WorldWideScience

Sample records for closed environment plant

  1. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    Ethylene production by 20-m^2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml m^-2 day^-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 nl g^-1 fresh weight h^-1 Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  2. Plant Closings and Capital Flight: A Computer-Assisted Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Stanley; Breitbart, Myrna M.

    1989-01-01

    A course at Hampshire College was designed to simulate the decision-making environment in which constituencies in a medium-sized city would respond to the closing and relocation of a major corporate plant. The project, constructed as a role simulation with a computer component, is described. (MLW)

  3. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  4. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  5. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  6. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  7. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.

  8. Physiological Disorders in Closed Environment-Grown Crops for Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Morrow, Robert

    Crop production for life support systems in space will require controlled environments where temperature, humidity, CO2, and light might differ from natural environments where plants evolved. Physiological disorders, i.e., abnormal plant growth and development, can occur under these controlled environments. Among the most common of these disorders are Ca deficiency injuries such as leaf tipburn (e.g., lettuce), blossom-end-rot in fruits (e.g., tomato and pepper), and internal tissue necrosis in fruits or tubers (e.g., cucumber and potato). Increased Ca nutrition to the plants typically has little effect on these disorders, but slowing overall growth or providing better air circulation to increase transpiration can be effective. A second common disorder is oedema or intumescence, which appears as callus-like growth or galls on leaves (e.g., sweetpotato, potato, pepper, and tomato). This disorder can be reduced by increasing the near UV radiation ( 300-400 nm) to the plants. Leaf injury and necrosis can occur under long photoperiods (e.g., tomato, potato, and pepper) and at super-elevated (i.e., ¿ than 4000 mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations (e.g., soybean, potato, and radish), and these can be managed by reducing the photoperiod and CO2 concentration, respectively. Lack of blue light in the spectrum (e.g., under red LEDs or LPS lamps) can result in leggy growth and/or leaves lacking in chlorophyll (e.g., wheat, bean, and radish). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most commonly ethylene, can accumulate in tightly closed systems and result in a variety of negative responses. Most of these disorders can be mitigated by altering the environmental set-points or by using more resistant cultivars.

  9. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  10. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  11. Measurements of trace contaminants in closed-type plant cultivation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Nitta, K.; Tako, Y.; Ashida, A.; Otsubo, K.; Saito, T.

    Trace contaminants generated in closed facilities can cause abnormal plant growth. We present measurement data of trace contaminants released from soils, plants, and construction materials. We mainly used two closed chambers, a Closed-type Plant and Mushroom Cultivation Chamber (PMCC) and Closed-type Plant Cultivation Equipment (CPCE). Although trace gas budgets from soils obtained in this experiment are only one example, the results indicate that the budgets of trace gases, as well as CO_2 and O_2, change greatly with the degree of soil maturation and are dependent on the kind of substances in the soil. Both in the PMCC and in the CPCE, trace gases such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and xylene were detected. These gases seemed to be released from various materials used in the construction of these chambers. The degree of increase in these trace gas levels was dependent on the relationship between chamber capacity and plant quantity. Results of trace gas measurement in the PMCC, in which lettuce and shiitake mushroom were cultivated, showed that ethylene was released both from lettuce and from the mushroom culture bed. The release rates were about 90 ng bed^-1 h^-1 for the shiitake mushroom culture bed (volume is 1700 cm^3) and 4.1 ~ 17.3 ng dm^-2h^-1 (leaf area basis) for lettuce. Higher ethylene release rates per plant and per unit leaf area were observed in mature plants than in young plants.

  12. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as

  13. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  14. Analysis of color environment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Kazuyuki; Akagi, Ichiro; Souma, Ichiro; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of color and psychological analysis of the outlook of nuclear power plants and the visual environments inside of the plants. Study one was the color measurements of the outlook of nuclear plants and the visual environment inside of the plants. Study two was a survey of the impressions on the visual environments of nuclear plants obtained from observers and interviews of the workers. Through these analysis, we have identified the present state of, and the problems of the color environments of the nuclear plants. In the next step, we have designed the color environments of inside and outside of the nuclear plants which we would recommend (inside designs were about fuel handling room, operation floor of turbine building, observers' pathways, central control room, rest room for the operators). Study three was the survey about impressions on our design inside and outside of the nuclear plants. Nuclear plant observers, residents in Osaka city, residents near the nuclear plants, the operators, employees of subsidiary company and the PR center guides rated their impressions on the designs. Study four was the survey about the design of the rest room for the operators controlling the plants. From the results of four studies, we have proposed some guidelines and problems about the future planning about the visual environments of nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  16. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  17. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  18. Performance review: PBMR closed cycle gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.N.; Tourlidakis, A.; Pilidis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Helium is considered as one of the ideal working fluid for closed cycle using nuclear heat source due to its low neutron absorption as well as high thermodynamic properties. The commercial viability of the Helium turbo machinery depends on operational success. The past attempts failed due to poor performances manifested in the form of drop in efficiency, inability to reach maximum load, slow response to the transients etc. Radical changes in the basic design were suggested in some instances as possible solutions. A better understanding of the operational performance is necessary for the detailed design of the plant and the control systems. This paper describes the theory behind the off design and transient modelling of a closed cycle gas turbine plant. A computer simulation model has been created specifically for this cycle. The model has been tested for various turbine entry temperatures along the steady state and its replications at various locations were observed. The paper also looks at the various control methods available for a closed cycle and some of the options were simulated. (author)

  19. A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuliyaV. Klochko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

  20. Using the iPlant collaborative discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shannon L; Lenards, Andrew J; Barthelson, Roger A; Merchant, Nirav; McKay, Sheldon J

    2013-06-01

    The iPlant Collaborative is an academic consortium whose mission is to develop an informatics and social infrastructure to address the "grand challenges" in plant biology. Its cyberinfrastructure supports the computational needs of the research community and facilitates solving major challenges in plant science. The Discovery Environment provides a powerful and rich graphical interface to the iPlant Collaborative cyberinfrastructure by creating an accessible virtual workbench that enables all levels of expertise, ranging from students to traditional biology researchers and computational experts, to explore, analyze, and share their data. By providing access to iPlant's robust data-management system and high-performance computing resources, the Discovery Environment also creates a unified space in which researchers can access scalable tools. Researchers can use available Applications (Apps) to execute analyses on their data, as well as customize or integrate their own tools to better meet the specific needs of their research. These Apps can also be used in workflows that automate more complicated analyses. This module describes how to use the main features of the Discovery Environment, using bioinformatics workflows for high-throughput sequence data as examples. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. 42 CFR 491.6 - Physical plant and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical plant and environment. 491.6 Section 491.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...: Conditions for Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage § 491.6 Physical plant and environment. (a...

  2. On application of a new hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based photovoltaic system to the closed plant factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Joe-Air; Su, Yu-Li; Shieh, Jyh-Cherng; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Lin, Tzu-Shiang; Lin, Ta-Te; Fang, Wei; Chou, Jui-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    obtained in an outdoor environment over a period of one year, the hybrid MPPT method not only decreases energy loss but also increases power utilization. These results demonstrate the applicability of the PV system to a closed plant factory for saving energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions

  3. Closing the loops between plant design and operator-An automatic logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tally, C.

    1985-01-01

    The close relationship between plant owner and NSSS designer frequently ceases after the plant is through startup testing. Thus, there is no continuous feedback between the operations staff and the designer. As a result, there is no assurance that the plant is being operated within the design envelope defined by the NSSS component stress reports. The link between plant operation and the plant design basis is vital to ensure that the plant can be safely operated for its full licensed life. This link is also a key to extending the life of the plant since the fatigue history of critical components is an important element of any justification for extended component life. An allowable Operating Transient Cycles Program established by Duke Power and Babcock and Wilcox successfully closed the operator-designer loop at the Oconee Nuclear Station. This paper describes that program, some of its conclusions, and also describes the next logical step in its development...automation of the transient logging process. A transient monitoring program must satisfy many requirements ranging from sensing the onset of a transient or slow power maneuver to recording sufficient data to provide for human checking of all computerized conclusions and results. Although not yet available to the industry, this type of program will ultimately be a virtual necessity for all nuclear stations

  4. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigations on Chlorophytum comosum ability to remove toluene from air in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, G.; Lakel, A.

    Plants play a major role in bioregenerative systems for air and water supplies. They may also contribute to the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air in a closed environment, based on the ability to absorb toxic compounds and to detoxify them. The aim of our work was to study the capabilities of Chlorophytum comosum for toluene removal and to identify the main parts of the plants which are responsible for the elimination. A 1-m3 sealed chamber was designed and built in 8-mm window glass assembled with UV-polymerized glue. It was equipped with one internal fan for air mixing. The other materials (low-emitting and low-adsorptive) were aluminium and PTFE. A cooling system was also used to regulate humidity content which was monitored continuously as well as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Experiments were carried out in this chamber with Chlorophytum comosum plants exposed to an initial concentration of 11.5x103 μg toluene m-3. Pollutant concentration was measured every five minutes during several days. Toluene removal was studied in various configurations (potting media, hydroponic conditions{ldots}) in order to document the level of contribution of each component (leaves, roots, microorganisms and soil) of the potted plants. Results show that 54 % of toluene was removed in 72 h with the whole potted plant. A large participation of the soil in the purification process was noticed whereas foliage seemed to have little effect at the light intensity used in the experiments. Moreover, the tests realized with both natural and sterilized soils suggest that soil bacteria (in potting media) play a significant role in the removal process showing that soil and its microorganisms may have complementary roles in the elimination phenomena. Detoxifying function of potted plants could find current applications in improving air quality, in particular indoor air from domestic buildings.

  6. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB. Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 solubilizing ability was described as average (2-3 mm after 7 days of incubation and as high (>3 mm after 14 days of incubation. The analyzed bacterium was an antagonist of major crop pathogenic fungi. A high degree of pathogen growth inhibition was reported with regard to Rhizoctonia solani (38%, whereas the tested strain's ability to inhibit the growth of fungi of the genera Fusarium and Microdochium nivalis was somewhat lower at 20-29%. The bacterium proliferated in Roundup 360 SL solutions with concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg•ml-1.

