laser (resolution limited by the Doppler width, approx.0.0007 cm -1 ). The rotational fine structure differs from that of most other spherical-top molecules, for only rotational levels of A symmetry exist. A total of 112 individual vibration--rotation lines in the P and R branches of the three isotopic species were calibrated against stimulated emission lines from a high-voltage CO 2 gain cell, and were used to determine three scalar and two tensor spectroscopic constants for each species; an additional scalar constant was obtained from an analysis of the Q branch of 192 OsO 4 . The strength of P (11) A 2 /sup ts0/ was measured for 192 OsO 4 and yields a vibrational transition moment for ν 3 of 0.17 +- 0.02 D. Transitions of all isotopic species that are expected to fall near CO 2 laser lines in the region 949--972 cm -1 are tabulated as an aid in the interpreation of saturation spectroscopy experiments. The general quadratic symmetry and valence force constants of OsO 4 were redetermined, using the isotope shifts in ν 3 as the additional constraints for the F 2 symmetry block

  7. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  8. Mind Bomb Regulates Cell Death during TNF Signaling by Suppressing RIPK1s Cytotoxic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Feltham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is an inflammatory cytokine that can signal cell survival or cell death. The mechanisms that switch between these distinct outcomes remain poorly defined. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind Bomb-2 (MIB2 regulates TNF-induced cell death by inactivating RIPK1 via inhibitory ubiquitylation. Although depletion of MIB2 has little effect on NF-κB activation, it sensitizes cells to RIPK1- and caspase-8-dependent cell death. We find that MIB2 represses the cytotoxic potential of RIPK1 by ubiquitylating lysine residues in the C-terminal portion of RIPK1. Our data suggest that ubiquitin conjugation of RIPK1 interferes with RIPK1 oligomerization and RIPK1-FADD association. Disruption of MIB2-mediated ubiquitylation, either by mutation of MIB2’s E3 activity or RIPK1s ubiquitin-acceptor lysines, sensitizes cells to RIPK1-mediated cell death. Together, our findings demonstrate that Mind Bomb E3 ubiquitin ligases can function as additional checkpoint of cytokine-induced cell death, selectively protecting cells from the cytotoxic effects of TNF. : Feltham et al. show that MIB2 directly ubiquitylates RIPK1 upon TNF stimulation, suppressing the cytotoxic potential of RIPK1 and acting as a checkpoint within the TNF signaling pathway. Keywords: MIB2, RIPK1, TNF, cell death, caspase-8, IAPs, ubiquitin

  9. How Configuration Management (CM) Can Help Project Teams To Innovate and Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, CM is relegated to a support role in project management activities. CM s traditional functions of identification, change control, status accounting, and audits/verification are still necessary and play a vital role. However, this presentation proposes CM s role in a new and innovative manner that will significantly improve communication throughout the organization and, in turn, augment the project s success. CM s new role is elevated to the project management level, above the engineering or sub-project level in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), where it can more effectively accommodate changes, reduce corrective actions, and ensure that requirements are clear, concise, and valid, and that results conform to the requirements. By elevating CM s role in project management and orchestrating new measures, a new communication will emerge that will improve information integrity, structured baselines, interchangeability/traceability, metrics, conformance to standards, and standardize the best practices in the organization. Overall project performance (schedule, quality, and cost) can be no better than the ability to communicate requirements which, in turn, is no better than the CM process to communicate project decisions and the correct requirements.

  10. Studies of inelastic cross-section in Rb(7S) + Rb(5S) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiyan, L.; Ekers, A.; Latvia Univ., Riga; Klavins, J.; Jansons, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cross section σ = (8 ± 4) x 10 -15 cm 2 was determined for the Rb(7S) + Rb(5S) → Rb(5D) + Rb(5S) excitation energy transfer process, and the quenching cross section σ q = (2 ± 1) x 10 -14 cm 2 for the Rb(5D) state in collisions with ground state Rb atoms. Applying rubidium quasimolecular asymptotic potential curves at relatively large internuclear distances, a qualitative interpretation of the experimental results is presented. It is shown that the quenching of the Rb(5D) atoms in collisions may be explained by a reversed energy pooling process Rb(5D) + Rb(5S) → Rb(5P) + Rb(5P). (orig.)

  11. Effective line intensity measurements of trans-nitrous acid (HONO) of the ν1 band near 3600 cm-1 using laser difference-frequency spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Fourmentin, Marc; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Chen, Changshui; Chen, Weidong

    2017-07-01

    We report on the measurements of the effective line intensities of the ν1 fundamental band of trans-nitrous acid (trans-HONO) in the infrared near 3600 cm-1 (2.78 μm). A home-made widely tunable laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) was used for this study. The strengths of 28 well-resolved absorption lines of the ν1 band were determined by scaling their absorption intensities to the well referenced absorption line intensity of the ν3 band of trans-HONO around 1250 cm-1 recorded simultaneously with the help of a DFB quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectrometer. The maximum measurement uncertainty of 12% in the line intensities is mainly determined by the uncertainty announced in the referenced line intensities, while the measurement precision in frequency positions of the absorption lines is better than 6×10-4 cm-1. The cross-measurement carried out in the present work allows one to perform intensity calibration using well referenced line parameters.

  12. Ultrasonographic criteria for fine needle aspiration of nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang, E-mail: j0kim040@louisville.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Louisville, 530 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40242 (United States); Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young; Yang, Ki Ra [Department of Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 737 Star tower, 40 floor, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ultrasonographic (US) characteristics for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter and to evaluate the guideline for fine needle aspiration (FNA) in terms of US findings. Materials and methods: Between June 2005 and November 2006, FNA was performed in 919 thyroid nodules by radiologists. Of these nodules, 51 malignant nodules and 72 benign nodules were finally included. All 123 nodules were analyzed by 3 radiologists if there were the following US characteristics: marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, isoechogenecity, hyperechogenecity, microcalcification, coarse calcification, rim calcification, spiculated margin, taller-than-wide shape, irregular shape, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance. The maximum diameters of nodules and thickness of hypoechoic rim were measured. US characteristics relevant as predictors were identified using a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of 3 US criteria for FNA indication. Results: Microcalcification, taller-than-wide shape, marked hypoechogenecity, hypoechogenecity, coarse calcification, irregular shape and spiculated margin were significant characteristics of malignant nodules. Isoechogenecity, hypoechoic rim and honeycomb appearance was significant characteristics of benign nodules. Rim or arc calcification, hyperechogenecity and thickness of hypoechoic rim were insignificant. Among 3 US criteria for FNA indication, NFI showed the highest diagnostic efficacy, 98.0% in sensitivity, 75.0% in specificity and 150.0 in odds ratio. Conclusion: As for nonpalpable thyroid nodules 1–2 cm in diameter, US characteristics are useful for differentiating between malignant and benign nodules. Malignant US characteristics and honeycombing appearance have significant value in selecting nodules for biopsy and reducing the frequency of the FNA procedure.

  13. Composition/Property Relationships for the Phase 2 Am-Cm Glass Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of compositional uncertainties on the primary processing and product performance criteria for potential glasses to stabilize the Tank 17.1 Am-Cm solution and to identify the AGCR in which glasses simultaneously meet both process and product performance criteria as defined for Phase 2.

  14. Phase transition in Smsub(1-x)Gdsub(x)S and Smsub(1-x)Tmsub(x)S solid solutions under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskij, V.V.; Stepanov, N.N.; Romanova, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on studying the effect of the n quantity on Psub(pt) (phase transition pressure) for SmS and systems of solid solutions Smsub(1-x)Gdsub(x)S and Smsub(1-x)Tmsub(x)S with conductivity electron concentrations approximately 10 19 -10 21 cm -3 corresponding to the semiconducting phase of these solutions. The investigated monocrystal samples have been prepared by the method of planar crystallization from the melt, have been chipped off over the cleavage planes [100], their characteristic sizes not exceeding 2 mm. Samples of the Smsub(1-x)Tmsub(x)S system were polycrystalline and they had characteristic dimensions of approximately 3mm. Concentration of conductivity electrons has been determined from measurements of the Hall constant. Hydrostatic compression of the samples has been exercised in a piston high-pressure chamber at T=300 K. The observed electric conductivity jump determined by the standard d.c. compensation technique was a criterion of the presence of the phase transition to the metal state. Dependences of Psub(pt) in SmS base solid solutions with approximately 10 19 -10 21 cm -3 concentration of conductivity electrons have similar tendency in behaviour: a certain increase in the phase transition pressure with n growth and then its drop at n approaching concentrations corresponding to compositions close to critical ones for the semiconductor-metal phase transition in any system of solid solutions. If the first mechanism prevails at small as then further on the second mechanism swelling by a power law with a high index plays the main role

  15. The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garbuglia

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+-modulated, dimeric proteins of the EF-hand (helix-loop-helix type, S100A1 and S100B, that have been shown to inhibit microtubule (MT protein assembly and to promote MT disassembly, interact with the type III intermediate filament (IF subunits, desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with a stoichiometry of 2 mol of IF subunit/mol of S100A1 or S100B dimer and an affinity of 0.5-1.0 µM in the presence of a few micromolar concentrations of Ca2+. Binding of S100A1 and S100B results in inhibition of desmin and GFAP assemblies into IFs and stimulation of the disassembly of preformed desmin and GFAP IFs. S100A1 and S100B interact with a stretch of residues in the N-terminal (head domain of desmin and GFAP, thereby blocking the head-to-tail process of IF elongation. The C-terminal extension of S100A1 (and, likely, S100B represents a critical part of the site that recognizes desmin and GFAP. S100B is localized to IFs within cells, suggesting that it might have a role in remodeling IFs upon elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by avoiding excess IF assembly and/or promoting IF disassembly in vivo. S100A1, that is not localized to IFs, might also play a role in the regulation of IF dynamics by binding to and sequestering unassembled IF subunits. Together, these observations suggest that S100A1 and S100B may be regarded as Ca2+-dependent regulators of the state of assembly of two important elements of the cytoskeleton, IFs and MTs, and, potentially, of MT- and IF-based activities.

  16. Experimental determination of kQ factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in 10 cm × 10 cm and 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A; Kapsch, R P

    2014-08-07

    For the ionometric determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, in megavoltage photon beams from a linear accelerator, beam-quality-dependent correction factors, kQ, are used for the ionization chambers. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and with substantially lower standard uncertainties compared to calculated values of the kQ, which are published in various dosimetry protocols. In this investigation, kQ for different types of cylindrical ionization chambers (NE 2561, NE 2571, FC 65 G) were determined experimentally in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV (corresponding beam quality index TPR20,10 from 0.64 to 0.80). The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factors for a single ionization chamber in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams can be measured with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.31%. In addition to these measurements in 10 cm × 10 cm fields, kQ factors for the NE 2561 chamber were also determined in smaller 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams between 6 MV and 25 MV. In this case, relative standard uncertainties between 0.35 % and 0.38 % are achieved for the kQ factors. It is found for this ionization chamber, that the ratio of the kQ factors in 3 cm × 3 cm and in 10 cm × 10 cm beams increases with increasing TPR20,10 to reach a value of 1.0095 at TPR20,10 = 0.8 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.4 %.

  17. THz spectroscopy of the 29 cm{sup -1} oxygen vibrational line in natural silicon and isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, Kurt; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gorshunov, Boris; Zhukova, E.S. [1. Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); A.M. Prokhorov Gen. Phys. Inst., RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Inst. Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Korolev, P.S. [A.M. Prokhorov Gen. Phys. Inst., RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Kalinsuhkin, V.P. [A.M. Prokhorov Gen. Phys. Inst., RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Abrosimov, N.V. [Leibniz Inst. Kristallzuechtung, Berlin (Germany); Sennikov, P.G. [Inst. Chem. High-Purity Substances, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Pohl, H.J. [PTB, Braunschweig (Germany); Zakel, S. [VITCON-Projektconsult, Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Looking for a possible host-isotope effect on the low-energy two-dimensional motion of interstitial oxygen in silicon we have measured the resonance parameters of the lowest transition of the 30 cm{sup -1} band of the Si-O-Si complex in natural Si and in isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si at temperatures between 5 K and 22 K by means of coherent-source terahertz spectroscopy. At 5.5 K we obtain for the resonance maxima 29.24 {+-} 0.003 cm{sup -1} and 29.22 {+-} 0.003 cm{sup -1} and for the line widths 0.09 {+-} 0.01 cm{sup -1} and 0.11 {+-} 0.01 cm{sup -1} for {sup 28}Si and {sup nat}Si, respectively. Both lines can be fitted by single Lorentzians, so, no obvious isotopic structure or asymmetry of the line in {sup nat}Si due to the Si neighbors in the Si-O-Si complex is detected. We therefore conclude that down-shift and broadening of the {sup nat}Si-resonance is not due to the Si isotopes in the isolated Si-O-Si complex but to an average effect of the isotopically inhomogeneous lattice.

  18. Quenching of 4He(21S,21P) and 3He(21S,21P) states by collisions with Ne(1S0) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, K.B.; Dimova, E.; Petrov, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The cross sections and rate constants for quenching 4 He(2 1 S), 4 He(2 1 P), 3 He(2 1 S) and 3 He(2 1 P) states by collisions with ground state Ne atoms are measured by a time-resolved method in a He-Ne electron beam excited plasma at low pressure. These rate constants at T g =600 K are: k 4 He(2 1 S) =(1.6±0.2)x10 -10 , k 4 He(2 1 P) =(3.4±2.5)x10 -10 , k 3 He(2 1 S) =(1.6±0.2)x10 -10 and k 3 He(2 1 P) =(5.7±1.2)x10 -10 cm 3 s -1 . The cross sections derived from the rate constant are σ 4 He(2 1 S) =(8.4±0.8)x10 -16 , σ 4 He(2 1 P) =(1.8±1.3)x10 -15 , σ 3 He(2 1 S) =(7.1±0.9)x10 -16 and σ 3 He(2 1 P) =(2.6±0.5)x10 -15 cm 2 , respectively. The diffusion coefficient of 3 He(2 1 S) in 3 He is estimated to be D 3 He(2 1 S)- 3 He =1.9D 4 He(2 1 S)- 4 He , based on comparison with 4 He. A time-dependent collisional radiative model for an e-beam sustained He-Ne plasma is developed and the predicted line intensity of NeI λ=6328 A line is compared with the experimental data. The influence of different processes involved in population and depopulation dynamics of He(2 1 S) state are evaluated

  19. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy of fluoroform 12CHF3 and critical analysis of the infrared spectrum from 25 to 1500 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Bauerecker, S.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Bolotova, I. B.; Hollenstein, H.; Quack, M.; Ulenikov, O. N.

    2018-05-01

    We report high-resolution (? 0.001 cm-1) Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of fluoroform (CHF3) including the pure rotational (far infrared or THz) range (28-65 cm-1), the ν3 fundamental (? = 700.099 cm-1), as well as the associated "hot' band 2ν3 - ν3 (? = 699.295 cm-1) and the 'atmospheric window' range 1100-1250 cm-1 containing the strongly coupled polyad of the levels ν2, ν5 and ν3 + ν6, at room temperature and at 120 K using the collisional cooling cell coupled to our Bruker IFS 125 HR prototype (ZP2001) spectrometer and Bruker IFS 125 HR ETH-SLS prototype at the Swiss Light Source providing intense synchrotron radiation. The pure rotational spectra provide new information about the vibrational ground state of CHF3, which is useful for further analysis of excited vibrational states. The ν3 fundamental band is re-investigated together with the corresponding 'hot' band 2ν3 - ν3 leading to an extension of the existing line lists up to 4430 transitions with ? = 66 for ν3 and 1040 transitions with ? = 43 for 2ν3 - ν3. About 6000 transitions were assigned to rovibrational levels in the polyad ν2/ν5/ν3 + ν6 with ? = 63 for ν2 (? = 1141.457 cm-1), ? = 63 for ν5 (? = 1157.335 cm-1) and ? = 59 for ν3 + ν6 (? = 1208.771 cm-1)(? = ? in each case). The resonance interactions between the ν2, ν5 and ν3 + ν6 states have been taken into account providing an accurate set of effective hamiltonian parameters, which reproduce the experimental results with an accuracy close to the experimental uncertainties (with a root mean square deviation drms = 0.00025 cm-1). The analysis is further extended to the ν4 fundamental (? = 1377.847 cm-1) interacting with 2ν3 (? = 1399.394 cm-1). The results are discussed in relation to the importance of understanding the spectra of CHF3 as a greenhouse gas and as part of our large effort to measure and understand the complete spectrum of CHF3 from the far-infrared to the near-infrared as a prototype for intramolecular

  20. Peripartum Morbidity after Cesarean Delivery for Arrest of Dilation at 4 to 5 cm Compared with 6 to 10 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Sperling, Jeffrey D; Has, Phinnara; Lovgren, Todd R; Connealy, Brendan D; Rouse, Dwight J

    2018-04-24

     Given that recent consensus guidelines established to decrease cesarean delivery (CD) rates use 6 cm to define the onset of the active phase of labor, our objective was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes after CD for the indication of arrest of dilation at 4 to 5 cm compared with ≥ 6 cm.  We performed a secondary analysis using data from the Maternal Fetal-Medicine Units Network Cesarean Registry. We included nulliparous women with term, singleton, vertex gestations who underwent primary CD for arrest of dilation. We compared those who reached a maximum cervical dilation of 4 to 5 cm with those of ≥6 cm. Our primary outcome was composite maternal morbidity that included chorioamnionitis, endometritis, transfusion, wound complication, operative injury, intensive care unit admission, or death.  Of the 73,257 women in the dataset, 5,681 met the inclusion criteria. After adjusting for confounders, there was no difference in composite maternal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.52) or neonatal morbidity (aOR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79-1.10) between the groups.  In this historical cohort, maternal and neonatal outcomes after CD for arrest of dilation ≥ 6 cm were comparable to those performed at 4 to 5 cm and support recent labor management guidelines. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Collisional flow of vibrational energy into surrounding vibrational fields within S1 benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.Y.; Parmenter, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor phase fluorescence spectra are used to determine the absolute rate constants for the collisional transfer of vibrational energy from initial single vibronic levels of S 1 benzene into the surrounding S 1 vibronic field. 11 initial levels are probed with vibrational energies ranging to 2368 cm -1 where the level density is about 10 per cm -1 . CO, isopentane, and S 0 benzene are the collision partners. Benzene rate constants are three to four times gas kinetic for all levels, and electronic energy switching between the initial S 1 molecule and the S 0 collision partner probably makes important contributions. Isopentane efficiencies range from one to two times gas kinetic. Most of the transfer from low S 1 levels occurs with excitation of vibrational energy within isopentane. These V--V contributions decline to only about 10% for the high transfer. CO-induced transfer is by V-T,R processes for all levels. The CO efficiency rises from about 0.1 for low regions to about unity for levels above 1500 cm -1 . The CO efficiencies retain significant sensitivity to initial level identity even in the higher regions. Propensity rules derived from collisional mode-to-mode transfer among lower levels of S 1 benzene are used to calculate the relative CO efficiencies. The calculated efficiencies agree well enough with the data to suggest that it may be meaningful to model vibrational equilibration with the use of propensity rules. The rules suggest that only a small number of levels among the thousands surrounding a high initial level contribute significantly to the total relaxation cross section and that this number is rather independent of the level density

  2. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas greater than 3 cm in diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Tu, Hsien-Tang; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Siu; Chou, Hsi-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Huang, Chuan-Fu

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important alternative management option for patients with small- and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Its use in the treatment of large tumors, however, is still being debated. The authors reviewed their recent experience to assess the potential role of SRS in larger-sized VSs. METHODS Between 2000 and 2014, 35 patients with large VSs, defined as having both a single dimension > 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 , underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Nine patients (25.7%) had previously undergone resection. The median total volume covered in this group of patients was 14.8 cm 3 (range 10.3-24.5 cm 3 ). The median tumor margin dose was 11 Gy (range 10-12 Gy). RESULTS The median follow-up duration was 48 months (range 6-156 months). All 35 patients had regular MRI follow-up examinations. Twenty tumors (57.1%) had a volume reduction of greater than 50%, 5 (14.3%) had a volume reduction of 15%-50%, 5 (14.3%) were stable in size (volume change 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 and tolerable mass effect can be managed satisfactorily with GKRS. Tumor volume ≥ 15 cm 3 is a significant factor predicting poor tumor control following GKRS.

  3. Pulsed WIP electron gun. Fabrication phase 1 x 40 cm and 1 x 70 cm cooled WIP electron gun. Final report, March 1979-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1980-01-01

    An electron gun capable of long-run operation at 10 KHz and 1 A/cm 2 has been fabricated and tested. Pulse widths of 200 to 600 nsec and a total life of greater than 10 7 shots have been demonstrated. During the acceptance tests, the electron gun was operated at a total average power of 20 KW for 30 minutes. This basically satisfied the contract requirements. To establish some upper limit of the gun's capability, the device was operated at a repetition rate of 3.5 KHz at a total average power of 54.5 KW for greater than 10 minutes. During these tests, no high voltage breakdown occurred after the device was processed. The beam uniformity at high repetition rates is +-10% and the efficiency is 50%

  4. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-21

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D(w), in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors k(Q). In the present investigation, k(Q) values were determined experimentally in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 degrees C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the k(Q) factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of k(Q) were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  5. Influence of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 surface treatments on the properties of 30 × 30 cm2 large area modules with atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdes, S.; Steigert, A.; Ziem, F.; Lauermann, I.; Klenk, R.; Hergert, F.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schlatmann, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the effect of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 absorber surface treatments on the properties of atomic layer deposited-Zn(O,S) buffered 30 × 30 cm 2 large area modules. The absorber is prepared by the sequential process. H 2 O and KCN solution treatments are investigated. The absorber surface treatment is found to influence significantly the open circuit voltage and the fill factor of the full modules. Light soaking related metastabilities are also found to depend on the type of treatment. While both H 2 O and KCN treatments are efficient at removing Se-oxides and Na 2 HCO 3 , the KCN treatment is found to remove additionally Ga-oxides and elemental Se that are detected on the surface of the absorber. A 30 × 30 cm 2 module aperture efficiency up to 12.3% could be achieved with KCN surface treatment of the absorber. - Highlights: • The Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 surface influences the Zn(O,S)-buffered module performance. • Surface treatment by H 2 O efficiently removes Se-oxides and sodium compounds. • KCN treatment of the absorber removes Se-oxides, Ga-oxides and elemental Se. • The devices' light soaking behavior depends on the absorber's surface chemistry. • A 30 × 30 cm 2 module efficiency of 12.3% is achieved with KCN treatment

  6. Characterization of three types of silicon solar cells for SEPS deep space missions. Volume 1: Current-voltage characteristics of OCLI BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm, and BSR 2 ohm-cm cells as a function of temperature and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Smith, C. F., Jr.; Wooden, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three types of high performance silicon solar cells, BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm, BSR 10 ohm-cm, and BSR 2 ohm-cm, were evaluated for their low temperature and low intensity performance. Sixteen cells of each type were subjected to ten temperatures and nine intensities. The BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm cells provided the best performance at 1 solar constant and +25 C with an efficiency of 14.1% while the BSR 2 ohm-cm cells had the highest low temperature and low intensity performance with an efficiency of 22.2% at 0.04 solar constant and -170 C and the most consistent cell-to-cell characteristics.

  7. Regional climate modeling over the Maritime Continent: Assessment of RegCM3-BATS1e and RegCM3-IBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, R. L.; Zhang, D.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Despite its importance to global rainfall and circulation processes, the Maritime Continent remains a region that is poorly simulated by climate models. Relatively few studies have been undertaken using a model with fine enough resolution to capture the small-scale spatial heterogeneity of this region and associated land-atmosphere interactions. These studies have shown that even regional climate models (RCMs) struggle to reproduce the climate of this region, particularly the diurnal cycle of rainfall. This study builds on previous work by undertaking a more thorough evaluation of RCM performance in simulating the timing and intensity of rainfall over the Maritime Continent, with identification of major sources of error. An assessment was conducted of the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) used in a coupled system with two land surface schemes: Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer System Version 1e (BATS1e) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS). The model’s performance in simulating precipitation was evaluated against the 3-hourly TRMM 3B42 product, with some validation provided of this TRMM product against ground station meteorological data. It is found that the model suffers from three major errors in the rainfall histogram: underestimation of the frequency of dry periods, overestimation of the frequency of low intensity rainfall, and underestimation of the frequency of high intensity rainfall. Additionally, the model shows error in the timing of the diurnal rainfall peak, particularly over land surfaces. These four errors were largely insensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, convective parameterization scheme or land surface scheme. The presence of a wet or dry bias in the simulated volumes of rainfall was, however, dependent on the choice of convection scheme and boundary conditions. This study also showed that the coupled model system has significant error in overestimation of latent heat flux and evapotranspiration from the land surface, and

  8. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244Cm, 246Cm, and 248Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244 246 248 Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience

  9. 243Cm half-life determinaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, G.A.; Kalygin, V.V.; Privalova, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    By molar ratios of 243 Cm mixture with 244 Cm and Pu nuclides formed as a result of Cm nuclides α-decay the 243 Cm half-life T α243 is determined. The 244 Cm half-life is measured earlier with high accuracy. The 243 Cm/ 244 Cm ratio measured by means of a mass spectrometer equals 0.989+-0.004. The obtained value T α243 =29.20+-0.14 years

  10. Preparation and photoelectronic and electrochemical properties of oligo [(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(alkylphenylsilylene)]s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Min; Park, Young Tae [Dept. of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seong Ho [Div. of Green Energy Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We oligomerized 2,5-dibromo-1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole with dichloroalkylphenylsilanes utilizing n-BuLi to yield conjugated oligo [(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(alkylphenylsilylene)]s. Gel permeation chromatography measurements confirm that the synthesized materials are oligomeric. In addition, the prepared oligomers show characteristic diene stretching bands at 1579–1599 cm{sup −1} in their FT-IR spectra. Furthermore, the oligomers are highly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform. In tetrahydrofuran, the oligomers show strong maximum electronic absorption bands at 253–292 nm with molar absorptivities of 1.61 × 10{sup 2} to 2.57 × 10{sup 4} /cm M in their UV–vis electronic absorption spectra, indicating that the maxima are red-shifted by 5–8 nm compared to the 2,5-dibromo-1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole monomer, strong maximum electronic excitation bands at 292–312 nm, and strong maxima electronic emission bands at 385–396 nm in the emission fluorescence spectra. The emission and absorption spectra strongly suggest that the prepared silole-containing oligomers may be conjugated through the oligomer backbone. In particular, cyclic voltammetry measurements of oligo[(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(diphenylsilylene)] deposited on a glassy carbon electrode in 1.0 M aqueous hydrogen chloride show two oxidation potentials at 0.98 and 1.61 V vs. Ag/Ag{sup +}, and two reduction potentials at 0.00 and −1.93 V vs. Ag/Ag{sup +}. The oligomers were stable on heating to 200 °C under nitrogen, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, losing between 4% and 23% of their starting weights.

  11. Absorption spectrum and absorption cross sections of the 2ν1 band of HO2 between 20 and 760 Torr air in the range 6636 and 6639 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Liu, Lu; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-05-01

    The absorption spectrum of HO2 radicals has been measured in the range 6636-6639 cm-1 at several pressures between 20 and 760 Torr of air. Absolute absorption cross sections of the strongest line at around 6638.2 cm-1 have been determined from kinetic measurements, taking advantage of the well known rate constant of the self-reaction. Peak absorption cross sections of 22.6, 19.5, 14.4, 7.88, 5.12 and 3.23 × 10-20 cm2 were obtained at 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 760 Torr, respectively. By fitting these data, an empirical expression has been obtained for the absorption cross section of HO2 in the range 20-760 Torr air: σ6638.2cm-1 = 1.18 × 10-20 + (2.64 × 10-19 × (1-exp (-63.1/p (Torr))) cm2.

  12. Photoabsorption and photodissociation studies of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the 35,000-80,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anuvab; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Sunanda, K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2015-05-01

    Photoabsorption and photodissociation studies of dimethyl sulphoxide and its deuterated isotopologue (DMSO-h6 and DMSO-d6) are performed using synchrotron radiation in the 35,000-80,000 cm-1 region. In the photoabsorption spectrum, Rydberg series converging to the first three ionization potentials of DMSO at 9.1, 10.1 and 12.3 eV corresponding to removal of an electron from the highest three occupied molecular orbitals (14a‧, 7a″ and 13a‧) are observed. Based on a quantum defect analysis, Rydberg series assignments are extended to higher members as compared to earlier works and a few ambiguities in earlier assignments are clarified. Analysis is aided by quantum chemical calculations using the DFT and TDDFT methodologies. Vibronic structures observed in the spectrum of DMSO-h6 in the regions 7.7-8.1 eV and 8.1-8.8 eV are attributed to the transitions 7a″→4p at 7.862 eV and 14a‧→6s/4d at 8.182 eV, respectively. Photoabsorption spectra of DMSO-h6 and -d6 recorded using a broad band incident radiation show prominent peaks, which are identified and assigned to electronic and vibronic transitions of the SO radical. This provides a direct confirmation of the fact that DMSO preferentially dissociates into CH3 and SO upon UV-VUV excitation, as proposed in earlier photodissociation studies. An extended vibronic band system associated with the e1Π-X3Σ- transition of the SO radical is identified and assigned. The complete VUV photoabsorption spectrum of DMSO-d6 is also reported here for the first time.

  13. Defense gene expression in root galls induced by Nacobbus aberrans in CM334 chilli plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Luna E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. CM334 is susceptible to Nacobbus aberrans but highly resistant to Phy-tophthora capsici. Resistance to P. capsici is associated with the over-expression of various defense genes such as those encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. The transcriptional alterations of defense-related genes were determined in galls induced by N. aberrans (Na in CM334 chili roots. Transcripts accumulation of WRKY-a, WRKY1, POX (peroxidase, PR-1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1, and EAS (5-epiaristolochene synthase was estimated by qRT-PCR, and they were compared with those recorded in the incompatible CM334- P. capsici (Pc interaction. The levels of all studied genes were significantly (P s 0.05 lower (WRKY1, POX and PR-1 or down-regulated (WRKY-a and EAS in the presence of N. aberrans; in contrast, in the incompatible interaction, all genes were significantly up-regulated. The alterations induced by N. aberrans could be necessary to ensure the successful completion of its life cycle in CM334 chili roots.

  14. Operation of a Five-Stage 40,000-CM2-Area Insulator Stack at 158 KV/CM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson RA; Clark, Robert E; Corcoran, PA; Douglas, John W; Gilliland, TL; Horry, ML; Hughes, Thomas P; Ives, HC; Long, FW; Martin, TH; McDaniel, DH; Milton, Osborne; Mostrom, Michael A; Seamen, JF; Shoup, RW; Smith, ID; Smith, JW; Spielman, RB; Struve, KW; Stygar, WA; Vogtlin, George E; Wagoner, TC; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    We have demonstrated successful operation of a 3.35- m-diameter insulator stack at 158 kV/cm on five consecutive Z-accelerator shots. The stack consisted of five +45 deg;-profile 5.715-cm-thick cross-linked-polystyrene (Rexolite- 1422) insulator rings, and four anodized- aluminum grading rings shaped to reduce the field at cathode triple junctions. The width of the voltage pulse at 89% of peak was 32 ns. We compare this result to a new empirical flashover relation developed from previous small-insulator experiments conducted with flat unanodized electrodes. The relation predicts a 50% flashover probability for a Rexolite insulator during an applied voltage pulse when E max e -0.27/d (t eff C) 1/10 = 224, where E max is the peak mean electric field (kV/cm), d is the insulator thickness (cm), t eff is the effective pulse width (ps), and C is the insulator circumference (cm). We find the Z stack can be operated at a stress at least 19% higher than predicted. This result, and previous experiments conducted by Vogtlin, suggest anodized electrodes with geometries that reduce the field at both anode and cathode triple junctions would improve the flashover strength of +45 deg; insulators

  15. 4-CM2 CuInGaSe2 based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.M.; Chen, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that polycrystalline thin-film solar cells with the structure ZnO/CdZnS/CuInGaSe 2 have been fabricated with larger single cell areas than have been previously reported. A cell of area 4-cm 2 has been made with an Am1.5, 100 mW/cm 2 total area conversion efficiency of (11.1% 912.0% active area) and AMO conversion efficiency of 10.0% (10.9% active area). The CuInGaSe 2 layer had a gallium to indium ratio of 0.26:0.74 with a band gap of approximately 1.15 eV. The cells use an isolated tab design for the negative (grid) contact, demonstrating the ability to pattern the semiconductor layers. Such CuInGaSe 2 based cells may be suitable both for large area terrestrial applications and for single-junction space cell applications

  16. Electron mobility in few-layer MoxW1-xS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Nath, Digbijoy N

    2015-01-01

    Heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are increasingly being explored for electronics in order to potentially extend conventional transistor scaling and to exploit new device designs and architectures. Alloys form a key underpinning of any heterostructure device technology and therefore an understanding of their electronic properties is essential. In this paper, we study the intrinsic electron mobility in few-layer Mo x W 1−x S 2 as limited by various scattering mechanisms. The room temperature, energy-dependent scattering times corresponding to polar longitudinal optical (LO) phonon, alloy and background impurity scattering mechanisms are estimated based on the Born approximation to Fermi’s golden rule. The contribution of individual scattering rates is analyzed as a function of 2D electron density as well as of alloy composition in Mo x W 1−x S 2 . While impurity scattering limits the mobility for low carrier densities (<2–4×10 12 cm −2 ), LO polar phonon scattering is the dominant mechanism for high electron densities. Alloy scattering is found to play a non-negligible role for 0.5 < x < 0.7 in Mo x W 1−x S 2 . The LO phonon-limited and impurity-limited mobilities show opposing trends with respect to alloy mole fractions. The understanding of electron mobility in Mo x W 1−x S 2 presented here is expected to enable the design and realization of heterostructures and devices based on alloys of MoS 2 and WS 2 . (paper)

  17. Transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm robustly anchored on substrate by layer-by-layer self-assembly and its ultra-high cycling stability as supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danqin; Zhou, Weiqiang; Zhou, Qianjie; Ye, Guo; Wang, Tongzhou; Wu, Jing; Chang, Yanan; Xu, Jingkun

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional MoS2 materials have attracted more and more interest and been applied to the field of energy storage because of its unique physical, optical, electronic and electrochemical properties. However, there are no reports on high-stable transparent MoS2 nanofilms as supercapacitors electrode. Here, we describe a transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm electrode with super-long stability anchored on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a simple alternate layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of a highly charged cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negative single-/few-layer 1T MoS2 nanosheets. The ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 electrode shows a transmittance of 51.6% at 550 nm and obviously exhibits excellent transparency by naked eye observation. Ultrasonic damage test validates that the (PDDA/MoS2)20 film with the average thickness about 50 nm is robustly anchored on ITO substrate. Additionally, the electrochemical results indicate that the ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 film shows areal capacitance of 1.1 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 220 F cm-3 at 0.04 mA cm-2, 130.6% retention of the original capacitance value after 5000 cycles. Further experiments indicate that the formation of transparent (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm by LBL self-assembly can be extended to other substrates, e.g., slide glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Thus, the easily available (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm electrode has great potential for application in transparent and/or flexible optoelectronic and electronics devices.

  18. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S{sub 1} state of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. II. The S{sub 1} rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changala, P. Bryan, E-mail: bryan.changala@colorado.edu; Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Merer, Anthony J. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S{sub 1} state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm{sup −1} above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm{sup −1} above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν{sub 4} (torsion) and ν{sub 6} (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x{sub 36} cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν{sub 6} and ν{sub 3} (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C–C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.

  19. Pre-potential in the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} type IIB superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poláček, Martin; Siegel, Warren [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York,100 Nicolls Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2017-01-16

    We found the pre-potential in the superspace with AdS{sub 5} × S{sup 5} background. The pre-potential appears as part of the vielbeins, without derivatives. In both subspaces (AdS{sub 5} and S{sup 5}) we used Poincaré coordinates. We picked one bulk coordinate in AdS{sub 5} and one bulk coordinate in S{sup 5} to define the space-cone gauge. Such space-cone gauge destroys the bulk Lorentz covariance. However, it still preserves boundary Lorentz covariance (and gives projective superspace) SO(3,1)⊗SO(4) and so symmetries of boundary CFT are manifest.