  7. The Plant-Window System: A framework for an integrated computing environment at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The extensive use of computer technology in advanced reactor designs provides the opportunity to greatly expand the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, to support highly efficient and increasingly safe operation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and sued, to the proper users throughout the plan. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications within a common computing environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces so as to define a flexible computing environment for both current generation nuclear power plants and advanced reactor designs

  8. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  9. Vitality of plants to live in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuri, Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi; Leman, A. M.; Hariri, Azian; Idris, Ahmad Fu'ad; Afandi, Azizi

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is generally a public concern because 90% of people spend their time indoor. IAQ must be preserved wisely to guarantee the health of the building occupants. One of the ways to maintain the quality of air is by placing plants in the building. However, all plants come from the outdoor, and the environment is different compared to indoor. Environmental factors such as temperature and light will absolutely affect the growth of the plant. Light and temperature that are too bright or too deem can wither the plants. Nevertheless, certain plant is capable of adapting with different situation after assimilation process has been conducted. This study intends to analyze the capacity of seven selected plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium) to live in an indoor environment. The vitality of plants is based on photosynthetic level that is measured using leaf - chamber (LI-COR 6400). Two groups of plants were located in indoor and outdoor (indigenous location) setting, and were allowed to assimilate for two months before measurement were carried out. The results for the plant located indoor shows that only Spider Plant cannot perform photosynthesis under 300 lux, where the photosynthetic value remains negative. Meanwhile, other plants such as Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, and Syngonium that were left indoor showed similar 300 lux in which conform the ability of the plants to perform photosynthesis with the value of 0.3, 0.15, 0.35, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.1. In comparison, all of the plants that were stationed indoor and outdoor (except Spider Plant), the light compensation point (LCP) for indoor shows smaller value than the outdoor. This is because all the indoor plants had down - regulated their photosynthesis process by becoming more sensitive to light after their assimilation. From this study, it can be concluded that all plants except Spider Plant is able to live

  10. The Plant-Window system: A flexible, expandable computing environment for the integration of power plant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed on Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  11. Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J Miguel; Grant, Olga M; Chaves, M Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Stomatal regulation is a key determinant of plant photosynthesis and water relations, influencing plant survival, adaptation, and growth. Stomata sense the surrounding environment and respond rapidly to abiotic and biotic stresses. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g s) and/or transpiration (E) are therefore valuable physiological parameters to be monitored in plant and agricultural sciences. However, leaf gas exchange measurements involve contact with leaves and often interfere with leaf functioning. Besides, they are time consuming and are limited by the sampling characteristics (e.g. sample size and/or the high number of samples required). Remote and rapid means to assess g s or E are thus particularly valuable for physiologists, agronomists, and ecologists. Transpiration influences the leaf energy balance and, consequently, leaf temperature (T leaf). As a result, thermal imaging makes it possible to estimate or quantify g s and E. Thermal imaging has been successfully used in a wide range of conditions and with diverse plant species. The technique can be applied at different scales (e.g. from single seedlings/leaves through whole trees or field crops to regions), providing great potential to study plant-environment interactions and specific phenomena such as abnormal stomatal closure, genotypic variation in stress tolerance, and the impact of different management strategies on crop water status. Nevertheless, environmental variability (e.g. in light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) affects the accuracy of thermal imaging measurements. This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research.

  12. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  13. Genotype x environment interaction QTL mapping in plants: lessons from Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Soda, M.; Malosetti, M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and development are influenced by the genetic composition of the plant (G), the environment (E), and the interaction between them (G × E). To produce suitable genotypes for multiple environments, G × E should be accounted for and assessed in plant-breeding programs. Here, we review the

  14. Proceedings of the international symposium on application of a closed experimental system to modeling of 14C transfer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tako, Yasuhiro; Tani, Takashi; Arai, Ryuji; Nozoe, Susumu; Nakamura, Yuji

    2008-03-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) has developed the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to achieve advanced technologies for a closed and strictly controlled experiment system, which will bring the life support system in an extremely limited environment into reality. The development of the CEEF has also had another objective to be used for researches on the transfer of gaseous radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. IES, using the CEEF, started researching the site-specific transfer problem of 14 C, which is the most effective radionuclide for assessing the exposure dose around a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The simplified model and parameters with ample margins, so far, have been used for the assessment of the dose derived from 14 C. Realistic dose estimate of 14 C with more realistic and site-specific parameters and models is necessary for the safety of the people in the surrounding area and for the public acceptance of nuclear facilities. The CEEF just concluded the initially planned stage of development with the completion of closed circulation experiments for air, water and wastes at the end of 2007. In addition, the beginning of commercial operation of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is planned for 2008 and there is increasing public concern on operation safety. Thus, it was a good time to hold a symposium in Rokkasho to discuss recent progress in 14 C transfer modeling in the environment and in animal and human bodies, together with relevant experimental technologies. The purpose of the symposium was to exchange up-to-date information on modeling of 14 C environmental transfer and relevant technology to realize 14 C experiments in a closed system. Through 25 oral presentations, including 2 special lectures, and 7 poster paper presentations in the symposium, exciting information exchanges and intense discussions on present researches were realized, leading to recognition of potential issues for further studies. The

  15. Introduction to Nuclear Power Plant Environment Supervisory Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, there are five nuclear power plant sites, located at Yongkwang, Kori, Shin Kori, Uljin, and Wolsong. Each administrative district has its own NESC (Nuclear plant Environment Public Supervisory Committee) which consists of a steering committee and a center. The purpose of NESC is to let the public survey and inspect nuclear plant environment and then improve a clarity and confidence in plant construction and operation by themselves. In order to understand the situation of NESC and explore ways toward a better role of NESC, in this paper we try to enumerate a few major facts related to a current status of NESC. As a summary, there must be a great role of NESC in the relationship between the residents, a nuclear industry company and the related government division. Furthermore, NESC would certainly do its role for all sides provided that more strong definition of NESC in law, more financial supporting and more philosophical speculation for the being of NESC

  16. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Smith, Lacy M; Steel, Zachary L

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  17. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  18. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y; Fowler, Philip A; Metz, Joannah M; Wheeler, Raymond M; Bucklin, Ray A

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from ~1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (~1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  19. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  20. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  1. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  2. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  3. Studies on environment safety and application of advanced reactor for inland nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Jie, L.

    2014-01-01

    To study environment safety assessment of inland nuclear power plants (NPPs), the impact of environment safety under the normal operation was researched and the environment risk of serious accidents was analyzed. Moreover, the requirements and relevant provisions of site selection between international nuclear power plant and China's are comparatively studied. The conclusion was that the environment safety assessment of inland and coastal nuclear power plant have no essential difference; the advanced reactor can meet with high criteria of environment safety of inland nuclear power plants. In this way, China is safe and feasible to develop inland nuclear power plant. China's inland nuclear power plants will be as big market for advanced reactor. (author)

  4. A practical approach to teaching the aspects of plant closing in an undergraduate operations management course

    OpenAIRE

    Lambe, Nancy; Chow, Alan F.; Finney, Treena; Woodford, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the recent economic downturn, the introduction and instruction of methods and practices related to plant and facility closings are topics that are long overdue as part of the Operations Management course content presented in our Business Schools. Operations Management textbooks provide little to no coverage of operations shutdown for plant closing. As a result, this topic is frequently excluded from Operations Management courses. Two elements missing from most OM courses are a tex...

  5. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  6. PGE decides to close plant now, not in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    On January 4, two months and a day after the Trojan nuclear power reactor survived two ballot initiatives that sought to have the 1095-MWe pressurized water reactor closed immediately, the board of directors of Portland General Electric Company voted to do what those initiatives had wanted done. Trojan went off line on November 9 because of a leak in a steam generator tube. It will not return to service ever again, even though PGE had originally planned to keep running the plant until 1996. The utility announced that immediate closure was now the least-cost choice for ratepayers, mainly because of uncertainty over what would have to be done at the plant to satisfy the Nuclear Regulatory Commission - within which, according to PGE, there was a scientific disagreement over the adequacy of the plant's steam generators to support operation until 1996. PGE has not yet firmed up its decommissioning plan for Trojan. Also, at this writing, there had been no indication whether the absence of Trojan might improve the chances for completion of the region's two mothballed nuclear projects, Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 and -3

  7. On the close environment of BL Lacertae objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomo, R. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)); Melnick, J. (European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)); Tanzi, E.G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy))

    1990-06-21

    The local environment of BL Lacertae objects, which resemble quasars but lack emission lines, is poorly understood. In the few cases where the surrounding nebulosity has been studied in detail, it is consistent with the presence of a giant elliptical galaxy, but the evidence that the BL Lac and the putative galaxy are physically associated rests solely on their positional coincidence. An alternative hypothesis, that BL Lacs are gravitationally lensed and that the surrounding emission is from the foreground lensing object, gains some support from a number of observations which reveal less than perfect alignment between BL Lacs and surrounding emission. We have begun a systematic programme of high-resolution imaging aimed at understanding in a general way the local environment of BL Lacs. Here we describe a first series of images, which show the presence of emission features around most of the BL Lacs observed. Typically, this emission is close (<5 arcsec) to the BL Lac, and faint (m{sub R} = 21). We discuss the interpretation of these companions in terms of both interacting objects and gravitational lenses. (author).

  8. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  9. Super thermal power plants and environment: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible impact on the environment by the particulate matters, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace metals and solid/liquid wastes, which are emitted during the combustion of coal in the super thermal power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The coal consumed by these plants have sufficient sulphur content and ash. Of all the mineral in coal, pyrite is one of the most deleterious in combustion and a major source of oxide of sulphur pollution of the atmosphere. The impact of these on the terrestrial and aquatic environment in and around power plants and on region have been discussed. To arresting such contaminants, some remedial measures are suggested. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Plug the socket of the main closing valve in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupauer, J.; Bednar, B.

    1988-01-01

    The plug is designed for closing the main closing valve socket during a refuelling shutdown of a nuclear power plant. The plug is fixed in the using jaws forced against the socket ring part. The socket is sealed by expanding a ring between two cone trays. A valve provided in the plug allows draining the pipe. The plug is inserted in the socket using a jib suspended on a rail. Following sealing both sockets the inner surfaces of the closing valve can be decontaminated. Following decontamination, a water-proof cover is slid over the plug protecting the plug moving mechanism from damage. (J.B.). 1 fig

  11. Deliberate release of genetically modified plants into the environment in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata LUTHAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate release of genetically modified higher plants (GMHPs into the environment in Slovenia is regulated by the Law on the Management of Genetically Modified Organisms (ZRGSO Ur. l. RS 23/2005 and 21/2010, III chapter. For each deliberate release of GMPs into the environment a license issued by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP must be acquired. The application or notification should contain a very accurate and complex description of the GMP, of the field where it will be released and of wider surroundings or environment. The application consists of Annex 2 with accessories: 1. Part A (technical data for the authorization of deliberate GMP release into the environment; 2. Part B (environmental risk assessment; 3. Application summary in Slovenian and English language for the release of GMP into environment, which is transmitted to Brussels by MESP; 4. Extract from the Land Cadastre of the field to which the GMP will be released. The release procedure runs (till here under the above mentioned Law, which has been in place for several years and which clearly defines that it is possible to release GMP in Slovenia. In the case of GM rice in 2011, the law applied till the site selection of the experiment. Here, the law was not sufficiently taken into account. It was prevailed by the regulation of Farmland and Forest Fund of the Republic of Slovenia and municipal decision, which was stronger than the national law and prevented the cultivation of GM rice in an area that is legally suitable for release of GMO into the environment. Rice is not grown in Slovenia and does not have wild ancestors or close relatives with whom it might mate. Nearest area of cultivation is in neighboring Italy, which is from potentially selected location in Slovenia more than 70 km away.

  12. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Brigitte

    1993-01-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  13. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, Brigitte [Electricite de France (France)

    1993-07-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  14. Power plants operating in normal conditions, space management, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the local populations considerations related to the establishment of a nuclear power plant comprising 4 units of 900 MW: reception of a population in the existing environment, acceptance of the power plant by the local population, effluent releases and environmental impacts, and the power plant future [fr

  15. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  16. Design of wireless communication systems for nuclear power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadri, A.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of low-SNR (Signal-to-Noise ratio) digital communication system design in man-made electromagnetic environment within a nuclear power plant is addressed. A canonical structure of the low-SNR receiver is derived and analyzed for its bit error rate performance. The parameters that affect the error rate performance are identified and illustrated. Several well-known digital modulations are considered. It is shown that the receiver structure is dependent on the first-order probability density function of the noise environment. Thus, we offer comments for its robust implementation and its effect on bit error rate performance. We model the EM environment within the nuclear power plant to be e - mixture model, the parameters of which can be estimated to fit the environment. (author)

  17. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  18. Plant growth and mineral recycle trade-offs in different scenarios for a CELSS. [Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Spitze, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Data for hydroponic plant growth in a manned system test is combined with nutritional recommendations to suport trade-off calculations for closed and partially closed life support system scenarios. Published data are used as guidelines for the masses of mineral nutrients needed for higher plant production. The results of calculations based on various scenarios are presented for various combinations of plant growth chamber utilization and fraction of mineral recycle. Estimates are made of the masses of material needed to meet human nutritional requirements in the various scenarios. It appears that food production from a plant growth chamber with mineral recycle is favorable to reduction of the total launch weight in missions exceeding 3 years.

  19. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadeera P.G. Cheong, Brendan Lay, Rizal Razman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect.

  20. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  1. Introducing close-range photogrammetry for characterizing forest understory plant diversity and surface fuel structure at fine scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; E. Louise Loudermilk; Scott M. Pokswinski; Andrew T. Hudak; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant...

  2. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  3. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior

    2004-12-22

    , immersive environment. The Virtual Engineering Framework (VEF), in effect a prototype framework, was developed through close collaboration with NETL supported research teams from Iowa State University Virtual Reality Applications Center (ISU-VRAC) and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The VEF is open source, compatible across systems ranging from inexpensive desktop PCs to large-scale, immersive facilities and provides support for heterogeneous distributed computing of plant simulations. The ability to compute plant economics through an interface that coupled the CMU IECM tool to the VEF was demonstrated, and the ability to couple the VEF to Aspen Plus, a commercial flowsheet modeling tool, was demonstrated. Models were interfaced to the framework using VES-Open. Tests were performed for interfacing CAPE-Open-compliant models to the framework. Where available, the developed models and plant simulations have been benchmarked against data from the open literature. The VEF has been installed at NETL. The VEF provides simulation capabilities not available in commercial simulation tools. It provides DOE engineers, scientists, and decision makers with a flexible and extensible simulation system that can be used to reduce the time, technical risk, and cost to develop the next generation of advanced, coal-fired power systems that will have low emissions and high efficiency. Furthermore, the VEF provides a common simulation system that NETL can use to help manage Advanced Power Systems Research projects, including both combustion- and gasification-based technologies.

  4. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jadeera P G; Lay, Brendan; Razman, Rizal

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect was not supported when practicing several skills in combination when the sports skills were assessed in a closed skill environment.There appeared to be some support for the contextual interference effect when sports skills were assessed in an open skill environment, which were similar to a real game situation.A game-based training schedule can be used as an alternative

  5. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  6. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  7. An assessment of radioactivity in the environs of a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Williams, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in environmental samples collected from the environs of a ttanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. Radioactivity levels were determined in samples of sediment, water, algae and seafood (crabs and mussels) from the Leschenault Inlet, close to the site at which the plant's liquid effluent is disposed, and from other areas along the south-west coast. Samples of town drinking water were also analysed. Radioactivity levels in the ilmenite feed and effluent of the plant are approximately half those observed in an earlier study. There is evidence for an enhancement of radionuclide concentrations in sediment from Leschenault Inlet originating from the plant effluent. Despite this effect, radioactivity levels in the sediment of the Inlet are no greater than those that occur at certain other locations along the south-west coast. The investigation of radioactivity levels in water, algae and seafood indicates that the only significant transfer of radionuclides from the sediment is the bioaccumulation of radium in algae. There is effectively no risk to the health of members of the public who consume crab flesh or mussels from Leschenault Inlet

  8. Adaptation to the Host Environment by Plant-Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Rep, Martijn

    2017-08-04

    Many fungi can live both saprophytically and as endophyte or pathogen inside a living plant. In both environments, complex organic polymers are used as sources of nutrients. Propagation inside a living host also requires the ability to respond to immune responses of the host. We review current knowledge of how plant-pathogenic fungi do this. First, we look at how fungi change their global gene expression upon recognition of the host environment, leading to secretion of effectors, enzymes, and secondary metabolites; changes in metabolism; and defense against toxic compounds. Second, we look at what is known about the various cues that enable fungi to sense the presence of living plant cells. Finally, we review literature on transcription factors that participate in gene expression in planta or are suspected to be involved in that process because they are required for the ability to cause disease.

  9. Routine environment audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri. During this audit the activities the audit team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted October 24-November 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  10. Closed Environment Module - modularization and extension of the V-HAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Peter; Czupalla, M. Markus; Zhukov, Anton

    2012-07-01

    The `Virtual Habitat' (V-HAB), is a Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created to provide the possibility for dynamic simulation of LSS for future human spaceflight missions. V-HAB creates the option to optimize LSS during early design phases. Furthermore, it allows simulating e.g. worst case scenarios which cannot be tested in reality. In a nutshell the tool allows the testing of LSS robustness by means of computer simulations. V-HAB is a modular simulation consisting of a: Closed Environment Module (CEM) Crew Module Biological Module Physio-Chemical Module The focus of the paper will be the Closed Environment Module (CEM) which is the core of V-HAB. The main function of the CEM is the embedding of all modules in the entire simulation and the control of the LSS. The CEM includes the possibility to simulate an arbitrary number of compartments and tanks with the interaction between connected compartments. Furthermore, a control program to actuate the LSS Technologies was implemented in the CEM, and is also introduced. In this paper the capabilities of the CEM are introduced based on selected test cases. In particular the following capabilities are demonstrated: Supply Leakage ON/OFF controller Power management Un-/docking Controller for tanks with maximum filling degree The CEM of the V-HAB simulation was verified by simulating the Atmosphere Revitalization part of the ISS and comparing it to actual measurement data. The results of this analysis are also presented in the paper.

  11. Concentration and distribution of 14C in aquatic environment around Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongtang; Guo Qiuju; Hu Dan; Xu Hong

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the concentration and distribution of 14 C in aquatic environment in the vicinity of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) after twenty years' operation, an apparatus extracting dissolved inorganic carbon from water was set up and applied to pretreat the water samples collected around Qinshan NPP. The 14 C concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). The results show that the 14 C specific activities in surface seawater samples range from 196.8 to 206.5 Bq/kg 203.4 ± 5.6) Bq/kg in average), which are close to the background. The 14 C concentrations in cooling water discharged from Qinshan NPP are close to the 14 C values in near shore seawater samples out of liquid radioactive effluent discharge period. It can be further concluded that the 14 C discharged previously is diluted and diffused well, and no 14 C enrichment in seawater is found. Also, no obvious increment in the 14 C specific activities of surface water and underground water samples are found between Qinshan NPP region and the reference region. (authors)

  12. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  13. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    Among them, drought is widely known as the main factor that limits plants' growth, productivity and development (Reddy et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2008; Li et al., 2009). Recently, drought occured frequently all over the globe due to climate changes (Khaine and Woo, 2015). Light and shade are very important environements ...

  14. Monitoring of radionuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck (Sweden) for the period 1984-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the main results from the environment monitoring sampling for the years 1984-1991 around the nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, southern Sweden. The sampling are required according to the environment monitoring programme which has been decided upon by the Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. Terrestrial samples include cultivated plants, natural vegetation, milk, some other foods of animal origin and sludge. From the aquatic environment, samples of sea water, bottom sediments, benthic fauna, algae and fish are collected. This report accounts for all samples that have been measured during the period 1984-1991. The diagrams also include data from the years 1981-1983. The annual discharge to air and to water resulted during the years 1984-1991 in a dose commitment to a critical group which generally amounted to less than 2 micro-sievert (which equals 2 per cent of the maximum permitted, viz. one Norm release). The annual radiation dose outside the power plant has always been found less than 0.2% of that from the background radiation. Outside the plant, only very small quantities of radionuclides were detected which could be related to its operation. Radionuclides from the power plant have not with certainty been detected in cultivated plants, milk, and meat produced in the vicinity of the power plant. On the other hand small quantities of Co-60 and Zn-65 from the plant were detected in, for instance, some samples of eel and cod from stations close to the plant. In 1985 and 1989, special sediment sampling were carried out at 12 stations off Barsebaeck. One aim was to investigate whether any accumulation of radionuclides from Barsebaeck in bottom sediments had occurred during the period. There was no clear evidence of any such accumulation. 15 refs, 22 figs, 16 tabs

  15. Plant-associated bacterial populations on native and invasive plant species: comparisons between 2 freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A; Pung, Kayleigh

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial interactions have been well studied because of the ecological importance of such relationships in aquatic systems. However, general knowledge regarding the composition of these biofilm communities is still evolving, partly as a result of several confounding factors that are attributable to plant host properties and to hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrences of various bacterial phylogenetic taxa on 2 native plants, i.e., mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum Bartram), and on an invasive species, i.e., garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande), were quantitatively examined using nucleic acid staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The plants were incubated in triplicates for about a week within the Kalamazoo River and Pierce Cedar Creek as well as in microcosms. The bacterial groups targeted for enumeration are known to globally occur in relatively high abundance and are also ubiquitously distributed in freshwater environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the bacterioplankton assemblages revealed that the majority of bacterial cells that hybridized with the different probes were similar between the 2 sites. In contrast, the plant-associated populations while similar on the 3 plants incubated in Kalamazoo River, their representations were highest on the 2 native plants relative to the invasive species in Pierce Cedar Creek. Overall, our results further suggested that epiphytic bacterial assemblages are probably under the influences of and probably subsequently respond to multiple variables and conditions in aquatic milieus.