  20. Comb-assisted cavity ring down spectroscopy of 17O enriched water between 7443 and 7921 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelain, D.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Karlovets, E. V.; Béguier, S.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-12-01

    The room temperature absorption spectrum of water vapor highly enriched in 17O has been recorded by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) between 7443 and 7921 cm-1. Three series of recordings were performed with pressure values around 0.1, 1 and 10 Torr. The frequency calibration of the present spectra benefited of the combination of the CRDS spectrometer to a self-referenced frequency comb. The resulting CRD spectrometer combines excellent frequency accuracy over a broad spectral region with a high sensitivity (Noise Equivalent Absorption, αmin∼ 10-11-10-10 cm-1). The investigated spectral region corresponds to the high energy range of the first hexade. The assignments were performed using known experimental energy levels as well as calculated line lists based on the results of Partridge and Schwenke. Overall about 4150 lines were measured and assigned to 4670 transitions of six water isotopologues (H216O, H217O, H218O, HD16O, HD17O and HD18O). Their intensities span six orders of magnitude from 10-28 to 10-22 cm/molecule. Most of the new results concern the H217O and HD17O isotopologues for which about 1600 and 400 transitions were assigned leading to the determination of 329 and 207 new energy levels, respectively. For comparison only about 300 and four transitions of H217O and HD17O were previously known in the region, respectively. By comparison to highly accurate H216O line positions available in the literature, the average accuracy on our line centers is checked to be on the order of 3 MHz (10-4 cm-1) or better for not weak well isolated lines. This small uncertainty represents a significant improvement of the line center determination of many H216O lines included in the experimental list provided as Supplementary Material.

  1. Three-body resonance generated by a separable potential which describes a 2s1/2 single-particle state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, K.

    1988-12-01

    It is shown that a separable potential previously used to describe a 2s 1/2 single-particle state gives rise not only to a bound state but also to a resonance of the core-plus-two-nucleons three-body system. (author) [pt

  2. AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with an AlGaN layer grown directly on reactive-ion-etched GaN showing a high electron mobility (>1300 cm2 V-1 s-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Makino, Shinya; Kanatani, Keito; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxial growth behavior and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN structures prepared by the growth of an AlGaN layer on a reactive-ion-etched (RIE) GaN surface without regrown GaN layers were investigated. The annealing of RIE-GaN surfaces in NH3 + H2 atmosphere, employed immediately before AlGaN growth, was a key process in obtaining a clean GaN surface for AlGaN growth, that is, in obtaining an electron mobility as high as 1350 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a fabricated AlGaN/RIE-GaN structure. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were successfully fabricated with AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers. With decreasing density of dotlike defects observed on the surfaces of AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers, both two-dimensional electron gas properties of AlGaN/RIE-GaN structures and DC characteristics of HEMTs were markedly improved. Since dotlike defect density was markedly dependent on RIE lot, rather than on growth lot, surface contaminations of GaN during RIE were believed to be responsible for the formation of dotlike defects and, therefore, for the inferior electrical properties.

  3. Achievement of 900kgf/cm[sup 2] super workable high strength concrete with belite portland cement. (elevator building of cement silo in Chichibu cement). Part 1. ; Development of cement for super workable high strength concrete. Ko belite kei cement de 900kgf/cm[sup 2] wo tassei (Chichibu cement cement sairo no elevaor to). 1. ; Koryudo kokyodo concrete yo no cement no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Fukaya, Y.; Nawa, T. (Chichibu Cement Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the features of high belite Portland cement which can make the super workable high strength concrete, and the properties of concrete using this. The super workable concrete is required an excellent segregation resistance property as well as high flow property. Since the high belite Portland cement contains a small amount of C[sub 3]S in the clinker, the amounts of C[sub 3]A and C[sub 4]AF can be reduced without hindering the calcination of clinker. Additionally, since it contains a large amount of C[sub 2]S with low heat of hydration, an increase in the temperature of members can be suppressed. 'Chichibu High Flow Cement' having characteristics of this high belite Portland cement was developed for the super workable high strength concrete. The concrete using the High Flow Cement exhibited the maximum flow value of 70cm. It also exhibited the strength of 1,075 kgf/cm[sup 2] at the age of 91 days, and 1,100 kgf/cm[sup 2] at the age of 14 days under insulating. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Deposition and characterization of (Cd sub(x) Zn sub(1-x)) S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Thin films of (Cd sub(x) Zn sub(1-x)) S were deposited on the substrates of soda-lime glass and borosilicate glass by coevaporation of CdS and ZnS, using the technique of hot wall. The temperatures for substrate (200 0 C), wall (350 0 C), CdS source (900 0 -1000 0 C) and ZnS source (900 0 -1200 0 C) were found to be optimum for formation of the films with deposition rates in the range of 0.5 μm.min -1 . The films obtained were with Wurtzite structure, with the crystallographic planes oriented in (001) direction. A linear variation of the parameter C 0 of hexagonal lattice with the concentration of Zn, in the range of 20% to 60%, was observed. For lower and higher concentration outside this range there was a tendency of saturation of C 0 . Measurements of Hall voltage and resistivity demonstrated the mobility and carrier concentration in the range of 10-40 cm 2 v -1 sec -1 and 1.45 x 10 19 - 3.83 x 10 20 cm -3 , respectively, whereas the resistivity of the films ranged from 2.11 x 10 -2 Ω.cm for the Zn concentration variation from 20% to 70%. Measurements of optical absorption revealed linear variation of refractive index of the films with Zn concentration for the wavelenght in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 μm. (Cd sub(x) Zn sub(1-x)) S films with 0.7 2 S. (Author) [pt

  5. Modelling redshift space distortion in the post-reionization H I 21-cm power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Bharadwaj, Somnath

    2018-05-01

    The post-reionization H I 21-cm signal is an excellent candidate for precision cosmology, this however requires accurate modelling of the expected signal. Sarkar et al. have simulated the real space H I 21-cm signal and have modelled the H I power spectrum as P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k), where P(k) is the dark matter power spectrum and b(k) is a (possibly complex) scale-dependent bias for which fitting formulas have been provided. This paper extends these simulations to incorporate redshift space distortion and predicts the expected redshift space H I 21-cm power spectrum P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) using two different prescriptions for the H I distributions and peculiar velocities. We model P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }), assuming that it is the product of P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k) with a Kaiser enhancement term and a Finger of God (FoG) damping which has σp the pair velocity dispersion as a free parameter. Considering several possibilities for the bias and the damping profile, we find that the models with a scale-dependent bias and a Lorentzian damping profile best fit the simulated P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) over the entire range 1 ≤ z ≤ 6. The best-fitting value of σp falls approximately as (1 + z)-m with m = 2 and 1.2, respectively, for the two different prescriptions. The model predictions are consistent with the simulations for k models underpredict P^s_2(k) at large k, and the fit is restricted to k < 0.15 Mpc-1.

  6. Neutron spectra of /sup 242/Cm-Be and /sup 244/Cm-Be neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Nagarajan, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1977-02-15

    Neutron spectra of /sup 242/Cm-Be(..cap alpha..,n) and /sup 244/Cm-Be(..cap alpha..,n) sources have been calculated including the spontaneous fission contribution which is negligible for /sup 242/Cm and amounts to about 4% for /sup 244/Cm. The agreement of the present work with experimental results is poor.

  7. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Using 5-CM Wind Tunnels I. CASARM Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    tD Is- K CO CO o S o ooooooooooooo ooooooooooooo •* ** ** v V -a *J •« "cr co CM T...I IT flj UJ tfi V> <" r ft O O Is UJ 2 01 O C i* Jf ,* * * •* * # # if iJ- ;f s< * ;,* s* * *’ 0 I ./. •^ >s. a. t^ (SI ś...ex APPENDIX II 99 o CM u) o m o o IN U E ID TD ro i- O a c <B •a o 5 ** :.1- g £ h-ri * tf * CO 6; cr ft ui IO *A s

  8. Search for the sources of the solar wind in the 9.1 cm brightness temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of solar wind streams have been the object of intensive research for many years, but the various ideas of where and how streams originate on the sun are still incomplete and contradictory. The present study is an attempt to find the solar wind sources by mathematically approximating the 9.1 cm brightness temperature which would be expected at the foot of spacecraft-measured solar wind streams and by then comparing it with actual radio brightness temperature measurements. Several significant results were found from an analysis of the correlation results. Most plasma emanating from the sun was found to come from high solar latitudes and to deviate significantly from the normally expected east-west path in the low corona. Magnetic channelng causes correlation studies to fail when the sun's magnetic configuration is unstable. The travel time of the plasma from the sun's 9.1 cm emission level to the earth is often more than a month

  9. High resolution polarimetry of the Sun at 3. 7 and 11. 1 cm wavelengths. [Stokes parameters, polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K R [Tufts Univ., Medford, Mass. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-04-01

    The four Stokes parameters are presented for interferometric observations of the Sun at wavelengths of lambda=3.7 cm and lambda=11 cm with angular resolutions between 2.7 and 36.7 seconds of arc. An H..cap alpha.. solar flare of importance SN and type C has a radio wavelength (lambda=3.7 cm) size of 5 seconds of arc, a flux density of 0.3 x 10/sup -22/Wm/sup -2/Hz/sup -1/, and a brightness temperature on the order of 10/sup 7/K. The radio flare is 30% left circularly polarized at lambda=3.7 cm, 70% left circularly polarized at lambda=11 cm, and no detectable linear polarization was observed at either wavelength. During a forty hour observation of sunspot region McMath No 13926 no substantial variations in circular polarization were observed, whereas one hour prior to the eruption of a solar flare dramatic changes in circular polarization were observed. Small scale features whose angular sizes are on the order of five seconds of arc exhibit changes of circular polarization of up to 80%. At times other than those immediately preceding flare emission, the degree of circular polarization was the same as the two wavelengths but the sign was reversed. This situation can be explained if magnetic fields of intensity H<=1000 G and electron densities of Nsub(e)>=10/sup 7/cm/sup -3/ are present.

  10. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    %). Main atomic ratios seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as 'peat'. In fact, the F14C age dating suggests that the first 95 cm of Sphagnum material accumulate in less than 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of ca. 1.7-1.8 cm yr-1. At the same time, C/N, H/C and O/C ratios show their lowest values between 20 and 55 cm of depth, corresponding to the section with highest bulk density (0.025-0.059 g cm-3). This seems to suggest a slightly more decomposed material. Consequently, the depth of 55-60 cm could represent the emerged (i.e., less anaerobic) section of this floating mire. Finally, the first 100 cm of the core show a great potential to be used as archive of environmental changes, especially considering their high resolution (1 cm = 0.5 yr ca.), although the short time-space covered could be a limiting factor. The Authors thank the Municipality of Posta Fibreno (FR), Managing Authority of the Regional Natural Reserve of Lake Posta Fibreno, for allowing peat cores sampling. C.Z. is indebted to the Staff of the Regional Natural Reserve for the help during samplings and for their continuous feedbacks.

  11. Search for OH 18 cm Radio Emission from 1I/2017 U1 with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ryan S.; Pisano, D. J.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Chodas, Paul W.; Naidu, Shantanu P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the first OH 18 cm line observation of the first detected interstellar object 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua) using the Green Bank Telescope. We have observed the OH lines at 1665.402, 1667.359, and 1720.53 MHz frequencies with a spectral resolution of 357 Hz (approximately 0.06 km s‑1). At the time of the observation, ‘Oumuamua was at topocentric distance and velocity of 1.07 au and 63.4 km s‑1, respectively, or at heliocentric distance and velocity of 1.8 au and 39 km s‑1, respectively. Based on a detailed data reduction and an analogy-based inversion, our final results confirm the asteroidal origin of ‘Oumuamua with an upper bound OH production of Q[OH] < 0.17 × 1028 s‑1.

  12. The ratio 1660/1690 cm(-1) measured by infrared microspectroscopy is not specific of enzymatic collagen cross-links in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlay, Delphine; Duclos, Marie-Eve; Gineyts, Evelyne; Bertholon, Cindy; Viguet-Carrin, Stéphanie; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Bertrand, Dominique; Roger, Thierry; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chapurlat, Roland; Boivin, Georges

    2011-01-01

    In postmenopausal osteoporosis, an impairment in enzymatic cross-links (ECL) occurs, leading in part to a decline in bone biomechanical properties. Biochemical methods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are currently used to measure ECL. Another method has been proposed, by Fourier Transform InfraRed Imaging (FTIRI), to measure a mature PYD/immature DHLNL cross-links ratio, using the 1660/1690 cm(-1) area ratio in the amide I band. However, in bone, the amide I band composition is complex (collagens, non-collagenous proteins, water vibrations) and the 1660/1690 cm(-1) by FTIRI has never been directly correlated with the PYD/DHLNL by HPLC. A study design using lathyritic rats, characterized by a decrease in the formation of ECL due to the inhibition of lysyl oxidase, was used in order to determine the evolution of 1660/1690 cm(-1) by FTIR Microspectroscopy in bone tissue and compare to the ECL quantified by HPLC. The actual amount of ECL was quantified by HPLC on cortical bone from control and lathyritic rats. The lathyritic group exhibited a decrease of 78% of pyridinoline content compared to the control group. The 1660/1690 cm(-1) area ratio was increased within center bone compared to inner bone, and this was also correlated with an increase in both mineral maturity and mineralization index. However, no difference in the 1660/1690 cm(-1) ratio was found between control and lathyritic rats. Those results were confirmed by principal component analysis performed on multispectral infrared images. In bovine bone, in which PYD was physically destructed by UV-photolysis, the PYD/DHLNL (measured by HPLC) was strongly decreased, whereas the 1660/1690 cm(-1) was unmodified. In conclusion, the 1660/1690 cm(-1) is not related to the PYD/DHLNL ratio, but increased with age of bone mineral, suggesting that a modification of this ratio could be mainly due to a modification of the collagen secondary structure related to the mineralization process.

  13. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  14. Morphometric study of uninvolved rectal mucosa 10 cm and 20 cm away from the malignant tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotović, Sanja Z; Milićević, Novica M; Milosević, Dragoslav P; Despotović, Nebojsa; Erceg, Predrag; Bojić, Bozidar; Bojić, Danijela; Svorcan, Petar; Mihajlović, Gordana; Dorđević, Jelena; Lalić, Ivana M; Milićević, Zivana

    2014-02-01

    Recently, many details of the interplay between tumor cells and tumor-associated stromal elements leading to the progression of malignant disease were elucidated. In contrast, little is known about the role of uninvolved stromal tissue in the remote surrounding of the malignant tumor. Therefore, we performed a computer-aided morphometric study of rectal mucosa in samples taken 10 cm and 20 cm away from the malignant tumor during endoscopic examination of 23 patients older than 60 years. The samples of rectal mucosa from 10 healthy persons of corresponding age subjected to diagnostic rectoscopy during active screening for asymptomatic cancer were used as control. All structural elements of the rectal mucosa were studied and the number of nucleated cells in the lamina propria per 0.1 mm² of tissue was assessed. Our study revealed a reduced number of cells in the lamina propria of the rectal mucosa 10 cm and 20 cm away from the tumor lesion in both male and female patients. The decreased mucosal height and increased crypt number were registered in female patients 10 cm away from the tumor. The connective tissue of lamina propria showed a disorderly organization: the collagen fibers were frail, loosely arranged and signs of tissue edema were present. Small blood vessels and capillaries were much more frequently seen than in healthy tissue. Our results demonstrate the complex interactions between the cancer and remote mucosal tissue of the affected organ.

  15. Comportamiento Mecánico Estático de los Instrumentos S1, S2, F1 de Protaper Universal® Bajo Torsión y Doblamiento. Análisis por Elementos Finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Cartagena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Examinar el comportamiento mecánico estático de los instrumentos ProTaper Universal® S1, S2, F1 bajo torsión y doblamiento teniendo en cuenta las propiedades mecánicas del material, mediante el método de elementos finitos. Metodología: Estudio Observacional descriptivo. Las limas investigadas fueron S1, S2, F1 de ProTaper Universal®, modeladas con el software ANSYS 10 y sometidas a fuerzas de torsión empezando en 0.25N/cm hasta alcanzar el torque máximo recomendado por la casa comercial Maillefer® y doblamiento en un ángulo de 600. Resultados:El máximo esfuerzo ocurre en el núcleo de la sección para todos los instrumentos evaluados;  al incrementar el torque el  esfuerzo  se disipa a la periferia para S1 (D5, D10, D14, S2 (D5, D7, D8, D10, F1 (D2, D3, D5.  La lima S1 al ser sometida a  torsión en D0 y D5 independiente del torque que fuese aplicado el máximo de esfuerzo superaba el límite de deformación plástica en el núcleo de la sección  del instrumento. La lima S2 con torques de  1 ó 1,5 N/cm superó  el límite elástico del material. Lima F1 en D0, D2 con torques de  0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 N/cm el esfuerzo máximo no supero el límite de deformación plástica. En la prueba de doblamiento la gran mayoría de la estructura de las limas S1, S2, F1, se encuentra  por debajo del esfuerzo de ruptura (línea neutral es bastante ancha.Conclusion: Las fuerzas de  torsión para todas la limas del estudio mostraron tener mayor riesgo de separación del instrumento en comparación con  las fuerzas de doblamiento. 

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  17. Measurement of the surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) due to the 1574 cm(-1) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mode of benzenethiol using low-power (CW diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Roshan L; Farrar, Lewis W; Greeneltch, Nathan G; Van Duyne, Richard P; Polla, Dennis L

    2013-02-01

    The surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) from a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of benzenethiol on a silver-coated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been measured for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode. A value of 9.6 ± 1.7×10(-14) W was determined for the resonant component of the SECARS signal using 17.8 mW of 784.9 nm pump laser power and 7.1 mW of 895.5 nm Stokes laser power; the pump and Stokes lasers were polarized parallel to each other but perpendicular to the grooves of the diffraction grating in the spectrometer. The measured value of resonant component of the SECARS signal is in agreement with the calculated value of 9.3×10(-14) W using the measured value of 8.7 ± 0.5 cm(-1) for the SERS linewidth Γ (full width at half-maximum) and the value of 5.7 ± 1.4×10(-7) for the product of the Raman cross section σSERS and the surface concentration Ns of the benzenethiol SAM. The xxxx component of the resonant part of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility |3 χxxxx((3)R)| for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode has been determined to be 4.3 ± 1.1×10(-5) cm·g(-1s(2). The SERS enhancement factor for the 1574 cm(-1) mode was determined to be 3.6 ± 0.9×10(7) using the value of 1.8×10(15) molecules/cm(2) for Ns.

  18. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  19. Error Analysis of CM Data Products Sources of Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beal, Bill [National Security Technologies, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Okada, Colin [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, Mathew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This goal of this project is to address the current inability to assess the overall error and uncertainty of data products developed and distributed by DOE’s Consequence Management (CM) Program. This is a widely recognized shortfall, the resolution of which would provide a great deal of value and defensibility to the analysis results, data products, and the decision making process that follows this work. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty contribute to the ultimate production of CM data products. Therefore, this project will require collaboration with subject matter experts across a wide range of FRMAC skill sets in order to quantify the types of uncertainty that each area of the CM process might contain and to understand how variations in these uncertainty sources contribute to the aggregated uncertainty present in CM data products. The ultimate goal of this project is to quantify the confidence level of CM products to ensure that appropriate public and worker protections decisions are supported by defensible analysis.

  20. Facile synthesis of NiS anchored carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinling; Zhang, Li; Xu, Guancheng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chi; Ma, Xin; Qi, Chunling; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-03-01

    Transition metal sulfide compounds with carbon materials are promising for high-performance supercapacitors. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) wrapped with NiS nanoparticles were herein obtained through electrospinning and calcination. NiS nanoparticles in composite nanofibers are covered by a layer of graphitic carbon, which not only increase the conductivity but also provide active regions for nanoparticle growth to prevent aggregation. The CNFs-NiS electrode has high specific capacity of 177.1 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 (0.41 mAh cm-2 at a current density of 2.3 mA cm-2) and long-term cycling stability, with 88.7% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical activity may be attributed to the accessible specific surface, unique porous structure of CNFs and high specific capacitance of NiS. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor has an enhanced volumetric energy density of 13.32 mWh cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 180 mW cm-3 and high cycling stability, with 89.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. It also successfully lights up a light-emitting diode. The CNFs-NiS composite has significant potential applications in supercapacitor.

  1. Evolution of the 21 cm signal throughout cosmic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen for probing the epoch of reionization is motivating the construction of several low-frequency interferometers. There is also much interest in the possibility of constraining the initial conditions from inflation and the nature of the dark matter and dark energy by probing the power spectrum of density perturbations in three dimensions and on smaller scales than probed by the microwave background anisotropies. Theoretical understanding of the 21 cm signal has been fragmented into different regimes of physical interest. In this paper, we make the first attempt to describe the full redshift evolution of the 21 cm signal between 0 or approx. 25 before the first galaxies had formed, or to z < or approx. 6 when the residual pockets of hydrogen trace large-scale structure.

  2. An Investigation on the He−(1s2s2 2S Resonance in Debye Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghoshal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Debye plasma on the 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states in the scattering of electron from helium atom has been investigated within the framework of the stabilization method. The interactions among the charged particles in Debye plasma have been modelled by Debye–Huckel potential. The 1 s 2 s excited state of the helium atom has been treated as consisting of a H e + ionic core plus an electron moving around. The interaction between the core and the electron has then been modelled by a model potential. It has been found that the background plasma environment significantly affects the resonance states. To the best of our knowledge, such an investigation of 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states of the electron–helium system embedded in Debye plasma environment is the first reported in the literature.

  3. Fourier transform measurements of water vapor line parameters in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenouvrier, Alain [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: alain.jenouvrier@univ-reims.fr; Daumont, Ludovic [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Regalia-Jarlot, Laurence [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Carleer, Michel [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandaele, Ann Carine [Institut d' Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mikhailenko, Semen [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Av. Akademichesskii, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fally, Sophie [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    New high-resolution water vapor absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} spectral region by combining Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) with single and multiple reflection cells. With absorption paths from 0.3 to 1800 m in pure and air diluted water vapor, accurate measurements of about 10400 lines in an intensity range from 10{sup -29} to 10{sup -19} cm/molecule have been performed. Positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients and air-induced shifts were determined for the H{sub 2} {sup 16}O, H{sub 2} {sup 17}O, H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and HDO isotopologues. The rovibrational assignment of the observed lines was performed with the use of global variational predictions and allowed the identification of several new energy levels. One major contribution of this work consists of the identification of 3280 new weak lines. A very close agreement between the new measured parameters and those listed in the database is reported as well as between the observations and the most recent variational calculations for the positions and the intensities. The present parameters provide an extended and homogeneous data set for water vapor, which is shown to significantly improve the databases for atmospheric applications, especially in the transmission windows on both sides of the band centered at 5400 cm{sup -1}.

  4. Limits on variations in fundamental constants from 21-cm and ultraviolet Quasar absorption lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P; Webb, J K; Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Curran, S J

    2005-07-22

    Quasar absorption spectra at 21-cm and UV rest wavelengths are used to estimate the time variation of x [triple-bond] alpha(2)g(p)mu, where alpha is the fine structure constant, g(p) the proton g factor, and m(e)/m(p) [triple-bond] mu the electron/proton mass ratio. Over a redshift range 0.24 < or = zeta(abs) < or = 2.04, (Deltax/x)(weighted)(total) = (1.17 +/- 1.01) x 10(-5). A linear fit gives x/x = (-1.43 +/- 1.27) x 10(-15) yr(-1). Two previous results on varying alpha yield the strong limits Deltamu/mu = (2.31 +/- 1.03) x 10(-5) and Deltamu/mu=(1.29 +/- 1.01) x10(-5). Our sample, 8 x larger than any previous, provides the first direct estimate of the intrinsic 21-cm and UV velocity differences 6 km s(-1).

  5. The NAP flux at mountain altitude 725 g cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, M.

    1977-01-01

    The energy spectrum of nuclear active particles (NAP) with energy ΣEsub(γ) greater than 3 TeV is obtained from an analysis of a thick emulsion chamber (140 cu of Pb) exposed on Mount Norikura at 2770 m above sea level and the vertical flux is estimated to be (1.4 +- 0.1) x 10 -10 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . Assuming that the energy spectrum and the zenith angle distribution of NAP are expressed by power functions proportional to Esup(-(γ + 1)) and cossup(n-2) theta respectively in differential form, the exponents γ and n are obtained as 2.3 +- 0.1 and 7.3 +- 0.5 respectively. The collision mean free path and the ratio of constituents of NAP are discussed. (author)

  6. Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beausoleil, R.G.; McIntyre, D.H.; Foot, C.J.; Couillaud, B.; Hildum, E.A.; Hansch, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used cw Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy to measure the 1S-2S transition frequency in atomic hydrogen gas with a precision of 6 parts in 10 10 . Their result for the energy level separation is f(1S-2S) = 2 466 061 413.3(1.5) MHz and can be used to extract a value of the 1S Lamb shift. Choosing a value of the Rydberg constant measured independently by high-resolution spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer-β transition, the authors obtain a value of Δf/sub Lamb/(1S) = 8 173.3(1.7) MHz, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 8 173.06(20) MHz. On the other hand, if they trust the theoretical determination of the 1S Lamb shift, they can interpret our experimental result as a measurement of the Rydberg constant. The authors obtain R∞ = 109 737.315(7) cm -1 , in agreement with recent precise measurements

  7. Lattice potential energy and standard molar enthalpy in the formation of 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide(1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu-Pu; Di You-Ying; Dan Wen-Yan; He Dong-Hua; Kong Yu-Xia; Yang Wei-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide (1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s) has been synthesized using the liquid phase reaction method. The lattice potential energy of the compound 1-C12H25NH3·Br and the ionic volume and radius of the 1-C12H25NH3+ cation are obtained from the crystallographic data and other auxiliary ther-modynamic data. The constant-volume energy of combustion of 1-C12H25NH3·Br(s) is measured to be △cUm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s) =-(7369.03±3.28) kJ·mol-1 by means of an RBC-Ⅱ precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T=(298.15±0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound is derived to be △cHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(7384.52±3.28) kJ·mol-1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound is calculated to be △fHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(1317.86±3.67) kJ·mol-1 from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the title compound and other auxiliary thermodynamic quantities through a thermochemical cycle.

  8. Detectability of the 21-cm CMB cross-correlation from the epoch of reionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem; Jelic, Vibor

    The 21-cm line fluctuations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are powerful probes of the epoch of reionization of the Universe. We study the potential of the cross-correlation between 21-cm line fluctuations and CMB anisotropy to obtain further constraints on the reionization history. We

  9. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Lyase Inhibition Causes Increased Cardiac S1P Levels and Bradycardia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher M; Mittelstadt, Scott; Banfor, Patricia; Bousquet, Peter; Duignan, David B; Gintant, Gary; Hart, Michelle; Kim, Youngjae; Segreti, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-catabolizing enzyme S1P lyase (S1PL) elevates the native ligand of S1P receptors and provides an alternative mechanism for immune suppression to synthetic S1P receptor agonists. S1PL inhibition is reported to preferentially elevate S1P in lymphoid organs. Tissue selectivity could potentially differentiate S1PL inhibitors from S1P receptor agonists, the use of which also results in bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and hypertension. But it is unknown if S1PL inhibition would also modulate cardiac S1P levels or cardiovascular function. The S1PL inhibitor 6-[(2R)-4-(4-benzyl-7-chlorophthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]pyridine-3-carbonitrile was used to determine the relationship in rats between drug concentration, S1P levels in select tissues, and circulating lymphocytes. Repeated oral doses of the S1PL inhibitor fully depleted circulating lymphocytes after 3 to 4 days of treatment in rats. Full lymphopenia corresponded to increased levels of S1P of 100- to 1000-fold in lymph nodes, 3-fold in blood (but with no change in plasma), and 9-fold in cardiac tissue. Repeated oral dosing of the S1PL inhibitor in telemeterized, conscious rats resulted in significant bradycardia within 48 hours of drug treatment, comparable in magnitude to the bradycardia induced by 3 mg/kg fingolimod. These results suggest that S1PL inhibition modulates cardiac function and does not provide immune suppression with an improved cardiovascular safety profile over fingolimod in rats. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  11. Intracellular S1P Generation Is Essential for S1P-Induced Motility of Human Lung Endothelial Cells: Role of Sphingosine Kinase 1 and S1P Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Gorshkova, Irina; Usatyuk, Peter; Kalari, Satish; Zhao, Yutong; Pyne, Nigel J.; Pyne, Susan; Sabbadini, Roger A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier we have shown that extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induces migration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) through the activation of S1P1 receptor, PKCε, and PLD2-PKCζ-Rac1 signaling cascade. As endothelial cells generate intracellular S1P, here we have investigated the role of sphingosine kinases (SphKs) and S1P lyase (S1PL), that regulate intracellular S1P accumulation, in HPAEC motility. Methodology/Principal Findings Inhibition of SphK activity with a SphK inhibitor 2-(p-Hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-Chlorophenyl) Thiazole or down-regulation of Sphk1, but not SphK2, with siRNA decreased S1Pint, and attenuated S1Pext or serum-induced motility of HPAECs. On the contrary, inhibition of S1PL with 4-deoxypyridoxine or knockdown of S1PL with siRNA increased S1Pint and potentiated motility of HPAECs to S1Pext or serum. S1Pext mediates cell motility through activation of Rac1 and IQGAP1 signal transduction in HPAECs. Silencing of SphK1 by siRNA attenuated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to the cell periphery; however, knockdown of S1PL with siRNA or 4-deoxypyridoxine augmented activated Rac1 and stimulated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to cell periphery. The increased cell motility mediated by down-regulation was S1PL was pertussis toxin sensitive suggesting “inside-out” signaling of intracellularly generated S1P. Although S1P did not accumulate significantly in media under basal or S1PL knockdown conditions, addition of sodium vanadate increased S1P levels in the medium and inside the cells most likely by blocking phosphatases including lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Furthermore, addition of anti-S1P mAb to the incubation medium blocked S1Pext or 4-deoxypyridoxine-dependent endothelial cell motility. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest S1Pext mediated endothelial cell motility is dependent on intracellular S1P production, which is regulated, in part, by SphK1 and S1PL. PMID:21304987

  12. Intracellular S1P generation is essential for S1P-induced motility of human lung endothelial cells: role of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V Berdyshev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier we have shown that extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P induces migration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs through the activation of S1P(1 receptor, PKCε, and PLD2-PKCζ-Rac1 signaling cascade. As endothelial cells generate intracellular S1P, here we have investigated the role of sphingosine kinases (SphKs and S1P lyase (S1PL, that regulate intracellular S1P accumulation, in HPAEC motility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Inhibition of SphK activity with a SphK inhibitor 2-(p-Hydroxyanilino-4-(p-Chlorophenyl Thiazole or down-regulation of Sphk1, but not SphK2, with siRNA decreased S1P(int, and attenuated S1P(ext or serum-induced motility of HPAECs. On the contrary, inhibition of S1PL with 4-deoxypyridoxine or knockdown of S1PL with siRNA increased S1P(int and potentiated motility of HPAECs to S1P(ext or serum. S1P(ext mediates cell motility through activation of Rac1 and IQGAP1 signal transduction in HPAECs. Silencing of SphK1 by siRNA attenuated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to the cell periphery; however, knockdown of S1PL with siRNA or 4-deoxypyridoxine augmented activated Rac1 and stimulated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to cell periphery. The increased cell motility mediated by down-regulation was S1PL was pertussis toxin sensitive suggesting "inside-out" signaling of intracellularly generated S1P. Although S1P did not accumulate significantly in media under basal or S1PL knockdown conditions, addition of sodium vanadate increased S1P levels in the medium and inside the cells most likely by blocking phosphatases including lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs. Furthermore, addition of anti-S1P mAb to the incubation medium blocked S1P(ext or 4-deoxypyridoxine-dependent endothelial cell motility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest S1P(ext mediated endothelial cell motility is dependent on intracellular S1P production, which is regulated, in part, by SphK1 and S1PL.

  13. Mobility in excess of 106 cm2/V s in InAs quantum wells grown on lattice mismatched InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatke, A. T.; Wang, T.; Thomas, C.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas residing in strained composite quantum wells of In0.75Ga0.25As/InAs/In0.75Ga0.25As cladded with In0.75Al0.25As barriers grown metamorphically on insulating InP substrates. By optimizing the widths of the In0.75Ga0.25As layers, the In0.75Al0.25As barrier, and the InAs quantum well, we demonstrate mobility in excess of 1 ×106 cm2/V s. Mobility vs. density data indicate that scattering is dominated by a residual three dimensional distribution of charged impurities. We extract the effective Rashba parameter and spin-orbit length for these composite quantum wells.

  14. Observation of double-well potential of NaH C 1Σ+ state: Deriving the dissociation energy of its ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Huang, Hsien-Yu; Whang, Thou-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2018-03-21

    Vibrational levels (v = 6-42) of the NaH C 1 Σ + state including the inner and outer wells and the near-dissociation region were observed by pulsed optical-optical double resonance fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. The absolute vibrational quantum number is identified by comparing the vibrational energy difference of this experiment with the ab initio calculations. The outer well with v up to 34 is analyzed using the Dunham expansion and a Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potential energy curve is constructed. A hybrid double-well potential combined with the RKR potential, the ab initio calculation, and a long-range potential is able to describe the whole NaH C 1 Σ + state including the higher vibrational levels (v = 35-42). The dissociation energy of the NaH C 1 Σ + state is determined to be D e (C) = 6595.10 ± 5 cm -1 and then the dissociation energy of the NaH ground state D e (X) = 15 807.87 ± 5 cm -1 can be derived.

  15. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Hassan, Mahmudul; Sadiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  16. Risk stratification of gallbladder polyps (1-2 cm) for surgical intervention with 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Yun, Mijin; Kim, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Jong-Doo; Kim, Chun K

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the value of (18)F-FDG uptake in the gallbladder polyp (GP) in risk stratification for surgical intervention and the optimal cutoff level of the parameters derived from GP (18)F-FDG uptake for differentiating malignant from benign etiologies in a select, homogeneous group of patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs. Fifty patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs incidentally found on the CT portion of PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had histologic diagnoses. GP (18)F-FDG activity was visually scored positive (≥liver) or negative (L ratio) were also measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the utility of patient and clinical variables--that is, sex, age, gallstone, polyp size, and three (18)F-FDG-related parameters in risk stratification. Twenty GPs were classified as malignant and 30 as benign. Multivariate analyses showed that the age and all parameters (visual criteria, SUVgp, and GP/L) related to (18)F-FDG uptake were significant risk factors, with the GP/L being the most significant. The sex, size of GPs, and presence of concurrent gallstones were found to be insignificant. (18)F-FDG uptake in a GP is a strong risk factor that can be used to determine the necessity of surgical intervention more effectively than other known risk factors. However, all criteria derived from (18)F-FDG uptake presented in this series may be applicable to the assessment of 1- to 2-cm GPs.

  17. Ga2O3 Schottky rectifiers with 1 ampere forward current, 650 V reverse breakdown and 26.5 MW.cm-2 figure-of-merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Ren, F.; Tadjer, Marko; Pearton, S. J.; Kuramata, A.