  16. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  18. An Invasive Clonal Plant Benefits from Clonal Integration More than a Co-Occurring Native Plant in Nutrient-Patchy and Competitive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    from clonal integration more than co-occurring native J. repens, suggesting that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides may be closely related to clonal integration in heterogeneous environments. PMID:24816849

  19. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  20. Facility of Laboratories for Sustainable Habitation - an Initial Design of a Closed-Loop Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Maiwald, Volker; Parìs Lopéz, Rosa; Hauslage, Jens; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Doule, Ondrej; Schlacht, Irene Lia; Ransom, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An effective and self-sustainable artificial habitat design is essential for human spaceflight and expansion of mankind into orbit or towards other celestial bodies. Besides the necessity to create an artificial habitat for the extreme environments of space, development of a self-sustainable habitat can also enable more effective exploration of extreme environments on Earth. One major application of the habitat’s closed-loop capabilities can also be in enabling ecological habitation of human ...

  1. Growth and gas exchange by lettuce stands in a closed, controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Yorio, N C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1994-05-01

    Two studies were conducted in which 'Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown hydroponically from seed to harvest in a large (20-m2), atmospherically closed growth chamber for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program. The first study used metal-halide (MH) lamps [280 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], whereas the second used high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (293 micromoles m-2 s-1). Both studies used a 16-hour photoperiod, a constant air temperature (22 to 23C), and 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 during the light period. In each study, canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were highly correlated to canopy cover, with absolute rates peaking at harvest (28 days after planting ) at 17 micromoles CO2/m2 per sec and 4 liters m-2 day-1, respectively. When normalized for actual canopy cover, photosynthesis and ET rates per unit canopy area decreased with age (between 15 and 28 days after planting). Canopy cover increased earlier during the study with HPS lamps, and final shoot yields averaged 183 g fresh mass (FM)/plant 8.8 g dry mass (DM)/plant. Shoot yields in the first study with MH lamps averaged 129 g FM/plant and 6.8 g DM/plant. Analysis of leaf tissue showed that ash levels from both studies averaged 22% and K levels ranged from 15% to 17% of tissue DM. Results suggest that lettuce should be easily adaptable to a CELSS with moderate lighting and that plant spacing or transplant schemes are needed to maximize canopy light interception and sustained efficient CO2 removal and water production.

  2. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change.

  3. Nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine (HTGR-GT): dry cooled commercial power plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Boland, C.R.

    1979-11-01

    Combining the modern and proven power conversion system of the closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) with an advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) results in a power plant well suited to projected utility needs into the 21st century. The gas turbine HTGR (HTGR-GT) power plant benefits are consistent with national energy goals, and the high power conversion efficiency potential satisfies increasingly important resource conservation demands. Established technology bases for the HTGR-GT are outlined, together with the extensive design and development program necessary to commercialize the nuclear CCGT plant for utility service in the 1990s. This paper outlines the most recent design studies by General Atomic for a dry-cooled commercial plant of 800 to 1200 MW(e) power, based on both non-intercooled and intercooled cycles, and discusses various primary system aspects. Details are given of the reactor turbine system (RTS) and on integrating the major power conversion components in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel

  4. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  5. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.

    1989-06-01

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  6. Mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection based on collecting and utilizing environment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Nobuyasu; Asama, Hajime; Kita, Nobuyuki; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes about development of a mobile robot teleoperation system for plant inspection. In our system, the robot is an agent for collecting the environment data and is also teleoperated by the operator utilizing such accumulated environment data which is displayed on the operation interface. The robot equips many sensors for detecting the state of the robot and the environment. Such redundant sensory system can be also utilized to collect the working environment data on-site while the robot is patrolling. Here, proposed system introduces the framework of collecting and utilizing environment data for adaptive plant inspection using the teleoperated robot. A view simulator is primarily aiming to facilitate evaluation of the visual sensors and algorithms and is also extended as the Environment Server, which is the core technology of the digital maintenance field for the plant inspection. In order to construct detailed seamless digital maintenance field mobile robotic technology is utilized to supply environment data to the server. The sensory system on the robot collect the environment data on-site and such collected data is uploaded to the Environment Server for compiling accurate digital environment data base. The robot operator also can utilize accumulated environment data by referring to the Environment Server. In this paper, we explain the concept of our teleoperation system based on collecting and utilizing environment data. Using developed system, inspection patrol experiments were attempted in the plant mock-up. Experimental results are shown by using an omnidirectional mobile robot with sensory system and the Environment Server. (author)

  7. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  8. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected agenoise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [Univ. of Maine, Orno, ME (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures up to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including wireless

  10. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eAnthelme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1 the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2 alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and

  11. Coping mechanisms for crop plants in drought-prone environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter M

    2008-05-01

    Drought is a major limitation to plant productivity. Various options are available for increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments. After a general introduction to the problems of water availability, this review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent progress in unravelling mechanisms for modifying plant growth responses to drought. Investigations of key regulatory mechanisms integrating plant growth responses to water deficits at the whole-organism, cellular and genomic levels continue to provide novel and exiting research findings. For example, recent reports contradict the widespread conception that root-derived abscisic acid is necessarily involved in signalling for stomatal and shoot-growth responses to soil water deficits. The findings bring into question the theoretical basis for alternate-side root-irrigation techniques. Similarly, recent reports indicate that increased ABA production or increased aquaporin expression did not lead to improved drought resistance. Other reports have concerned key genes and proteins involved in regulation of flowering (FT), vegetative growth (DELLA), leaf senescence (IPT) and desiccation tolerance (LEA). Introgression of such genes, with suitable promoters, can greatly impact on whole-plant responses to drought. Further developments could facilitate the introduction by breeders of new crop varieties with growth physiologies tailored to improved field performance under drought. Parallel efforts to encourage the introduction of supplementary irrigation with water made available by improved conservation measures and by sea- or brackish-water desalination, will probably provide comprehensive solutions to coping with drought-prone environments.

  12. Evaluation of the impact on the environment of thermal power plant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, C.; Bertrand, R.; Garnier, G.; Berard, P.; Archimbaud, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impact on the environment of oil and coal fired power plants, and of nuclear plants. The impact is evaluated by the level of the air pollution around the plant. But the selected pollutants (Sulfur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Trace elements, organic compounds) are not specific of the pollution produced by the power plant. Therefore, we measured the specific emission of the plant by a continuous sampling in the stack gases. To evaluate the contribution of the plant to the global pollution, a series of diffusion tests was run to measure the atmospheric transfer between the stack and the monitoring system. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was added to the stack plume and its concentration was measured in the environment continuously at the monitoring stations, and by a mobile network for tracing the movement of the plume due to a shift in wind direction. Thereby the impact of other sources could be estimated [fr

  13. The public opinion on emergency preparedness close to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultaaker, Oe.

    1984-07-01

    More than 1500 people have been interviewed on their attitudes towards and their knowledge of emergency actions on nuclear accidents at nuclear power plants. Of the people addressed, 768 lived in the inner zones close to the power plants. 775 were farmers near the four nuclear power sites in Sweden. The farmers lived both in inner zones and zones further away. A majority consider themselves not well-informed on health risks after a nuclear accident. More than a third would want more information on what to do in case of accident. Farmers outside the inner zones are more dissatisfied with the information status than other groups. Farmers from the inner zones consider the information given inadequate regarding risks to their health and also health risks for their live stock. The results of interviews are in some cases compared with the information given to the public. (Aa)

  14. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  15. Optimization of Photosynthetic Productivity in Contrasting Environments by Regulons Controlling Plant Form and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Demmig-Adams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding, with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals as well as (ii their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant’s sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction. The example of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from geographic origins with contrasting climates is used to describe the links between natural genetic variation in CBF transcription factors and the differential acclimation of plant anatomical and functional features needed to support superior photosynthetic performance in contrasting environments. Emphasis is placed on considering different temperature environments (hot versus cold and light environments (limiting versus high light, on trade-offs between adaptations to contrasting environments, and on plant lines minimizing such trade-offs.

  16. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  17. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF LASER RANGE FINDER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL GRID CELL IN CLOSE RANGE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz b Iman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a laser scanner presents an important aspect for simultaneous localization and map-building (SLAM. However, the characteristic of the beam of the laser range finder under extreme incident angles approaching 900 has not been thoroughly investigated. This research paper reports the characteristic of the density of the range value coming from a laser range finder under close range circumstances where the laser is imposed with a high incident angle. The laser was placed in a controlled environment consisting of walls at a close range and 1000 iteration of scans was collected. The assumption of normal density of the metrical data collapses when the beam traverses across sharp edges in this environment. The data collected also shows multimodal density at instances where the range has discontinuity. The standard deviation of the laser range finder is reported to average at 10.54 mm, with 0.96 of accuracy. This significance suggests that under extreme incident angles, a laser range finder reading behaves differently compared to normal distribution. The use of this information is crucial for SLAM activity in enclosed environments such as inside piping grid or other cluttered environments.KEYWORDS:   Hokuyo UTM-30LX; kernel density estimation; probabilistic model  

  18. The potential of plant viruses to promote genotypic diversity via genotype x environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2011-01-01

    † Background and Aims Genotype by environment (G × E) interactions are important for the long-term persistence of plant species in heterogeneous environments. It has often been suggested that disease is a key factor for the maintenance of genotypic diversity in plant populations. However, empirical...... and the G × E interactions were examined with respect to genotypespecific plant responses to WClMV infection. Thus, the environment is defined as the presence or absence of the virus. † Key Results WClMV had a negative effect on plant performance as shown by a decrease in biomass and number of ramets...... evidence for this contention is scarce. Here virus infection is proposed as a possible candidate for maintaining genotypic diversity in their host plants. † Methods The effects of White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) on the performance and development of different Trifolium repens genotypes were analysed...

  19. Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mierziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites synthesized by plants with various biological activities. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they are capable of participating in plants’ interactions with other organisms (microorganisms, animals and other plants and their reactions to environmental stresses. The majority of their functions result from their strong antioxidative properties. Although an increasing number of studies focus on the application of flavonoids in medicine or the food industry, their relevance for the plants themselves also deserves extensive investigations. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions of flavonoids in the physiology of plants and their relations with the environment.

  20. Nuclear power in the competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlissel, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power was originally promoted as being able to produce electricity that would be open-quotes too cheap to meter.close quotes However, large construction cost overruns and rapidly rising operating costs caused many nuclear power plants instead to be very expensive sources of electricity. As a result, many nuclear utilities will face increasing cost pressures in the future competitive environment from lower-cost producers. In fact, the threat to nuclear utilities is so severe that many industry analysts are projecting that more that $70 billion of the utilities' remaining investments in nuclear plants will be open-quotes stranded,close quotes i.e., unrecoverable in the competitive environment. Others in the industry have speculated that many of the 150 major U.S. electric utilities, a large number of which are nuclear, could be swept away by competition, leaving fewer than fifty utilities. This paper will examine how utilities are attempting to improve the cost competitiveness of operating today's nuclear power plants. It will also identify some of the potential consequences of competition for nuclear power and the regulatory role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Finally, this paper will address how the changing power markets will affect the prospects for the next generation of nuclear power plants

  1. THE THERMO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. THE IMPACT OF T.P.P. SUCEAVA ON THE ENVIRONMENT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ATĂNĂSOAE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The environment represents all of the natural and artificial factors created through human actions, which in tight interaction, they are influencing the biological equilibrium determining the life conditions for the human being and the society developing. The technicalprogress brings along, besides so many wonderful achievements, numerous drawbacks and a lot of polluting substances, which may destroy the environment.The environment polluting has became a contemporary, social-economic problem which has taken so big proportions, that required adopting some laws to reduce its harmful actions. The quantification of the human activity effects and the natural processes on the environment, the health and securityof the human being, as well as goods of any kind are achieved by assessing the impact on the environment. The paper presents the way the thermo-electric centrals influence the environment by evacuating in the atmosphere the polluting substances resulted from the burning of fuel in the energetic boilers. There are analyzed the noxa emissions for the combined heat and power plant of Suceava.The central was projected to work on solid fuel (lignite from the Rovinari basin combined with fuel oil for stabilizing the burning. Between 1999-2001 people have been working on repairs at the energetic boilers by upgrading from the lignite operating to thepitcoal operating. The pitcoal is imported from Russia, Ukraine, Australia, South Africa. The source of air polluting is the emission in atmosphere of the polluting contained in the burning gases resulted from burning the fuel in the focus of energetic boilers (SO2, NOx,CO2, powders. The direct impact of the polluting (SO2, NOx, CO2, powders, evacuated in the atmosphere by the burning installation, takes place in areas relatively close to the central, on distances from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers (by affecting the air quality and solid, acid deposition on the soil, this depends

  2. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation

  3. Detection of plant adaptation responses to saline environment in rhizosphere using microwave sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Kobashikawa, C.; Tanigawa, H.; Omoda, E.

    2008-01-01

    The physiological adaptation responses in plants to environmental stress, such as water stress and salt stress induce changes in physicochemical conditions of the plant, since formation of osmotic-regulatory substances can be formed during the environmental adaptation responses. Strong electrolytes, amino acids, proteins and saccharides are well-known as osmoregulatory substances. Since these substances are ionic conductors and their molecules are electrically dipolar, it can be considered that these substances cause changes in the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by microwave sensing. The dielectric properties (0.3 to 3GHz), water content and water potential of plant leaves which reflect the physiological condition of the plant under salt stress were measured and analyzed. Experimental results showed the potential of the microwave sensing as a method for monitoring adaptation responses in plants under saline environment and that suggested the saline environment in rhizosphere can be detected noninvasively and quantitatively by the microwave sensing which detects the changes in complex dielectric properties of the plant

  4. Campylobacter jejuni survival in a poultry processing plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero, Beatriz; Jaime, Isabel; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko; Rovira, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of poultry, especially chicken's meat is considered the most common route for human infection. The aim of this study was to determine if Campylobacter spp. might persist in the poultry plant environment before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures and the distribution and their genetic relatedness. During one month from a poultry plant were analyzed a total of 494 samples -defeathering machine, evisceration machine, floor, sink, conveyor belt, shackles and broiler meat- in order to isolate C. jejuni and C. coli. Results showed that C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence was 94.5% and 5.5% respectively. Different typing techniques as PFGE, MLST established seven C. jejuni genotypes. Whole genome MLST strongly suggest that highly clonal populations of C. jejuni can survive in adverse environmental conditions, even after cleaning and disinfection, and persist for longer periods than previous thought (at least 21 days) in the poultry plant environment. Even so, it might act as a source of contamination independently of the contamination level of the flock entering the slaughter line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Policies for closing down nuclear power plants. A Spanish review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Olmo, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of policies concerned with closing down the Spanish nuclear power plants is described, together with the role of Spanish Group of Municipalities affected by NPPs (AMAC) since its establishment in 1988. Currently there are 9 nuclear reactors operating in seven cities, contributing to the national network bu 39.3% of gross power generation, and one reactor dismantled after the accident in Vandellos in 1989. The main objectives of AMAC activity are concerned with security, economic development and transparency. It has an important role in improvement of the quality of life of the population in municipalities with operating NPPs. It is involved in solving the problems related to radioactive waste management and disposal

  6. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.; Fadilah, S.M.; Abonoor, N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plants and the environment. Water samplings and releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Philippe; Bordet, Francois; Chevalier, Christian; Colin, Jean-Luc; Khalanski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This voluminous and illustrated guide aims at giving detailed information on the nature of waters used by nuclear power plants and of releases, on how these samplings and controls are performed, on the associated risks for the environment and public health, and on how public is informed. After a general overview of these issues, a chapter addresses the protection of nature and biodiversity and the actions performed by EDF in this respect. The next chapter deals with public information. The next chapters discuss the water needs of a nuclear power plant, effluent releases and their impacts. Two chapters are dedicated to the monitoring and control of the environment, and to the various techniques of environmental metrology. Legal and regulatory aspects are then presented

  8. Integration into plant biology and soil science has provided insights into the total environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbo; Lu, Haiying; Xu, Gang; Marian, Brestic

    2017-02-01

    The total environment includes 5 closely-linking circles, in which biosphere and lithosphere are the active core. As global population increases and urbanization process accelerates, arable land is gradually decreasing under global climate change and the pressure of various types of environmental pollution. This case is especially for China. Land is the most important resources for human beings' survival. How to increase and manage arable land is the key for sustainable agriculture development. China has extensive marshy land that can be reclamated for the better potential land resources under the pre- condition of protecting the environment, which will be a good way for enlarging globally and managing arable land. Related studies have been conducted in China for the past 30years and now many results with obvious practical efficiency have been obtained. For summarizing these results, salt-soil will be the main target and related contents such as nutrient transport, use types, biodiversity and interactions with plants from molecular biology to ecology will be covered, in which the interactions among biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere will be focused on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral composition of light and growing of plants in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The curve of the action spectrum of photosynthesis is examined under the controlled influence of light that involves av 3-5 minutes irradiation with one specific spectral flux. Different curves were obtained for spectral affectivity of green leaf photosynthesis when plants have had long duration adaptation to lamps of different spectral composition and PAR intensity. The author suggests that the illumination of plants in natural conditions does not have to be copied for growing plants in controlled environments.

  10. Cancer incidence in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study of cancer in children in the environment of nuclear power plants has been written on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The study is a case controlled study based on the German Register of Cancer in Children. The most important outcome of the study is the finding that a connection can be observed in Germany between the proximity to a nuclear power plant of the place of living and the risk of a child to develop cancer in the 5 th year of life. The magnitude of this risk was calculated to be approximately 0.2%, i.e., out of a total of 13,373 cases of cancer, 29 would be attributable to living within the 5 km zone around a nuclear power plant. This finding demands an explanation. The study proper cannot serve as a material witness because it had not been designed to establish cause and effect relations between the risk and potential origins. The expert consultants frankly state that current knowledge about radiation biology and epidemiology in principle does not allow the ionizing radiation emitted by German nuclear power plants in normal operation to be interpreted as the cause. Whether confounders, selection or chance play a role in the observed and documented finding cannot be explained for good by the study. However, although representing an honorable acquittal, the study produces a different effect in the public mind. What is remembered is the link between nuclear power plants and cancer in children. (orig.)

  11. Methodologies for assessment of power plant ecological effects in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of models or methodologies relevant to the assessment of entrainment, thermal, and impingement impacts of power plant operation in the marine environment are presented. The majority of methodologies available for assessing power plant effects are focused at the organism or population level. The most widely applied approaches for estimating entrainment effects on fish populations are the equivalent adult and trophic-conversion methodologies. Current methods to predict the number of fish and distribution of species impinged consider physical factors of the environment but not the biological or behavorial characteristics of fish. With proper validation, ecosystem-level models that consider aggregate responses of biological components to stress may prove to be a viable approach for investigating power plant ecological effects

  12. Early detection of plant disease using close range sensing system for input into digital earth environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, W C; Lau, A M S; Kang, C S; Hashim, M; Battay, A E

    2014-01-01

    A case study on pre-symptom stage of plant disease infection using ground based hyperspectral remote sensing was conducted. The objectives of the study are: (1) to validate the existence of pre-symptom stage of Ralstonia Solanacearum infection in Solanum Melongena L. (eggplant), and (2) to determine the induced electromagnetic spectral response for infected eggplant. From the experiment, the pre-symptom duration of Ralstonia Solanacearum infection in the case of eggplant was estimated (with the artificial photosynthetic stress conditions were adopted in the experiment to induce measurable changes in daily hyperspectral measurement of disease infected eggplant samples during the pre-symptom stage) as four days which is the critical period for practicing effective treatments. Vegetation indices namely, (1) Chlorophyll Absorption Integral (CAI), (2) Photochemical Radiation Index (PRI), and (3) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have successfully shown noticeable progress of index value from the infected sample plant (with 100% light stress condition) throughout the study. Yet, other infected sample plants with moderate light stress conditions (50% or 75%) did not result any similar progress of index value from the daily leaf scale hyperspectral measurements. Apparently, extreme light stress can induce significant changes at visible portion in hyperspectral measurements for a disease infected eggplant during the pre-symptom stage

  13. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  14. Expert environment for the development of nuclear power plants failure diagnosis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, P.N.; Oggianu, S.; Etchepareborda, A.; Fernandez, O.

    1996-01-01

    The present work explores some of the developing stages of an Expert Environment for plant failures Diagnosis Systems starting from Knowledge Based Systems. We present a prototype that carries out an inspection of anomalous symptoms and a diagnosis process based on a Plant Abnormality Model of a PHWR secondary system

  15. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  16. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  17. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  18. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

  19. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  20. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  1. Environment supervision in a nuclear industry plant: Cogema example in Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.L.

    1993-07-01

    Every nuclear industrial facility must achieve radioactivity measurements of its environment: COGEMA is therefore very careful of its environmental quality and guarantees the supervision of it with a programme corresponding to the activities and to the environment characteristics. We shall study- the atmospheric control- the waters control- the plants control and we shall end on results synthesis, which must be analysed according to the natural omnipresent radioactivity. 6 Annexes

  2. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K-L.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1989-1990 according to the regular monitoring programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed annually from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dominant artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of the power plants were still the cesium isotopes, 137 Cs and 134 Cs, originating from the Chernobyl accident. Owing to radioactive decay, other fallout nuclides with shorter half-lives disappeared from the environmental samples during the period in question. Trace amounts of activation products originating from the airborne releases of the local power plants were detected in some air and deposition samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms and sinking matter collected from the Olkiluoto area in 1990. However, the concentrations were so low that they did not markedly raise the radiation burden in the environment. (orig.)