    2018-05-01

    A key goal for Ga2O3 rectifiers is to achieve high forward currents and high reverse breakdown voltages. Field-plated β-Ga2O3 Schottky rectifiers with area 0.01 cm2, fabricated on 10 μm thick, lightly-doped drift regions (1.33 x 1016 cm-3) on heavily-doped (3.6 x 1018 cm-3) substrates, exhibited forward current density of 100A.cm-2 at 2.1 V, with absolute current of 1 A at this voltage and a reverse breakdown voltage (VB) of 650V. The on-resistance (RON) was 1.58 x 10-2 Ω.cm2, producing a figure of merit (VB2/RON) of 26.5 MW.cm-2. The Schottky barrier height of the Ni was 1.04 eV, with an ideality factor of 1.02. The on/off ratio was in the range 3.3 x 106 - 5.7 x 109 for reverse biases between 5 and 100V. The reverse recovery time was ˜30 ns for switching from +2V to -5V. The results show the capability of β-Ga2O3 rectifiers to achieve exceptional performance in both forward and reverse bias conditions.

  18. A cationic amphiphilic peptide ABP-CM4 exhibits selective cytotoxicity against leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Qing; Min, Cui; Sang, Ming; Han, Yang Yang; Ma, Xiao; Xue, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-08-01

    Some cationic antibacterial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, which could provide a new class of anticancer drugs. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ABP-CM4, an antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori, against leukemic cell lines THP-1, K562 and U937 was evaluated, and the cytotoxicity compared with the effects on non-cancerous mammalian cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HEK-293 and erythrocytes. ABP-CM4 reduced the number of viable cells of the leukemic cell lines after exposure for 24h. The reduction was concentration dependent, and the IC50 values ranged from 14 to 18 microM. Conversely, ABP-CM4, even at 120 microM, exhibited no cytotoxicity toward HEK-293 or PBMCs, indicating that there was no significant effect on these two types of non-cancer cells. ABP-CM4 at a concentration of 200 microM had no hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. Together, these results suggested a selective cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the binding activity of ABP-CM4 to leukemia cells was much higher than that to HEK-293 or PBMCs, and there was almost no binding to erythrocytes. FITC-labeled ABP-CM4 molecules were examined under a confocal microscope and found to be concentrated at the surface of leukemia cells and changes of the cell membrane were determined by a cell permeability assay, which led us to the conclusion that ABP-CM4 could act at the cell membrane for its anticancer activity on leukemia cells. Collectively, our results indicated that ABP-CM4 has the potential for development as a novel antileukemic agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. S1P and the birth of platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, Sylvain; Rafii, Shahin; Nachman, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the multitude of biological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which include roles in hematopoietic cell trafficking, organization of immune organs, vascular development, and neuroinflammation. Indeed, a functional antagonist of S1P1 receptor, FTY720/Gilenya, has entered the clinic as a novel therapeutic for multiple sclerosis. In this issue of the JEM, Zhang et al. highlight yet another function of this lipid mediator: thrombopoiesis. The S1P1 receptor is required for the growth of proplatelet strings in the bloodstream and the shedding of platelets into the circulation. Notably, the sharp gradient of S1P between blood and the interstitial fluids seems to be essential to ensure the production of platelets, and S1P appears to cooperate with the CXCL12–CXCR4 axis. Pharmacologic modulation of the S1P1 receptor altered circulating platelet numbers acutely, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling thrombocytopenic states. However, the S1P4 receptor may also regulate thrombopoiesis during stress-induced accelerated platelet production. This work reveals a novel physiological action of the S1P/S1P1 duet that could potentially be harnessed for clinical translation. PMID:23166370

  20. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senent, M. L.; Puzzarini, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Carvajal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH 3 -S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH 3 -O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH 3 -S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm1 below cis-CH 3 -O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm1 ) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm1 ). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V 3 (cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm1 (CH 3 -S-CHO) and 670.4 cm1 (CH 3 -O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm1 for CH 3 -S-CHO and negligible for CH 3 -O-CHS

  1. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  2. A TV camera system for digitizing single shot oscillograms at sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienlen, M.; Knispel, G.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1976-01-01

    A TV camera digitizing system associated with a 5 GHz photocell-oscilloscope apparatus allows the digitizing of single shot oscillograms; with an oscilloscope sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm an accuracy on time measurements of 4 ps is obtained [fr

  3. Evaluation of 99 S/sub 1/ lines of maize for inbreeding depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, S.; Ahmad, F.; Shah, N.H.; Akhtar, N.

    2010-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the performance of S1 lines for inbreeding depression regarding different parameters, using maize variety Azam. The maize variety was self-pollinated for one generation in spring season and in the next sowing season 99 S1 lines obtained from selfing was sown with a parental line. Days to silking, pollen-shedding, plant height , ear-height, ear-length, ear-diameter, number of ears/row, kernel rows/ear and 100 kernel weight showed inbreeding depression with varying degrees while yield kg/ha showed severe inbreeding depression with an average of 362.08 kg/ha. Average value of inbreeding depression for days to silking and pollen-shedding was calculated as 2.02 and 2.21 days, respectively. Average values of inbreeding depression for plant height and ear-height were recorded as 21.50 cm and 4.87 cm, respectively. While, for earlength, ear-diameter, number of ears/row, kernel rows/ear and 100 grain weight, the average value of inbreeding depression was recorded as 1.80 cm, 0.2 cm, 2.5, 2.11 and 3.89 g, respectively. Grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with plant height, ear height and yield components. Maturity traits were positively and significantly linked with each other. It is concluded that by subjecting the maize to self-pollination nearly all the lines were affected; however, some lines were affected severely and others tolerated inbreeding to some extent. The lines showing tolerance against inbreeding depression was selected for further maize breeding. (author)

  4. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  5. Targeting the S1P/S1PR1 axis mitigates cancer-induced bone pain and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenald, Shaness A; Doyle, Timothy M; Zhang, Hong; Slosky, Lauren M; Chen, Zhoumou; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Spiegel, Sarah; Vanderah, Todd W; Salvemini, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Metastatic bone pain is the single most common form of cancer pain and persists as a result of peripheral and central inflammatory, as well as neuropathic mechanisms. Here, we provide the first characterization of sphingolipid metabolism alterations in the spinal cord occurring during cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Following femoral arthrotomy and syngenic tumor implantation in mice, ceramides decreased with corresponding increases in sphingosine and the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Intriguingly, de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis was increased as shown by the elevations of dihydro-ceramides and dihydro-S1P. We next identified the S1P receptor subtype 1 (S1PR1) as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. Intrathecal or systemic administration of the competitive and functional S1PR1 antagonists, TASP0277308 and FTY720/Fingolimod, respectively, attenuated cancer-induced spontaneous flinching and guarding. Inhibiting CIBP by systemic delivery of FTY720 did not result in antinociceptive tolerance over 7 days. FTY720 administration enhanced IL-10 in the lumbar ipsilateral spinal cord of CIBP animals and intrathecal injection of an IL-10 neutralizing antibody mitigated the ability of systemic FTY720 to reverse CIBP. FTY720 treatment was not associated with alterations in bone metabolism in vivo. Studies here identify a novel mechanism to inhibit bone cancer pain by blocking the actions of the bioactive metabolites S1P and dihydro-S1P in lumbar spinal cord induced by bone cancer and support potential fast-track clinical application of the FDA-approved drug, FTY720, as a therapeutic avenue for CIBP.

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation via S1P receptor 2 in renal mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzke, Anja; Koch, Alexander; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation in renal mesangial cells may provide potential therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory glomerular diseases. Thus, we evaluated the S1P-dependent signaling mechanisms which are responsible for enhanced COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation in rat mesangial cells under basal conditions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these mechanisms are operative in the presence of angiotensin II (Ang II) and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment of rat and human mesangial cells with S1P led to concentration-dependent enhanced expression of COX-2. Pharmacological and molecular biology approaches revealed that the S1P-dependent increase of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was mediated via activation of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2). Further, inhibition of Gi and p42/p44 MAPK signaling, both downstream of S1P2, abolished the S1P-induced COX-2 expression. In addition, S1P/S1P2-dependent upregulation of COX-2 led to significantly elevated PGE2 levels, which were further potentiated in the presence of Ang II and IL-1β. A functional consequence downstream of S1P/S1P2 signaling is mesangial cell migration that is stimulated by S1P. Interestingly, inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib and SC-236 completely abolished the migratory response. Overall, our results demonstrate that extracellular S1P induces COX-2 expression via activation of S1P2 and subsequent Gi and p42/p44 MAPK-dependent signaling in renal mesangial cells leading to enhanced PGE2 formation and cell migration that essentially requires COX-2. Thus, targeting S1P/S1P2 signaling pathways might be a novel strategy to treat renal inflammatory diseases. © 2013.

  7. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  8. Quenching of the resonance 5s({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of krypton atoms in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayarnyi, D A; L' dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    The processes of collision quenching of the resonance 5s[3/2]{sub 1}{sup o}({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of the krypton atom are studied by the absorption probe method in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasmochemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2} + He [(4.21 ± 0.42) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.5 ± 1.2) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(2.21 ± 0.22) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions are refined for krypton in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Validation of HITEMP-2010 for carbon dioxide and water vapour at high temperatures and atmospheric pressures in 450-7600cm-1 spectral range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is validation of HITEMP-2010 at atmospheric pressures and temperatures reaching 1770K. To this end, spectral transmissivities at 1cm-1 resolution and excellent signal-to-noise-ratio have been measured for 22 CO2/H2O/N2 mixtures. In this paper we consider the 450cm-1-7600...

  10. Characteristics of planetary nebulae and H II regions based on lambda = 1. 35 cm continuum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, M A; Jardim, J O; Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia et Astrofisica

    1975-11-01

    Physical parameters are derived and discussed for stronger H II regions and planetary nebulae for which continuum radio data at lambda = 1.35 cm was obtained. The study includes southern hemisphere planetary nebulae IC-418, NGC-6,302, NGC-6,369, and H II regions RCW-65, RCW-87, RCW-99, H 2-3 and H 2-6.

  11. An accelerated line-by-line option for MODTRAN combining on-the-fly generation of line center absorption within 0.1 cm-1 bins and pre-computed line tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Alexander; Conforti, Patrick; Hawes, Fred

    2015-05-01

    A Line-By-Line (LBL) option is being developed for MODTRAN6. The motivation for this development is two-fold. Firstly, when MODTRAN is validated against an independent LBL model, it is difficult to isolate the source of discrepancies. One must verify consistency between pressure, temperature and density profiles, between column density calculations, between continuum and particulate data, between spectral convolution methods, and more. Introducing a LBL option directly within MODTRAN will insure common elements for all calculations other than those used to compute molecular transmittances. The second motivation for the LBL upgrade is that it will enable users to compute high spectral resolution transmittances and radiances for the full range of current MODTRAN applications. In particular, introducing the LBL feature into MODTRAN will enable first-principle calculations of scattered radiances, an option that is often not readily available with LBL models. MODTRAN will compute LBL transmittances within one 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin at a time, marching through the full requested band pass. The LBL algorithm will use the highly accurate, pressure- and temperature-dependent MODTRAN Padé approximant fits of the contribution from line tails to define the absorption from all molecular transitions centered more than 0.05 cm-1 from each 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin. The beauty of this approach is that the on-the-fly computations for each 0.1 cm-1 bin will only require explicit LBL summing of transitions centered within a 0.2 cm-1 spectral region. That is, the contribution from the more distant lines will be pre-computed via the Padé approximants. The status of the LBL effort will be presented. This will include initial thermal and solar radiance calculations, validation calculations, and self-validations of the MODTRAN band model against its own LBL calculations.

  12. Arrest of irradiated G1, S, or G2 cells at mitosis using nocodazole promotes repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, irradiated in G1, S, and G2 phases, to repair potentially lethal damage when arrested at mitosis by using 0.4 μg/ml nocodazole, a specific inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, has been studied. Cells irradiated in these phases were found to repair potentially lethal damage at mitosis. The extent of this repair was similar to that observed for cells irradiated at the same stages in the cell cycle but allowed to repair potentially lethal damage by incubating in balanced salt solution for 6 hr after X irradiation

  13. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, J.; Samnakay, R.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Jiang, C.; Goli, P.; Shur, M. S.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS2 field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS2 channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS2 transistors, are 2 × 1019 eV-1cm-3 and 2.5 × 1020 eV-1cm-3 for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS2 transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS2 and other van der Waals materials.

  14. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Blanding’s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii Potential Habitat Mapping Using Aerial Orthophotographic Imagery and Object Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii is a threatened species under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. In southern Québec, field based inventories are ongoing to determine its abundance and potential habitat. The goal of this research was to develop means for mapping of potential habitat based on primary habitat attributes that can be detected with high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. Using existing spring leaf-off 20 cm resolution aerial orthophotos of a portion of Gatineau Park where some Blanding’s turtle observations had been made, habitat attributes were mapped at two scales: (1 whole wetlands; (2 within wetland habitat features of open water, vegetation (used for camouflage and thermoregulation, and logs (used for spring sun-basking. The processing steps involved initial pixel-based classification to eliminate most areas of non-wetland, followed by object-based segmentations and classifications using a customized rule sequence to refine the wetland map and to map the within wetland habitat features. Variables used as inputs to the classifications were derived from the orthophotos and included image brightness, texture, and segmented object shape and area. Independent validation using field data and visual interpretation showed classification accuracy for all habitat attributes to be generally over 90% with a minimum of 81.5% for the producer’s accuracy of logs. The maps for each attribute were combined to produce a habitat suitability map for Blanding’s turtle. Of the 115 existing turtle observations, 92.3% were closest to a wetland of the two highest suitability classes. High-resolution imagery combined with object-based classification and habitat suitability mapping methods such as those presented provide a much more spatially explicit representation of detailed habitat attributes than can be obtained through field work alone. They can complement field efforts to document and track turtle activities and can contribute to

  16. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 Axis That Links Obesity, Chronic Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Katsuta, Eriko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Hait, Nitai C; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Yuza, Kizuki; Nakajima, Masato; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2018-04-01

    Although obesity with associated inflammation is now recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer and distant metastases, the functional basis for these connections remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in breast cancer patients and in animal breast cancer models, obesity is a sufficient cause for increased expression of the bioactive sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which mediates cancer pathogenesis. A high-fat diet was sufficient to upregulate expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that produces S1P, along with its receptor S1PR1 in syngeneic and spontaneous breast tumors. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis with FTY720/fingolimod attenuated key proinflammatory cytokines, macrophage infiltration, and tumor progression induced by obesity. S1P produced in the lung premetastatic niche by tumor-induced SphK1 increased macrophage recruitment into the lung and induced IL6 and signaling pathways important for lung metastatic colonization. Conversely, FTY720 suppressed IL6, macrophage infiltration, and S1P-mediated signaling pathways in the lung induced by a high-fat diet, and it dramatically reduced formation of metastatic foci. In tumor-bearing mice, FTY720 similarly reduced obesity-related inflammation, S1P signaling, and pulmonary metastasis, thereby prolonging survival. Taken together, our results establish a critical role for circulating S1P produced by tumors and the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis in obesity-related inflammation, formation of lung metastatic niches, and breast cancer metastasis, with potential implications for prevention and treatment. Significance: These findings offer a preclinical proof of concept that signaling by a sphingolipid may be an effective target to prevent obesity-related breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res; 78(7); 1713-25. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The structure factor and the pair potential of liquid rubidium at temperatures between 450 K and 1,400 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block de Priego, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The structure factor S(Q) of liquid rubidium has been measured for temperatures between 450 K and 1400 K and pressures up to 200 atm. The corresponding densities varied between 1.42 and 0.98 g cm -3 . The incident energy of the neutrons was 3.4 MeV, the momentum transfer Q being 0.2 - 2.5 A -1 . A significant change in the order of the liquid has been registrated. Compressibility and electrical conductivity were derived from the structure factors and compared with the direct measured quantities, showing a good agreement. Further interpretation of the data was done by means of a hard core and a square well potential. Using these models it was already possible to get some information about the interactions between the rubidium atoms. A more exact calculation with a modified STLS model and a pseudopotential leads to a good description of the measured S(Q). In order to describe at high temperatures S(Q) for smaller values a new term had to be added to the pseudopotential. (orig.) [de

  18. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  19. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Puzzarini, C., E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Domínguez-Gómez, R., E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M., E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH{sub 3}-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm{sup −1} below cis-CH{sub 3}-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm{sup −1}) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm{sup −1}). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V{sub 3}(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}-S-CHO and negligible for CH{sub 3}-O-CHS.

  20. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. S1P in HDL promotes interaction between SR-BI and S1PR1 and activates S1PR1-mediated biological functions: calcium flux and S1PR1 internalization[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Appleton, Kathryn M.; El-Shewy, Hesham M.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Thomas, Michael J.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Luttrell, Louis M.; Hammad, Samar M.; Klein, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    HDL normally transports about 50–70% of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the S1P in HDL reportedly mediates several HDL-associated biological effects and signaling pathways. The HDL receptor, SR-BI, as well as the cell surface receptors for S1P (S1PRs) may be involved partially and/or completely in these HDL-induced processes. Here we investigate the nature of the HDL-stimulated interaction between the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and S1PR1 using a protein-fragment complementation assay and confocal microscopy. In both primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells, the S1P content in HDL particles increased intracellular calcium concentration, which was mediated by S1PR1. Mechanistic studies performed in HEK293 cells showed that incubation of cells with HDL led to an increase in the physical interaction between the SR-BI and S1PR1 receptors that mainly occurred on the plasma membrane. Model recombinant HDL (rHDL) particles formed in vitro with S1P incorporated into the particle initiated the internalization of S1PR1, whereas rHDL without supplemented S1P did not, suggesting that S1P transported in HDL can selectively activate S1PR1. In conclusion, these data suggest that S1P in HDL stimulates the transient interaction between SR-BI and S1PRs that can activate S1PRs and induce an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration. PMID:27881715

  2. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines.

  3. Structures and potential energy functions of Pu3 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Daqiao; Jiang Gang; Liu Xiaoya; Luo Deli; Zhu Zhenghe

    2001-01-01

    Density functional (B3LYP) method with relativistic effective core potential (RECP) has been used to optimize the structures of Pu 2 and Pu 3 molecules. The results show that the ground states of Pu 2 and Pu 3 molecules are of D ∞h and D 3h symmetry, and of 13 and 19 fold, respectively. The spectral constants of Pu 2 , ω e = 52.3845 cm -1 and ω e x e = 0.0201 cm -1 , and the harmonic frequencies of Pu 3 , ν 1 = 56.9007 cm -1 , ν 2 = 57.1816 cm - '1 and ν 3 = 64.0785 cm -1 , have also been obtained on the B3LYP/RECP level. The potential energy functions of Pu 2 and Pu 3 have been derived, for the first time so far as known, from normal equation fitting and the many-body expansion theory

  4. Laser-induced flourescence studies of Cm3+ complexes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    Photophysical studies of complexed Cm 3 + in solution have been carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence method. The luminescence decay rate of the first excited J=7/2 state of Cm 3 + was measured using carbonate, nitrate, and two extractant aminocarboxylic acids as complexing ligands in aqueous solution. Cm(ClO 4 ) 3 dissolved in methyl sulfoxide also was studied. Solvent deuteration provided insight into the dominant nonradiative luminescence quenching mechanism which was found to be electronic-to- vibrational energy transfer. Emission spectra of Cm 3 + complexed by the various ligands studied are reported. Prior spectroscopic and photophysical studies of Cm 3 + in solution are reviewed. 24 refs. , 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6noise, to uncertainties in the reionization history, and to the level of contamination from astrophysical foregrounds. We derive simple analytic estimates for how various assumptions affect an experiment’s sensitivity, and we find that the modeling of reionization is the most important, followed by the array layout. We present an accurate yet robust method for measuring cosmological parameters that exploits the fact that the ionization power spectra are rather smooth functions that can be accurately fit by 7 phenomenological parameters. We find that for future experiments, marginalizing over these nuisance parameters may provide constraints almost as tight on the cosmology as if 21 cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  6. Non-compliance in surveillance for patients with previous resection of large (≥1 cm) colorectal adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang M Brueckl; Berit Fritsche; Brigitte Seifert; Frank Boxberger; Heinz Albrecht; Roland S Croner; Axel Wein; Eckhart G Hahn

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the extent and reasons of noncompliance in surveillance for patients undergoing polypectomy of large (≥ 1 cm) colorectal adenomas.METHODS: Between 1995 and 2002, colorectal adenomas ≥ 1 cm were diagnosed in 210 patients and subsequently documented at the Erlangen Registry of Colorectal Polyps. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (75.2%) could be contacted by telephone and agreed to be interviewed. Additionally, records were obtained from the treating physicians.RESULTS: Fifty-four out of 158 patients (34.2%)neglected any surveillance. Reasons for non-compliance included lack of knowledge concerning surveillance intervals (45.8%), no symptoms (29.2%), fear of examination (18.8%) or old age/severe illness (6.3%).In a multivariate analysis, the factors including female gender (P = 0.036) and age ≥ 62 years (P = 0.016)proved to be significantly associated with non-compliance in surveillance.CONCLUSION: Efforts to increase compliance in surveillance are of utmost importance, This applies particularly to women's compliance. Effective strategies for avoiding metachronous colorectal adenoma and cancer should focus on both the improvement in awareness and knowledge of patients and information about physicians for surveillance.

  7. The Mukundpura meteorite, a new fall of CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.

    2018-02-01

    Mukundpura is a new CM chondrite fell near Jaipur, Rajasthan, India on June 6, 2017 at 5:15 IST. The fall was observed by local villager. According to eyewitness, the meteorite was fragmented into several pieces once the object hit the ground. Based on petrography, mineralogy and bulk composition, Mukundpura is classified as CM2 chondrite. The chondrules are mainly similar to type I (Olivine: Fo99). Olivines are often found associated with pyroxene (Wo10-35En62-87Fs2-7) phenocryst. However, occurrences of forsteritic and fayalitic olivine (Fa58-71) as isolated mineral clast in matrix are not uncommon. Other types of chondrules include porphyritic pyroxene (En86Fs14) and barred olivine (Fa32.7±0.3) clast. Chondrules are commonly rimmed by fine-grained accretionary dust mantles. Phyllosilicates are the most dominant secondary mineral in matrix and largely associated with poorly characterised phases (PCP). FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 of PCP are 2.7 and 0.4 respectively. Other phases in matrix generally include calcite (pure CaCO3), Fe-Ni metal and sulphides. Spinel and perovskite occur occasionally as inclusions. The spherical or elliptical shaped metals (within chondrule or in isolated grains) are low-Ni type (kamacite <7.5 wt%) and resembles the solar Ni/Co ratio. However, Ni content in metal rarely exceeds 8.5 wt% (up to 23 wt%, taenite). Pyrrhotite (Fe ∼62 wt%; S ∼38 wt%) and pentlandite (Fe ∼31-33 wt%, Ni ∼28-32 wt%, S ∼33 wt%)) are the common sulphides occur as isolated grains within the matrix, however, the former is the most dominant. The bulk chemical composition of Mukundpura is largely similar to other CM type chondrite (e.g. Paris CM). Based on petrography, we infer a modest aqueous alteration stage for Mukundpura while the effect of thermal metamorphism was negligible.

  8. BIOLOGY AND CPUE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ESCOLAR Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843 IN EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN (EVOLVING FISHERIES: TODAY’S BY-CATCH IS TOMORROW’S TARGET CATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of by catch is a significant problem in world fishery. Every commercial fishery such as tuna longline has a suite of bycatch species, escolar fish (LEC. LEC as by catch product has received a little attention because of its lower economic value and given its importance as a secondary market. With time, however, market can become establish for this presently undesirable species. Acknowledging that today’s by catch might become tomorrow’s target fish. The aims of this study areto provide information on biological aspect and catch per unit of effort (CPUE spatial distribution of escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum as by catch in Indonesian longline fishery operating in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Total escolar samples of 1,815 were taken from scientific observer data from 2011-2013. The study area of escolar was between 0.897-33.175°S and 85.366– 138.733°E of Eastern Indian Ocean. Results show that the escolar length (cmFL is distributed from 27-178 cmFL (median=83 cmFL, mode=85 cmFL, mean=83.95 cmFL and n= 1.812 and dominated by the size of 85 cmFL. The length weight relationship was determined to be W=0.0002FL2.2926(W in kg, FL in cm. In terms of CPUEs distribution, the lower CPUEs(1.0001 to 7.382 generally occurred in Western Australian, precisely on grid between 10-35°S and 85-110°E. These grids would be a potential for fishing LEC with the best time to catch in June to August.

  9. Operation of low-noise single-gap RPC modules exposed to ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Górski, M; Królikowski, J; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.123

    2004-01-01

    Two single gap medium-size RPC modules, made of bakelite plates of very good mechanical quality of the surface and having initial volume resistivity of 1 multiplied by 10**1**0 omegacm, were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN at ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm **3. The internal surfaces facing the gas volume of one RPC module were cladded with a thin layer of linseed oil varnish for comparison of oiled and non-oiled RPC operation. The results refer to the gas mixture of C//2H//2F //4/isobutane (97:3) with SF//6 addition below 1%. The single gap modules exhibited full detection efficiency plateau for the high voltage range of about 1 kV at full intensity of gamma rays. Good timing characteristics allowed to reach 95% efficiency at fully opened irradiation source with time window of 20 ns. The intrinsic noise rate for a non-oiled and an oiled RPC gap was, respectively, below 5 and 1 Hz/cm**2 at full efficiency over 1 k V voltage range.

  10. High-redshift post-reionization cosmology with 21cm intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuljen, Andrej; Castorina, Emanuele; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of performing cosmological studies in the redshift range 2.5place on the growth rate, the BAO distance scale parameters, the sum of the neutrino masses and the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at decoupling, N eff. We point out that quantities that depend on the amplitude of the 21cm power spectrum, like fσ8, are completely degenerate with ΩHI and bHI, and propose several strategies to independently constrain them through cross-correlations with other probes. Assuming 5% priors on ΩHI and bHI, kmax=0.2 h Mpc‑1 and the primary beam wedge, we find that a HIRAX extension can constrain, within bins of Δ z=0.1: 1) the value of fσ8 at simeq4%, 2) the value of DA and H at simeq1%. In combination with data from Euclid-like galaxy surveys and CMB S4, the sum of the neutrino masses can be constrained with an error equal to 23 meV (1σ), while Neff can be constrained within 0.02 (1σ). We derive similar constraints for the extensions of the other instruments. We study in detail the dependence of our results on the instrument, amplitude of the HI bias, the foreground wedge coverage, the nonlinear scale used in the analysis, uncertainties in the theoretical modeling and the priors on bHI and Ω HI. We conclude that 21cm intensity mapping surveys operating in this redshift range can provide extremely competitive constraints on key cosmological parameters.

  11. TeV γ-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with H.E.S.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-06-01

    The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE γ-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov Telescope Array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analysed in the context of the multiwavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant γ-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99 per cent confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index Γ = 2.5 were set at 5.6 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to BG1.9 ≳ 12 μG for G1.9+0.3 and to BG330 ≳ 8 μG for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

  12. Determination of Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Am and Cm in environmental, liquid and gaseous effluent samples was developed. It is based on extraction chromatography with subsequent anion and cation exchange to remove matrix elements and to purify Am and Cm, which are then electrode posited from an oxalate/HCl medium. The mean value of the chemical yield is about 90%. A detection limit of 7 μBq/g is achieved. The decontamination factors for important α emitters are > 10 4 . Four analyses/week can be performed by one technician. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Outburst of the 2 s Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Reynolds, J.; Ransom, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Following our discovery of radio pulsations from the newly recognized anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 1547.0-5408, we initiated X-ray monitoring with the Swift X-ray telescope and obtained a single target-of-opportunity observation with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). In comparison with its historic minimum flux of 3 x 10(exp -l3)ergs/sq cm/s, the source was found to be in a record high state, f(sub x)(1-8 keV) = 5 x 10(exp -12)ergs/sq cm/s, or L(sub x) = 1.7 x 10(exp 35)(d/9 kpc )(sup 2)ergs/s, and declining by 25% in 1 month. Extrapolating the decay, we bound the total energy in this outburst to 1042 ergs pulsar, which may indicate a nearly aligned rotator. As also inferred from the transient behavior of XTE J18 10-197, the only other AXP known to emit in the radio, the magnetic field rearrangement responsible for this X-ray outburst of 1E 1547.0-5408 is probably the cause of its radio turn-on.

  14. Coupling of Community Land Model with RegCM4 for Indian Summer Monsoon Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, R. K. S.; Sinha, P.; Mohanty, M. R.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2017-11-01

    Three land surface schemes available in the regional climate model RegCM4 have been examined to understand the coupling between land and atmosphere for simulation of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM4 is coupled with biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Land Model versions 3.5, and 4.5 (CLM3.5 and CLM4.5, respectively) and model performance is evaluated for recent drought (2009) and normal (2011) monsoon years. The CLM4.5 has a more distinct category of surface and it is capable of representing better the land surface characteristics. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis version 2 (NNRP2) datasets are considered as driving force to conduct the experiments for the Indian monsoon region (30°E-120°E; 30°S-50°N). The NNRP2 and India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation data are used for verification analysis. The results indicate that RegCM4 simulations with CLM4.5 (RegCM4-CLM4.5) and CLM3.5 (RegCM4-CLM3.5) surface temperature (at 2 ms) have very low warm biases ( 1 °C), while with BATS (RegCM4-BATS) has a cold bias of about 1-3 °C in peninsular India and some parts of central India. Warm bias in the RegCM4-BATS is observed over the Indo-Gangetic plain and northwest India and the bias is more for the deficit year as compared to the normal year. However, the warm (cold) bias is less in RegCM4-CLM4.5 than other schemes for both the deficit and normal years. The model-simulated maximum (minimum) surface temperature and sensible heat flux at the surface are positively (negatively) biased in all the schemes; however, the bias is higher in RegCM4-BATS and lower in RegCM4-CLM4.5 over India. All the land surface schemes overestimated the precipitation in peninsular India and underestimated in central parts of India for both the years; however, the biases are less in RegCM4-CLM4.5 and more in RegCM4-CLM3.5 and RegCM

  15. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Goli, P.; Balandin, A. A.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS 2 field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS 2 channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS 2 transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS 2 transistors, are 2 × 10 19  eV −1 cm −3 and 2.5 × 10 20  eV −1 cm −3 for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS 2 transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS 2 and other van der Waals materials

  16. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gianotti, F.; Virdee, T.; Abdullin, S.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.; Barberis, D.; Belyaev, A.; Bloch, P.; Bosman, M.; Casagrande, L.; Cavalli, D.; Chumney, Pamela R.K.; Cittolin, S.; Dasu, S.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Fournier, D.; Hansen, J.B.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Jakobs, K.; Joram, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mikenberg, G.; Miagkov, A.; Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikitenko, A.; Nisati, A.; Paige, F.; Palestini, S.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Polesello, G.; Richter-Was, E.; Sharp, P.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Smith, W.H.; Stapnes, S.; Tonelli, G.; Tsesmelis, E.; Usubov, Z.; Vacavant, L.; van der Bij, J.; Watson, A.; Wielers, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 10**35 cm-2s-1. The detector R&D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes

  17. A 4Σ1/2-X2Π1/2 transition in the electronic spectrum of the CuS molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Y.; Delaval, J.M.; Schamps, J.

    1991-01-01

    The (0-0) band of a new 4 Σ 1/2 -X 2 Π 1/2 transition has been observed in the hollow cathode emission spectra of the CuS molecule. Rotational analysis provides the following molecular constants (in cm -1 ) for the D 4 Σ 1/2 state: T 0 = 23112.88; B 0 = 0.17453; p 0 = 0.858; p 0j = 3.3x10 -6 ; D 0 = 0.11x10 -6 . Pulsed dye laser fluorescence experiments confirm the general diagram of the observed CuS electronic states. (orig.)

  18. Characterizing transport current defects in 1-cm-wide YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-delta] coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Coulter, J. Y. (James Y.); Dowden, P. C. (Paul C.); Arendt, P. N. (Paul N.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Mueller, F. M. (Fred M.)

    2001-01-01

    We have used a low temperature magnetic imaging system to determine current pathways in 5 cm long 'good' and 'bad' regions of a 1-cm-wide YBa2Cu3O7-{delta} coated conductor. The good and bad regions were identified with 4 point probe measurements taken at 1 cm intervals along the tape length. The current density map from the good region showed the expected edge peaked structure, similar to that seen in previous work on high quality test samples grown on single crystal substrates. The structure was also consistent with theoretical understanding of thin film superconductors where demagnetizing effects are strong. The maps from the bad region showed that the current was primarily confined to the right half of the sample. The left half carried only a small current that reached saturation quickly. Effectively halving the sample width quantitatively explains the critical current measured in that section. Spatially resolved xray analysis with 1 mm resolution was used to further characterize the bad section and suggested an abnormally large amount of a-axis YBCO present. This may be the result of non-uniform heating leading to a low deposition temperature in that area.

  19. Real-time detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in THP-1 macrophages during ultrasonic irradiation for optimal sonodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Xu, Haobo; Shen, Jing; Guo, Shuyuan; Shi, Sa; Dan, Juhua; Tian, Fang; Tian, Yanfeng; Tian, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss have been proven recently to be involved in sonodynamic therapy (SDT)-induced macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. This study aims to develop an experimental system to monitor intracellular ROS and MMP in real-time during ultrasonic irradiation in order to achieve optimal effect in SDT. Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and then sonicated at different intensities. Intracellular ROS elevation and MMP loss were detected in real-time by fluorospectrophotometer using fluorescence probe DCFH-DA and jc-1, respectively. Ultrasound at low intensities (less than 0.48W/cm(2)) had no influence on ROS and MMP in macrophages, whereas at an intensity of 0.48W/cm(2), ROS elevation and MMP loss were observed during ultrasonic irradiation. These effects were strongly enhanced in the presence of ALA. Quantitative analysis showed that ROS elevation and MMP loss monotonically increased with the rise of ultrasonic intensity between 0.48 and 1.16W/cm(2). SDT at 0.48 and 0.84W/cm(2) induced mainly apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages while SDT at 1.16W/cm(2) mainly cell necrosis. This study supports the validity and potential utility of real-time ROS and MMP detection as a dosimetric tool for the determination of optimal SDT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical 21-cm Signal Separation via Gaussian Process Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, F. G.; Ghosh, A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-05-01

    Detecting and characterizing the Epoch of Reionization and Cosmic Dawn via the redshifted 21-cm hyperfine line of neutral hydrogen will revolutionize the study of the formation of the first stars, galaxies, black holes and intergalactic gas in the infant Universe. The wealth of information encoded in this signal is, however, buried under foregrounds that are many orders of magnitude brighter. These must be removed accurately and precisely in order to reveal the feeble 21-cm signal. This requires not only the modeling of the Galactic and extra-galactic emission, but also of the often stochastic residuals due to imperfect calibration of the data caused by ionospheric and instrumental distortions. To stochastically model these effects, we introduce a new method based on `Gaussian Process Regression' (GPR) which is able to statistically separate the 21-cm signal from most of the foregrounds and other contaminants. Using simulated LOFAR-EoR data that include strong instrumental mode-mixing, we show that this method is capable of recovering the 21-cm signal power spectrum across the entire range k = 0.07 - 0.3 {h cMpc^{-1}}. The GPR method is most optimal, having minimal and controllable impact on the 21-cm signal, when the foregrounds are correlated on frequency scales ≳ 3 MHz and the rms of the signal has σ21cm ≳ 0.1 σnoise. This signal separation improves the 21-cm power-spectrum sensitivity by a factor ≳ 3 compared to foreground avoidance strategies and enables the sensitivity of current and future 21-cm instruments such as the Square Kilometre Array to be fully exploited.

  1. Oncogenic S1P signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma activates AKT and promotes cell migration through S1P receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Min; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wei, Wenbin; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chung, Grace Tin Yun; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Dawson, Christopher W; Murray, Paul G; Paterson, Ian C; Yap, Lee Fah

    2017-05-01

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with high metastatic potential that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. We show that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded latent genes (EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2A) can up-regulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the key enzyme that produces S1P, in NPC cell lines. Exogenous addition of S1P promotes the migration of NPC cells through the activation of AKT; shRNA knockdown of SPHK1 resulted in a reduction in the levels of activated AKT and inhibition of cell migration. We also show that S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) mRNA is overexpressed in EBV-positive NPC patient-derived xenografts and a subset of primary NPC tissues, and that knockdown of S1PR3 suppressed the activation of AKT and the S1P-induced migration of NPC cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of S1P in NPC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of D212CO in the 2500-4500 cm-1 region and the first rovibrational analysis of its v2 = 2 state

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'dawiah, Rabia'tul; Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.