  3. Coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop plant production in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, James; Ling, Peter P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework for coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop analysis of plant production for NASA's program in advanced life support. Crop status may be monitored through non-destructive observations, while models may be independently applied to crop production planning and decision support. To achieve coupling, environmental variables and observations are linked to mode inputs and outputs, and monitoring results compared with model predictions of plant growth and development. The information thus provided may be useful in diagnosing problems with the plant growth system, or as a feedback to the model for evaluation of plant scheduling and potential yield. In this paper, we demonstrate this coupling using machine vision sensing of canopy height and top projected canopy area, and the CROPGRO crop growth model. Model simulations and scenarios are used for illustration. We also compare model predictions of the machine vision variables with data from soybean experiments conducted at New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Horticulture Greenhouse Facility, Rutgers University. Model simulations produce reasonable agreement with the available data, supporting our illustration.

  4. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  5. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... affected richness-topographic heterogeneity and richness-water-energy availability relationships, causing steeper relationships in southern Europe. We investigated these hypotheses using data from Atlas Florae Europaeae on the distribution of 3069 species and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our...... analyses showed that plant species richness generally increased with topographic heterogeneity (ln-transformed altitudinal range) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). We also found evidence for strong geographic heterogeneity in the species richness-environment relationship, with a greater increase...

  6. Emergency cooling system for a nuclear reactor in a closed gas turbine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutschi, H.U.

    1974-01-01

    In undisturbed operation of the closed gas turbine plant with compressor stages, reactor, and turbine, a compressor stage driven by a separate motor is following with reduced power. The power input this way is so small that the working medium is just blown through without pressure increase. The compressor stage is connected with the reactor by means of a reactor feedback pipe with an additional cooler and with the other compressor stages by means of a recuperator in the pipe between these and the turbine. In case of emergency cooling, e.g. after the rupture of a pipe with decreasing pressure of the working medium, the feedback pipe is closed short and the additional compressor stage is brought to higher power. It serves as a coolant blower and transfers the necessary amount of working medium to the reactor. The compressor stage is controlled at a constant torque, so that the heat removal from the reactor is adapted to the conditions of the accident. (DG) [de

  7. Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being developed for installation on Space Station Freedom (SSF) in August 1999. It is designed to conduct experiments that will determine the effects of microgravity on the productivity of higher (crop) plants. The CTF will occupy two standard SSF racks and will accommodate approximately one square meter of growing area and a canopy height of 80 cm. The growth volume will be isolated from the external environment, allowing stringent control of environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and light levels will all be closely controlled to prescribed set points and monitored. This level of environmental control is needed to prevent stress and allow accurate assessment of microgravity effect (10-3 to 10-6 x g). Photosynthetic rates and respiration rates, calculated through continuous recording of gas concentrations, transpiration, and total and edible biomass produced will be measured. Toxic byproducts will be monitored and scrubbed. Transpiration water will be collected within the chamber and recycled into the nutrient solution. A wide variety of crop plants, e.g., wheat, soy beans, lettuce, potatoes, can be accommodated and various nutrient delivery systems and light delivery systems will be available. In the course of its development, the CTF will exploit fully, and contribute importantly, to the state-of-art in closed system technology and plant physiology.

  8. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS or near a salt marsh (SM, with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation.Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples. Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST and multivariate (beta(ST methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity.In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented

  9. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, Dragana; Jankovic, Marija; Joksic, Jasminka; Radenkovic, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226 Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232 Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40 K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238 U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235 U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210 Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7 Be and man-made 137 Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40 K than 226 Ra and 232 Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226 Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232 Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  10. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  11. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de

    1986-01-01

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  13. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen; Cheng Tsungchieh; Wang Jyhgang

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  14. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, P.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones [fr

  15. Gaseous environment of plants and activity of enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Igamberdiev, A.U.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated the action of hypoxia and high CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on activity of phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glucose phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.), corn scutella (Zea mays L.), and hemp cotyledons (Cannabis sativa L.). The first 4-12h of hypoxia witnessed suppression of enzymes of the initial stages of glycolysis (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase)and activation of enzymes of its final stages (alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) and enzymes linking glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). An excess of CO 2 in the environment accelerated and amplified this effect. At the end of a 24-h period of anaerobic incubation, deviations of enzyme activity from the control were leveled in both gaseous environments. An exception was observed in the case of phosphofructokinase, whose activity increased markedly at this time in plants exposed to CO 2 . Changes in activity of the enzymes were coupled with changes in their kinetic parameters (apparent K m and V max values). The activity of isocitrate lyase was suppressed in both variants of hypoxic gaseous environments, a finding that does not agree with the hypothesis as to participation of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolic response of plants to oxygen stress. Thus, temporary inhibition of the system of glycolysis and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway constituted the initial response of the plants to O 2 stress, and CO 2 intensified this metabolic response

  16. Using natural variation to unravel the dynamic regulation of plant performance in diverse environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    All plants are able to respond to changes in their environment by adjusting their morphology and metabolism, but large differences are observed in the effectiveness of these responses in the light of plant fitness. Between and within species large differences are

  17. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical models were developed for describing and testing temperature and humidity parameters for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. A factor was included for analyzing systems operating at low (10-101.3 kPa) pressure to reduce gas leakage and structural mass (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for space application). The expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity was observed, along with the importance of heat exchanger coil temperature and air circulation rate. The presence of plants in closed habitats results in increased water flux through the system. Changes in pressure affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and change convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. A consistent observation from studies with plants at reduced pressures is increased evapotranspiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status is a critical factor for managing low-pressure production systems. The approach suggested should help space mission planners design artificial environments in closed habitats.

  18. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  19. Investigation by gamma-ray spectrometry and INAA of radioactivity impact on phosphate fertilizer plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Companis, I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Pincovshi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive polluting effect of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the environment was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The hazards could arise from industrial plants using raw phosphate materials to prepare fertilizers for agricultural purposes due to the phosphate rock which, depending on the type and geographical zone of provenance may contain rather large amounts of uranium. The fertilizer plant under study is situated about 4 km from the town of Turnu Magurele, on the left bank of the Danube River in Romania. The main by-products of the factory are: nitro phosphate type fertilizers (NP, NPK), Ammonia, Nitric acid, Ammonium nitrate, Urea, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Sodium fluorosilicate and Aluminum sulfate. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 2 26Ra, 2 35U, 2 38U, 2 32Th, and 4 0K), as well as 1 37Cs man-made radionuclide in surface soils collected from semicircular areas within radii of 0.5 and 15 km of the plant; in addition, different NPK type fertilizers and phosphate rocks were investigated. The samples (mass of about 100-g each) were kept tightly closed for one month to permit 2 26Ra to establish radioactive equilibrium with its decay products. This method makes it possible to assess U, Th, and K contents in samples by measuring 2 38U and 2 32Th (in equilibrium with their radioactive daughters) and 4 0K radioactivity, taken into account that 1 g of U, Th and K yield 1 2358 Bq 2 38U, 569 Bq 2 35U, 4057.2 Bq 2 32Th and 33.11 Bq 4 0K, respectively. The spectrometrical chain was based on a HPGe (EG and G Ortec) detector of 30 % relative efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 6 0Co. INAA technique (neutron irradiation at TRIGA reactor of SCN Pitesti) was used to determine macro, micro and trace elements in samples collected from both technological shops of the factory (air dust and drinking tap water) and its surroundings

  20. Environment monitoring and residents health condition monitoring of nuclear power plant Bohunice region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letkovicova, M.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Celko, M.; Hraska, S.; Klocok, L.; Kostial, J.; Prikazsky, V.; Vidovic, J.; Zirko, M.; Beno, T.; Mitosinka, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report contents final environment evaluation and selected characteristic of residents health physics of nuclear power plant Bohunice region. Evaluated data were elaborated during analytical period 1993-1997.Task solving which results are documented in this final report was going on between 1996- 1998. The report deals in individual stages with the following: Information obtaining and completing which characterize demographic situation of the area for the 1993-1997 period; Datum obtaining and completing which contain selected health physics characteristics of the area residents; Database structures for individual data archiving from monitoring and collection; Brief description of geographic information system for graphic presentation of evaluation results based on topographic base; Digital mapping structure description; Results and evaluation of radionuclide monitoring in environment performed by Environmental radiation measurements laboratory by the nuclear power plant Bohunice for the 1993-1997 period. Demographic situation evaluation and selected health physics characteristics of the area of nuclear power plant residents for the 1993-1997 period are summarized in the final part of the document. Monitoring results and their evaluation is processed in graph, table, text description and map output forms. Map outputs are processed in the geographic information system Arc View GIS 3.0a environment

  1. Distribution of Invasive Plants in Urban Environment Is Strongly Spatially Structured

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štajerová, Kateřina; Šmilauer, P.; Brůna, Josef; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2017), s. 681-692 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive plant s * urban environment * species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  2. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: a remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendal E.; Abbott, Laurie B.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Schrader, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive plants in Big Bend National Park, southwest Texas, using a presence-only modeling approach. Giant reed (Arundo donax), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), horehound (Marrubium vulgare) and buffelgrass (Pennisteum ciliare) were selected for remote sensing spatial analyses. Multiple dates/seasons of imagery were used to account for habitat conditions within the study area and to capture phenological differences among targeted species and the surrounding landscape. Individual species models had high (0.91 to 0.99) discriminative ability to differentiate invasive plant suitable environments from random background locations. Average test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, indicating that plant predictive models exhibited high discriminative ability to differentiate suitable environments for invasive plant species from random locations. Omission rates ranged from <1.0 to 18%. We demonstrated that useful models estimating suitable environments for invasive plants may be created with <50 occurrence locations and that reliable modeling using presence-only datasets can be powerful tools for land managers.

  3. Relative role of contemporary environment versus history in shaping diversity patterns of China's woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    What determines large-scale patterns of species diversity is a central and controversial topic in biogeography and ecology. In this study, we compared the effects of contemporary environment and historical contingencies on species richness patterns of woody plants in China, using fine-resolution ......-plant species richness across China, while historical contingencies generate regional deviations from this trend. Our findings imply that both species diversity and regional evolutionary and ecological histories should be taken into account for future nature conservation......., and the Tibetan Plateau, perhaps reflecting their special geological features and history. Nevertheless, partial regression indicated that historical effects were less important relative to contemporary environment. In conclusion, contemporary environment (notably climate) determines the general trend in woody...