    2018-03-01

    A low-resolution (0.5 cm-1) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of formaldehyde-d2 (D212CO) in the 2500-4500 cm-1 region was recorded to study the combination bands in this region. The bands ν2 +ν4,ν2 +ν6 , ν2 +ν3 , ν1 +ν2 , ν2 +ν5 , 3ν3 , 2ν2 and 2ν5 were identified and their band centers (with an uncertainty of ± 0.1 cm-1) and band types were determined. Furthermore, the high-resolution FTIR spectrum of the 2ν2 overtone band (3315-3440 cm-1) of D212CO was recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 and its infrared lines were analyzed. A total of 970 rovibrational transitions have been assigned and fitted up to J‧ = 35 and Ka‧ = 14 using the Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation. Upper state (v2 = 2) rovibrational constants inclusive of three rotational and five quartic centrifugal distortion constants were accurately determined for the first time. The band center of the 2ν2 band was determined as 3385.200666 ± 0.000035 cm-1. The rms deviation of the rovibrational fit was 0.00093 cm-1. From the fitting of 451 ground state combination differences (GSCDs) of D212CO which were derived from the infrared transitions of the 2ν2 band of this work, together with 360 microwave frequencies from a previous study, new and accurate ground state constants of D212CO up to three octic terms were obtained. The combination and overtone bands and the newly assigned high-resolution infrared lines of the 2ν2 band in the 2500-4500 cm-1 region can be used to detect D212CO in this infrared region. In addition, the results derived from this study give information on the rovibrational molecular structure of D212CO.

  3. Superstring field theories on super-flag manifolds: superdiff S1/S1 and superdiff S1/super S1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhiyong; Wu, Ke; Saito, Takesi

    1987-01-01

    We generalize the geometric approach of Bowick and Rajeev [BR] to superstring field theories. The anomaly is identified with nonvanishing of the Ricci curvature of the super-flag manifold. We explicitly calculate the curvatures of superdiff S 1 /S 1 and superdiff S 1 /superS 1 using super-Toeplitz operator techniques. No regularization is needed in this formalism. The critical dimension D=10 is rediscovered as a result of vanishing curvature of the product bundle over the super-flag manifold. (orig.)

  4. Relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth in geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 幸雄

    2009-01-01

    Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...

  5. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  6. Previsões climáticas sazonais sobre o Brasil: avaliação do RegCM3 aninhado no modelo global CPTEC/COLA Seasonal climatic forecast over Brazil: evaluation of the RegCM3 model nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinei Dorneles Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia o desempenho de previsões sazonais do modelo climático regional RegCM3, aninhado ao modelo global CPTEC/COLA. As previsões com o RegCM3 utilizaram 60 km de resolução horizontal num domínio que inclui grande parte da América do Sul. As previsões do RegCM3 e CPTEC/COLA foram avaliadas utilizando as análises de chuva e temperatura do ar do Climate Prediction Center (CPC e National Centers for Enviromental Prediction (NCEP, respectivamente. Entre maio de 2005 e julho de 2007, 27 previsões sazonais de chuva e temperatura do ar (exceto a temperatura do CPTEC/COLA, que possui 26 previsões foram avaliadas em três regiões do Brasil: Nordeste (NDE, Sudeste (SDE e Sul (SUL. As previsões do RegCM3 também foram comparadas com as climatologias das análises. De acordo com os índices estatísticos (bias, coeficiente de correlação, raiz quadrada do erro médio quadrático e coeficiente de eficiência, nas três regiões (NDE, SDE e SUL a chuva sazonal prevista pelo RegCM3 é mais próxima da observada do que a prevista pelo CPTEC/COLA. Além disto, o RegCM3 também é melhor previsor da chuva sazonal do que da média das observações nas três regiões. Para temperatura, as previsões do RegCM3 são superiores às do CPTEC/COLA nas áreas NDE e SUL, enquanto o CPTEC/COLA é superior no SDE. Finalmente, as previsões de chuva e temperatura do RegCM3 são mais próximas das observações do que a climatologia observada. Estes resultados indicam o potencial de utilização do RegCM3 para previsão sazonal, que futuramente deverá ser explorado através de previsão por conjunto.This study presents an assessment of seasonal forecasts from the regional climate model RegCM3 nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model. The used RegCM3 version is 60 km horizontal resolution over an area that includes large part of South America. RegCM3 and CPTEC/COLA forecasts were evaluated using the rainfall and air temperature analyses from Climate

  7. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and

  8. Amide or amine: determining the origin of the 3300 cm(-1) NH mode in protein SFG spectra using 15N isotope labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Tobias; Breen, Nicholas F; Drobny, Gary P; Castner, David G

    2009-11-26

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been employed in biomaterials research and protein adsorption studies with growing success in recent years. A number of studies focusing on understanding SFG spectra of proteins and peptides at different interfaces have laid the foundation for future, more complex studies. In many cases, a strong NH mode near 3300 cm(-1) is observed in the SFG spectra, but the relationship of this mode to the peptide structure is uncertain, since it has been assigned to either a backbone amide mode or a side chain related amine resonance. A thorough understanding of the SFG spectra of these first model systems is an important first step for future experiments. To clarify the origin of the NH SFG mode, we studied (15)N isotopically labeled 14-amino acid amphiphilic model peptides composed of lysine (K) and leucine (L) in an alpha-helical secondary structure (LKalpha14) that were adsorbed onto charged surfaces in situ at the solid-liquid interface. (15)N substitution at the terminal amine group of the lysine side chains resulted in a red-shift of the NH mode of 9 cm(-1) on SiO(2) and 13 cm(-1) on CaF(2). This clearly shows the 3300 cm(-1) NH feature is associated with side chain NH stretches and not with backbone amide modes.

  9. Rational choice of a minimally invasive method of treatment in uncomplicated nephrolithiasis with kidney calculi from 1.0 to 2.5 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. І. Sagalevich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Study purpose – to improve the solitary nephrolithiasis treatment effectiveness by determining the optimal conditions for ESWL or mini PNL application in the treatment of kidney calculi 1.0 to2.5 cm in size. Patients and methods. A comparative analysis of the results of minimally invasive methods application for nephrolithiasis treatment was performed in 210 patients treated with mini PNL (the group I and 190 patients treated with ESWL (the group II. Patients with calculi more than 1.5 cm predominated in the group of mini PNL and with calculi less than 1.5 cm – in the ESWL group. The number of patients with calculi 1.5–2.0 cm in both groups was the same: 24.3 % and 24.2 % (P > 0.05. Results. It was noted that the calculi destruction effectiveness after 1–4 or more sessions of ESWL took place in 182 patients (95.8 %. At the same time, an increase in the mean density of calculi above 600 HU caused reduction (P < 0.001 of the primary ESWL session efficiency almost twofold. When performing the 221 mPNL, 97.1 % of the patients required one surgical treatment. The number of complications (bleeding, attack of pyelonephritis in the group II was insignificantly higher in contrast to the group I – 26 (12.3 % and 45 (14.1 %, respectively (P < 0.05. The stone-free status (up to one month was noted in 62.6 % of patients after the completion of ESWL sessions that increases the risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence from 37.4 %. In treatment with mPNL, the stone-free status reached 97.1 % (P < 0.001, and in repeated mPNL applying in 2.8 % of cases – 100 %. The mean clinic postoperative treatment periods in the group I were lower in contrast to patients of the group II – 3.0 ± 1.5 and 12.5 ± 3.6, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusions. This comparative analysis of features and results of uncomplicated nephrolithiasis with mPNL and ESWL treatment indicates that mPNL is the most preferred method for kidney calculi 1.0 to2.5 cm and more in size treatment.

  10. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, F.; Ball, A.; Bloch, P.; Casagrande, L.; Cittolin, S.; Roeck, A. de; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Hansen, J.-B. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Mangano, M.L. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Virdee, T. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Abdullin, S. [University of Maryland (United States); Azuelos, G. [University of Montreal, Group of Particle Physics, Montreal (Canada); Barberis, D. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Belyaev, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Bosman, M. [IFAE, Barcelona (Spain); Cavalli, D. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Chumney, P.; Dasu, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fournier, D. [LAL, Orsay (France); Hinchliffe, I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Jakobs, K.; Joram, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mikenberg, G.; Miagkov, A.; Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikitenko, A.; Nisati, A.; Paige, F.; Palestini, S.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Polesello, G.; Richter-Was, E.; Sharp, P.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Smith, W.H.; Stapnes, S.; Tonelli, G.; Tsesmelis, E.; Usubov, Z.; Vacavant, L.; Bij, J. van der; Watson, A.; Wielers, M.

    2004-02-01

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The detector R and D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes. (orig.)

  11. Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Ct-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Very Small (≤1.5 cm) Liver Tumors: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Alberti, Nicolas, E-mail: nicoalbertibdx@gmail.com; Fonck, Mariane, E-mail: m.fonk@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France); Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it [Università “Campus Bio-Medico di Roma”, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Palussière, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the technical feasibility of flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very small (<1.5 cm) liver tumors.Materials and MethodsPatients included were candidates for hepatic percutaneous RFA as they had single biopsy-proven hepatic tumors sized ≤1.5 cm and poorly defined on ultrasonography. Following apnea induction, unenhanced CBCT scans were acquired and used to deploy the RF electrode with the aid of a virtual navigation system. If the tumor was not clearly identified on the unenhanced CBCT scan, a right retrograde arterial femoral access was established to carry out hepatic angiography and localize the tumor. Patients’ lesions and procedural variables were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThree patients (2 male and 1 female), aged 68, 76, and 87 years were included; 3 lesions (2 hepato-cellular carcinoma and 1 metastasis from colorectal cancer) were treated. One patient required hepatic angiography. Cycles of apnea used to acquire CBCT images and to deploy the electrode lasted <120 s. Mean fluoroscopic time needed to deploy the electrode was 36.6 ± 5.7 min. Mean overall procedural time was 66.0 ± 22.9 min. No peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. No cases of incomplete ablation were noted at 1-month follow-up.ConclusionPercutaneous CBCT-guided liver RFA with or without arterial hepatic angiography is technically feasible.

  12. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter [AMAD]; sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans

  13. Isotope shift of the 590-cm-1 Raman feature in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K. C.; Wang, N. L.; Irwin, J. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Pantoja, A. E.; Trodahl, H. J.

    1999-10-01

    Raman-scattering studies have been performed on underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. In single crystals underdoped by oxygen removal, a 590-cm-1 peak is observed in the B1g spectrum. The feature is observed to soften in frequency by 3.8% with isotopic exchange of 16O by 18O. In contrast, the 590-cm-1 peak is not observed in crystals underdoped by Y substitution which suggests that it is a vibrational mode activated by oxygen deficency. We have also found that underdoping leads to a depletion of low-energy spectral weight from regions of the Fermi surface located near the Brillouin-zone axes.

  14. CM : becoming a technology firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Dolmans, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Founded in 2000 as a Short Message Service (SMS) marketing company for discos (clubs), CM evolved into a technology provider for SMS services. By 2008, CM was market leader in The Netherlands, a position won by offering high quality services at low prices. In 2010, the founders of the company were

  15. ICLAS of water in the 770 nm transparency window (12 746-13 558 cm-1). Comparison with current experimental and calculated databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S.; Liu, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of water vapor has been investigated by intracavity laser spectroscopy (ICLAS) in the 12 746-13 558 cm -1 spectral region corresponding to an interesting transparency window of the atmosphere, partly obscured by the A band of molecular oxygen. The achieved sensitivity-in the order of α min ∼10 -9 cm -1 -has allowed one to measure 1062 water lines with intensities ranging from 1.6x10 -28 to 2.35x10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K. A total of 169 new and improved energy levels belonging to 21 vibrational states could be determined from 374 newly measured transitions. The retrieved experimental line list is compared with the spectra calculated by Schwenke and Partridge, and Barber and Tennyson. Comparison with the available experimental databases shows that the obtained results represent a significant improvement of the knowledge of the water absorption in the considered region, in particular in the region of the oxygen A band

  16. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the sun and the earth atmosphere from space. A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm-1 (2.3 to 16 microns). Volume 2: Stratosphere and mesosphere, 650 to 3350 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 to May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated for the first time, as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The principal purpose of this experiment was to study the distributions of the atmosphere's minor and trace molecular constituents. The instrument, a modified Michelson interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm-1 at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm-1, recorded infrared absorption spectra of the sun and of the earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the earth's limb. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., they are pure solar spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas presents a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes. Volume 2 covers the stratosphere and mesosphere (i.e., tangent altitudes from 20 to 80 km) for frequencies from 650 to 3350/cm-1.

  17. Tochilinite: A Sensitive Indicator of Alteration Conditions on the CM Asteroidal Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L. B.; Bourcier, W. L.

    1996-03-01

    Each CM chondrite experienced a different degree of aqueous alteration. As a group, then, these meteorites preserve tangible evidence of asteroidal reactions that were interrupted at many different stages of completion. Geochemical modeling of CM reaction progress should elucidate the nature of the accreted CM materials and the specific types of asteroidal processes and conditions that subsequently influenced them. However, most of the minerals in CM chondrites are stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, which hinders efforts to capitalize on the diverse degree of CM alteration. Petrologic evidence suggests that Fe-rich tochilinite, the widespread mineralic component of CM chondrites previously referred to as "poorly characterized phase (PCP)", may be the most sensitive indicator of the conditions of CM alteration. This possibility has not previously been explored because thermodynamic data for tochilinite are lacking. We have estimated the thermodynamic properties of tochilinite from mixing equations and then calculated its stability limits with associated non-silicate phases as a function of PS2, PO2, and PCO2. The resultant phase relations : a) are consistent with mineral association in CM chondrites, b) indicate that the CM fluids were S-depleted and extremely reducing, c) imply the possibility of H2 gas seeps on the CM parent body, and d) suggest that the alteration of CM materials occurred at significant asteroidal depths.

  18. Curvature of super Diff(S1)/S1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, P.; Ramond, P.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Bowick and Rajeev, we calculate the curvature of the infinite-dimensional flag manifolds Diff(S 1 )/S 1 and Super Diff(S 1 )/S 1 using standard finite-dimensional coset space techniques. We regularize the infinite by ζ-function regularization and recover the conformal and superconformal anomalies respectively for a specific choice of the torsion. (orig.)

  19. Kr and Xe isotopes from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and 250Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1980-01-01

    Relative yields of Kr and Xe isotopes from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 250 Cf have been determined mass spectrometrically. The yields are as follows: 83 Kr/ 84 Kr/ 85 Kr/ 86 Kr = 0.223/0.458/0.596/ identical 1.00 and 0.306/0.582/0.793/ identical 1.00; 131 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 136 Xe = 0.486/0.819/1.075 identical 1.00 and 0.343/0.506/0.851/ identical 1.00 from 248 Cm and 250 Cf, respectively. The Xe yields from 248 Cm agree with an earlier determination by Leich et al. Neither of these yield patterns matches that of fissiogenic Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites and hence 248 Cm and 250 Cf are ruled out as progenitors of the meteoritic Kr and Xe. In general, none of the spontaneously fissioning nuclides of actinide elements can be identified as a possible progenitor. Even the mixtures of actinides, including a combination of 248 Cm and 250 Cm, are unsuitable. The origin of anomalous Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites must then be traced either to the spontaneous fission of a superheavy element or to peculiarities in specific nucleosynthetic reactions. (orig.)

  20. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy for lung lesions 1 cm or smaller: the technique, results and complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung

    2006-01-01

    The author wanted to assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of percutaneous biopsy for lung lesions 1 cm or smaller; the biopsies were performed on the basis of the modified coaxial technique under CT guidance. Thirty-five patients (22 men and 13 women) 23-76 years old (average age: 56.8 years) with lung lesions 1 cm or smaller underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. Fifteen patients had underlying primary malignancies. After an 18 G guiding cannula was introduced to the border of the small lung lesion via the modified coaxial technique, fine-needle aspiration biopsy with 21 G needle and core tissue biopsies with 19.5 G or 20 G biopsy guns were performed through the lumen of the guiding cannula. The core tissue biopsies were finished after 6 macroscopic core tissue specimens were obtained. When the needle hit the eccentric portion of the small lung lesion, a 'fanning-out' technique with using the guiding cannula was applied to get multiple core tissue specimens from the small lung lesion. The diagnostic accuracy of this method was evaluated and the complications were reviewed. Both the cytopathologic and histopathologic specimens were obtained in all 35 cases. The fanning-out technique was necessary in 15 cases (43%) for obtaining six core tissue specimens from small lesions. The final diagnoses were 17 malignant lesions and 18 benign lesions. Sixteen lesions were true-positive, eighteen were true-negative, none was false-positive and one was false-negative. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 97%. The sensitivity for detecting malignancy and the specificity for benign lesion were 94% and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 95%, respectively. The diagnostic ability to characterize the specific cell type of the malignant lesion was 94% (16 of 17), that for the benign lesions was 83% (15 of 18), and overall diagnostic ability was 89% (31 of 35). Five patients (14%) developed a pneumopthorax, and one of them (3%) received

  1. Xylanase, CM-cellulase and avicelase production by the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaritis, A; Merchant, R; Yaguchi, M

    1983-01-01

    When wheat straw was used as C source, S. thermophile produced large amounts of xylanase extracellularly in addition to CM-cellulase and Avicelase. These enzymes were isolated by alcohol precipitation, desalting, and column chromatography. The molecular weights were estimated to be 25,0065,000 and 84,000 for xylanase, CM-cellulase, and Avicelase, respectively. Serine and threonine were the most abundant amino acids and these enzymes are very acidic proteins.

  2. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-05-01

    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Croatia’s Migration Potential – Micro-Analytic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Božić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors set criteria for the selection of a model for measuring migration potential; they select and apply such a model to Croatia and determine the practical and scientific relevance of the Croatian case, especially its significance for the improvement of the chosen model. The authors concentrate on the application of Heinz Fassmann’s and Christiane Hintermann’s micro-analytic model for the estimation of East-Central Europe’s migration potential. After applying this model, they estimate Croatia’s total migration potential at 12.5%, i.e. 460,000 persons older than fourteen. The probable migration potential is estimated at 2.5%, i.e. 92,000 and the real migration potential at 0.4% of the population above fourteen, i.e. 14,700 persons. In Croatian case as well, the younger population (which can still utilise its labour capacity, as well as unemployed, unmarried and highly educated persons, are more likely to consider emigration. The data show also that the regions with the lowest share in GNP have the highest percentage of potential migrants and not the regions which are geographically the closest to potential immigration countries. The authors stress the necessity to integrate migration potential research models. The explanatory assumptions of migration potential research models, based on place utility and subjective expected utility, often overlap when used to interpret the data. Furthermore, the Croatian case shows that personal migration experience and the analytical mezzo level must be considered in order to gain an understanding of the creation of migration preferences.

  4. Preparation and characterization of CdS/Si coaxial nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. L.; Li, L. H.; Tang, W. H.

    2006-04-01

    CdS/Si coaxial nanowires were fabricated via a simple one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder in mass scale. Their crystallinities, general morphologies and detailed microstructures were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectra. The CdS core crystallizes in a hexagonal wurtzite structure with lattice constants of a=0.4140 nm and c=0.6719 nm, and the Si shell is amorphous. Five Raman peaks from the CdS core were observed. They are 1LO at 305 cm -1, 2LO at 601 cm -1, A 1-TO at 212 cm -1, E 1-TO at 234 cm -1, and E 2 at 252 cm -1. Photoluminescence measurements show that the nanowires have two emission bands around 510 and 590 nm, which originate from the intrinsic transitions of CdS cores and the amorphous Si shells, respectively.

  5. Growth, characterization and transport properties of PbxZn1− xS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline PbZn1S semiconductor powder with (0 ≤ ≤ 0.5) has been prepared by controlled co-precipitation method from an alkaline medium using thiourea as a sulphide ion source. Pellets are made with these powders applying 10 ton/sq cm pressure and sintered at 800 °C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere.

  6. S1P in HDL promotes interaction between SR-BI and S1PR1 and activates S1PR1-mediated biological functions: calcium flux and S1PR1 internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Appleton, Kathryn M; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Luttrell, Louis M; Hammad, Samar M; Klein, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    HDL normally transports about 50-70% of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the S1P in HDL reportedly mediates several HDL-associated biological effects and signaling pathways. The HDL receptor, SR-BI, as well as the cell surface receptors for S1P (S1PRs) may be involved partially and/or completely in these HDL-induced processes. Here we investigate the nature of the HDL-stimulated interaction between the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and S1PR1 using a protein-fragment complementation assay and confocal microscopy. In both primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells, the S1P content in HDL particles increased intracellular calcium concentration, which was mediated by S1PR1. Mechanistic studies performed in HEK293 cells showed that incubation of cells with HDL led to an increase in the physical interaction between the SR-BI and S1PR1 receptors that mainly occurred on the plasma membrane. Model recombinant HDL (rHDL) particles formed in vitro with S1P incorporated into the particle initiated the internalization of S1PR1, whereas rHDL without supplemented S1P did not, suggesting that S1P transported in HDL can selectively activate S1PR1. In conclusion, these data suggest that S1P in HDL stimulates the transient interaction between SR-BI and S1PRs that can activate S1PRs and induce an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration.

  7. 3 cm cryogenic electron linac for defectoscopy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.V.; Saverskij, A.Ya.; Shchedrin, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparative estimations of basic HF parameters of travelling and standing wave accelerating structures of cryogenic variants are given. A possibility for using liquid nitrogen as coolant has been considered. Changes in energy attenuation and storage along 1 m length for circular corrugated wavequide (CCW) when changing copper temperature from room to liquid nitrogen temperature has been considered as well. It is shown that nitrogen cooling does not result in significant energy gain for travelling wave CCW, however considerably decreases a share of power for attenuation in walls: electron efficiency of the accelerator may be increased at the expense of this share of power conserving energy storage a t the same level. Examination of the accelerating structure in the standing wave regime has shown that it is possible to gain considerably with respect to the field in comparison with 70 cm wave length when cooling 3 cm-wave length section with liquid nitrogen. At that, time of filling of the accele--rating cell with accelerating field reduces almost 3 times as compared to a ''hot'' 10 cm version. It is shown that liquid nitrogen consumption will amount not more than 2l/h for cooling of 1 m long 3 cm accelerating structure [ru

  8. Astrophysical S factor for the 7Li(d,n0)8Be and 7Li(d,n1)8Be reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourov, A.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A.; Crowell, A.S.; Howell, C.R.; Perdue, B.A.; Sabourov, K.; Tonchev, A.; Weller, H.R.; Prior, R.M.; Spraker, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The absolute astrophysical S factor and cross section for the 7 Li(d,n 0 ) 8 Be and 7 Li(d,n 1 ) 8 Be reactions have been determined using deuteron beams with energies between 45 and 80 keV. The slope of the S factor is consistent with zero in the n 0 case but is slightly negative in the n 1 case. The S factor for the sum of both neutron groups at c.m. energies below 70 keV is S(E)=5400(±1500)-37(±21)E keV b, where E is the c.m. energy in keV

  9. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Using 5 cm Wind Tunnels, IV. VX From Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    J »- o 3? a? j5 d £ * fi SC s? s? s s CO 00 ^ StSRRKf 8 tD Irt « 6 « « »§ ooopooooo WWUJfjJUJUJLULJJlJJ i-0)rtNO)NNT-(p OT...go? * • 8. E • g T5 ti w 5> w 3 ’ flj £ g> A. ft. ft. 3 *° ro (U (U « IB t_> < < < I 8...SCOCOCOCpCOeOCiCDCOCO OOlOOi-rWWnO ! K f^-" r^ I--• K r^ i^ • tD OJ CO S o> c O OJ CM CM (%) 6uiu!etuou juo6v

  10. O1, P1, N2 models of the global ocean tide on an elastic earth plus surface potential and spherical harmonic decompositions for M2, S2, and K1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The models of M2, S2, and K1 presented in Parke and Hendershott (1980) are supplemented with models of O1, P1, and N2. The models satisfy specified elevation boundary conditions and are generated by fighting a small number of test functions to island data. Maps are presented of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each new component. Maps of the tidal potential seen by an observer fixed to the surface of the solid earth are also presented for all six constituents. Spherical harmonic coefficients up to order four and the rms magnitude of the coefficients to order fifteen are presented for each constituent. The rms magnitudes of the P1 and K1 coefficients normalized by their respective equilibrium amplitudes are compared to determine the effect of the diurnal core resonance.

  11. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-05-10

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target.

  12. Interferometer map of Virgo A at 1.3 cm lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The radio galaxy Virgo A (M87, 3C274, NGC 4486) was mapped at 23 GHz (1.3 cm) by use of the University of California's earth-rotation synthesis interferometer at Hat Creek. Full polarization maps with 6 by 12 arc second resolution are presented and compared to the 5 GHz maps made with the 5 KM telescope at Cambridge, England. The linear polarization data are interpreted with the aid of a model consisting of a turbulent low-density plasma containing both random and systematic magnetic fields and radiating by the synchrotron process. Distributions over the core object are derived for the spectral index, rotation measure, line-of-sight, systematic field strength, turbulent-to-systematic field ratio, thermal electron density and intrinsic transverse systematic field direction. The derived distributions suggest an explosive origin at the position of the galactic nucleus and continuing particle acceleration at sites within the extended components. The optical knots and morphology of the continuum radiation are interpreted in terms of particle acceleration by massive objects ejected in the explosion, and the observed large-scale magnetic field is explained by entrapment and stretching of magnetic fields in the central regions by ejected plasma. An age of 7 to 10 4 years is derived for the core object since the most recent explosive outburst, and an age of 2 to 10 7 years is estimated for the low-frequency halo surrounding the core. The theory and technique of synthesis interferometry and the observations and data reduction procedures are also described in detail

  13. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis S3-1, a potential biological pesticide with plant pathogen inhibiting and plant promoting capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing; Jiang, Qiuyue; Zhao, Lei; Su, Cuizhu; Li, Songshuo; Si, Fangyi; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Chenhao; Mu, Yonglin; Xiao, Ming

    2017-10-10

    Antagonistic soil microorganisms, which are non-toxic, harmless non-pollutants, can effectively reduce the density of pathogenic species by some ways. Bacillus velezensis strain S3-1 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cucumber, and was shown to inhibit plant pathogens, promote plant growth and efficiently colonize rhizosphere soils. The strain produced 13 kinds of lipopeptide antibiotics, belonging to the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families. Here, we presented the complete genome sequence of S3-1. The genome consists of one chromosome without plasmids and also contains the biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes difficidin, macrolactin, surfactin and fengycin. The genome contains 86 tRNA genes, 27 rRNA genes and 57 antibiotic-related genes. The complete genome sequence of B. velezensis S3-1 provides useful information to further detect the molecular mechanisms behind antifungal actions, and will facilitate its potential as a biological pesticide in the agricultural industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electron velocity of 6 × 107 cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L.; Ng, G. I.; Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S.; Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S.

    2015-01-01

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W eff ) exhibited a very high I Dmax of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g m of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I D and g m in the 3D TT-gate In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v e ) of 6.0 × 10 7  cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10 7  cm/s). The v e in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v e at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v e  = 6 × 10 7  cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications

  15. Expanding the landscape of chromatin modification (CM-related functional domains and genes in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuye Pu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification (CM plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.

  16. Surface resistances of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films prepared by MOD for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, T.; Sohma, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Tsukada, K.; Kondo, W.; Kamiya, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizuta, S.; Kumagai, T.

    2006-01-01

    Large-area high-T c superconducting films with low surface resistances R s are required for use in microwave applications such as band pass filters. In this paper, preparation of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films on LaAlO 3 (LAO) and CeO 2 -buffered sapphire (CbS) substrates by metalorganic deposition (MOD) using a fluorine-free coating solution and their superconducting properties are described. The optimum firing conditions for YBCO films greatly depend on the substrate materials; a heating rate at ramp as high as 200 deg. C /min is necessary for films on LAO whereas a lower heating rate, e.g., 20 deg. C /min, is required for films on CbS. Accordingly, the suitable furnace systems for these substrates have been varied. As a result, a YBCO film with high J c (77 K) of 2.7 MA/cm 2 and a low R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on LAO by using an infrared image furnace. On the other hand, a YBCO film with a higher J c (77 K) of 4.0 MA/cm 2 and the same R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on CbS by using a tube furnace

  17. Vrouekarakters in enkele prosawerke van C.M. van den Heever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Botha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in some prose works of C.M. van den Heever Re-reading the C.M. van den Heever “classics” Somer (1935 and Laat vrugte (1939 within the framework of Van den Heever criticism through the years, one becomes aware that central themes in his oeuvre are acted out by women. The beautiful young girl Linda in Somer embodies the sadness of the transcience of beauty and happiness. Through Ouma Willa, Betta and Johanna – three women from three generations in Laat vrugte – the theme of the endurance of the memory of love and passion beyond decay and death is expressed. A cursory examination of other and earlier works by Van den Heever – Op die plaas (1927, Langs die grootpad (1928, Kromburg (1937 and the short story “Leuens” (Lies from Vuurvlieg en sterre (1934 – bears out the observation that women express core meanings in C.M. van den Heever’s prose works.

  18. Tuning the energy band gap of ternary alloyed Cd1-xPbxS quantum dots for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Tuning the energy band gap of ternary alloyed Cd1-xPbxS (x: 0, 0.33, 0.5, 0.67 and 1) quantum dots (QDs) for photovoltaic applications is studied. Alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs were adsorbed onto TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) using ssuccessive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methode. EDX measurements ensure the success adsorption of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs onto the TiO2 electrode. At 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5) sun illumination, the photovoltaic performance of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) was measured. The maximum values of Jsc (1.92 mA/cm2) and η (0.36%) for the alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs were obtained when the molar ratio of Cd/Pb is 0.33/0.67. the open circuit voltage (Voc) is equal 0.61 ± 0.01 V for all alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs. The electron back recombination rates decrease considerably for alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs as x value increases, peaking at 0.67. The electron lifetime (τ) for Cd0.33Pb0.67S QDSSCs is one order of magnitude larger than that of the other alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs with different x value. Under ON-OFF cycles to solar illumination, the open circuit voltage decay measurements show the high sensitivity and reproducibility of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs.

  19. Tunneling effect on double potential barriers GaAs and PbS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S. H. B.; Supriadi, B.; Ridlo, Z. R.; Prihandono, T.

    2018-04-01

    A simple model of transport phenomenon tunnelling effect through double barrier structure was developed. In this research we concentrate on the variation of electron energy which entering double potential barriers to transmission coefficient. The barriers using semiconductor materials GaAs (Galium Arsenide) with band-gap energy 1.424 eV, distance of lattice 0.565 nm, and PbS (Lead Sulphide) with band gap energy 0.41 eV distance of lattice is 18 nm. The Analysisof tunnelling effect on double potentials GaAs and PbS using Schrodinger’s equation, continuity, and matrix propagation to get transmission coefficient. The maximum energy of electron that we use is 1.0 eV, and observable from 0.0025 eV- 1.0 eV. The shows the highest transmission coefficient is0.9982 from electron energy 0.5123eV means electron can pass the barriers with probability 99.82%. Semiconductor from materials GaAs and PbS is one of selected material to design semiconductor device because of transmission coefficient directly proportional to bias the voltage of semiconductor device. Application of the theoretical analysis of resonant tunnelling effect on double barriers was used to design and develop new structure and combination of materials for semiconductor device (diode, transistor, and integrated circuit).

  20. Representasi Persahabatan dalam Film 5 Cm

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Intan Murni; Lukmantoro, Triyono; Naryoso, Agus

    2013-01-01

    Representasi Persahabatan dalam Film 5 cmSkripsiDisusun untuk memenuhi persyaratan menyelesaikanPendidikan Strata-1Jurusan IlmumKomunikasi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas DiponegoroPenyusunNama: Intan Murni HandayaniNIM: D2C 009 034JURUSAN ILMU KOMUNIKASIFAKULTAS ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU POLITIKUNIVERSITAS DIPONEGOROSEMARANG2013ABSTRAKSIFilm merupakan salah satu media massa yang menjadi wadah bagi parapembuat film untuk menyampaikan pesan serta nilai-nilai yang dimiliki olehpara ...

  1. Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S4) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S 4 ) reactor, developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures, is presented. The S 4 reactor has a Mo-14% Re solid core, loaded with uranium nitride fuel, cooled by He-30% Xe and sized to provide 550 kWth for 7 years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector of the S 4 reactor is designed to completely disassemble upon impact on water or soil. The potential of using Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials in different forms to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident is investigated. Nine potential SSAs are considered in terms of their effect on the thickness of the radial reflector and on the combined mass of the reactor and the radiation shadow shield. The SSA materials are incorporated as a thin (0.1 mm) coating on the outside surface of the reactor core and as core additions in three possible forms: 2.0 mm diameter pins in the interstices of the core block, 0.25 mm thick sleeves around the fuel stacks and/or additions to the uranium nitride fuel. Results show that with a boron carbide coating and 0.25 mm iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks the S 4 reactor has a reflector outer diameter of 43.5 cm with a combined reactor and shadow shield mass of 935.1 kg. The S 4 reactor with 12.5 at.% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, resulting in a smaller total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 at.% europium-151 added to the fuel, along with europium-151 sesquioxide for the pins and coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  2. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS{sub 2} transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C. [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Samnakay, R. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Goli, P.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS{sub 2} channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS{sub 2} transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS{sub 2} transistors, are 2 × 10{sup 19} eV{sup −1}cm{sup −3} and 2.5 × 10{sup 20} eV{sup −1}cm{sup −3} for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS{sub 2} transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS{sub 2} and other van der Waals materials.

  3. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Vitrification Material Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents material balance calculations for the Americium/Curium vitrification process and describes the basis used to make the calculations. The material balance calculations reported here start with the solution produced by the Am/Cm pretreatment process as described in ``Material Balance Calculations for Am/Cm Pretreatment Process (U)'', SRT-AMC-99-0178 [1]. Following pretreatment, small batches of the product will be further treated with an additional oxalic acid precipitation and washing. The precipitate from each batch will then be charged to the Am/Cm melter with glass cullet and vitrified to produce the final product. The material balance calculations in this report are designed to provide projected compositions of the melter glass and off-gas streams. Except for decanted supernate collected from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet neglects side streams such as acid washes of empty tanks that would go directly to waste. Complete listings of the results of the material balance calculations are provided in the Appendices to this report

  4. Line Intensity Measurements in 14N 216O and Their Treatment Using the Effective Dipole Moment Approach . I. The 4300- to 5200-cm -1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumont, L.; Auwera, J. Vander; Teffo, J.-L.; Perevalov, V. I.; Tashkun, S. A.

    2001-08-01

    This work continues a series of publications devoted to the application of the effective operator approach to the vibrational-rotational treatment of linear triatomic molecules, aiming at the analysis and prediction of their infrared spectra. In that frame work, we have started a large-scale work aiming at the global description of line intensities of cold and hot bands of 14N216O in its ground electronic state in the spectral range above 3600 cm-1. In 14N216O, vibrational interacting levels group in polyads as a result of the relation 2ω1≈4ω2≈ω3 existing between the harmonic frequencies. The polyads are identified by the so-called polyad number P=2V1+V2+4V3. The work described in the present paper concerns bands associated with transitions corresponding to ΔP=7, 8, and 9. The absorption spectra of N2O at room temperature have been recorded at a resolution of 0.007 cm-1 in the range from 4300 to 5200 cm-1 using a Bruker IFS120HR Fourier transform spectrometer. Sample pressure/absorption path length products ranging from 7 to 1753 mbar × m have been used. More than 3000 absolute line intensities have been measured in 66 different bands belonging to the ΔP=7, 8, and 9 series. Dicke narrowing has been observed in the high-pressure spectra. Using wavefunctions previously determined from a global fit of an effective Hamiltonian to about 18,000 line positions (S. A. Tashkun, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo to be published), the experimental intensities measured in this work and by R. A. Toth (J. Mol. Spectrosc.197, 158-187 (1999)) were fitted to 47 parameters of a corresponding effective dipole moment, with residuals very close to the experimental uncertainty. Exa mples are given showing that the modeling reproduces intensities of perturbed lines well.