  4. Impact of the legislative environment on an individual operating a photovoltaic power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Baranyková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a photovoltaic power plant by an individual is a business activity according to a special regulation. For this activity it is necessary to have a “Licence for doing business in energy sectors”, which provides authorisation to do business in this sector and replaces the traditional Trade Licence. The Licence is issued by the Energy Regulatory Office, through which the Organisation Identification Number (Administrative Id. No. is issued.All these issues are however closely associated with the legislative environment, which is very unclear in the Czech Republic, and it is very difficult to estimate in what direction it will develop. In this connection it is appropriate to present a work definition of the term “legislatively uncertain environment”. The issues connected with these topics can be divided into three areas, namely law, accounting and taxes. This environment is highly unstable for the decision making process of an individual, and it is not easy to determine whether the terms and conditions will remain as they are or if they are changed within several months, not speaking about the fact that the recent periods are characterised by the fact that the law regulations use more and more often the principle of retroactivity, and therefore it is not even clear whether the individual makes a decision in the conditions which are set at present or if he or she is retroactively hit by the changes which may be made during a few months and can have a fundamental impact on the individual concerned.

  5. Protection of the environment against emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1966-05-01

    Gas exposure experiments with plants do not reflect their relative resistance to air pollutants in nature. For example, such experiments showed that vegetables are the plants most sensitive to air pollutants. If the environment is observed closely, however, it will be found that deciduous trees show symptoms of air pollution damage much earlier. This can be explained by the fact that vegetables are frequently protected by buildings or trees. Thus, plant resistance cannot be evaluated correctly without taking the environment into account. With this approach, it can be concluded that coniferous trees are hardest hit by air pollution. If they grow in the vicinity of a deciduous forest, they will disappear first. However, crops and deciduous trees can still be grown in industrial areas. There are three ways to protect coniferous trees in an industrial area: by good stack gas dispersion using high stacks; by cleaning the raw material or by using non-toxic material; and by removing dust and pollutants from the emissions. Despite such measures, a minimum of air pollution will remain. In view of this fact, pollution-resistant plants ought to be selected for cultivation in such areas; their growth conditions (soil, water supply, etc.) must be optimized, and a belt of protective plants must be created. 24 references, 4 figures.

  6. Phytoremediation and phytomining: Using plants to remediate contaminated or mineralized environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of harsh environment for plants is metal and metalloid contaminated or mineralized soils which exist in most countries due to geological formations or to the history of mining and smelting. Depending on soil pH and fertility, metal-rich soils may be barren and eroding into wider areas. Some...

  7. A virtual closed loop method for closed loop identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüero, J.C.; Goodwin, G.C.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect methods for the identification of linear plant models on the basis of closed loop data are based on the use of (reconstructed) input signals that are uncorrelated with the noise. This generally requires exact (linear) controller knowledge. On the other hand, direct identification requires

  8. Potential for Measurement of Trace Volatile Organic Compounds in Closed Environments Using Gas Chromatograph/Differential Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Cheng, Patti

    2007-01-01

    For nearly 3.5 years, the Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) has routinely analyzed the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere for a target list of approximately 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Additionally, an early prototype of the VOA collected data aboard submarines in two separate trials. Comparison of the data collected on ISS and submarines showed a surprising similarity in the atmospheres of the two environments. Furthermore, in both cases it was demonstrated that the VOA data can detect hardware issues unrelated to crew health. Finally, it was also clear in both operations that the VOA s size and resource consumption were major disadvantages that would restrict its use in the future. The VOA showed the value of measuring VOCs in closed environments, but it had to be shrunk if it was to be considered for future operations in these environments that are characterized by cramped spaces and limited resources. The Sionex Microanalyzer is a fraction of the VOA s size and this instrument seems capable of maintaining or improving upon the analytical performance of the VOA. The two design improvements that led to a smaller, less complex instrument are the Microanalyzer s use of recirculated air as the gas chromatograph s carrier gas and a micromachined detector. Although the VOA s ion mobility spectrometer and the Microanalyzer s differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) are related detector technologies, the DMS was more amenable to micromachining. This paper will present data from the initial assessment of the Microanalyzer. The instrument was challenged with mixtures that simulated the VOCs typically detected in closed-environment atmospheres.

  9. Molecular breeding to create optimized crops: from genetic manipulation to potential applications in plant factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eHiwasa-Tanase

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  10. QTLs for heading date and plant height under multiple environments in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmin; Hu, Wei; Tan, Cong; Xing, Yongzhong

    2017-02-01

    Both heading date and plant height are important traits related to grain yield in rice. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both traits under 3 long-day (LD) environments and 1 short-day (SD) environment. A total of eight QTLs for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were detected by composite interval mapping under LD conditions. Additional one QTL for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were identified by Two-QTL model under LD conditions. Among them, major QTLs qHd7.1, qHd7.2 and qHd8 for heading date, and qPh1 and qPh7.1 for plant height were commonly detected. qHd7.1 and qHd7.2 were mapped to small regions of less than 1 cM. Genome position comparison of previously cloned genes with QTLs detected in this study revealed that qHd5 and qPh3.1 were two novel QTLs. The alleles of these QTLs increasing trait values were dispersed in both parents, which well explained the transgressive segregation observed in this population. In addition, the interaction between qHd7.1 and qHd8 was detected under all LD conditions. Multiple-QTL model analysis revealed that all QTLs and their interactions explained over 80% of heading date variation and 50% of plant height variation. Two heading date QTLs were detected under SD condition. Of them, qHd10 were commonly identified under LD condition. The difference in QTL detection between LD and SD conditions indicated most heading date QTLs are sensitive to photoperiod. These findings will benefit breeding design for heading date and plant height in rice.

  11. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  12. Biochar application reduce ammonia volatilization in a soil-plant system: A closed chamber experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sanchita; Donner, Erica; Smith, Euan; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is considered as one of the major mechanisms responsible for the loss of nitrogen (N) from soil-plant systems worldwide. About 10-30% of N can be lost as NH3 volatilization, which constitutes a significant economic loss. In recent years carbon-based materials such as biochar have created a great research interest because of their ability to increase soil fertility by reducing nutrient loss and pollutants bioavailability in soil. Most of the studies so far have investigated how biochar addition can reduce NH3 volatilization from soils but less information is available for soil-plant systems. In this research, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, variety: Calingiri) were grown in a calcareous soil (pH 8, calcarosol) inside a closed chamber system to assess both ammonia volatilization and plant N uptake. In this specialized glass chamber air was passed through an inlet where the flow rate was maintained using an air pump (3.5 L min-1). The air outlet was passed through a sulphuric acid trap which was used to capture the volatilized NH3 from the chamber. Plants were watered using the inlet to maintain 50% field capacity throughout the incubation. Two different biochar samples were used in this study: a poultry manure biochar (PM-BC) and a green waste compost biochar (GW-BC) produced at 250 ˚C. Five different application rates were tested (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%). The soil was mixed with biochar samples, water, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S for one week before sowing. After one week of germination, plants were transferred to the chamber for further three weeks incubation for NH3 volatilization measurement. The study identified that biochar application reduced the NH3 volatilization and increase the plant biomass. Biochar application at 0.5 and 2% decreased the NH3 volatilization by 36 and 48% respectively. The N uptake of the plants also increased from 2.9 to 28% at 0.5 and 2% application rates respectively. The dry biomass of the plant also increased

  13. Closed cooling water chemistry guidelines revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElrath, Joel; Breckenridge, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This second revision of the Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. This revision has been endorsed by the utility chemistry community and represents another step in developing a more proactive chemistry program to limit or control closed cooling system degradation with increased consideration of corporate resources and plant-specific design and operating concerns. These guidelines were developed using laboratory data, operating experience, and input from organizations and utilities within and outside of the United States of America. It is the intent of the Revision Committee that these guidelines are applicable to all nuclear and fossil-fueled generating stations around the world. A committee of industry experts—including utility specialists, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations representatives, water-treatment service-company representatives, consultants, a primary contractor, and EPRI staff—collaborated in reviewing available data on closed cooling-water system corrosion and microbiological issues. Recognizing that each plant owner has a unique set of design, operating, and corporate concerns, the Guidelines Committee developed a methodology for plant-specific optimization. The guideline provides the technical basis for a reasonable but conservative set of chemical treatment and monitoring programs. The use of operating ranges for the various treatment chemicals discussed in this guideline will allow a power plant to limit corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in CCW systems to acceptable levels. The guideline now includes closed cooling chemistry regimes proven successful in use in the international community. The guideline provides chemistry constraints for the use of phosphates control, as well as pure water with pH control. (author)

  14. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  15. Localization of wind power plants: the aspects of environment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-25

    The appraisement of the anticipated effects of the wind power on the environment is presented. The following factors are observed: the safety of the plants, noise, infrasound, disturbance of lights and television as well as the effects on nature and birds. Large land based plants with horisontal axis are studied. The risk for a person to be hit by a piece of blade is calculated to 1 x 10 /sup -7/ per million hours. A piece of ice can be thrown up to 250 m in the direction of wind at its highest velocity. The mechanism of nnoise is not well known. The elimination of the disturbance of telecommunication can be attained. Other effects are difficult to quantify and could possibly be manipulated. The distance between human activities and a wind power plant is recommended to be 250 m.

  16. Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1996-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...

  17. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Assessment of long-term effects of radionuclides discharged from a phosphate ore processing plant to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degetti, S.; Mazzoti, D.; Dall'Ara, S.; DeJoanna, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea was interested by continuous direct discharge of phosphogypsum from a local phosphate fertilizer industry up to 1985 following a productive activity of about twenty years.As it is known, due to the remarkable amounts of natural radioactivity connected with the productive cycle of fertilizers from phosphate ores, the release to the environment of huge amounts of potentially hazardous wastes might be in principle of major radioecological concern.In this respect Ra-226 and its decay products are expected to be the main responsible of radioactivity background enhancement.Taking into account that discharge at sea (depth 30-35 m) was interrupted over ten years ago, following the closing of the plant, the main scope of this investigation was to assess the long-term effect of the disposal of phosphogypsum in the marine environment and in particular the possible enrichment of the radioactive fraction after solubilization of the gypsum carrier. In order to assess the actual radioecological influence of discharged slurries on the marine environment a preliminary sampling was carried out.Radioactivity data obtained from sediment cores clearly indicate anomalies in respect to typical 'background' values obtained from homologous samples collected in an unaffected area in proximity of the disposal site.As an example, Ra-226 activities in sediment were found to be one hundred fold higher than natural background.Radioactivity data from sediments cores collected in sites interested by bottom sea currents coming from discharge area will be also reported and discussed.(authors)

  19. Competition and facilitation structure plant communities under nurse tree canopies in extremely stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namazi, Ali A; El-Bana, Magdy I; Bonser, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy. We tested these predictions using a neighbor removal experiment under nurse trees growing in arid environments. Established individuals of each of four of the most common herbaceous species in the understory were used in the experiment. Two species were more frequent in the center of the canopy, and two species were more frequent at the edge of the canopy. Established individuals of each species were subjected to neighbor removal or control treatments in both canopy center and edge habitats. We found a shift from competitive to facilitative interactions from the center to the edge of the canopy. The shift in the effect of neighbors on the target species can help to explain species distributions in these canopies. Canopy-dominant species only perform well in the presence of neighbors in the edge microhabitat. Competition from canopy-dominant species can also limit the performance of edge-dominant species in the canopy microhabitat. The shift from competition to facilitation under nurse plant canopies can structure the understory communities in extremely stressful environments.

  20. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  1. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in a closed-loop power plant; risk assessment and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, P.; Pernin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980, the water used for cooling in French power plants has been tested for pathogenic amoebae, especially Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapid fatal disease of the central nervous system. The replacement of brass condensers by stainless steel condensers resulted in increased Naegleria fowleri development, to a density of as much as 3000 l -1 in the Dampierre power plant cooling water. Downstream from Dampierre, the maximum detected density of this amoeba during the summer of 1995 was 80 l -1 , at low river flow. The replacement of a second condenser in 1996 at the same power plant was expected to double the amoebae concentration in the river. The hypothetical PAM risk for swimmers was then predicted to be 10 -4 per swim. To reduce the risk continuous chlorination of the closed-loop cooling system was implemented at a free residual chlorine level in the range of 0.3-0.5 mg.l -1 . Naegleria fowleri concentrations decreased immediately and thereafter remained under 4 l -1 . Total residual chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds were also monitored in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this preventive action. (authors)

  2. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  3. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  4. Airborne heavy metal pollution in the environment of a danish steel plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, N. K.; Stephansen, U.; Rasmussen, L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of heavy metal deposition was carried out in the vicinity of a Danish steel plant. Bulk precipitation and transplanted lichen (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.) were sampled at 12 stations in the environment before and after the production had been converted from open-hearth furnaces...

  5. Nitrogen and plant population change radiation capture and utilization capacity of sunflower in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Wajid, Aftab; Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Habib-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad; Raza, Muhammad Aown Sammar; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Saleem, Muhammad Farrukh; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Mubeen, Muhammad; Saeed, Umer; Arshad, Muhammad Naveed; Fahad, Shah; Nasim, Wajid

    2017-07-01

    The combination of nitrogen and plant population expresses the spatial distribution of crop plants. The spatial distribution influences canopy structure and development, radiation capture, accumulated intercepted radiation (Sa), radiation use efficiency (RUE), and subsequently dry matter production. We hypothesized that the sunflower crop at higher plant populations and nitrogen (N) rates would achieve early canopy cover, capture more radiant energy, utilize radiation energy more efficiently, and ultimately increase economic yield. To investigate the above hypothesis, we examined the influences of leaf area index (LAI) at different plant populations (83,333, 66,666, and 55,555 plants ha -1 ) and N rates (90, 120, and 150 kg ha -1 ) on radiation interception (Fi), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) accumulation (Sa), total dry matter (TDM), achene yield (AY), and RUE of sunflower. The experimental work was conducted during 2012 and 2013 on sandy loam soil in Punjab, Pakistan. The sunflower crop captured more than 96% of incident radiant energy (mean of all treatments), 98% with a higher plant population (83,333 plants ha -1 ), and 97% with higher N application (150 kg ha -1 ) at the fifth harvest (60 days after sowing) during both study years. The plant population of 83,333 plants ha -1 with 150 kg N ha -1 ominously promoted crop, RUE, and finally productivity of sunflower (AY and TDM). Sunflower canopy (LAI) showed a very close and strong association with Fi (R 2  = 0.99 in both years), PAR (R 2  = 0.74 and 0.79 in 2012 and 2013, respectively), TDM (R 2  = 0.97 in 2012 and 0.91 in 2013), AY (R 2  = 0.95 in both years), RUE for TDM (RUE TDM ) (R 2  = 0.63 and 0.71 in 2012 and 2013, respectively), and RUE for AY (RUE AY ) (R 2  = 0.88 and 0.87 in 2012 and 2013, respectively). Similarly, AY (R 2  = 0.73 in 2012 and 0.79 in 2013) and TDM (R 2  = 0.75 in 2012 and 0.84 in 2013) indicated significant dependence on PAR accumulation of

  6. Power plant construction contracting in a changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 1965 blackout in the Northeast provided the wake-up call that spawned in unprecedented program of power plant construction by electric utilities. This building program began in the late 1960s and continued unabated through the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, state regulators began in era of 'prudence' reviews which disallowed as imprudent significant portions of the costs of certain nuclear units being brought on line at the time. This regulatory experience brought about a fundamental change in the way in which utilities evaluated the need for additional capacity. This paper explores construction contracting trends in light of recent developments in the relationship between the electric utility and the state regulator. It is within this context that the utility decides: (1) whether to build, buy, or save; and (2) if the decision is to build, which project planning and administration considerations will maximize the utility's ability to incorporate project costs into the ratebase. In order to put these issues into their proper perspective, this paper first presents a brief overview of the prudence decisions of the past, and the chilling effect of these decisions generally on new project planning. The paper next focuses on the recent changes to the post-construction prudence review model, including the introduction of pre-approval arrangements and rolling prudence reviews. Following that will be a survey of new construction spending decisions in light of these changes. After an analysis of the bases for the prudence disallowances of the past and the application of the lessons learned from these disallowances to contract planning and administration issues of today, the paper will close with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used contract delivery methods in today's regulatory environment

  7. Close-range hyperspectral image analysis for the early detection of stress responses in individual plants in a high-throughput phenotyping platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Asaari, Mohd Shahrimie; Mishra, Puneet; Mertens, Stien; Dhondt, Stijn; Inzé, Dirk; Wuyts, Nathalie; Scheunders, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The potential of close-range hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as a tool for detecting early drought stress responses in plants grown in a high-throughput plant phenotyping platform (HTPPP) was explored. Reflectance spectra from leaves in close-range imaging are highly influenced by plant geometry and its specific alignment towards the imaging system. This induces high uninformative variability in the recorded signals, whereas the spectral signature informing on plant biological traits remains undisclosed. A linear reflectance model that describes the effect of the distance and orientation of each pixel of a plant with respect to the imaging system was applied. By solving this model for the linear coefficients, the spectra were corrected for the uninformative illumination effects. This approach, however, was constrained by the requirement of a reference spectrum, which was difficult to obtain. As an alternative, the standard normal variate (SNV) normalisation method was applied to reduce this uninformative variability. Once the envisioned illumination effects were eliminated, the remaining differences in plant spectra were assumed to be related to changes in plant traits. To distinguish the stress-related phenomena from regular growth dynamics, a spectral analysis procedure was developed based on clustering, a supervised band selection, and a direct calculation of a spectral similarity measure against a reference. To test the significance of the discrimination between healthy and stressed plants, a statistical test was conducted using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The proposed analysis techniques was validated with HSI data of maize plants (Zea mays L.) acquired in a HTPPP for early detection of drought stress in maize plant. Results showed that the pre-processing of reflectance spectra with the SNV effectively reduces the variability due to the expected illumination effects. The proposed spectral analysis method on the normalized spectra successfully

  8. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  9. Modern technologies and equipment for environment and sustainable development at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marius Cristian; Patrascu, Mihai; Pop, Artimisia; Chilom, Rodica

    2004-01-01

    At ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant, the sustainable development concept incorporates as a priority the environmental protection through the production process technology. Norway's Prime Minister, Mr. Gro Harlem Brundtland used the concept of 'sustainable development' in 1987, when as President of International Commission for Environment and Sustainable Development, he presented his report 'Our common future'. Sustainable development means that development that allows satisfying our present needs without spoiling the next generation capacity to meet their own needs. Any technology has both advantages and disadvantages; when considering the concept of sustainable development we have to take into account all the aspects, namely: - causes identification and review; - results evaluation; - corrective and preventive actions. Thus, ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant has implemented a typical environment management system by means of what the general and specific objectives have been established, these objectives being stated in an Environment Policy Declaration: - Environment Management System as per SR EN ISO 14001/1997; - Quality Management System as per SR EN ISO 9001/2000; - IQNet- The International Certification Network. The paper presents the modern equipment for emissions and in-missions management with real time data transmission, for air and water as environment elements. Section two deals with trial of modern technology for industrial discharged wastewater treatment using the method of controlled batching of surface-active materials. Investigations on method application and laboratory testing as well as findings are given. As a conclusion, one can state that ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant, has as one of its main concern keeping on high standards the safety of its equipment operation, sustainable development and risk eliminating so that neither environment or the population in vicinity is affected. (authors)

  10. Radioactive pollution from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, H; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Nakata, A; Yoshida, M A; Tokonami, S; Yamada, M

    2012-11-01

    Major contaminants from venting and hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors between 12 and 15 March 2011 were transported northwestward and deposited on soil and plants via precipitation. Surface soils and plant leaves were sampled at 64 sites in the Fukushima Prefecture. The highest concentrations of (134)Cs (84.4 kBq kg(-1)) and (137)Cs (82.0 kBq kg(-1)) in surface soils were observed at Nagadoro in Iidate village located 32 km northwest from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, (131)I, (129)Te, (129 m)Te, (110 m)Ag and (140)La were detected in the same samples. Outer surface of plant leaves, such as bamboo, cabbage and grasses were highly contaminated at the high-dose rate areas of Tsushima and Minami-Tsushima in Namie town. Mugwort leaves that grew after the pollution event had extremely low concentration of radionuclides; however, the plant/soil radiocaesium ratio was 0.023 ± 0.006. It is anticipated that decomposition of fallen leaves will promote recycling of radionuclides in the environment.

  11. Review of problems and methods for radiation risk assessment in the environment of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, M.

    1966-01-01

    Radiation impact on the nuclear power plant environment is a very important problem which has to be solved during design and construction. Damage that could be caused by release of radioactive material into the environment should be estimated and the magnitude of nuclear and radiation risk of the power plant should be evaluated. In general the accuracy of estimation is rather poor due to statistical fluctuations of the conditions which influence radioactivity expansion in the environment, especially in the air. Different uncertainties and unresolved problems influence the inaccuracy. Since any real risk should be extremely small compared to potential risk i.e. risk induced by nuclear power plant without any safety measures, even inaccurate estimations are very useful. Method for environmental radiation risk assessment is based on relatively simple models of radiation expansion in the environment and in the air. These models are theoretically solved but they are based on relatively limited number of experimental data. Assessment of the radiation effects on the population health and mortality is an important problem [sl

  12. The Y-12 Plant - a model for environmental excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, occupies more than 800 acres and has a work force of over 4,000 employees. The Y-12 Plant is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Martin Marietta Corporation. Although mission emphases at the Y-12 Plant have evolved and changed with the easing of international tensions, the Plant continues to serve as a key manufacturing unit and technology demonstration center for the Department of Energy and the nation. The