  5. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment of dosimetric references for high energy X-ray beams of very small field sizes (≤ 1 cm2) used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufreneix, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    The French primary standard dosimetry laboratory 'Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel' is in charge of the establishment of dosimetric standards for ionizing radiation beams. Absolute dose measurements are thus available for X-Ray beams used in radiotherapy for field sizes between 10 and 2 cm. Since the miniaturization of absolute dosimeters is not possible for smaller field sizes, a dose area product (DAP) has been suggested as a substitute to the absorbed dose at a point.In order to measure a DAP with dosimeters which sensitive surface is larger than the beam, a graphite calorimeter with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter was designed, built and tested. An ionization chamber with the same diameter was realized and tested to transfer the dosimetric references to the end users. Its calibration factor in terms of DAP was determined in circular beams of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter with an uncertainty smaller than 0.7 %. The two-Dimension relative dose distribution was measured thanks to a diamond dosimeter, a PinPoint ionization chamber and gafchromic films, using a specific protocol. Both approaches, respectively based on a PDS and an absorbed dose to water at a point, were in good agreement in the 2 cm beam. Correction factors determined from Monte Carlo simulations and measured dose distributions were needed for this comparison. The calibration factor of the large ionization chamber in the 1 and 0.75 cm diameter beams were in good agreement within the uncertainties but a gap of -2.6 % was found with the one established in the 2 cm diameter beam. As a result, the DAP can be used if the sensitive surface is much larger than the beam section. (author) [fr

  7. An ab initio potential energy surface for the formic acid dimer: zero-point energy, selected anharmonic fundamental energies, and ground-state tunneling splitting calculated in relaxed 1-4-mode subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M

    2016-09-14

    We report a full-dimensional, permutationally invariant potential energy surface (PES) for the cyclic formic acid dimer. This PES is a least-squares fit to 13475 CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (VTZ for H and aVTZ for C and O) energies. The energy-weighted, root-mean-square fitting error is 11 cm -1 and the barrier for the double-proton transfer on the PES is 2848 cm -1 , in good agreement with the directly-calculated ab initio value of 2853 cm -1 . The zero-point vibrational energy of 15 337 ± 7 cm -1 is obtained from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. Energies of fundamentals of fifteen modes are calculated using the vibrational self-consistent field and virtual-state configuration interaction method. The ground-state tunneling splitting is computed using a reduced-dimensional Hamiltonian with relaxed potentials. The highest-level, four-mode coupled calculation gives a tunneling splitting of 0.037 cm -1 , which is roughly twice the experimental value. The tunneling splittings of (DCOOH) 2 and (DCOOD) 2 from one to three mode calculations are, as expected, smaller than that for (HCOOH) 2 and consistent with experiment.

  8. A l% and 1cm Perspective Leads to a Novel CDOM Absorption Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S. B.; Matsuoka, A.

    2012-01-01

    A next-generation in-water profiler designed to measure the apparent optical properties of seawater was developed and validated across a wide dynamic range of water properties. This new Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS) design uses a novel, kite-shaped, free-falling backplane with adjustable buoyancy and is based on 19 state-of-the-art microradiometers, spanning 320-780 nm. Data collected as part of the field commissioning were of a previously unachievable quality and showed that systematic uncertainties in the sampling protocols were discernible at the 1% optical and 1cm depth resolution levels. A sensitivity analysis as a function of three water types, established by the peak in the remote sensing reflectance spectra, revealed which water types and spectral domains were the most indicative of data acquisition uncertainties. The unprecedented vertical resolution of C-OPS measurements provided near-surface data products at the spectral endpoints with a quality level that has not been obtainable. The improved data allowed development of an algorithm for predicting the spectral absorption due to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using ratios of diffuse attenuation coefficients with over 99% of the variance in the data explained.

  9. Heavy ion beam probe investigations of plasma potential in ECRH and NBI in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.; Perfilov, S.V.; Chmyga, A.A.; Dreval, N.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Krupnik, L.; Alonso, A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Cappa, A.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Liniers, M.; Pedrosa, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurements of electric potential and its fluctuations are of a primary importance in magnetic confinement systems. The Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic is used in TJ-2 stellarator to study directly plasma electric potential profiles with spatial (up to 1cm) and temporal (up to 10 ∝s) resolution. The singly charged heavy ions Cs + with energies up to 125 keV are used to probe the plasma column from the edge to the core. Both ECRH and NBI heated plasmas (P ECRH = 200 - 400kW, P NBI = 400kW, E NBI = 28 kV) were studied. The significant improvement in the HIBP beam control system and the acquisition electronics leads us to increase the possibilities of the diagnostic. The most crucial one is the extension of the signal dynamic range, which allows us to have the reliable profiles from the plasma center to the plasma edge both in the high and low field side regions. Low density ECRH (n = 0.5-1.1.10 13 cm -3 ) plasmas in TJ-2 are characterised by core positive plasma potential of order of 500 - 1000 V and positive electric fields up to 50 V/cm. Edge radial electric fields remain positive at low densities and became negative at the threshold density that depends of plasma configuration. NBI plasmas are characterized by negative electric potential in the full plasma column and negative radial electric fields (in the range of 10 - 40 V/cm). The density rise during the NBI phase is accompanied by the decay of core plasma potential. When density is getting the level of n ∼ 2.0.10 13 cm -3 , the potential stops its evolution and remains constant. The evolution of plasma potential near density limit is under investigation. These observations, reported in different magnetic configurations, show the clear link between plasma potential and plasma density. (author)

  10. Frequency of gamma-ray bursts greater than 3 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, G.H.; Wood, K.; Meekins, J.; Yantis, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented for gamma-ray burst observations with the Large Area Sky Survey instrument on HEAD-1. It is noted that during the time HEAD-1 was operational, the instrument detected at least 12 confirmed gamma-ray bursts with intensities greater than 3 microerg/sq cm and identified six additional unconfirmed bursts. The rates of gamma-ray bursts are estimated to be about 125 per yr for intensities greater than 3 microserg/sq cm and approximately 50 per yr for intensities preater than 10 microerg/yr. The data are shown to yield a log N - log S relation for gamma-ray bursts that is consistent with a spherical distrubution of sources within the Galaxy and having a broad range of intrinsic luminosities

  11. Forum Theater’s potential as a Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calsamiglia Madurga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical and epistemological reflection on Forum Theater’s potential as a Research Tool. Our presence on social action and research has led us to a double reflection on qualitative research’s limitations on the affect studies and the Forum Theater’s potential as a research tool to tackle research about affects. After some specific experiences in action research (qualitative research on romantic love and gender violence, and the creation process of the Forum Theater “Is it a joke?”, we explore Forum Theatre’s possibilities as a research tool in the feminist epistemology framework.

  12. One-cm-thick Si detector at LHe temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)], E-mail: braggio@pd.infn.it; Bressi, G. [INFN, Sez. di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 1, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serafin, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2007-10-11

    A silicon p-i-n diode of thickness 1 cm has been studied experimentally at liquid helium temperature. This preliminary study is aimed at the construction of a much bigger detector to detect low energy neutrino events.

  13. One-cm-thick Si detector at LHe temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Galeazzi, G.; Serafin, A.

    2007-01-01

    A silicon p-i-n diode of thickness 1 cm has been studied experimentally at liquid helium temperature. This preliminary study is aimed at the construction of a much bigger detector to detect low energy neutrino events

  14. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Olmstead

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs. One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1--or site-1 protease (S1P. SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow

  15. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  16. Transmembrane amyloid-related proteins in CSF as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada eLopez-Font

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing search for new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, reasonable candidates are the secretase enzymes involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, as well as the large proteolytic cleavage fragments sAPPα and sAPPβ. The enzymatic activities of some of these secretases, such as BACE1 and TACE, have been investigated as potential AD biomarkers, and it has been assumed that these activities present in human CSF result from the soluble truncated forms of the membrane-bound enzymes. However, we and others recently identified soluble forms of BACE1 and APP in CSF containing the intracellular domains, as well as the multi-pass transmembrane presenilin-1 (PS1 and other subunits of γ-secretase. We also review recent findings that suggest that most of these soluble transmembrane proteins could display self-association properties based on hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions leading to the formation of heteromeric complexes. The oligomerization state of these potential new biomarkers needs to be taken into consideration for assessing their real potential as CSF biomarkers for AD by adequate molecular tools.

  17. A 1 cm space debris impact onto the Sentinel-1A solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, H.; Serrano, M.; Braun, V.; Kuchynka, P.; Catania, M.; Siminski, J.; Schimmerohn, M.; Marc, X.; Kuijper, D.; Shurmer, I.; O'Connell, A.; Otten, M.; Muñoz, Isidro; Morales, J.; Wermuth, M.; McKissock, D.

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel-1A is a 2-ton spacecraft of the Copernicus Earth observation program operated by ESA's Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. Sentinel-1A and its sister spacecraft Sentinel-1B operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 700 km altitude. On 2016/08/23 17:07:37 UTC, Sentinel-1A suffered from an anomaly resulting in a sudden permanent partial power loss and significant impulsive orbit and attitude changes. A deeper investigation identified that an impulsive orbit change against flight direction of 0.7 mm/s, estimated at the time of the event, gave the best results in terms of GPS residuals. At the same time, a peak attitude off-pointing of 0.7° (around the spacecraft yaw axis) and peak attitude rate increase of 0.04°/s (around the same axis) were observed. The simultaneous occurrence of these anomalies, starting from a sudden attitude change and ending with a permanent partial power loss, made an MMOD (Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris) impact onto a solar array a possible explanation for this event. While the spacecraft is able to continue its mission nominally, a detailed investigation involving ESA's Space Debris and Flight Dynamics experts was conducted. An MMOD impact as an explanation gained further credibility, due to the pictures of the solar array taken by the on-board camera displaying a significant damage area. On September 7th, JSpOC (US Joint Space Operations Centre) informed SDO on 8 tracked fragments that are considered to be released by Sentinel-1A after the impact. This paper addresses the analysis that was performed on the data characterising the attitude and orbit change, the on-board camera image, and the tracked fragments. The data helped to identify the linear momentum vector while a flux analysis helped to identify the origin of the impactor and allowed to understand its mass and size characteristics.

  18. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P 1 -selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P 1 -selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P 1 ) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P 1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P 1 -selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P 1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  19. Observations of three bright extragalactic radiosources at the 1.38 cm wavelength with the resolution up to 8''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, A.B.; Korenev, Yu.V.; Lesovoj, V.Yu.; Parijskij, Yu.N.; Smirnov, V.I.; Soboleva, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    New observations of radiogalaxies in the shortest wavelength region of the RATAN-600 radiotelescope were performed using the 1.38-cm radiometer. One-dimentional radiobrightness distribution of 3C 405 (Cyg A) and Cen A as well as instantaneous spectra of the nuclear sources in 3C 111, 3C 405 and Cen A are presented. Spectra of nuclear components in radiosources 3C 111 and Cen A show marked variations at the time scale of the order of three years. Fluxes for the nuclear component of Cyg A at the wavelengths greater than 3.9 cm have decreased during the last 5 years. Wavelength independence is pointed out for brightness distribution in the main components of all sources. This contradicts to some extragalactic radiosources models in which radiation losses of relativistic electrons when moving from the hot ''spots'' to ''tails'' are suggested

  20. [Indication for limited surgery on small lung cancer tumors measuring 1cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography and long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, K; Koike, T; Emura, I; Usuda, H

    2008-07-01

    Non-invasive lung cancers showed a good prognosis after limited surgery. But it is still uncertain about invasive lung cancers. We investigated the indications for limited surgery for small lung cancer tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography (CT). This study retrospectively analyzed of 1,245 patients who underwent complete resection of lung cancer between 1989 and 2004 in our hospital. Sixty-two patients (5%) had tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter. The probability of survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All diseases were detected by medical checkup, 52 % of the patients were not definitively diagnosed with lung cancer before surgery. Adenocarcinoma was histologically diagnosed in 49 patients (79%). Other histologic types included squamous cell carcinoma (8), large cell carcinoma (1), small cell carcinoma (1), carcinoid (2), and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (1). Fifty-seven patients (92%) showed pathologic stage IA. The other stages were IB (2), IIA (1), and IIIB (2). There were 14 bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (25% of IA diseases). The 5-year survival rates of IA patients were 90%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with tumors measuring 1cm or less diameter was 91% after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, and 90% after wedge resection or segmentectomy. There were 3 deaths from cancer recurrence, while there were no deaths in 14 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma After limited surgery, non-invasive cancer showed good long-term results, while invasive cancer showed a recurrence rate of 2.3% to 79% even though the tumor measured 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative CT.

  1. A new global analytical potential energy surface of NaH2+ system and dynamical calculation for H(2S) + NaH+(X2Σ+) → Na+(1S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meiling; Li, Wentao; Yuan, Jiuchuang

    2018-05-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) of the NaH2+ system is constructed by fitting 27,621 ab initio energy points with the neural network method. The root mean square error of the new PES is only 4.1609 × 10-4 eV. Based on the new PES, dynamical calculations have been performed using the time-dependent quantum wave packet method. These results are then compared with the H(2S) + LiH+(X2Σ+) → Li+(1S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. The direct abstract mechanism is found to play an important role in the reaction because only forward scattering signals on the differential cross section results for all calculated collision energies.

  2. Ionic conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub x}V{sub 1−x}O{sub 5.5−3x/2} (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) oxides prepared by a low temperature sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusli, Rolan; Patah, Aep, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id; Prijamboedi, Bambang, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id; Ismunandar, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Abrahams, Isaac [Materials Research Institute, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-24

    Solid oxides fuel cells (SOFCs) is one technology that could contribute toward future sustainable energy. One of the most important components of an SOFC is the electrolyte, which must have high ionic conductivity. Cation substitution of vanadium in Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11} yields a family of fast oxide ion conducting solids known collectively as the BIMEVOXes (bismuth metal vanadium oxide), which have the potential to be applied as electrolytes in SOFCs. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of Ni concentration, when used as a dopant, on the ionic conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub x}V{sub 1−x}O{sub 5.5−3x/2} (BINIVOX) oxides (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) when prepared by a sol gel method. The gels were calcined at 600 °C for 24 h to produce pure BINIVOX. These oxides were found to exhibit the γ-phase structure with tetragonal symmetry in space group I4/mmm. Ionic conductivity of BINIVOX at 300 °C were 6.9 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}, 1.2 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}, and 8.2 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}, for x = 0.1; 0.15; and 0.2; respectively; and at 600 °C were 1.1 × 10{sup −1} S cm{sup −1}, 5.3 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}, and 2.8 ×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}, for x = 0.1; 0.15; and 0.2; respectively.

  3. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A. [Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, Paris, 75005 (France); Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@phys.ens.fr, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  4. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.

    2013-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ∼ 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Lyα radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies

  5. Intra-operative pubic arch interference during prostate seed brachytherapy in patients with CT-based pubic arch interference of ≤1 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejpal, Samir V.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam; Helenowski, Irene B.; Kozlowski, James M.; Carter, Michael F.; Nadler, Robert B.; Dalton, Daniel P.; McVary, Kevin T.; Lin, William W.; Garnett, John E.; Kalapurakal, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There are only a few reports on the frequency of intra-operative pubic arch interference (I-PAI) during prostate seed brachytherapy (PB). Materials and methods: Two hundred and forty-three patients with a CT-based pubic arch interference (PAI) of ≤1 cm and a prostate volume of ≤50-60 cc underwent PB. Those patients requiring needle repositioning by ≥0.5 cm on the template were scored as having I-PAI. The incidence of I-PAI and its impact on biochemical control were analyzed. Results: Intra-operative PAI was encountered in 47 (19.3%) patients. Forty two patients (17.3%) had I-PAI in 1-2 needles, two (0.8%) had I-PAI in four needles and three patients (1.2%) had I-PAI in six needles. Overall, 1.4% of needles required repositioning due to I-PAI. BMI > 27 kg/m 2 and wider (>75 mm) pubic bone separation at mid ramus (PS-ML) were associated with a lower incidence of I-PAI. At a median follow-up of 50.1 months, the 3- and 5-year bPFS was 97.3% and 95.2%, respectively. The 5-year bPFS rates for patients with and without I-PAI were 95.6% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.28). Conclusions: The use of CT-based PAI of ≤1 cm as a selection criterion for PB is a simple and reliable method for minimizing the incidence of I-PAI and maintaining excellent biochemical control rates.

  6. Room-temperature mobility above 2200 cm{sup 2}/V·s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Persson, Ingemar; Nilsson, Daniel; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Palisaitis, Justinas; Forsberg, Urban; Persson, Per O. Å.; Janzén, Erik [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-22

    A high mobility of 2250 cm{sup 2}/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

  7. Low-rank canonical-tensor decomposition of potential energy surfaces: application to grid-based diagrammatic vibrational Green's function theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Prashant; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib; Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new method is proposed for a fast evaluation of high-dimensional integrals of potential energy surfaces (PES) that arise in many areas of quantum dynamics. It decomposes a PES into a canonical low-rank tensor format, reducing its integral into a relatively short sum of products of low-dimensional integrals. The decomposition is achieved by the alternating least squares (ALS) algorithm, requiring only a small number of single-point energy evaluations. Therefore, it eradicates a force-constant evaluation as the hotspot of many quantum dynamics simulations and also possibly lifts the curse of dimensionality. This general method is applied to the anharmonic vibrational zero-point and transition energy calculations of molecules using the second-order diagrammatic vibrational many-body Green's function (XVH2) theory with a harmonic-approximation reference. In this application, high dimensional PES and Green's functions are both subjected to a low-rank decomposition. Evaluating the molecular integrals over a low-rank PES and Green's functions as sums of low-dimensional integrals using the Gauss–Hermite quadrature, this canonical-tensor-decomposition-based XVH2 (CT-XVH2) achieves an accuracy of 0.1 cm -1 or higher and nearly an order of magnitude speedup as compared with the original algorithm using force constants for water and formaldehyde.

  8. Exonization of active mouse L1s: a driver of transcriptome evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badge Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1s, L1s have been recently implicated in the regulation of mammalian transcriptomes. Results Here, we show that members of the three active mouse L1 subfamilies (A, GF and TF contain, in addition to those on their sense strands, conserved functional splice sites on their antisense strands, which trigger multiple exonization events. The latter is particularly intriguing in the light of the strong antisense orientation bias of intronic L1s, implying that the toleration of antisense insertions results in an increased potential for exonization. Conclusion In a genome-wide analysis, we have uncovered evidence suggesting that the mobility of the large number of retrotransposition-competent mouse L1s (~2400 potentially active L1s in NCBIm35 has significant potential to shape the mouse transcriptome by continuously generating insertions into transcriptional units.

  9. Fabrication of high quality Cu2SnS3 thin film solar cell with 1.12% power conversion efficiency obtain by low cost environment friendly sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, J. J.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) is an emerging ternery chalcogenide material with great potential application in thin film solar cells. We present here high quality Cu2SnS3 thin films using a facile spin coating method. The as deposited films of CTS were sulphurized in a graphite box using tubular furnace at 520 °C for 60 min at the rate of 2.83 °C min-1 in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies confirm tetragonal phase and absence of any secondary phase in sulphurized CTS thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that Cu and Sn are in +1 and +4 oxidation state respectively. Surface morphology of CTS films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM), which revealed a smooth surface with roughness (RMS) of 6.32 nm for sulphurized CTS film. Hall measurements confirmed p-type conductivity with hole concentartion of sulphurized CTS thin film is of 6.5348 × 1020 cm-3. UV-vis spectra revealed a direct energy band gap varies from 1.45 eV to 1.01 eV for as-deposited and sulphurized CTS thin film respectively. Such band gap values are optimum for semiconductor material as an absorber layer of thin film solar cell. The CTS thin film solar cell had following structure: SLG/FTO/ZnO/CTS/Al with short circuit current density of (Jsc) of 11.6 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.276 V, active area of 0.16 cm2, fill factor (FF) of 35% and power conversion efficiency of 1.12% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination in simulated standard test conditions.

  10. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  11. Radiation portal monitor with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector performance for the detection of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Vega C, H. R.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Mendez, R.

    2016-10-01

    In homeland security, neutron detection is used to prevent the smuggling of special nuclear materials. Thermal neutrons are normally detected with "3He proportional counters, in the radiation portal monitors, Rpms, however due to the "3He shortage new procedures are being studied. In this work Monte Carlo methods, using the MCNP6 code, have been used to study the neutron detection features of a "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) under real conditions inside of a Rpm. The performance for neutron detection was carried out for "2"5"2Cf, "2"3"8U and "2"3"9Pu under different conditions. In order to mimic an actual situation occurring at border areas, a sample of SNM sited inside a vehicle was simulated and the Rpm with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) response was calculated. At 200 cm the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) on Rpm response is close to 2.5 cps-ng "2"5"2Cf, when the "2"5"2Cf neutron source is shielded with 0.5 cm-thick lead and 2.5 cm-thick polyethylene fulfilling the ANSI recommendations. Three different geometries of neutron detectors of "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) in a neutron detection system in Rpm were modeled. Therefore, the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) detectors are an innovative and viable replacement for the "3He detectors in the Rpm. (Author)

  12. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu

    2017-08-02

    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH 2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) and NaH(X 1 Σ + ) obtained on the new NaH 2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH 2 system, the NaH 2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction. Because the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  13. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z ∼ 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around α 2000 ∼ 0 h , δ ∼ 15 0 42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is ρ H I [z = 0.125] = (1.0 ± 0.3)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the H I density at zero redshift.

  14. Interrelationships Among Men’s Threat Potential, Facial Dominance, and Vocal Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of minimizing the costs of engaging in violent conflict are thought to have shaped adaptations for the rapid assessment of others’ capacity to inflict physical harm. Although studies have suggested that men’s faces and voices both contain information about their threat potential, one recent study suggested that men’s faces are a more valid cue of their threat potential than their voices are. Consequently, the current study investigated the interrelationships among a composite measure of men’s actual threat potential (derived from the measures of their upper-body strength, height, and weight and composite measures of these men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential (derived from dominance, strength, and weight ratings of their faces and voices, respectively. Although men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential were positively correlated, men’s actual threat potential was related to their perceived facial, but not vocal, threat potential. These results present new evidence that men’s faces may be a more valid cue of these aspects of threat potential than their voices are.

  15. Synthesis and Characterisation of Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethyl eno dithiol enic-S,S') Tungsten Complex as Photo catalyst for Photolysis of H2O Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhli Hadana Rahman; Rusli Daik; Mohammad Kassim; Khuzaimah; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2008-01-01

    Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex is one of the most promising photo catalyst to be used in photolysis of water to produce hydrogen. The first step of the synthesis involves a metathesis reaction of tetrapropylammonium bromide [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N)Br] and ammonium tetrathiotungstate [(NH 4 ) 2 WS 4 ] to form a tetrapropylammonium tetrathiotungstate [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N) 2 WS 4 ] (precursor). Then, the precursor was reacted with phenyl acetylenecarboxylic acid (C 9 H 6 O 2 ) to form tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex (C 27 H 18 O 2 S 6 W). The infra-red, ultra violet/ visible (UV/ Vis) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental micro-analysis of C, H, N and S agreed with the characteristic of the tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex. The (W-S), (C-S) and (C=O) stretching frequencies were detected at 511, (1470 and 1035) and 1655 cm -1 , respectively. The 1 H NMR spectrum showed six protons in the complex. The 13 C NMR showed only 7 signals for carbon atom in the benzene ring, ethylene groups and carboxylic acid pendant group due to the symmetry of the molecules. The reaction yield was about 50 percent. Photolysis of acetone spiked H 2 O showed that the catalyst was able to produced 1.8 μmol/ h hydrogen. (author)

  16. RAC1 P29S regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ha Linh; Rosenbaum, Sheera; Purwin, Timothy J.; Davies, Michael A.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Whole exome sequencing of cutaneous melanoma has led to the detection of P29 mutations in RAC1 in 5–9% of samples, but the role of RAC1 P29 mutations in melanoma biology remains unclear. Using reverse phase protein array analysis to examine the changes in protein/phospho-protein expression, we identified cyclin B1, PD-L1, Ets-1, and Syk as being selectively upregulated with RAC1 P29S expression and downregulated with RAC1 P29S depletion. Using the melanoma patient samples in TCGA, we found PD-L1 expression to be significantly increased in RAC1 P29S patients compared to RAC1 WT as well as other RAC1 mutants. The finding that PD-L1 is upregulated suggests that oncogenic RAC1 P29S may promote suppression of the antitumor immune response. This is a new insight into the biological function of RAC1 P29S mutations with potential clinical implications as PD-L1 is a candidate biomarker for increased benefit from treatment with anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies. PMID:26176707

  17. One year of downwelling spectral radiance measurements from 100 to 1400 cm-1 at Dome Concordia: Results in clear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, R.; Arosio, C.; Maestri, T.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Del Guasta, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization lidar is also deployed at same site, and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. First, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed-Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected microwindows except for the negative residuals found for all microwindows in the range 200 to 400 cm-1, with largest values around 295.1 cm-1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm-1.

  18. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Nonell, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Tiang, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248 Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios in the 248 Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  19. All-to-All Communication on the Connection Machine CM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil K. Mathur

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed algorithms for all-to-all broadcast and reduction are given for arrays mapped by binary or binary-reflected Gray code encoding to the processing nodes of binary cube networks. Algorithms are also given for the local computation of the array indices for the communicated data, thereby reducing the demand for the communications bandwidth. For the Connection Machine system CM-200, Hamiltonian cycle-based all-to-all communication algorithms yield a performance that is a factor of 2 to 10 higher than the performance offered by algorithms based on trees, butterfly networks, or the Connection Machine router. The peak data rate achieved for all-to-all broadcast on a 2,048-node Connection Machine system CM-200 is 5.4 Gbyte/s. The index order of the data in local memory depends on implementation details of the algorithms, but it is well defined. If a linear ordering is desired, then including the time for local data reordering reduces the effective peak data rate to 2.5 Gbyte/s.

  20. The Thermal Properties of CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Opeil, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physical properties of asteroid exploration targets are fundamental parameters for developing models, planning observations, mission operations, reducing operational risk, and interpreting mission results. Until we have returned samples, meteorites represent our "ground truth" for the geological material we expect to interact with, sample, and interpret on the surfaces of asteroids. The physical properties of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CI, C2, CM, and CR groups) are of particular interest because of their high resource potential. We have measured the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion of five CM carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, NWA 7309, Jbilet Winselwan) at low temperatures (5-300 K) to mimic the conditions in the asteroid belt. The mineralogy of these meteorites are dominated by abundant hydrous phyllosilicates, but also contain anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene found in chondrules. The thermal expansion measurements for all these CMs indicate a substantial increase in meteorite volume as temperature decreases from 230 - 210 K followed by linear contraction below 210 K. Such transitions were unexpected and are not typical for anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites or ordinary chondrites. Our thermal diffusivity results compare well with previous estimates for similar meteorites, where conductivity was derived from diffusivity measurements and modeled heat capacities; our new values are of a higher precision and cover a wider range of temperatures.

  1. I1 imidazoline receptor: novel potential cytoprotective target of TVP1022, the S-enantiomer of rasagiline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron D Barac

    Full Text Available TVP1022, the S-enantiomer of rasagiline (Azilect® (N-propargyl-1R-aminoindan, exerts cyto/cardio-protective effects in a variety of experimental cardiac and neuronal models. Previous studies have demonstrated that the protective activity of TVP1022 and other propargyl derivatives involve the activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. In the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of action and signaling pathways of TVP1022 which may account for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of the drug. Using specific receptor binding and enzyme assays, we demonstrated that the imidazoline 1 and 2 binding sites (I(1 & I(2 are potential targets for TVP1022 (IC(50 =9.5E-08 M and IC(50 =1.4E-07 M, respectively. Western blotting analysis showed that TVP1022 (1-20 µM dose-dependently increased the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated p42 and p44 MAPK in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM. This effect of TVP1022 was significantly attenuated by efaroxan, a selective I(1 imidazoline receptor antagonist. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of TVP1022 demonstrated in NRVM against serum deprivation-induced toxicity was markedly inhibited by efaroxan, thus suggesting the importance of I(1imidazoline receptor in mediating the cardioprotective activity of the drug. Our findings suggest that the I(1imidazoline receptor represents a novel site of action for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of TVP1022.

  2. I1 imidazoline receptor: novel potential cytoprotective target of TVP1022, the S-enantiomer of rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Yaron D; Bar-Am, Orit; Liani, Esti; Amit, Tamar; Frolov, Luba; Ovcharenko, Elena; Angel, Itzchak; Youdim, Moussa B H; Binah, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    TVP1022, the S-enantiomer of rasagiline (Azilect®) (N-propargyl-1R-aminoindan), exerts cyto/cardio-protective effects in a variety of experimental cardiac and neuronal models. Previous studies have demonstrated that the protective activity of TVP1022 and other propargyl derivatives involve the activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of action and signaling pathways of TVP1022 which may account for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of the drug. Using specific receptor binding and enzyme assays, we demonstrated that the imidazoline 1 and 2 binding sites (I(1) & I(2)) are potential targets for TVP1022 (IC(50) =9.5E-08 M and IC(50) =1.4E-07 M, respectively). Western blotting analysis showed that TVP1022 (1-20 µM) dose-dependently increased the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated p42 and p44 MAPK in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). This effect of TVP1022 was significantly attenuated by efaroxan, a selective I(1) imidazoline receptor antagonist. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of TVP1022 demonstrated in NRVM against serum deprivation-induced toxicity was markedly inhibited by efaroxan, thus suggesting the importance of I(1)imidazoline receptor in mediating the cardioprotective activity of the drug. Our findings suggest that the I(1)imidazoline receptor represents a novel site of action for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of TVP1022.

  3. Paralichthys patagonicus spawning areas and reproductive potential in the Bonaerense Coastal Zone, Argentina (34°-42°S Áreas de desove y potencial reproductivo de Paralichthys patagonicus en la Zona Costera Bonaerense, Argentina (34°-42°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Militelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Patagonian flounder (Paralichthys patagonicus was studied in the Bonaerense Coastal Zone (34°-42°S using samples collected in December 2003 and 2005. According to the literature, the data were analyzed considering two population groups: one in the northern zone (34°-38°S and another in El Rincón (38°-42°S. The estimated size at first maturity for both sexes in 2003 was 31.57 cm TL for the northern zone and 29.58 cm TL for El Rincón. In 2005, the L50 was only estimated for the northern zone, and the value obtained was less than that of 2003 (27.82 cm TL. In December 2003, the greatest reproductive activity took place in El Rincón. However, in December 2005, the highest proportions of hydrated fe-males were observed in the northern area. This could be due to the cooler temperatures recorded for this zone, as compared with 2003. Batch fecundity showed a potential fit to size and a lineal fit to weight and ranged from 14,685 (30 cm TL to 153,717 ( 59 cm TL hydrated oocytes. Relative fecundity oscillated between 24 and 170 hydrated oocytes/g. The values of these parameters differed between years and among population groups. These differences could be attributed in part to the difference in seawater temperature between the two years, especially the high temperatures observed in 2005.Se estudió la biología reproductiva del lenguado (Paralichthys patagonicus en la Zona Costera Bonaerense (34°-42°S. El material provino de muestreos realizados durante diciembre de 2003 y 2005. En base a la bibliografía los datos fueron analizados teniendo en cuenta dos grupos poblacionales, uno en el norte (34-38°S y otro en El Rincón (38-42°S. La estimación de la talla de primera madurez en 2003 para ambos sexos fue de 31.57 cm. LT para la zona norte y de 29.58 cm LT para El Rincón. En 2005 solo se pudo estimar el L50 para la zona norte y el valor obtenido fue menor al 2003 (27.82 cm. LT. En diciembre del 2003 la mayor

  4. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Photoassociation spectroscopy of 87Rb2 (5s1/2+5p1/2)0u+ long-range molecular states: Coupling with the (5s1/2+5p3/2)0u+ series analyzed using the Lu-Fano approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelassi, H.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Pruvost, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on photoassociation of cold 87 Rb atoms providing the spectroscopy of (5s 1/2 +5p 1/2 )0 u + long-range molecular states, in the energy range of [-12.5, -0.7 cm -1 ] below the dissociation limit. A Lu-Fano approach coupled to the LeRoy-Bernstein formula is used to analyze the data. The Lu-Fano graph exhibits the coupling of the molecular series with the (5s 1/2 +5p 3/2 )0 u + one, which is due to spin effects in the molecule. A two-channel model involving an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula allows us to characterize the molecular series, to localize (5s 1/2 +5p 3/2 )0 u + levels, to evaluate the coupling, and to predict the energy and width of the first predissociated level of (5s 1/2 +5p 3/2 )0 u + series. An experimental spectrum confirms the prediction

  6. TEM microstructural analysis of creep deformed CM186LC single crystal Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Blackler, M. [Howmet Ltd., Exeter (United Kingdom); Barnard, P.M. [ALSTOM Power Turbo-Systems Technology Centre, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The nickel based single crystal superalloy CM186LC was extensively investigated as a potential low cost material for industrial gas turbine vanes within the COST522 programme. The alloy exhibits inhomogeneous structure consisting of dendritic regions and eutectic colonies. In the present work attention is focused on microstructural changes observed in single crystal CM186LC following creep deformation at 750 C. Creep tests were conducted at 750 C with an applied stress of 560 or 675 MPa for up to 11440 hours. The microstructure o ruptured and terminated specimens was investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. TEM analysis revealed the microstructural changes in the CM186LC at primary and secondary creep as well as after creep rupture. (orig.)

  7. Chemically deposited In2S3–Ag2S layers to obtain AgInS2 thin films by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, S.; Peña, Y.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; López-Mata, C.; Ramón, M.L.; Gómez, I.; Acosta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We obtained polycrystalline silver indium sulfide thin films through the annealing of chemically deposited In 2 S 3 –Ag 2 S films. ► According to XRD chalcopyrite structure of AgInS 2 was obtained. ► AgInS 2 thin film has a band gap of 1.86 eV and a conductivity value of 1.2 × 10 −3 (Ω cm) −1 . - Abstract: AgInS 2 thin films were obtained by the annealing of chemical bath deposited In 2 S 3 –Ag 2 S layers at 400 °C in N 2 for 1 h. According to the XRD and EDX results the chalcopyrite structure of AgInS 2 has been obtained. These films have an optical band gap, E g , of 1.86 eV and an electrical conductivity value of 1.2 × 10 −3 (Ω cm) −1 .

  8. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1991-01-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The [ 14 C] salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH

  9. PAN AIR - A Computer Program for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic Linear Potential Flows about Arbitrary Configurations Using a Higher Order Panel Method. Volume I. Theory Document (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-15

    1.4.104) C Second, using intergration by parts (with all subscripts modulo 3):ij+2M NN N f M (CM-1) nj(C)N d( (Cj+2)M(nj+2) - (Cj+I)M (nj+l)N (j+1 - +2 (CM...the horizontal line, the potential approaches values 0 and 0’ on the two exterior surfaces. But as the surface and its image approach each other, the

  10. Electron velocity of 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulkumaran, S., E-mail: SArulkumaran@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ng, G. I., E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-02-02

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W{sub eff}) exhibited a very high I{sub Dmax} of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g{sub m} of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I{sub D} and g{sub m} in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v{sub e}) of 6.0 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s). The v{sub e} in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v{sub e} at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v{sub e} = 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications.

  11. Laparoscopic hand-assisted adrenalectomy for a 20 cm benign tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Tomulescu, V; Hrehoret, D; Popescu, A; Herlea, V

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the technique of choice in the surgical treatment of both secreting or non-secreting benign adrenal pathology. Although traditionally, laparoscopic approach was recommended only for tumor sizes less than 6-8 cm--as larger tumors were known to have an increased risk of malignancy--the currently growing experience and improvement of surgical techniques has allowed for an extension of the therapeutic indication, as shown by the recent case report of LA use for a benign 22 cm tumor (1). We report the case of a young patient operated in our Department for a benign 20 cm adrenal tumor for which laparoscopic "hand-assisted" adrenalectomy yielded a good postoperative outcome and minimal complications.

  12. Potential for horizontal well technology in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglarbigi, K.; Mohan, H.; Ray, R.M.; Meehan, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of horizontal well technology has increased significantly in the U.S., contributing to the drilling of 600 to 1000 horizontal oil wells annually. A total of 86 per cent of the existing horizontal wells have been drilled in three formations, the Austin chalk in Texas, the Bakken shale in North Dakota, and the Niobrara in Colorado and Wyoming. A unique analytical system has been developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (USDOE/NPTO) to assess the potential for greater use of horizontal well technology for other oil resources in other geological formations. The analytical system is designed to be used in association with other enhanced recovery methods that make up the DOE's Total Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). The DOE/NPTO collaborated with industry to identify the target resource for horizontal well technology and to evaluate its future recovery potential under different economic and technological conditions. This paper provides a national summary of the potential for additional production and reserves with more diverse application of horizontal wells in various types of U.S. oil resources, including the rest of the fractured reservoirs in the Austin chalk, other fractured reservoirs in the north and northwestern states, thin-bed reservoirs, and mature waterflood field. The results were presented in terms of production, reserves and national economic benefits with a full cash-flow analysis at oil prices in the range of $16 to $24 U.S. per bbl. It is estimated that 541 million to 1 billion bbls of new reserves are economically producible at these prices. The reserves estimates pertain to future horizontal wells in known fields only and are in addition to the reserves for the existing wells as of 1 January 1998. Potential production is substantial, ranging from 50 million to 85 million bbl per year by 2004 and then declining at a rate of 8 per cent per year in the following years

  13. Analysis of ν2 of D 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James R.; Blatherwick, Ronald D.; Bonomo, Francis S.

    1985-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of ν2 of D 2S was recorded from 740 to 1100 cm -1 on the University of Denver 50-cm FTIR spectrometer system. We have assigned 655 transitions from D 232S and 129 from D 234S, and have analyzed them using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian evaluated in the I r representation. We used the recently published D 232S and D 234S ground state Hamiltonian constants [C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, L. Lechuga-Fossat and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc.109, 300-333 (1985)]. Upper state Hamiltonian constants were obtained from a fit of the ν2 transitions, keeping the ground state constants fixed while varying the upper state constants. The standard deviation of the D 232S ν2 fit is 0.0025 cm -1. The standard deviation of the D 234S ν2 fit is 0.0041 cm -1.

  14. Yields of fission products produced by thermal-neutron fission of 245Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute yields have been determined for 105 gamma rays emitted in the decay of 95 fission products representing 54 mass chains created during thermal-neutron fission of 245 Cm. These results include 17 mass chains for which no prior yield data exist. Using a Ge(Li) detector, spectra were obtained of gamma rays between 30 sec and 0.3 yr after very short irradiations of thermal neutrons on a 1 μg sample of 245 Cm. On the basis of measured gamma-ray yields and known nuclear data, total chain mass yields and relative uncertainties were obtained for 51 masses between 84 and 156. The absolute overall normalization uncertainty is 239 Pu and for 252 Cf(s.f.); the influences of the closed shells Z=50, N=82 are not as marked as for thermal-neutron fission of 239 Pu but much more apparent than for 252 Cf(s.f.). Information on the charge distribution along several isobaric mass chains was obtained by determining fractional yields for 12 fission products. The charge distribution width parameter, based upon data for the heavy masses, A=128 to 140, is independent of mass to within the uncertainties of the measurements. Gamma-ray assignments were made for decay of short-lived fission products for which absolute gamma-ray transition probabilities are either not known or in doubt. Absolute gamma-ray transition probabilities were determined as (51 +- 8)% for the 374-keV gamma ray from decay of 110 Rh, (35 +- 7)% for the 1096-keV gamma ray from decay of 133 Sb, and (21.2 +- 1.2)% for the 255-keV gamma ray from decay of 142 Ba

  15. Opposite effects of the S4-S5 linker and PIP2 on voltage-gated channel function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and other channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank S Choveau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6, with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6T in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5L is acting like a ligand binding to S6T to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5L, the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2, stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated require PIP2 to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel co-factor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP2 leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP2 and S4-S5L, and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  16. Effect of Zn/Sn molar ratio on the microstructural and optical properties of Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Prabhakaran, S.; Sujay Chakravarty; Ganesan, V.; Vasant Sathe; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2018-03-01

    Quaternary kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) compound is one of the most promising semiconductor materials consisting of abundant and eco-friendly elements for absorption layer in thin film solar cells. The effect of Zn/Sn ratio on Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were studied by deposited by varying molar volumes in the precursor solution of zinc and tin was carried out in proportion of (1-x) and x respectively onto soda lime glass substrates kept at 573 K by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the films having composites of Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2SnS3, Sn2S3, CuS and ZnS phases. The crystallinity and grain size were found to increase by increasing the x value and the preferential orientation along (103), (112), (108) and (111) direction corresponding to CZTS, Cu2SnS3, CuS, and ZnS phases respectively. Micro-Raman spectra exposed a prominent peak at 332 cm-1 corresponding to the CZTS phase. Atomic force microscopy was employed to study the grain size and roughness of the deposited thin films. The optical band gap was found to lie between 1.45 and 2.25 eV and average optical absorption coefficient was found to be greater than 105 cm-1. Hall measurements exhibited that all the deposited Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 films were p type and the resistivity lies between 10.9 ×10-2Ωcm and 149.6 × 10-2Ωcm .

  17. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: y.fujii@po.rd.taisho.co.jp [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Igarashi, Yasuyuki [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Goitsuka, Ryo [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  18. Spin-coating deposition of PbS and CdS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jayesh; Mighri, Frej [Laval University, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Quebec, QC (Canada); Ajji, Abdellah [Ecole Polytechnique, CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K. [Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Dr. K.C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Anand District, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we describe a simple spin-coating deposition technique for lead sulphide (PbS) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) films from a methanolic metal-thiourea complex. The characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques revealed that pure cubic phase PbS and CdS layers were formed via this method. As shown by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results, both films were homogeneous and presented a smooth surface. Optical properties showed that the energy band gap of PbS and CdS films were around 1.65 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The PbS film is p-type in nature with an electrical conductivity of around 0.8 S/cm. The hole concentration and mobility were 2.35 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2.16 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/V/s, respectively, as determined from Hall measurement. Both films were used to develop a thin film solar cell device of graphite/PbS/CdS/ITO/glass. Device characterization showed the power conversion efficiency of around 0.24 %. The corresponding open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor were 0.570 V, 1.32 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.32, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm² sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm(2) from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  20. 26S proteasome and insulin-like growth factor-1 in serum of dogs suffering from malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Ingrid; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group). Relationships with tumor size, survival time, body condition score (BCS), and tumor entity were assessed. The median 26SP concentration in the tumor group was non-significantly higher than in the control group. However, dogs with mammary carcinomas displayed significantly increased 26SP levels compared to the control group and dogs with tumor size less than 5 cm showed significantly increased 26SP concentrations compared to dogs with larger tumors and control dogs. 26SP concentrations were not correlated to survival time or BCS. No significant difference in IGF-1 levels was found between the tumor group and the control group; however, IGF-1 concentrations displayed a larger range of values in the tumor group. Dogs with tumors greater than 5 cm showed significantly higher IGF-1 levels than dogs with smaller tumors. The IGF-1 concentrations were positively correlated to survival time, but no correlation with BCS was found. Consequently, serum 26SP concentrations seem to be increased in some dogs suffering from malignant tumors, especially in dogs with mammary carcinoma and smaller tumors. Increased serum IGF-1 concentrations could be an indication of large tumors and a poor prognosis.

  1. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  2. TlHgInS 3 : An Indirect-Band-Gap Semiconductor with X-ray Photoconductivity Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Malliakas, Christos D.; Han, Fei; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-08-11

    The quaternary compound TlHgInS3 crystallizes in a new structure type of space group, C2/c, with cell parameters a = 13.916(3) angstrom, b = 3.9132(8) angstrom, c = 21.403(4) angstrom, beta = 104.16(3)degrees, V = 1130.1(8) angstrom(3), and rho = 7.241 g/cm(3). The structure is a unique three-dimensional framework with parallel tunnels, which is formed by (1)(infinity)[InS33-] infinite chains bridged by linearly coordinated Hg2+ ions. TlHgInS3 is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.74 eV and a resistivity of similar to 4.32 G Omega cm. TlHgInS3 single crystals exhibit photocurrent response when exposed to Ag X-rays. The mobility-lifetime product (mu tau) of the electrons and holes estimated from the photocurrent measurements are (mu tau)(e) approximate to 3.6 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V and (mu tau)(h) approximate to 2.0 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V. Electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level indicate an indirect band gap and a relatively small effective mass for both electrons and holes. Based on the photoconductivity data, TlHgInS3 is a potential material for radiation detection applications.

  3. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  4. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, R H; Clark, J F; Radeva, M; Kheirolomoom, A; Ferrara, K W; Curry, F E

    2014-04-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825-H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37 °C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10(-6) cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the "albumin effect" in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium.

  5. Ultrahigh B doping (≤1022 cm-3) during Si(001) gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy: B incorporation, electrical activation, and hole transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, G.; Kim, H.; Desjardins, P.; Taylor, N.; Spila, T.; Lu, Q.; Greene, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Si(001) layers doped with B concentrations C B between 1x10 17 and 1.2x10 22 cm -3 (24 at %) were grown on Si(001)2x1 at temperatures T s =500-850 degree sign C by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy from Si 2 H 6 and B 2 H 6 . C B increases linearly with the incident precursor flux ratio J B 2 H 6 /J Si 2 H 6 and B is incorporated into substitutional electrically active sites at concentrations up to C B * (T s ) which, for T s =600 degree sign C, is 2.5x10 20 cm -3 . At higher B concentrations, C B increases faster than J B 2 H 6 /J Si 2 H 6 and there is a large and discontinuous decrease in the activated fraction of incorporated B. However, the total activated B concentration continues to increase and reaches a value of N B =1.3x10 21 cm -3 with C B =1.2x10 22 cm -3 . High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and reciprocal space mapping measurements show that all films, irrespective of C B and T s , are fully strained. No B precipitates or misfit dislocations were detected by HR-XRD or transmission electron microscopy. The lattice constant in the film growth direction a (perpendicular sign) decreases linearly with increasing C B up to the limit of full electrical activation and continues to decrease, but nonlinearly, with C B >C B * . Room-temperature resistivity and conductivity mobility values are in good agreement with theoretical values for B concentrations up to C B =2.5x10 20 and 2x10 21 cm -3 , respectively. All results can be explained on the basis of a model which accounts for strong B surface segregation to the second-layer with a saturation coverage θ B,sat of 0.5 ML (corresponding to C B =C B * ). At higher C B (i.e., θ B >θ B,sat ), B accumulates in the upper layer as shown by thermally programmed desorption measurements, and a parallel incorporation channel becomes available in which B is incorporated into substitutional sites as B pairs that are electrically inactive but have a low charge-scattering cross section. (c) 2000 The American Physical

  6. 2-cm versus 4-cm surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm: a randomised, multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillgren, Peter; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Niin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin.......Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin....

  7. Correlated inter-regional variations in low frequency local field potentials and resting state BOLD signals within S1 cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George H; Yang, Pai-Feng; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that specific frequency components of the spontaneous local field potentials (LFPs) underlie low frequency fluctuations of resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) signals was tested. The previous analyses of rsfMRI signals revealed differential inter-regional correlations among areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized monkeys (Wang et al. [2013]: Neuron 78:1116-1126). Here LFP band(s) which correlated between S1 regions, and how these inter-regional correlation differences covaried with rsfMRI signals were examined. LFP signals were filtered into seven bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma low, gamma high, and gamma very high), and then a Hilbert transformation was applied to obtain measures of instantaneous amplitudes and temporal lags between regions of interest (ROI) digit-digit pairs (areas 3b-area 1, area 3a-area 1, area 3a-area 3b) and digit-face pairs (area 3b-face, area 1-face, and area 3a-face). It was found that variations in the inter-regional correlation strengths between digit-digit and digit-face pairs in the delta (1-4 Hz), alpha (9-14 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), and gamma (31-50 Hz) bands parallel those of rsfMRI signals to varying degrees. Temporal lags between digit-digit area pairs varied across LFP bands, with area 3a mostly leading areas 1/2 and 3b. In summary, the data demonstrates that the low and middle frequency range (1-50 Hz) of spontaneous LFP signals similarly covary with the low frequency fluctuations of rsfMRI signals within local circuits of S1, supporting a neuronal electrophysiological basis of rsfMRI signals. Inter-areal LFP temporal lag differences provided novel insights into the directionality of information flow among S1 areas at rest. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2755-2766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effects of CCK-8S on spatial memory and long-term potentiation at CA1 during induction of stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Sadeghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cholecystokinin (CCK has been proposed as a mediator in stress. However, it is still not fully documented what are its effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of CCK exactly before induction of stress on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity at CA1 in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: the control, the control-CCK, the stress and the stress-CCK. Restraint stress was induced 6 hr per day, for 24 days. Cholecystokinin sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8S was injected (1.6 µg/kg, IP before each session of stress induction. Spatial memory was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Long term potentiation (LTP in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses was assessed (by 100 Hz tetanization in order to investigate synaptic plasticity. Results: Stress impaired spatial memory significantly (P

  9. Highly polarization sensitive photodetectors based on quasi-1D titanium trisulfide (TiS3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijie; Xiao, Wenbo; Zhong, Mianzeng; Pan, Longfei; Wang, Xiaoting; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Liu, Jian; Li, Jingbo; Wei, Zhongming

    2018-05-01

    Photodetectors with high polarization sensitivity are in great demand in advanced optical communication. Here, we demonstrate that photodetectors based on titanium trisulfide (TiS3) are extremely sensitive to polarized light (from visible to the infrared), due to its reduced in-plane structural symmetry. By density functional theory calculation, TiS3 has a direct bandgap of 1.13 eV. The highest photoresponsivity reaches 2500 A W-1. What is more, in-plane optical selection caused by strong anisotropy leads to the photoresponsivity ratio for different directions of polarization that can reach 4:1. The angle-dependent photocurrents of TiS3 clearly display strong linear dichroism. Moreover, the Raman peak at 370 cm-1 is also very sensitive to the polarization direction. The theoretical optical absorption of TiS3 is calculated by using the HSE06 hybrid functional method, in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental photoresponsivity.

  10. Internal hydration H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} 100 cm{sup 2} polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miachon, S [CEA, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SESAM/PCM, 38 - Grenoble (France); Aldebert, P [CEA, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SESAM/PCM, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-07-01

    This work deals with a new arrangement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) support which allows the operation of a 100 cm{sup 2} surface area fuel cell with cold and unhumidified gases. Hydrogen is not recycled. Both gases (pure hydrogen and oxygen) are heated and humidified internally, each one crossing a porous carbon block. This allows a simplified water management. Classical low platinum loading E-Tek{sup R} electrodes, hot-pressed on Nafion{sup R} 117 and 112 membranes, are used. Performances are then a little higher than those of comparable PEMFCs in the literature: 0.7 V at 0.7 A/cm{sup 2} for Nafion{sup R} 117, and 0.724 V at 1 A/cm{sup 2} for Nafion{sup R} 112, under 4/6 bar (absolute) of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} at 100 C. The values of PEMFC resistance obtained in fitting the data were found to be R=0.254 (with Nafion{sup R} 117) and 0.108 {Omega} cm{sup 2} (with Nafion{sup R} 112). The membrane contribution to the cell resistance was then estimated to be R{sub m}=0.204 and 0.058 {Omega} cm{sup 2}, respectively (with Nafion{sup R} conductivity estimated at 0.103 S/cm at 100 C in working fuel cell conditions). This membrane is therefore the major contributor to the total cell resistance. (orig.)

  11. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  12. Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitz, M.; Huber, A.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Leibfried, D.; Vassen, W.; Zimmermann, C.; Pachucki, K.; Haensch, T.W.; Julien, L.; Biraben, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the hydrogen and deuterium 1S Lamb shift by direct optical frequency comparison of the 1S-2S and 2S-4S/4D two-photon transitions. Our result of 8172.874(60) MHz for the 1S Lamb shift in hydrogen is in agreement with the theoretical value of 8172.802(40) MHz. For the 1S Lamb shift in deuterium, we obtain a value of 8183.807(78) MHz, from which we derive a deuteron matter radium of 1.945(28) fm. The precision of our value for the 1S Lamb shift has surpassed that of radio frequency measurements of the 2S-2P Lamb shift. By comparison with a recent absolute measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency, we deduce a value for the Rydberg constant R ∞ =109 737.315 684 9(30) cm -1

  13. Uptake and distribution of Pu, Am, Cm and Np in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R G; Cline, J F [Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The relative uptake of the nitrate forms of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Sm, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 237}Np from soil into selectee parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions were observed. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), peas (Pisum sativum, var. Blue Bonnet), barley (Hordeum vulgare, var. U. Cal. Briggs), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa, var. Ranger) were grown outdoors in contaminated soil contained in small weighing lysimeters constructed from 13.2 cm diameter by 1-meter-long polyvinyl chloride pipe. The amended soil, containing 0.1 to 1.0 mCi of each isotope individually per 3.4 kg soil, was situated in a 20 cm band and covered by 10 cm of uncontaminated soil to eliminate chances of windblown contamination to the surrounding environs. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. There did not appear to be any effect of soil concentration on the plant uptake of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am or {sup 244}Cm for the two levels utilized (approximately 0.03 and 0.3 {mu}Ci/g soil). The relative uptake of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu were not significantly different. Likewise, {sup 241} Am uptake values were not significantly different from the {sup 244}Cm values. The relative plant uptake of the four different transuranium element was: Np > Cm {approx} Am > Pu. The relative uptake values of Np were 2,200 to 45,000 times greater than for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10 to 20 times greater. The seeds were significantly lower than the rest of the above ground plant parts for all four transuranics. The legumes accumulated approximately ten times more than the grasses. A hypothetical comparison of the radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with LMFBR fuels indicate that Am, Cm and Np concentrations would exceed Pu values. (author)

  14. First charge collection and position-precision data on the medium-resistivity silicon strip detectors before and after neutron irradiation up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng; Eremin, V; Li, C J; Verbitskaya, E

    1999-01-01

    Test strip detectors of 125 mu m, 500 mu m, and 1 mm pitches with about 1 cm sup 2 areas have been made on medium-resistivity silicon wafers (1.3 and 2.7 k OMEGA cm). Detectors of 500 mu m pitch have been tested for charge collection and position precision before and after neutron irradiation (up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) using 820 and 1030 nm laser lights with different beam-spot sizes. It has been found that for a bias of 250 V a strip detector made of 1.3 k OMEGA cm (300 mu m thick) can be fully depleted before and after an irradiation of 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2. For a 500 mu m pitch strip detector made of 2.7 k OMEGA cm tested with an 1030 nm laser light with 200 mu m spot size, the position reconstruction error is about 14 mu m before irradiation, and 17 mu m after about 1.7x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2 irradiation. We demonstrated in this work that medium resistivity silicon strip detectors can work just as well as the traditional high-resistivity ones, but with higher radiation tolerance. We als...

  15. Measuring patchy reionization with kSZ2-21 cm correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Helgason, K.; Komatsu, E.; Ciardi, B.; Ferrara, A.

    2018-05-01

    We study cross-correlations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (kSZ) and 21 cm signals during the epoch of reionization (EoR) to measure the effects of patchy reionisation. Since the kSZ effect is proportional to the line-of-sight velocity, the kSZ-21 cm cross correlation suffers from cancellation at small angular scales. We thus focus on the correlation between the kSZ-squared field (kSZ2) and 21 cm signals. When the global ionization fraction is low (xe ≲ 0.7), the kSZ2 fluctuation is dominated by rare ionized bubbles, which leads to an anticorrelation with the 21 cm signal. When 0.8 ≲ xe primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. The expected signal-to-noise ratios for a ˜10-h integration of upcoming Square Kilometre Array data cross-correlated with maps from the current generation of CMB observatories with 3.4μK arcmin noise and 1.7 arcmin beam over 100 deg2 are 51, 60, and 37 for xe = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively.

  16. Deformation potentials for band-to-band tunneling in silicon and germanium from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2015-01-01

    The deformation potentials for phonon-assisted band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in silicon and germanium are calculated using a plane-wave density functional theory code. Using hybrid functionals, we obtain: DTA = 4.1 × 108 eV/cm, DTO = 1.2 × 109 eV/cm, and DLO = 2.2 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in silicon and DTA = 7.8 × 108 eV/cm and DLO = 1.3 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in germanium. These values agree with experimentally measured values and we explain why in diodes, the TA/TO phonon-assisted BTBT dominates over LO phonon-assisted BTBT despite the larger deformation potential for the latter. We also explain why LO phonon-assisted BTBT can nevertheless dominate in many practical applications.

  17. FeS2-doped MoS2 nanoflower with the dominant 1T-MoS2 phase as an excellent electrocatalyst for high-performance hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xue; Ma, Xiao; Lu, Qingqing; Li, Qun; Han, Ce; Xing, Zhicai; Yang, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    Well-established methods to improve the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performances include, but are not limited to, tailoring the morphology and electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and doping of earth abundant chemicals such as iron pyrite FeS 2 into existing TMDs. In this work, MoS 2 nanoflowers with the majority being octahedral MoS 2 (1T-MoS 2 ) and doped with FeS 2 were prepared and applied to HER. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption fine structure at the K-edge of Mo, S, and Fe to probe the local electronic structures. The resulting nanomaterial was identified to be FeS 2 doped MoS 2 nanoflower (denoted as Fe-MoS 2 NF) with 66% 1T-MoS 2 which was the metallic phase and could drastically boost the HER properties. The Fe-MoS 2 NF exhibited high HER performance with a Tafel slope of 82 mV dec −1 and it needs 136 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm −2 . The synthesis of Fe-MoS 2 NF with refined morphology and active electronic structure is expected to open a new era for improving the catalytic activity and stability of MoS 2 .

  18. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Observation of an energy threshold for large ΔE collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (Evib=31 000-41 000 cm-1) by CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Wall, Mark C.; Lemoff, Andrew S.; Mullin, Amy S.

    1999-03-01

    Energy dependent studies of the collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine through collisions with CO2 were performed for initial pyrazine energies Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. These studies are presented along with earlier results for pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1. High-resolution transient IR laser absorption of individual CO2 (0000) rotational states (J=56-80) was used to investigate the magnitude and partitioning of energy gain into CO2 rotation and translation, which comprises the high energy tail of the energy transfer distribution function. Highly vibrationally excited pyrazine was prepared by absorption of pulsed UV light at seven wavelengths in the range λ=281-324 nm, followed by radiationless decay to pyrazine's ground electronic state. Nascent CO2 (0000) rotational populations were measured for each UV excitation wavelength and distributions of nascent recoil velocities for individual rotational states of CO2 (0000) were obtained from Doppler-broadened transient linewidth measurements. Measurements of energy transfer rate constants at each UV wavelength yield energy-dependent probabilities for collisions involving large ΔE values. These results reveal that the magnitude of large ΔE collisional energy gain in CO2 (0000) is fairly insensitive to the amount of vibrational energy in pyrazine for Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. A comparison with earlier studies on pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1 indicates that the V→RT energy transfer increases both in magnitude and probability for Evib>36 000 cm-1. Implications of incomplete intramolecular vibrational relaxation, electronic state coupling, and isomerization barriers are discussed in light of these results.

  20. In silico identification of BIM-1 (2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In silico identification of BIM-1 (2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) as a potential therapeutic agent against elevated protein kinase C beta associated diseases. U Saeed, N Nawaz, Y Waheed, N Chaudry, HT Bhatti, S Urooj, H Waheed, M Ashraf, UHK Naizi ...

  1. The cross-correlation between 21 cm intensity mapping maps and the Lyα forest in the post-reionization era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P. [SISSA—International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Avenue, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: ipcarucci@sissa.it, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the cross-correlation signal between 21cm intensity mapping maps and the Lyα forest in the fully non-linear regime using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations. The cross-correlation signal between the Lyα forest and 21cm maps can provide a coherent and comprehensive picture of the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of our Universe in the post-reionization era, probing both its mass content and volume distribution. We compute the auto-power spectra of both fields together with their cross-power spectrum at z = 2.4 and find that on large scales the fields are completely anti-correlated. This anti-correlation arises because regions with high (low) 21cm emission, such as those with a large (low) concentration of damped Lyα systems, will show up as regions with low (high) transmitted flux. We find that on scales smaller than k ≅ 0.2 h Mpc{sup −1} the cross-correlation coefficient departs from −1, at a scale where non-linearities show up. We use the anisotropy of the power spectra in redshift-space to determine the values of the bias and of the redshift-space distortion parameters of both fields. We find that the errors on the value of the cosmological and astrophysical parameters could decrease by 30% when adding data from the cross-power spectrum, in a conservative analysis. Our results point out that linear theory is capable of reproducing the shape and amplitude of the cross-power up to rather non-linear scales. Finally, we find that the 21cm-Lyα cross-power spectrum can be detected by combining data from a BOSS-like survey together with 21cm intensity mapping observations by SKA1-MID with a S/N ratio higher than 3 in k element of [0.06,1] h Mpc{sup −1}. We emphasize that while the shape and amplitude of the 21cm auto-power spectrum can be severely affected by residual foreground contamination, cross-power spectra will be less sensitive to that and therefore can be used to identify systematics in the 21cm maps.

  2. Growth, characterization and transport properties of PbxZn1–xS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mobility of charge carrier concentration is found to increase with increasing temperature. The increase in carrier mobility in PbZn1S samples may be due to reduced grain boundary potential. In PbZn1S samples with = 0–0.3, the sum of the activation energy due to charge carriers and grain boundary potential is ...

  3. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  4. Methylated Glutathione S-transferase 1 (mGSTP1) is a potential plasma free DNA epigenetic marker of prognosis and response to chemotherapy in castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, K L; Qu, W; Devaney, J; Paul, C; Castillo, L; Wykes, R J; Chatfield, M D; Boyer, M J; Stockler, M R; Marx, G; Gurney, H; Mallesara, G; Molloy, P L; Horvath, L G; Clark, S J

    2014-10-28

    Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort (n=51). mGSTP1 levels in free DNA were measured using a sensitive methylation-specific PCR assay. The Phase I cohort identified that detectable baseline mGSTP1 DNA was associated with poorer OS (HR, 4.2 95% CI 2.1-8.2; P<0.0001). A decrease in mGSTP1 DNA levels after cycle 1 was associated with a PSA response (P=0.008). In the Phase II cohort, baseline mGSTP1 DNA was a stronger predictor of OS than PSA change after 3 months (P=0.02). Undetectable plasma mGSTP1 after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with PSA response (P=0.007). We identified plasma mGSTP1 DNA as a potential prognostic marker in men with CRPC as well as a potential surrogate therapeutic efficacy marker for chemotherapy and corroborated these findings in an independent Phase II cohort. Prospective Phase III assessment of mGSTP1 levels in plasma DNA is now warranted.

  5. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Roy M; Pinkerton, Marie E; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S(2)-S(3) segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S(1)-S(2) segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37°C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document

  7. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM... proposed modifications to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth-Revision, Clinical... Infusion of Glucarpidase ICD-10 Updates: ICD-10 MS-DRG Update ICD-10 HAC Translation List Impact of ICD-10...

  8. The 5s25p2 - (5s25p5d + 5s5p3 + 5s25p6s + 5s25p7s) transitions in Sb II and 5s25p - (5s5p2 + 5s2nl) transitions in Sb III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcimowicz, B.; Joshi, Y.N.; Kaufman, V.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum of antimony was photographed in the 575-2300 A region (1A 10 -10 m) using a hollow cathode and a triggered spark source. The analysis of the 5s 2 5p 2 - (5s 2 5p5d + 5s5p 3 + 5s 2 5p6s + 5s 2 5p7s) transitions in Sb II spectrum was revised and interpreted on the basis of multiconfiguration interaction calculations. Accurate wavelength measurements of Sb III lines lead to a revised ground-state 5s 2 5p 2 P interval value of 6574.5 cm -1 . (author). 15 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid according to the size: Especially less than 0.5 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yung; Kim, Yun Min; Lee, Hyun Bok; Cho, Nam Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Joon [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The Korean Thyroid Association recommends fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for nodules more than 0.5 cm in diameter. But nodules, smaller than 0.5 cm have been found in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid (PTC) at the health promotion center at SMC. We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings according to size of nodule in proven PTCs by FNAB, especially less than 0.5 cm. All nodules were classified into three groups by their longest diameter : less than 0.5 cm, more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, and more than 1 cm. Sonographic findings suggesting malignancy were analyzed according to their size groups. Of 288 malignant nodules, 21.5 % (62/288) were less than 0.5 cm , 54.9 % (158/288) were more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, 23.6 % (68/288) exceeded 1 cm. A taller-than-wide shape was observed in 90.3 % (56/62) of nodules less than 0.5 cm, and 48.5 % (33/68) of nodules exceeding 1 cm (p<0.001). There were no well-defined smooth nodules among nodules less than 0.5 cm, and spiculated or irregular margin nodules increased as the size increased (p=0.024). Nodules of size less than 0.5 cm did not showed hyper or isoechogenicity. Hypoechogenicity was greater than the marked hypoechogenicity in each group (p=0.034). Micro- or macro-calcifications were not founded in 77.4 % (48/62) of the nodule group sized less than 0.5 cm. From the small size of the group, micro- or macrocalcifications were observed 21.0 % (13/62), 48.1 % (76/158), 64.7 % (44/68), so the number of nodules containing micro- or macro-calcification increased as size increased (p<0.001). PTCs less than 0.5 cm in size on ultrasonography had taller than-wide shape, spiculated or irregular and ill-defined margins, and exhibited hypo and markedly hypoechogenicity, but microor macro-calcifications were not common. These ultrasonographic features of nodules less than 0.5 cm can be useful in reporting and guiding FNABs or follow-up exams.

  10. Phonon-limited mobility in n-type single-layer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type single-layer MoS2 for temperatures T > 100 K. The materials properties including the electron-phonon interaction are calculated from first principles and the deformation potentials and Frohlich interaction in single-layer MoS2 are established...... to recent experimental findings for the mobility in single-layer MoS2 (similar to 200 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), our results indicate that mobilities close to the intrinsic phonon-limited mobility can be achieved in two-dimensional materials via dielectric engineering that effectively screens static Coulomb...

  11. Do cultural conditions induce differential protein expression: Profiling of extracellular proteome of Aspergillus terreus CM20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Saritha; Singh, Surender; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Goel, Renu; Nain, Lata

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the diversity in extracellular proteins expressed by the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus terreus CM20 with respect to differential hydrolytic enzyme production profiles in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, and analysis of the extracellular proteome. The SSF method was superior in terms of increase in enzyme activities resulting in 1.5-3 fold enhancement as compared to SmF, which was explained by the difference in growth pattern of the fungus under the two culture conditions. As revealed by zymography, multiple isoforms of endo-β-glucanase, β-glucosidase and xylanase were expressed in SSF, but not in SmF. Extracellular proteome profiling of A. terreus CM20 under SSF condition using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 63 proteins. Functional classification revealed the hydrolytic system to be composed of glycoside hydrolases (56%), proteases (16%), oxidases and dehydrogenases (6%), decarboxylases (3%), esterases (3%) and other proteins (16%). Twenty families of glycoside hydrolases (GH) (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 28, 30, 32, 35, 43, 54, 62, 67, 72, 74 and 125), and one family each of auxiliary activities (AA7) and carbohydrate esterase (CE1) were detected, unveiling the vast diversity of synergistically acting biomass-cleaving enzymes expressed by the fungus. Saccharification of alkali-pretreated paddy straw with A. terreus CM20 proteins released high amounts of glucose (439.63±1.50mg/gds), xylose (121.04±1.25mg/gds) and arabinose (56.13±0.56mg/gds), thereby confirming the potential of the enzyme cocktail in bringing about considerable conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to sugar monomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly enhanced photocurrent of novel quantum-dot-co-sensitized PbS-Hg/CdS/Cu:ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohel, Jignasa V.; Jana, A.K.; Singh, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    A novel quantum-dot-co-sensitized PbS-Hg/CdS/Cu:ZnO thin films synthesized by low-cost process. The properties of ZnO are also enhanced by doping and co-doping. It is also compared with quantum-dot co-sensitization. Optical properties, crystal structure, morphology, and photocurrent are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and solar simulator, respectively. The bandgap is interestingly reduced highly to 2.6 eV for Ag co-doped Cu:ZnO. It is unprecedentedly reduced to 2.1 eV and even 1.97 eV for CdS and PbS-Hg QD-sensitized thin films, respectively. An exceptionally enhanced photocurrent of 17.1 mA/cm"2 is achieved with PbS-Hg-co-sensitized CdS-sensitized Cu:ZnO thin film. This is an excellent achievement, which highly supports the potential of low-cost solar conversion. (orig.)

  13. Highly enhanced photocurrent of novel quantum-dot-co-sensitized PbS-Hg/CdS/Cu:ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohel, Jignasa V.; Jana, A.K.; Singh, Mohit [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Chemical Engineering Department, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2017-08-15

    A novel quantum-dot-co-sensitized PbS-Hg/CdS/Cu:ZnO thin films synthesized by low-cost process. The properties of ZnO are also enhanced by doping and co-doping. It is also compared with quantum-dot co-sensitization. Optical properties, crystal structure, morphology, and photocurrent are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and solar simulator, respectively. The bandgap is interestingly reduced highly to 2.6 eV for Ag co-doped Cu:ZnO. It is unprecedentedly reduced to 2.1 eV and even 1.97 eV for CdS and PbS-Hg QD-sensitized thin films, respectively. An exceptionally enhanced photocurrent of 17.1 mA/cm{sup 2} is achieved with PbS-Hg-co-sensitized CdS-sensitized Cu:ZnO thin film. This is an excellent achievement, which highly supports the potential of low-cost solar conversion. (orig.)

  14. 15 cm mercury multipole thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    A 15 cm multipole ion thruster was adapted for use with mercury propellant. During the optimization process three separable functions of magnetic fields within the discharge chamber were identified: (1) they define the region where the bulk of ionization takes place, (2) they influence the magnitudes and gradients in plasma properties in this region, and (3) they control impedance between the cathode and main discharge plasmas in hollow cathode thrusters. The mechanisms for these functions are discussed. Data from SERT II and cusped magnetic field thrusters are compared with those measured in the multipole thruster. The performance of this thruster is shown to be similar to that of the other two thrusters. Means of achieving further improvement in the performance of the multipole thruster are suggested.

  15. Experimental investigation of the excess charge and time constant of minority carriers in the thin diffused layer of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Lindholm, F. A.; Sah, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed low open-circuit voltage in 0.1 Ohm-cm solar cells is probably related to an excessively high diode saturation current. Theoretical studies conducted by Lindholm et al. (1975) and by Godlewski et al. (1975) have shown that a high saturation current could be produced by either high recombination rates or bandgap narrowing effects. A description is given of an investigation which shows that bandgap narrowing effects have a first order significance in determining the charge carrier transport controlling the open-circuit voltage of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells.

  16. The sigma-1 receptor modulates dopamine transporter conformation and cocaine binding and may thereby potentiate cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weimin Conrad; Yano, Hideaki; Hiranita, Takato; Chin, Frederick T; McCurdy, Christopher R; Su, Tsung-Ping; Amara, Susan G; Katz, Jonathan L

    2017-07-07

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by recapturing DA into the presynaptic terminals and is a principal target of the psychostimulant cocaine. The sigma-1 receptor (σ 1 R) is a molecular chaperone, and its ligands have been shown to modulate DA neuronal signaling, although their effects on DAT activity are unclear. Here, we report that the prototypical σ 1 R agonist (+)-pentazocine potentiated the dose response of cocaine self-administration in rats, consistent with the effects of the σR agonists PRE-084 and DTG (1,3-di- o -tolylguanidine) reported previously. These behavioral effects appeared to be correlated with functional changes of DAT. Preincubation with (+)-pentazocine or PRE-084 increased the B max values of [ 3 H]WIN35428 binding to DAT in rat striatal synaptosomes and transfected cells. A specific interaction between σ 1 R and DAT was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays. Mutational analyses indicated that the transmembrane domain of σ 1 R likely mediated this interaction. Furthermore, cysteine accessibility assays showed that σ 1 R agonist preincubation potentiated cocaine-induced changes in DAT conformation, which were blocked by the specific σ 1 R antagonist CM304. Moreover, σ 1 R ligands had distinct effects on σ 1 R multimerization. CM304 increased the proportion of multimeric σ 1 Rs, whereas (+)-pentazocine increased monomeric σ 1 Rs. Together these results support the hypothesis that σ 1 R agonists promote dissociation of σ 1 R multimers into monomers, which then interact with DAT to stabilize an outward-facing DAT conformation and enhance cocaine binding. We propose that this novel molecular mechanism underlies the behavioral potentiation of cocaine self-administration by σ 1 R agonists in animal models. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Controllable synthesis of p-type Cu{sub 2}S nanowires for self-driven NIR photodetector application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun-Yan, E-mail: cywu@hfut.edu.cn; Pan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Zhu; Wang, You-Yi [Hefei University of Technology, School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics (China); Liang, Feng-Xia [Hefei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices (China); Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Li; Luo, Lin-Bao, E-mail: luolb@hfut.edu.cn [Hefei University of Technology, School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics (China)

    2017-02-15

    Face-centered cubic Cu{sub 2}S nanowires with length of up to 50 μm and diameters in the range of 100–500 nm are synthesized on Si substrates through the chemical vapor deposition method using a mixed gas of Ar and H{sub 2} as the carrier gas under a chamber pressure of about 700 Torr. It was found that the growth of quasi 1D nanostructure followed a typical vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism in which the element Cu was reduced by H{sub 2} as the catalyst. The as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}S nanowires exhibited typical p-type semiconducting characteristics with a conductivity of about 600 S cm{sup −1} and a hole mobility (μ{sub h}) of about 72 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1s{sup −1}. Further study reveals that p-Cu{sub 2}S nanowires/n-Si heterojunction exhibits distinct rectifying characteristics with a turn-on voltage of ~0.6 V and a rectification ratio of ~300 at ±1 V in the dark and a pronounced photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.09 V and a short circuit current (I{sub sc}) of 65 nA when illuminated by the NIR light (790 nm, 0.35 mW cm{sup −1}), giving rise to a responsivity (R) about 0.8 mA W{sup −1} and specific detectivity (D*) 6.7 × 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup −1} at zero bias, which suggests the potential of as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}S nanowires applied in the field of self-driven NIR photodetector.

  18. Foreground and Sensitivity Analysis for Broadband (2D) 21 cm-Lyα and 21 cm-Hα Correlation Experiments Probing the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Stalder, Brian; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tonry, John L.

    2017-11-01

    A detection of the predicted anticorrelation between 21 cm and either Lyα or Hα from the epoch of reionization (EOR) would be a powerful probe of the first galaxies. While 3D intensity maps isolate foregrounds in low-{k}\\parallel modes, infrared surveys cannot yet match the field of view and redshift resolution of radio intensity mapping experiments. In contrast, 2D (I.e., broadband) infrared intensity maps can be measured with current experiments and are limited by foregrounds instead of photon or thermal noise. We show that 2D experiments can measure most of the 3D fluctuation power at klimit on residual foregrounds of the 21 cm-Lyα cross-power spectrum at z˜ 7 of {{{Δ }}}2text{kJy sr}}-1 {{mK}}) (95%) at {\\ell }˜ 800. We predict levels of foreground correlation and sample variance noise in future experiments, showing that higher-resolution surveys such as LOFAR, SKA-LOW, and the Dark Energy Survey can start to probe models of the 21 cm-Lyα EOR cross spectrum.

  19. Compact modular BWR (CM-BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennern, Larry; Boardman, Charles; Carroll, Douglas G.; Hida, Takahiko

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary assessment has shown that a small 350 MWe BWR reactor can be placed within a close fitting steel containment vessel that is 7.1 meters inside diameter. This allows the technology and manufacturing capability currently used to fabricate large ABWR reactor vessels to be used to provide a factory fabricated containment vessel for a 350 MWe BWR. When a close fitted steel containment is combined with a passive closed loop isolation condenser system and a natural circulating reactor system that contains a large water inventory, primary system leaks cannot uncover the core. This eliminates many of the safety systems needed in response to a LOCA that are common to large, conventional plant designs including. Emergency Core Flooding, Automatic Depressurization System, Active Residual Heat Removal, Safety Related Auxiliary Cooling, Safety Related Diesel Generators, Hydrogen Re-Combiners, Ex-vessel Core Retention and Cooling. By fabricating the containment in a factory and eliminating most of the conventional safety systems, the construction schedule is shortened and the capital cost reduced to levels that would not otherwise be possible for a relatively small modular BWR. This makes the CM-BWR a candidate for applications where smaller incremental power additions are desired relative to a large ALWR or where the local infrastructure is not able to accommodate a conventional ALWR plant rated at 1350 MWe or more. This paper presents a preliminary design description of a Compact Modular BWR (CM-BWR) whose design features dramatically reduce the size and cost of the reactor building and associated safety systems. (author)

  20. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An electrochemical study of the systems Li1+-xV2O4 and Li1-xVO2 (0≤x≤1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Picciotto, L.A.; Thackeray, M.M.; Pistoia, G.

    1988-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of the systems Li 1±x V 2 O 4 (0≤x≤1), Li 1-x VO 2 (0≤x 2 O 4 is reversible, which confirms that lithium may be cycled, topotactically, in and out of the Li 1+x V 2 O 4 spinel structure. Delithiation of the LiV 2 O 4 spinel is irreversible; during this process the vanadium ions migrate through the oxide layers. This results in a defect rocksalt phase, which can, in turn, be relithiated by a different mechanism. Lithium extraction for the layered compound LiVO 2 yields a structure similar to the delithiated LiV 2 O 4 product. The spinel-derived compounds Li 1 +-x/V 2 O 4 (0 -3 Ω -1 cm -1 at x=0 and 10 -6 Ω -1 cm -1 at x=1. Lithium diffusion rates in Li 1±x V 2 O 4 samples increase with lithiation from D=4x10 -10 cm 2 /s in LiV 2 O 4 to D=6x10 -8 cm 2 /s in Li 2 V 2 O 4 . Intermediate values of D are obtained in the delithiated compound Li 0.28 V 2 O 4 and in the layered oxide LiVO 2 ; significantly lower values of D, viz. 1x10 -11 cm 2 /s and 4x10 -11 cm 2 /s , are found in the spinels LiMn 2 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 respectively. 28 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  2. Long-term followup of visual internal urethrotomy for management of short (less than 1 cm) penile urethral strictures following hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, D A; Rathbun, S R

    2006-10-01

    We reviewed the results of direct vision urethrotomy for short (less than 1 cm) penile urethral strictures following hypospadias surgery. Patients with less than 1 cm anterior penile urethral strictures located proximal to the meatus underwent direct vision urethrotomy. Based on the type of initial urethroplasty patients were randomly divided into treatment with direct vision urethrotomy vs direct vision urethrotomy plus clean intermittent catheterization for 3 months. Success was defined as absent obstructive voiding symptoms and a normal urine flow 2 years following the last patient instrumentation. Of patients with urethral strictures following hypospadias repair 44% (32) had previously undergone tubularized graft urethroplasty and 56% (40) had previously undergone flap urethroplasty, including a tubularized island flap in 18, an onlay flap in 11 and urethral plate urethroplasty in 11. Direct vision urethrotomy alone was performed in 51% of patients (37), and direct vision urethrotomy and clean intermittent catheterization were performed in 49% (35). Success with the 2 methods was similar, that is 24% (9 of 37 patients) vs 22% (8 of 35). Following direct vision urethrotomy all patients with tubularized graft urethroplasty showed failure (0 of 32). Success was noted in 11% of patients (2 of 18) with tubularized island flap urethroplasty compared to 72% (8 of 11) with onlay urethroplasty and 63% (7 of 11) with urethral plate urethroplasty (each p urethrotomy does not improve the likelihood of success. Direct vision urethrotomy for short (less than 1 cm) urethral stricture usually fails following any type of tubularized graft or flap urethroplasty but it had moderate success following onlay flap and urethral plate urethroplasties.

  3. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane: a potential prebiotic species in Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomo Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Chimica Giacomo Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy))" >Puzzarini, Cristina; Ali, Ashraf; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm1 for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.

  4. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane: a potential prebiotic species in Titan's atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica " Giacomo Ciamician," Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Ali, Ashraf [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm{sup –1} for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.

  5. CM: Becoming a technology firm (teaching case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, J.C.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Dolmans, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Founded in 2000 as a Short Message Service (SMS) marketing company for discos (clubs), CM evolved into a technology provider for SMS services. By 2008, CM was market leader in The Netherlands, a position won by offering high quality services at low prices. In 2010, the founders of the company were

  6. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  7. Communication: A benchmark-quality, full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for Ar-HOCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M.; Houston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    A full-dimensional, global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the Ar-HOCO system is presented. The PES consists of a previous intramolecular ab initio PES for HOCO [J. Li, C. Xie, J. Ma, Y. Wang, R. Dawes, D. Xie, J. M. Bowman, and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5057 (2012)], plus a new permutationally invariant interaction potential based on fitting 12 432 UCCSD(T)-F12a/aVDZ counterpoise-corrected energies. The latter has a total rms fitting error of about 25 cm1 for fitted interaction energies up to roughly 12 000 cm1 . Two additional fits are presented. One is a novel very compact permutational invariant representation, which contains terms only involving the Ar-atom distances. The rms fitting error for this fit is 193 cm1 . The other fit is the widely used pairwise one. The pairwise fit to the entire data set has an rms fitting error of 427 cm1 . All of these potentials are used in preliminary classical trajectory calculations of energy transfer with a focus on comparisons with the results using the benchmark potential

  8. Communication: A benchmark-quality, full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for Ar-HOCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.conte@emory.edu, E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: riccardo.conte@emory.edu, E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Calculation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Houston, Paul L., E-mail: paul.houston@cos.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    A full-dimensional, global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the Ar-HOCO system is presented. The PES consists of a previous intramolecular ab initio PES for HOCO [J. Li, C. Xie, J. Ma, Y. Wang, R. Dawes, D. Xie, J. M. Bowman, and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 5057 (2012)], plus a new permutationally invariant interaction potential based on fitting 12 432 UCCSD(T)-F12a/aVDZ counterpoise-corrected energies. The latter has a total rms fitting error of about 25 cm{sup −1} for fitted interaction energies up to roughly 12 000 cm{sup −1}. Two additional fits are presented. One is a novel very compact permutational invariant representation, which contains terms only involving the Ar-atom distances. The rms fitting error for this fit is 193 cm{sup −1}. The other fit is the widely used pairwise one. The pairwise fit to the entire data set has an rms fitting error of 427 cm{sup −1}. All of these potentials are used in preliminary classical trajectory calculations of energy transfer with a focus on comparisons with the results using the benchmark potential.

  9. Photoelectrochemical water splitting using CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2}/CdS thin-film solar cells for hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2007-09-22

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) efficiency of a PEC cell constructed by series connecting two {proportional_to}0.43 cm{sup 2} size, 5.95% (AM1.5) efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} (CIGS2) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells having transparent and conducting back contacts, outside the electrolyte, to RuS{sub 2} photoanode and platinum cathode, in the electrolyte, for oxygen and hydrogen generation by water splitting was 2.99%. PV electrolysis efficiency of a similar setup prepared using two CIGS2 PV cells having opaque Mo back contacts and highest achieved efficiency of 11.99% (AM1.5) connected to RuS{sub 2} and Pt electrodes was 8.78%. This significant result points a way toward attaining higher PEC efficiencies. (author)

  10. Prediction of the 21-cm signal from reionization: comparison between 3D and 1D radiative transfer schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghara, Raghunath; Mellema, Garrelt; Giri, Sambit K.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Datta, Kanan K.; Majumdar, Suman

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations of the epoch of reionization can produce realistic results, but are computationally expensive. On the other hand, simulations relying on one-dimensional radiative transfer solutions are faster but limited in accuracy due to their more approximate nature. Here, we compare the performance of the reionization simulation codes GRIZZLY and C2-RAY which use 1D and 3D radiative transfer schemes, respectively. The comparison is performed using the same cosmological density fields, halo catalogues, and source properties. We find that the ionization maps, as well as the 21-cm signal maps from these two simulations are very similar even for complex scenarios which include thermal feedback on low-mass haloes. The comparison between the schemes in terms of the statistical quantities such as the power spectrum of the brightness temperature fluctuation agrees with each other within 10 per cent error throughout the entire reionization history. GRIZZLY seems to perform slightly better than the seminumerical approaches considered in Majumdar et al. which are based on the excursion set principle. We argue that GRIZZLY can be efficiently used for exploring parameter space, establishing observations strategies, and estimating parameters from 21-cm observations.

  11. Approximate Treatment of the Dirac Equation with Hyperbolic Potential Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Aysen

    2018-03-01

    The time independent Dirac equation is solved analytically for equal scalar and vector hyperbolic potential function in the presence of Greene and Aldrich approximation scheme. The bound state energy equation and spinor wave functions expressed by the hypergeometric function have been obtained in detail with asymptotic iteration approach. In order to indicate the accuracy of this different approach proposed to solve second order linear differential equations, we present that in the non-relativistic limit, analytical solutions of the Dirac equation converge to those of the Schrödinger one. We introduce numerical results of the theoretical analysis for hyperbolic potential function. Bound states corresponding to arbitrary values of n and l are reported for potential parameters covering a wide range of interaction. Also, we investigate relativistic vibrational energy spectra of alkali metal diatomic molecules in the different electronic states. It is observed that theoretical vibrational energy values are consistent with experimental Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) results and vibrational energies of NaK, K_2 and KRb diatomic molecules interacting with hyperbolic potential smoothly converge to the experimental dissociation limit D_e=2508cm^{-1}, 254cm^{-1} and 4221cm^{-1}, respectively.

  12. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbSx(CuS1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ubale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbSx(CuS1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbSx(CuS1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and hexagonal CuS. The optical absorption measurements showed that band gap energy of (PbSx(CuS1−x can be engineered between 2.57 and 2.28 eV by varying compositional parameter ‘x’. The room temperature dc dark electrical resistivity of PbS film is found to be 28.85 Ωcm and it decreases when content of Cu in composite increases and becomes 0.05 Ωcm for pure CuS. The thermo-emf measurements showed that the as deposited (PbSx(CuS1−x films are of n-type. The water angle contact measurements of (PbSx(CuS1−x, revealed that, films are hydrophilic in nature and it could be advantageous in electrochemical application.

  13. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Ly α and 21 cm Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneka, Caroline [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We study 21 cm and Ly α fluctuations, as well as H α , while distinguishing between Ly α emission of galactic, diffuse, and scattered intergalactic medium (IGM) origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is obtained, testing neutral versus ionized medium cases with different tracers in a seminumerical simulation setup. In order to pave the way toward constraints on reionization history and modeling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21 cm and Ly α , which displays a characteristic morphology and a turnover from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc{sup −1}. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the use of the 21 cm and H α cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Ly α . We conclude by showing the detectability of the 21 cm and Ly α cross-correlation signal over more than one decade in scale at high signal-to-noise ratio for upcoming probes like SKA and the proposed all-sky intensity mapping satellites SPHEREx and CDIM, while also including the Ly α damping tail and 21 cm foreground avoidance in the modeling.

  14. Development of superhigh-strength mortars with compressive strength of 3000kgf/cm sup 2 or higher. 3000kgf/cm sup 2 ijo no asshuku kyodo wo motsu mortar no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, Y; Izumura, K [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Collete of Engineering; Hayashi, S [Onoda Cement Co. Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses the preparation factors and curing conditions of superhigh-strength mortar, and explains a method of manufacturing superhigh-strength mortar having still higher strength and its superhigh strength generating mechanism. A recommended cement material for the superhigh-strength mortar is a Portland cement mixed with a high-purity silica at 20% and silica fume at 20%. This was made to a water-cement material ratio of 15% and fine aggregate cement material ratio of 1.06, cured in an autoclave, and further heat-cured at 200{degree}C for one day to obtain a superhigh-strength mortar. The compression and bending strengths reach 2,200 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 180 kgf/cm{sup 2} respectively when used with silica sand, and 3000 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 220 kgf/cm{sup 2} or more when used with stainless steel grits. The heat curing at 200{degree}C for a day increases remarkably the compression strength of the superhigh-strength mortar regardless of the curing conditions before the heat curing. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Electrophysical properties of nCdS/pCdTe heterosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzafarova, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this work results of research of electrophysical properties n CdS/pCdTe heterostructure are given. It is shown that at density of current 10 -8 -10 -5 A.cm -2 vol tamper characteristics in hetero system CdTe/CdS is described by thermo ionic law, and in the range 10 -4 -10 -2 A .cm -2 the current in heterostructure is limited by recombination in electronic neutral part of high-resistance of solid structure CdTe 1-x S x . Certain life time τ p and length of diffusion L p of non basic current carriers in solid structure CdTe 1-x S x , as well as superficial recombination rate v R on border of section between CdS and solid structures were considered at influence of irradiation and γ-quanta on the mechanism of current in n CdS/pCdTe heterostructure. From the analysis of dependence doze of sites the direct volt-ampere characteristics were obtained. It is shown that monotonous increase of doze of irradiation and γ-quanta leads to nonmonotonous change of micro parameters of nCdS/pCdTe heterostructure, superficial recombination rate - v R , values of both τ p and lengths of diffusion L p of non basic carriers of potential barrier - qφ B . On border of CdTe 1-x S x there is CdS-solid structure. (author)

  16. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  17. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Chen, K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2 /r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol −1 L s1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents. (paper)

  18. Safety and Effectiveness of UFE in Fibroids Larger than 10 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bérczi, Viktor, E-mail: berczi@hotmail.com; Valcseva, Éva, E-mail: evapeneva@gmail.com; Kozics, Dóra, E-mail: dora.kozics@gmail.com; Kalina, Ildikó, E-mail: ilkalina@t-online.hu; Kaposi, Pál, E-mail: kaposipal@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary); Sziller, Péter, E-mail: psziller@t-online.hu; Várbíró, Szabolcs, E-mail: varbiroszabolcs@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, 2nd Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Hungary); Botos, Erzsébet Mária, E-mail: erzsebetbotos@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    IntroductionEarly literature suggested that the size of the uterus, the size of the dominant fibroid, and the amount of applied embolization particles would be the risk factors for major postprocedural complications, but recent publications have confuted these early results. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the size of the dominant fibroid would influence the complication rate and effectiveness in a large single-center cohort.Patients and MethodsFrom 28 April 2008 until 31 December 2012, 303 patients had uterine artery embolization (UAE). 262 patients had small [largest diameter <10 cm (Group 1)], 41 patients had large [largest diameter >10 cm (Group 2)] fibroid. UAE was performed from unilateral femoral access using 500–710 and 355–500 µm polyvinyl alcohol particles. Periprocedural and postprocedural complications and numerical analog quality-of-life scores (0—unbearable symptoms; 100—perfect quality of life) were listed and statistically analyzed.ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time [7.79 ± 5.16 (SD) month], data on 275 patients (275/303 = 90.8 %) were available. Quality-of-life score was 33.3 ± 23.5 and 33.5 ± 24.1 before, whereas 85.6 ± 16.0 and 81.5 ± 23.5 after UAE in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, (Mann–Whitney U test one-sided, p = 0.365). There were 4 myoma expulsions, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies reported from Group 1, meanwhile 1 myoma expulsion, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies were documented from Group 2 (NS differences).ConclusionThere was no significant difference in the effectiveness and in the number of minor and major complications between fibroids with <10 cm largest diameter compared to those >10 cm.

  19. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 500–2100cm1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 500–2100 cm -1 at temperatures up to1027 1C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1013±20 mbar) are measured. NH3 concentrations of 1000 ppm,0.5% and 1% in volume fraction were used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in high tempera...... to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. Approximately 2000 lines have been assigned, of which 851are newly assigned to mainly hot bands involving vibrational states as high as v2=5....

  20. Investigation of neutron resonances of 247Cm in the 0.5-20 eV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, T.S.; Kolesov, A.G.; Klinov, A.V.; Nikol'skij, S.N.; Poruchikov, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Artamonov, V.S.; Ivanov, R.N.; Kalebin, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron resonance parameters of 247 Cm were calculated from the transmission of a curium sample measured by the time-of-flight method. The neutron resonance parameters were calculated by the shape method using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. Since the neutron resonance parameters of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu are well known, it was possible to identify the neutron resonances of 247 Cm from the measured transmission and calculate their parameters. We identified only five neutron resonances of 247 Cm with high values of 2gGAMMAsub(n). This is due to the fact that the 247 Cm content of the sample is low (1.7mg) and the resonances of this isotope are identified against the background of a large number of resonances of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu situated in the energy range in question

  1. s -wave scattering length of a Gaussian potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszki, Peter; Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Brand, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We provide accurate expressions for the s -wave scattering length for a Gaussian potential well in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. The Gaussian potential is widely used as a pseudopotential in the theoretical description of ultracold-atomic gases, where the s -wave scattering length is a physically relevant parameter. We first describe a numerical procedure to compute the value of the s -wave scattering length from the parameters of the Gaussian, but find that its accuracy is limited in the vicinity of singularities that result from the formation of new bound states. We then derive simple analytical expressions that capture the correct asymptotic behavior of the s -wave scattering length near the bound states. Expressions that are increasingly accurate in wide parameter regimes are found by a hierarchy of approximations that capture an increasing number of bound states. The small number of numerical coefficients that enter these expressions is determined from accurate numerical calculations. The approximate formulas combine the advantages of the numerical and approximate expressions, yielding an accurate and simple description from the weakly to the strongly interacting limit.

  2. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  3. Chemically deposited In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Ag{sub 2}S layers to obtain AgInS{sub 2} thin films by thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de Los Garza Nuevo Leon, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Pena, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de Los Garza Nuevo Leon, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez-Mata, C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Chetumal, Av. Insurgentes No. 330, C.P. 77013, Col. David Gustavo Gtz., Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Ramon, M.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Gomez, I.; Acosta, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de Los Garza Nuevo Leon, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained polycrystalline silver indium sulfide thin films through the annealing of chemically deposited In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Ag{sub 2}S films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to XRD chalcopyrite structure of AgInS{sub 2} was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgInS{sub 2} thin film has a band gap of 1.86 eV and a conductivity value of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. - Abstract: AgInS{sub 2} thin films were obtained by the annealing of chemical bath deposited In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Ag{sub 2}S layers at 400 Degree-Sign C in N{sub 2} for 1 h. According to the XRD and EDX results the chalcopyrite structure of AgInS{sub 2} has been obtained. These films have an optical band gap, E{sub g}, of 1.86 eV and an electrical conductivity value of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} ({Omega} cm){sup -1}.

  4. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured Using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 2. Munitions Grade Sulfur Mustard From Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    micropores and the pH of 0.1 g sand in 2 mL water, measured after 24 hr using pH paper, was 6. The measured bulk and tapped densities of the sand...o oasr^^roryrgQcor-»infO KNceend’-ojnrS^’u:* ^ t\\i kO N © co uS oS - <- eg CM M (M n eft ^ eg ni r»i s rt...O cn o o 2 eft — cn co in ^ ^ iri — 3 *- t- — n vt rt CD £ 2 9 a H d a -i --’ p | E •i = ° 2r ^ A

  5. Limnology of Kharland (saline) ponds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra in relation to prawn culture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, D N; Gaidhane, D M; Singh, H

    2006-01-01

    The coastal saline soils, Kharlands, have great potential for their use in aquaculture. This study has been taken up to understand the limnology of the ponds in Kharland area for assessing their prawn culture potential. This study was carried out during September, 1999 to August, 2001. Each Kharland pond has an area of 0.045 hectare. During the study, depth of pond water was 47.7 to 120.0 cm, temperature varied from 25.7 to 34.5 degrees C; transparency from nil to 65.0 cm; specific conductivity from 1.78 to 94.5 microS.cm(-1); total dissolved solids from 0.89 to 27.55 ppt; pH 5.42 to 8.25; dissolved oxygen 1.6 to 8 mg.l(-1); free carbon dioxide 10.00 to 44.00 mg.l(-1); total alkalinity 5.00 to 142.00 mg.l(-1); salinity 0.45 to 39.55 ppt; total hardness 245.00 to 5945.00; calcium 56.05 to 1827.6; magnesium 110.74 to 4507.75 mg.l(-1); dissolved organic matter 1.45 to 9.68 mg.l(-1); ammonia 1.00-8.00 microg.l(-1); nitrite nil to 20.00 micro l(-1) and nitrate 7.5 to 17.5 microg.l(-1). These Kharland ponds are unique in physio-chemical characteristics during their seasonal cycle. From July to October, these ponds have nearly freshwater while from November to May pond water becomes saline. Thus, there is a great possibility of taking up monoculture of both the freshwater and brackish water prawns as well as polyculture of prawns and fishes in the Kharland ponds.

  6. Hidden crossing theory of charge exchange in H+ + He+(1 s) collisions in vicinity of maximum of cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Tasko P.; Solov'ev, Evgeni A.

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of dynamical adiabatic approach the hidden crossing theory of inelastic transitions is applied to charge exchange in H+ + He+(1 s) collisions in the wide range of center of mass collision energies E cm = (1.6 -70) keV. The good agreement with experiment and molecular close coupling calculations is obtained. At low energies our 4-state results are closest to the experiment and correctly reproduce the shoulder in energy dependence of the cross section around E cm = 6 keV. The 2-state results correctly predict the position of the maximum of the cross section at E cm ≈ 40 keV, whereas 4-state results fail to correctly describe the region around the maximum. The reason for this is the fact that adiabatic approximation for a given two-state hidden crossing is applicable for values of the Schtueckelberg parameter >1. But with increase of principal quantum number N the Schtueckelberg parameter decreases as N -3. That is why the 4-state approach involving higher excited states fails at smaller collision energies E cm ≈ 15 keV, while the 2-state approximation which involves low lying states can be extended to higher collision energies.

  7. Two-body relativistic scattering with an O(1,1)-symmetric square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshansky, R.; Horwitz, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering theory in the framework of a relativistic manifestly covariant quantum mechanics is applied to the relativistic analog of the nonrelativistic one-dimensional square-well potential, a two-body O(1,1)-symmetric hyperbolic square well in one space and one time dimension. The unitary S matrix is explicitly obtained. For well sizes large compared to the de Broglie wavelength of the reduced motion system, simple formulas are obtained for the associated sequence of resonances. This sequence has equally spaced levels and constant widths for higher resonances, and linearly increasing widths for lower-lying levels

  8. Layer Dependence and Light Tuning Surface Potential of 2D MoS2 on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Qi, Junjie; Xu, Minxuan; Xiao, Jiankun; Xu, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiankun; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Here surface potential of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 2D MoS 2 with various layers is reported, and the effect of adherent substrate and light illumination on surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 are investigated. The surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.84 eV with the increase in the number of layer from 1 to 4 or more. Especially, the surface potentials of monolayer MoS 2 are strongly dependent on its adherent substrate, which are determined to be 4.55, 4.88, 4.93, 5.10, and 5.50 eV on Ag, graphene, Si/SiO 2 , Au, and Pt substrates, respectively. Light irradiation is introduced to tuning the surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 , with the increase in light intensity, the surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.74 eV, while increases from 5.50 to 5.56 eV on Pt substrate. The I-V curves on vertical of monolayer MoS 2 /Pt heterojunction show the decrease in current with the increase of light intensity, and Schottky barrier height at MoS 2 /Pt junctions increases from 0.302 to 0.342 eV. The changed surface potential can be explained by trapped charges on surface, photoinduced carriers, charge transfer, and local electric field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Photoelectrochemical property of CdS and PbS cosensitized on the TiO2 array by novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Pin; Fu, Wuyou; Mu, Yannan; Sun, Hairui; Su, Shi; Chen, Yanli; Yao, Huizhen; Ding, Dong; Liu, Tie; Wang, Jun; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs array was firstly synthesized by novel SILAR (N-SILAR) method. • N-SILAR method could shorten time, simplify procedure, lower cost. • (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs contain both PbS/CdS/TiO 2 and CdS/PbS/TiO 2 composites structure. • (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs can improve electron transport and reduce chemical erosion both. • The photocurrent of (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs was 4.1 mA/cm 2 —8 times as high as TiO 2 . - Abstract: TiO 2 film materials have very wide applications in photovoltaic conversion techniques. And, TiO 2 nanotubes array film with nanowires directly formed on top (denoted as TiO 2 NTWs) was prepared by the anodization method. CdS and PbS quantum dots (QDs) were firstly cosensitized on the TiO 2 NTWs array (denoted as (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs) by novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (N-SILAR), which only needed a cation mixed solution containing Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ and an anionic solution containing S 2− . This N-SILAR method can not only effectively shorten the experimental time, simplify the experiment procedure and reduce the experiment cost, but also make the material of (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs possess the advantages of improving electron transport and reducing chemical erosion. Moreover, the photocurrent of (CdS + PbS)/TiO 2 NTWs was 4.1 mA/cm 2 under an illumination of 100 mW/cm 2 . The most eye-popping part was that the result was 8 times higher than that of the bare TiO 2 NTWs array. The result of photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that this novel material had a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  10. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Roy M. [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pinkerton, Marie E. [Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Elfarra, Adnan A., E-mail: elfarra@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S{sub 2}–S{sub 3} segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S{sub 1}–S{sub 2} segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity.

  11. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Roy M.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S 2 –S 3 segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S 1S 2 segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity

  12. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Evaluation of potential gas clogging associated with managed aquifer recharge from a spreading basin, southwestern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Marston, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in southwestern Utah, USA, is operated for both surface-water storage and managed aquifer recharge via infiltration from surface basin spreading to the underlying Navajo Sandstone. The total volume of estimated recharge from 2002 through 2011 was 131 Mm3., resulting in groundwater levels rising as much as 40 m. Hydraulic and hydrochemical data from the reservoir and various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow were used to evaluate the timing and location or reservoir recharge moving through the aquifer, along either potential clogging from trapped gases in pore throats, siltation, or algal mats. Several hyrdochemical tracers indicated this recharge had arrived at four monitoring wells located within about 300 m of the reservoir by 2012. At these wells, peak total dissolved-gas pressures exceeded two atmospheres (>1,500 mm mercury) and dissolved oxygen approached three times atmospherically equilibrated concentrations (>25 mg/L). these field parameters indicate that large amounts of gas trapped in pore spaces beneath the water table have dissolved. Lesser but notable increases in these dissolved-gas parameters (without increases in other indicators such as chloride-to-bromide ratios) at monitoring wells farther away (>300 m) indicate moderate amounts of in-situ sir entrapment and dissolution caused by the rise in regional groundwater levels. This is confirmed by hydrochemical difference between these sites and wells closer to the reservoir where recharge had already arrived. As the reservoir was being filled by 2002, managed aquifer recharge rates were initially very high (1.5 x 10-4 cm/s) with the vadose zone becoming saturated beneath and surrounding the reservoir. These rates declined to less than 3.5 x 10-6 cm/s during 2008. The 2002-08 decrease was likely associated with a declining regional hydraulic gradient and clogging. Increasing recharge rates during mid-2009 through 2010 may have been partly caused by dissolution of air bubbles

  14. Assessing in vitro solubilization potential of different zinc solubilizing bacterial (zsb isolates Avaliação in vitro do potencial de solubilização de diferentes bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (zsb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj Saravanan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc solubilizing ability of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was assessed using zinc oxide, zinc sulphide (sphalerite and zinc carbonate in both plate and broth assays. ZSB-O-1 (Bacillus sp. showed highest dissolution in the zinc sulphide (Sphalerite ore, with 2.80 cm of dissolution zone and 14.50 cm² of area in the plate assay and 13.60 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay on the 15th day after inoculation. The ZSB-S-2 (Pseudomonas sp. showed more solubilizing ability in the zinc oxide, with 3.30 cm clearing zone and 20.43 cm² area in the plate assay and 16.40 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay over the same inoculation period. The isolate ZSB-S-4 (Pseudomonas sp. has highest solubilizing potential in zinc carbonate with 6.20 cm of dissolution zone and 13.40 cm² area in the plate assay and 13.40 mg kg-1 of zinc in the broth assay. Thus, the solubilization potential varies among different cultures. The solubilization might be due to production of acids by the culture, since the pH of the culture broth has been shifted form 7.0-7.3 to 4.8-6.5 after 15 days of inoculation. The zinc tolerance limit for two cultures (ZSB-O-1 and ZSB-S-2 was studied and determined to be upto 100 mg kg-1 of zinc in the in vitro broth assay.A capacidade de Bacillus sp. e Pseudomonas sp. solubilizar zinco foi avaliada usando óxido de zinco, sulfeto de zinco e carbonato de zinco, em ensaios em placas e em caldo. A cultura ZSB-O-1 (Bacillus sp. apresentou maior dissolução no sulfeto de zinco, com 2,80 cm de zona de dissolução e 14,50 cm² de área no ensaio em placa e 13,60 mg kg-1 de zinco no ensaio em caldo, no 15º dia de incubação. A cultura ZSB-S-2 (Pseudomonas sp. apresentou maior capacidade de dissolução no óxido de zinco, com 3,30 cm de zona de dissolução e 20,43 cm² de área no ensaio em placa e 16,40 mg kg-1 de zinco no ensaio em caldo no mesmo período de inoculação. A cultura ZSB-S-4 (Pseudomonas sp. apresentou maior potencial de solubiliza

  15. Investigation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel

    OpenAIRE

    Winter Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine sensory modalities that may be lost after the RTX treatment of newborn or adult mice, to dissect potential side-effect(s) of molecular neurosurgery, to gather information about the structure and function of the channel by investigating the effects of M2+ on the TRPV1 and by collecting the literature data on the functionally important point mutations of the channel for prospective in silico modeling. The findings of the research work can be summa...

  16. The pure rotational spectrum of ZnS (X 1Σ +)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-10-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of ZnS (X 1Σ +) has been measured using direct-absorption millimeter/sub-millimeter techniques in the frequency range 372-471 GHz. This study is the first spectroscopic investigation of this molecule. Spectra originating in four zinc isotopologues ( 64ZnS, 66ZnS, 68ZnS, and 67ZnS) were recorded in natural abundance in the ground vibrational state, and data from the v = 1 state were also measured for the two most abundant zinc species. Spectroscopic constants have been subsequently determined, and equilibrium parameters have been estimated. The equilibrium bond length was calculated to be re ˜ 2.0464 Å, which agrees well with theoretical predictions. In contrast, the dissociation energy of DE ˜ 3.12 eV calculated for ZnS, assuming a Morse potential, was significantly higher than past experimental and theoretical estimates, suggesting diabatic interaction with other potentials that lower the effective dissociation energy. Although ZnS is isovalent with ZnO, there appear to be subtle differences in bonding between the two species, as suggested by their respective force constants and bond length trends in the 3d series.

  17. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  18. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature

  19. Charged hadron composition of the final state in e+e- annihilation up to 1.9 GeV/c at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, P.P.

    1983-08-01

    The momentum distributions of hadrons produced in e+e - collisions at a center of mass energy of 29 GeV have been measured. The data used in this analysis were collected by the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Positron Electron Project (PEP) in the Spring of 1982. The HRS is a general purpose particle detector consisting of a 16.2 kgauss solenoidal magnet, 17 layers of tracking chambers and multiple layers of lead-scintillator shower counters. The data consist of 8,200 hadronic events, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 pbarn -1 at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. Using the barrel shower counters' time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, charged particles in the momentum range 0.5 - 1.9 GeV/c are separated statistically. Measurements of differential cross sections, d sigma /dp, scaled cross sections, S*(dsigma/dXp), and charged particle fractions are presented and compared with measurements made by the TASSO and the JADE groups

  20. Pressure broadening and frequency shift of the 5S1/2 → 5D5/2 and 5S1/2 → 7S1/2 two photon transitions in 85Rb by the noble gases and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameroski, Nathan D; Hager, Gordon D; Erickson, Christopher J; Burke, John H

    2014-01-01

    Doppler free two photon absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the pressure broadening and frequency shift rates of the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) → 5D 5/2 (F = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) (778.105 nm) and the 5S 1/2 (F = 2) → 7S 1/2 (F = 2) (760.126 nm) two photon transitions in 85 Rb by the noble gases and N 2 . To our knowledge, these rates are reported on for the first time. The self-broadening and shift rate of the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) → 5D 5/2 (F = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) transition and self -broadening rate of the 5S 1/2 (F = 2) → 7S 1/2 (F = 2) transition were also measured. The temperature dependence of the self-frequency shift (Rb-Rb collisions) of these transitions is presented. Helium diffusion rates through Quartz and Pyrex cells are also calculated and the implication of helium diffusion through glass vapor cells is discussed in regards to atomic frequency standards based on these transitions. Experimental pressure broadening and shift rates are compared to theoretically calculated rates assuming a 6, 8 or 6, 8, 10 difference potential and pseudo potential model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between experimental and theoretical values. (paper)

  1. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  2. Renal cell carcinomas mass of <4 cm are not always indolent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Lund, Lars; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of progression to metastatic disease in patients undergoing active surveillance for small renal tumors varies in the literature between 1% and 8%. AIMS: This study aims to examine the incidence of metastasis in small renal tumors of cm in a Danish cohort. SETTINGS AND DESIGN......: Retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 106 patients who were diagnosed with renal cancer (RCC) of cm by CT scan from January 2005 to December 2013 were collected retrospectively in January 2016 from patient charts and analyzed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall...

  3. 2-cm versus 4-cm surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm: a randomised, multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillgren, Peter; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Niin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin....

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) skin permeation rates change with simultaneous exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Spring, Philipp; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Jimenez, Silvia; Sutter, Benjamin; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-05-01

    Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm 2 /h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm 2 /h). Time until permeation (T lags ) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of ultraviolet radiation for control of American cockroach populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, J.B.; Pratt, J.J. Jr.; Mandels, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Populations of Periplaneta americana (L.) were exposed for 8-20 week periods in specially designed rooms to 254 nm UV radiation at low intensity (50-115 ergs s -1 cm -2 ), high intensity (160-220 ergs s -1 cm -2 ), or to white light. The rooms contained tables and chairs to simulate occupied space, with food and water placed in positions exposed to UV radiation. 'General' irradiation (where the whole room was exposed to UV) at 115 ergs s -1 cm -2 and above was effective in producing high mortality in all stages except 8-10th instar nymphs and adults. 'Hot-spots' irradiation (where UV lamps were placed behind table and chair harborages) produced high mortality only in 1st-3rd instar nymphs which would result in slower elimination of a population. Crude aggregation pheromone was not successful in holding cockroaches close to radiation sources or substantially increasing mortality under the conditions of the experiments

  6. Organic Ferroelectric-Based 1T1T Random Access Memory Cell Employing a Common Dielectric Layer Overcoming the Half-Selection Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Hanlin; Ni, Zhenjie; Liu, Jie; Zhen, Yonggang; Zhang, Xiaotao; Jiang, Lang; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2017-09-01

    Organic electronics based on poly(vinylidenefluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) dielectric is facing great challenges in flexible circuits. As one indispensable part of integrated circuits, there is an urgent demand for low-cost and easy-fabrication nonvolatile memory devices. A breakthrough is made on a novel ferroelectric random access memory cell (1T1T FeRAM cell) consisting of one selection transistor and one ferroelectric memory transistor in order to overcome the half-selection problem. Unlike complicated manufacturing using multiple dielectrics, this system simplifies 1T1T FeRAM cell fabrication using one common dielectric. To achieve this goal, a strategy for semiconductor/insulator (S/I) interface modulation is put forward and applied to nonhysteretic selection transistors with high performances for driving or addressing purposes. As a result, high hole mobility of 3.81 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and electron mobility of 0.124 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDI-FCN 2 ) are obtained in selection transistors. In this work, we demonstrate this technology's potential for organic ferroelectric-based pixelated memory module fabrication. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Critical Configuration and Physics Measurements for Beryllium Reflected Assemblies of U(93.15)O₂ Fuel Rods (1.506-cm Pitch and 7-Tube Clusters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Murphy, Michael F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium ratios were measured with enriched uranium metal foils at various locations in the assembly with the fuel tube at the 1.506-cm spacing. They are described in the following subsections. The experiment configuration was the same as the first critical configuration described in HEU-COMP-FAST-004 (Case 1). The experimenter placed 0.75-cm-diameter × 0.010-cm-thick 93.15%-235U-enriched uranium metal foils with and without 0.051-cm-thick cadmium covers at various locations in the core and top reflector. One part of the cadmium cover was cupshape and contained the uranium foil. The other part was a lid that fit over the exposed side of the foil when it was in the cup shaped section of the cover. As can be seen in the logbook, two runs were required to obtain all the measurements necessary for the cadmium ratio. The bare foil measurements within the top reflector were run first as part of the axial foil activation measurements. The results of this run are used for both the axial activation results and the cadmium ratios. Cadmium covered foils were then placed at the same location through the top reflector in a different run. Three pairs of bare and cadmium covered foils were also placed through the core tank. One pair was placed at the axial center of a fuel tube 11.35 cm from the center of the core. Two pairs of foils were placed on top of fuel tubes 3.02 and 12.06 cm from the center of the core. The activation of the uranium metal foils was measured after removal from the assembly using two lead shielded NaI scintillation detectors as follows. The NaI scintillators were carefully matched and had detection efficiencies for counting delayed-fission-product gamma rays with energies above 250 KeV within 5%. In all foil activation measurements, one foil at a specific location was used as a normalizing foil to remove the effects of the decay of fission products during the counting measurements with the NaI detectors. The normalization foil was placed on one Na

  8. Photoelectrochemical property of CdS and PbS cosensitized on the TiO{sub 2} array by novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Pin; Fu, Wuyou [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Mu, Yannan [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Heihe University, Heihe 164300 (China); Sun, Hairui; Su, Shi; Chen, Yanli; Yao, Huizhen; Ding, Dong; Liu, Tie; Wang, Jun; Yang, Haibin [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs array was firstly synthesized by novel SILAR (N-SILAR) method. • N-SILAR method could shorten time, simplify procedure, lower cost. • (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs contain both PbS/CdS/TiO{sub 2} and CdS/PbS/TiO{sub 2} composites structure. • (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs can improve electron transport and reduce chemical erosion both. • The photocurrent of (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs was 4.1 mA/cm{sup 2}—8 times as high as TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} film materials have very wide applications in photovoltaic conversion techniques. And, TiO{sub 2} nanotubes array film with nanowires directly formed on top (denoted as TiO{sub 2}NTWs) was prepared by the anodization method. CdS and PbS quantum dots (QDs) were firstly cosensitized on the TiO{sub 2}NTWs array (denoted as (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs) by novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (N-SILAR), which only needed a cation mixed solution containing Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} and an anionic solution containing S{sup 2−}. This N-SILAR method can not only effectively shorten the experimental time, simplify the experiment procedure and reduce the experiment cost, but also make the material of (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs possess the advantages of improving electron transport and reducing chemical erosion. Moreover, the photocurrent of (CdS + PbS)/TiO{sub 2}NTWs was 4.1 mA/cm{sup 2} under an illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. The most eye-popping part was that the result was 8 times higher than that of the bare TiO{sub 2}NTWs array. The result of photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that this novel material had a potential application in photovoltaic devices.

  9. Electron-impact excitation of multiply-charged ions using energy loss in merged beams: e + Si3+(3s2S1/2) → e + Si3+(3p2P1/2,3/2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlin, E.K.; Thompson, J.S.; Dunn, G.H.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Gregory, D.C.; Smith, A.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of a multiply-charged ion have been measured using an electron-energy-loss technique. Measurements were made near threshold for the process e + Si 3+ (3s 2 S 1/2 ) → e + Si 3+ (3p 2 P 1/2 , 3/2 ) -- 8.88 eV. The 10 -15 cm 2 measured cross section agrees with results of 7-state close coupling calculations to better than the ±20% (90% CL) total uncertainty of the measurements. Convoluting the theoretical curve with a Gaussian energy distribution indicates an energy width of 0.15 approx-lt ΔE approx-lt 0.20 eV. 12 refs., 2 figs

  10. Building a Partnership between the United States and India: Exploring Airpower’s Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    unlikely and where the citizenry of many potential partners is sceptical of American intentions in the region. This article explains why a joint US...an increasingly compelling choice.  Notes 1. “Remarks by the President to U.S.-India Business Council and Entrepreneurship Summit” (Washington, DC...business-council -and- entrepreneurship -summit. 2. “Prime Minister’s Statement to the Media at the Joint Press Conference with the U.S. President” (New

  11. ROV seafloor surveys combining 5-cm lateral resolution multibeam bathymetry with color stereo photographic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Rock, S. M.; Risi, M.; Padial, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is developing a low altitude, high-resolution seafloor mapping capability that combines multibeam sonar with stereo photographic imagery. The goal is to obtain spatially quantitative, repeatable renderings of the seafloor with fidelity at scales of 5 cm or better from altitudes of 2-3 m. The initial test surveys using this sensor system are being conducted from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Ultimately we intend to field this survey system from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). This presentation focuses on the current sensor configuration, methods for data processing, and results from recent test surveys. Bathymetry data are collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 2-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 1.7-cm acrosstrack and 3.5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Allied Vision Technology GX1920 2.8 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view through a dome port. Illumination is provided by dual 100J xenon strobes. Position, depth, and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz RDI Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS Kalman filter is aided by the DVL velocity and pressure data, achieving navigational drift rates less than 0.05% of the distance traveled during surveys. The sensors are mounted onto a toolsled fitted below MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts with the sonars, cameras and strobes all pointed vertically down. During surveys the ROV flies at a 2-m altitude at speeds of 0.1-0.2 m/s. During a four-day R/V Western Flyer cruise in June 2013, we successfully collected multibeam and camera survey data from a 2-m altitude

  12. Fine mapping of Best`s macular dystrophy localises the gene in close proximity to, but distinct from, the D115480/ROM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, C.; Ahlbom, B.E.; Anneren, G. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Best`s macular dystrophy (BMD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by accumulation of lipofuscin beneath the pigment epithelium of the macula, leading to early-onset impairment of central vision. The gene has previously been mapped to 11q13. Based on DNA from 191 people from a large 12-generation family, the gene now has been mapped to a 1.5 cM interval between the markers Fc{epsilon}RI and D11S480/ROM1. By disequilibrium analysis the gene was estimated to be 0.321 cM centromeric to the marker D11S480. Since this on average corresponds to 300 kb, the gene may be at a distance contained in YAC molecules. To physically characterize this region, YAC clones positive for markers flanking BMD have been identified. Sequence analysis of the candidate gene ROM1 did not reveal any mutation. However, one recombination between intragenic ROM1 polymorphisms and BMD was detected, which make it highly unlikely that mutations in ROM1 are causing BMD.

  13. Structure and resonances of the e+–He(1s2s 3Se) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhenzhong; Han Huili; Shi Tingyun; Mitroy, J

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the geometry and resonances of the e + He( 3 S e ) system in the framework of hyperspherical coordinates. A model potential proposed by us is used to describe the interaction between the out electron with the He + ionic core. The calculated binding energy and expectation distance of the system are in agreement with other calculations. In addition, two resonances below the e + –He(1s3s 3 S e ) threshold and one resonance below the Ps(n=2)–He + threshold are identified. (paper)

  14. A two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesize NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor device based on NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres as the positive electrode and the porous activated carbon as the negative electrode was successfully fabricated via a facile two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach. This NiCo2S4/NiS//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor achieved a high energy density of 43.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 160 W kg-1, an encouraging specific capacitance of 123 F g-1 at a current density of 1 mA cm-2, as well as a long-term performance with capacitance degradation of 5.2% after 3000 consecutive cycles at 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the NiCo2S4/NiS electrode also demonstrated an excellent specific capacitance (1947.5 F g-1 at 3 mA cm-2) and an outstanding cycling stability (retaining 90.3% after 1000 cycles). The remarkable electrochemical performances may be attributed to the effect of NiS doping on NiCo2S4 which could enlarge the surface area and increase the surface roughness.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of Consequence Management (CM) Data Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simpson, Matthew D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Okada, Colin E. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Bingham, Avery A. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and execute methods for characterizing uncertainty in data products that are deve loped and distributed by the DOE Consequence Management (CM) Program. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty from across the CM skill sets contribute to the ultimate p roduction of CM data products. This report presents the methods used to develop a probabilistic framework to characterize this uncertainty and provides results for an uncertainty analysis for a study scenario analyzed using this framework.

  16. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  17. Electron Excitation Rate Coefficients for Transitions from the IS21S Ground State to the 1S2S1,3S and 1S2P1,3P0 Excited States of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Kingston, A. E.; McDowell, M. R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The available experimental and theoretical electron impact excitation cross section data for the transitions from the 1s2 1S ground state to the 1s2s 1,3S and 1s2p 1,3P0 excited states of helium are assessed. Based on this assessed data, excitation rate coefficients are calculated over a wide electron temperature range below 3.0×106K. A comparison with other published results suggests that the rates used should be lower by a factor of 2 or more.

  18. In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao

    2014-05-01

    Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

  19. An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z approximately 0.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B

    2010-07-22

    Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z approximately 0.5 to approximately 2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z approximately 1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the 'cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (H i) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of approximately 4sigma.

  20. On employing H216O, H217O, H218O, and D216O lines as frequency standards in the 15-170 cm-1 window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2008-01-01

    The protocol MARVEL, standing for measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels, is used to study high-accuracy measurements of rotational lines of four isotopologues of water, H 2 16 O, H 2 17 O, H 2 18 O, and D 2 16 O, obtained by spectroscopy in the far-infrared (FIR) region of 15-170 cm -1 by Matsushima et al. [Matsushima F, Odashima H, Iwasaki T, Tsunekawa S, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of H 2 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Struct 1995; 352/353, 371-8; Matsushima F, Nagase H, Nakauchi T, Odashima H, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Spectrosc 1999;193: 217-23; Matsushima F, Matsunaga M, Qian GY, Ohtaki Y, Wang RL, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of D 2 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Spectrosc 2001;206: 41-6; Matsushima F, Tomatsu N, Nagai T, Moriwaki Y, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions in the v 2 =1 state of H 2 O. J Mol Spectrosc 2006;235: 190-5]. MARVEL validates the high accuracy of most of the measured line positions. It results in a considerable number of energy levels with an average internal uncertainty of only 40 kHz (2σ). It also supports serious inaccuracy problems when Watson-type A-reduced Hamiltonians are used for predicting the highly accurate rotational measurements for water. Finally, MARVEL suggests a large number of para-water levels, for example 41 for H 2 16 O, which are candidates for becoming frequency standards in the FIR region of 15-170 cm -1 (the 0.5-5 THz window) when an accuracy of about 0.1 MHz is deemed to be sufficient

  1. Lineshape of Ne 1s photoionization satellite [1s2s]({sup 3}S)3s and its valence Auger decay spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarzhemsky, V.G.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V

    2002-12-15

    Lineshape of Ne1s photoionization satellite [1s2s]({sup 3}S)3s({sup 2}S) and lineshapes of corresponding low-energy Auger spectra are calculated using the Many-Body Perturbation Theory. The results obtained reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetrical lineshape of photoelectron satellite and its intensity.

  2. Prospective comparative study of miniperc and standard PNL for treatment of 1 to 2 cm size renal stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shashikant; Sharma, Rajan; Garg, Chandrapraksh; Kurien, Abraham; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2011-09-01

    • To evaluate the results of miniperc vis-à-vis standard PNL in the treatment of stones of 1-2 cm in size. Miniperc may represent a reasonable procedure in patients with nonbulky urolithiasis offering a similar outcome as standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with advantage of reduced morbidity. • 55 procedures including 27 miniperc and 28 standard PNL were performed for renal stones 1-2 cm in size. Pediatric patient, active urinary tract infection, renal malformation, uncorrected coagulopathy and morbid obesity patients were excluded from the study. • The parameters studied were demography, operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement, hemoglobin drop, complications and stone clearance. • Mean tract size was 18.2 ± 2 F (15-20) and 26.8 ± 2 F (24-30), P value PNL, respectively. Holmium LASER and pneumatic lithotripter were the main energy sources used in miniperc and standard PNL, respectively. • Miniperc operative time was longer than that of standard PNL (45.2 ± 12.6 vs 31 ± 16.6 min, P= 0.0008 respectively). • Conversely, there was an advantage of miniperc over standard PNL in terms of a significantly reduced hemoglobin drop (0.8 ± 0.9 vs 1.3 ± 0.4 gram%, P= 0.01), analgesic requirement (55.4 ± 50 vs 70.2 ± 52 mg tramadol, P= 0.29) and hospital stay (3.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.8 ± 0.6 days, P ≤ 0.001), respectively. • Intra- operative conversion of the procedure into a tubeless PNL was significantly more in the miniperc group (P ≤ 0.001). The miniperc and standard PNL group had clearance rates of 96% and 100%, respectively at 1 month follow up. • This study demonstrated significant advantages of the miniperc procedure in terms of reduced bleeding leading to a tubeless procedure and reduced hospital stay. • The stone free rates and the complications were similar in either group. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. CdS/TiO2 photoanodes via solution ion transfer method for highly efficient solar hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Karuturi, Siva; Yew, Rowena; Reddy Narangari, Parvathala; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Li, Li; Vora, Kaushal; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a unique semiconducting material for solar hydrogen generation applications with a tunable, narrow bandgap that straddles water redox potentials. However, its potential towards efficient solar hydrogen generation has not yet been realized due to low photon-to-current conversions, high charge carrier recombination and the lack of controlled preparation methods. In this work, we demonstrate a highly efficient CdS/TiO2 heterostructured photoelectrode using atomic layer deposition and solution ion transfer reactions. Enabled by the well-controlled deposition of CdS nanocrystals on TiO2 inverse opal (TiIO) nanostructures using the proposed method, a saturation photocurrent density of 9.1 mA cm-2 is realized which is the highest ever reported for CdS-based photoelectrodes. We further demonstrate that the passivation of a CdS surface with an ultrathin amorphous layer (˜1.5 nm) of TiO2 improves the charge collection efficiency at low applied potentials paving the way for unassisted solar hydrogen generation.

  4. Electronic structure and spectral properties of heavy actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shick, Alexander B; Kolorenc, Jindrich; Lichtenstein, Alexander I; Havela, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Selected electronic properties of Pu, Am, Cm and Bk are calculated with the aid of charge self-consistent LDA + Hubbard I method. Presented all-electron calculations are performed in the full-potential LAPW basis and incorporate spin-orbit interaction. The results are found to be in good agreement with experimental valence photoelectron spectra as well as with core XAS/EELS spectra of heavy actinides.

  5. Downregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 by dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander; Jäger, Manuel; Völzke, Anja; Grammatikos, Georgios; Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2015-06-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is generated by sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and -2 and acts mainly as an extracellular ligand at five specific receptors, denoted S1P1-5. After activation, S1P receptors regulate important processes in the progression of renal diseases, such as mesangial cell migration and survival. Previously, we showed that dexamethasone enhances SK-1 activity and S1P formation, which protected mesangial cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment lowered S1P1 mRNA and protein expression levels in rat mesangial cells. This effect was abolished in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. In addition, in vivo studies showed that dexamethasone downregulated S1P1 expression in glomeruli isolated from mice treated with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg body weight). Functionally, we identified S1P1 as a key player mediating S1P-induced mesangial cell migration. We show that dexamethasone treatment significantly lowered S1P-induced migration of mesangial cells, which was again reversed in the presence of RU-486. In summary, we suggest that dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration via downregulation of S1P1. Overall, these results demonstrate that dexamethasone has functional important effects on sphingolipid metabolism and action in renal mesangial cells.

  6. MicroRNA-4639 Is a Regulator of DJ-1 Expression and a Potential Early Diagnostic Marker for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and has profound impacts on the daily lives of patients. However, there is a lack of effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the mechanisms of PD pathogenesis remain obscure. microRNAs (miRNAs are post-transcriptional gene regulators and can be easily detected in plasma, which suggests a promising role as diagnostic markers. Here, we aimed to explore a peripheral biomarker, which not only can be applied for early diagnosis of PD but also has the potential to be a therapeutic target. Through miRNA microarray screening and further validation in plasma from 169 sporadic PD patients, 170 healthy controls, and 60 essential tremor (ET patients, hsa-miR-4639-5p level was identified to be significantly up-regulated in PD patients. Also, it was able to discriminate between early PD patients (disease duration ≤2 years or Hoehn and Yahr stage 1–2.5 and healthy controls. Furthermore, hsa-miR-4639-5p was shown to negatively regulate DJ-1 (PARK7, a well-known PD-related gene, in the post-transcriptional level. Abnormal up-regulation of hsa-miR-4639-5p caused down-regulation of DJ-1 protein level, leading to severe oxidative stress and neuronal death. In conclusion, hsa-miR-4639-5p has the potential to be a peripheral diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for early PD.

  7. D-brane potentials from multi-trace deformations in AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernamonti, Alice; Craps, Ben

    2009-01-01

    It is known that certain AdS boundary conditions allow smooth initial data to evolve into a big crunch. To study this type of cosmological singularity, one can use the dual quantum field theory, where the non-standard boundary conditions are reflected by the presence of a multi-trace potential unbounded below. For specific AdS 4 and AdS 5 models, we provide a D-brane (or M-brane) interpretation of the unbounded potential. Using probe brane computations, we show that the AdS boundary conditions of interest cause spherical branes to be pushed to the boundary of AdS in finite time, and that the corresponding potential agrees with the multi-trace deformation of the dual field theory. Systems with expanding spherical D3-branes are related to big crunch supergravity solutions by a phenomenon similar to geometric transition.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF CRACKING ON THE SURFACE POTENTIAL OF ICY GRAINS IN SATURN’S E-RING: LABORATORY STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Caixia; Bahr, David A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Baragiola, Raúl A., E-mail: cb8nw@virginia.edu [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    Within Saturn's E-ring, dust grains are coated by water vapor co-released with ice grains from the geyser-like eruptions of Enceladus. These ice-coated grains have intrinsic surface potential and interact synergistically with the ions and electrons of Saturn's magnetospheric plasmas. We perform laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of water-ice growth on the surface potential, using amorphous solid water (ASW) films. We estimate the growth of the surface potential to be ∼ 2.5 mV (Earth) yr{sup 1} and 112 mV yr{sup 1} for E-ring grains at ∼4.5 R {sub s} and 3.95 R {sub s} outside Enceladus’s plume, respectively. In addition, our measurements show that the linear relationship between the surface potential and the film thickness, as described in previous studies, has an upper limit, where the film spontaneously cracks above a porosity-dependent critical thickness. Heating of the cracked films with (and without) deposited charge shows that significant positive (and negative) surface potentials are retained at temperatures above 110 K, contrary to the minimal values (roughly zero) for thin, transparent ASW films. The significant surface potentials observed on micron-scale cracked ice films after thermal cycling, (5–20) V, are consistent with Cassini measurements, which indicate a negative charge of up to 5 V for E-ring dust particles at ∼5 R {sub s}. Therefore, the native grain surface potential resulting from water-vapor coating must be included in modeling studies of interactions between E-ring icy surfaces and Saturn's magnetospheric plasma.

  9. Potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the triplet states of the O2(X3Σg-) - O2(X3Σg-,a1Δg,b1Σg+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Tijs; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit C

    2017-08-28

    We compute four-dimensional diabatic potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment surfaces of O 2 -O 2 , relevant for the theoretical description of collision-induced absorption in the forbidden X 3 Σ g -  → a 1 Δ g and X 3 Σ g -  → b 1 Σ g + bands at 7883 cm -1 and 13 122 cm -1 , respectively. We compute potentials at the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level and dipole surfaces at the MRCI and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) levels of theory. Potentials and dipole surfaces are transformed to a diabatic basis using a recent multiple-property-based diabatization algorithm. We discuss the angular expansion of these surfaces, derive the symmetry constraints on the expansion coefficients, and present working equations for determining the expansion coefficients by numerical integration over the angles. We also present an interpolation scheme with exponential extrapolation to both short and large separations, which is used for representing the O 2 -O 2 distance dependence of the angular expansion coefficients. For the triplet ground state of the complex, the potential energy surface is in reasonable agreement with previous calculations, whereas global excited state potentials are reported here for the first time. The transition dipole moment surfaces are strongly dependent on the level of theory at which they are calculated, as is also shown here by benchmark calculations at high symmetry geometries. Therefore, ab initio calculations of the collision-induced absorption spectra cannot become quantitatively predictive unless more accurate transition dipole surfaces can be computed. This is left as an open question for method development in electronic structure theory. The calculated potential energy and transition dipole moment surfaces are employed in quantum dynamical calculations of collision-induced absorption spectra reported in Paper II [T. Karman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 084307 (2017)].

  10. SENSITIVE 21 cm OBSERVATIONS OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE LOCAL GROUP NEAR M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Spencer A.; Pisano, D. J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Lockman, Felix J., E-mail: swolfe4@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: DJPisano@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    Very sensitive 21 cm H i measurements have been made at several locations around the Local Group galaxy M31 using the Green Bank Telescope at an angular resolution of 9.′1, with a 5σ detection level of N{sub H} {sub i} = 3.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} for a 30 km s{sup −1} line. Most of the H i in a 12 square-degree area almost equidistant between M31 and M33 is contained in nine discrete clouds that have a typical size of a few kpc and a H i mass of 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙}. Their velocities in the Local Group Standard of Rest lie between −100 and +40 km s{sup −1}, comparable to the systemic velocities of M31 and M33. The clouds appear to be isolated kinematically and spatially from each other. The total H i mass of all nine clouds is 1.4 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} for an adopted distance of 800 kpc, with perhaps another 0.2 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} in smaller clouds or more diffuse emission. The H i mass of each cloud is typically three orders of magnitude less than the dynamical (virial) mass needed to bind the cloud gravitationally. Although they have the size and H i mass of dwarf galaxies, the clouds are unlikely to be part of the satellite system of the Local Group, as they lack stars. To the north of M31, sensitive H i measurements on a coarse grid find emission that may be associated with an extension of the M31 high-velocity cloud (HVC) population to projected distances of ∼100 kpc. An extension of the M31 HVC population at a similar distance to the southeast, toward M33, is not observed.

  11. First-principles study on doping and temperature dependence of thermoelectric property of Bi2S3 thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhang, Cuiling

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The direction-induced ZT is found. At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10 19 cm −3 , the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36, which is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. This result matches well the analysis of electron effective mass. Highlights: ► Electrical transportations of Bi 2 S 3 depend on the concentration and temperature. ► The direction-induced ZT is found. ► At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10 19 cm −3 , the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36. ► The maximal ZT value is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. ► By doping and temperature tuning, Bi 2 S 3 is a promising thermoelectric material. - Abstract: The electronic structure and thermoelectric property of Bi 2 S 3 are investigated. The electron and hole effective mass of Bi 2 S 3 is analyzed in detail, from which we find that the thermoelectric transportation varies in different directions in Bi 2 S 3 crystal. Along ac plane the higher figure of merit (ZT) could be achieved. For n-type doped Bi 2 S 3 , the optimal doping concentration is found in the range of (1.0–5.0) × 10 19 cm −3 , in which the maximal ZT reaches 0.21 at 900 K, but along ZZ direction, the maximal ZT reaches 0.36. These findings provide a new understanding of thermoelectricity-dependent structure factors and improving ZT ways. The donor concentration N increases as T increases at one bar of pressure under a suitable chemical potential μ, but above this chemical potential μ, the donor concentration N keeps a constant

  12. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  13. A new empirical potential energy function for Ar2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Philip T.; Dham, Ashok K.; Chandrasekhar, Pragna; McCourt, Frederick R. W.; Le Roy, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    A critical re-analysis of all available spectroscopic and virial coefficient data for Ar2 has been used to determine an improved empirical analytic potential energy function that has been 'tuned' to optimise its agreement with viscosity, diffusion and thermal diffusion data, and whose short-range behaviour is in reasonably good agreement with the most recent ab initio calculations for this system. The recommended Morse/long-range potential function is smooth and differentiable at all distances, and incorporates both the correct theoretically predicted long-range behaviour and the correct limiting short-range functional behaviour. The resulting value of the well depth is ? cm-1 and the associated equilibrium distance is re = 3.766 (±0.002) Å, while the 40Ar s-wave scattering length is -714 Å.

  14. Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

    2005-01-01

    A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar(reg s ign) L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar(reg s ign) L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar(reg s ign) L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar(reg s ign) L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar(reg s ign) L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar(reg s ign) L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip

  15. Does laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication prevent the progression of Barrett′s oesophagus? Is the length of Barrett′s a factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamehriz Fahad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have suggested that both laparoscopic and open anti-reflux surgery may produce regression of Barrett′s mucosa. MATERIAL AND METHODS; We reviewed 21 patients (13M: 8F, mean age 46.7±3.18 years with documented Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD and Non-dysplastic Barrett′s esophagus (15 patients ?3 cm segment, 6 patients < 3 cm segment on long term proton pump inhibitor therapy who underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF between 1993 and 2000. All patients had undergone pre and yearly postoperative upper GI endoscopy with 4 quadrant biopsies every 2 cm. All patients also underwent pre- and 6 months postoperative 24-hr pH study, esophageal manometry, SF36, and GERD symptom score. The mean duration of GERD symptoms was 8.4±1.54 years pre-operative. The mean follow-up after surgery was 39±6.32 months. RESULTS: Postoperatively, there was significant improvement in reflux symptom score (37.5 ± 3.98 points versus 8.7 ± 2.46 points, P = 0.0001, % acid reflux in 24 hr (26.5 ± 3.91% versus 2.1 ± 0.84%, P< 0.0001 and an increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (3.71 ± 1.08 mmHg versus 12.29 ± 1.34 mmHg, P = 0.0053. Complete or partial regression of Barrett′s mucosa occurred in 9 patients. All patients with complete regression had <4 cm segment of Barrett′s. Progression or cancer transformation was not observed in any of the patients. CONCLUSION: LNF in patients with Barrett′s oesophagus results in significant control of GERD symptoms. LNF can prevent progression of Barrett′s oesophagus and in patients with Barrett′s <4 cm may lead to complete regression.

  16. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  17. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  18. Cone beam computed tomography and its image guidance technology during percutaneous nucleoplasty procedures at L5/S1 lumbar level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Piacentino, Filippo; Giorlando, Francesca [University of Insubria, Unit of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Varese (Italy); Magenta Biasina, Alberto; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [University of Milan, San Paolo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Milan (Italy); Bacuzzi, Alessandro [University of Insubria, Anaesthesia and Palliative Care, Varese (Italy); Novario, Raffaele [University of Insubria, Medical Physics Department, Varese (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous nucleoplasty procedures at L5/S1 level using cone beam CT (CBCT) and its associated image guidance technology for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). We retrospectively reviewed 25 cases (20 men, 5 women) of LDH at L5/S1 levels. CBCT as guidance imaging was chosen after a first unsuccessful fluoroscopy attempt that was related to complex anatomy (n = 15), rapid pathological changes due to degenerative diseases (n = 7) or both (n = 3). Technical success, defined as correct needle positioning in the target LDH, and safety were evaluated; overall procedure time and radiation dose were registered. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain and discomfort pre-intervention after 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure. Technical success was 100 %; using CBCT as guidance imaging the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in 20 out of 25 patients. Neither major nor minor complications were registered during or after the procedure. The average procedure time was 11 min and 56 s (range, 9-15 min), whereas mean procedural radiation dose was 46.25 Gy.cm{sup 2} (range 38.10-52.84 Gy.cm{sup 2}), and mean fluoroscopy time was 5 min 34 s (range 3 min 40 s to 6 min 55 s). The VAS pain score decreased significantly from 7.6 preoperatively to 3.9 at 1 week, 2.8 at 1 month, 2.1 at 3 months, and 1.6 at 6 months postoperatively. CBCT-guided percutaneous nucleoplasty is a highly effective technique for LDH with acceptable procedure time and radiation dose. (orig.)

  19. Effect of TEA on characteristics of CdS/PbS thin film solar cells prepared by CBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattarian H.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar cell with a glass/ITO/CdS/PbS/Al structure was constructed. Both window (CdS and absorption (PbS layers were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD method. The CdS window layer was deposited on ITO-glass. The PbS nanocrystalline thin film was prepared with and without triethanolamine on CdS films at bath temperature of 25 °C. CdS and PbS nanocrystals were identified using XRD and SEM. The cells are photosensitive in a large spectral range (at visible and near infrared regions. The cell with absorbing layer obtained from the bath without TEA has higher efficiency with the following parameters: the open circuit voltage (Voc is 275 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 12.24 mA/cm2, maximum voltage (Vmax is 165 mV and maximum current (Jmax is 7.11 mA/cm2 with the efficiency η = 1.31 %, fill factor FF is 32 % under the illumination intensity of 90 mW/cm2. The cells have an area of 0.15 cm2.

  20. Charting the Parameter Space of the 21-cm Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan

    2018-05-01

    The high-redshift 21-cm signal of neutral hydrogen is expected to be observed within the next decade and will reveal epochs of cosmic evolution that have been previously inaccessible. Due to the lack of observations, many of the astrophysical processes that took place at early times are poorly constrained. In recent work we explored the astrophysical parameter space and the resulting large variety of possible global (sky-averaged) 21-cm signals. Here we extend our analysis to the fluctuations in the 21-cm signal, accounting for those introduced by density and velocity, Lyα radiation, X-ray heating, and ionization. While the radiation sources are usually highlighted, we find that in many cases the density fluctuations play a significant role at intermediate redshifts. Using both the power spectrum and its slope, we show that properties of high-redshift sources can be extracted from the observable features of the fluctuation pattern. For instance, the peak amplitude of ionization fluctuations can be used to estimate whether heating occurred early or late and, in the early case, to also deduce the cosmic mean ionized fraction at that time. The slope of the power spectrum has a more universal redshift evolution than the power spectrum itself and can thus be used more easily as a tracer of high-redshift astrophysics. Its peaks can be used, for example, to estimate the redshift of the Lyα coupling transition and the redshift of the heating transition (and the mean gas temperature at that time). We also show that a tight correlation is predicted between features of the power spectrum and of the global signal, potentially yielding important consistency checks.

  1. Improved wavelengths for the 1s2s3S1-1s2p3P0,2 transitions in helium-like Si12+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Myers, E.G.; Silver, J.D.; Traebert, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1979-01-01

    The wavelengths of the 1s2s 3 S 1 -1s2p 3 P 0 , 2 transitions in He-like Si 12+ have been remaesured to be 87.86 +- 0.01 nm and 81.48 +- 0.01 nm. The use of Rydberg lines for the calibration of fast beam spectra is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3.0 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30 0 and +- 40 0 . 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables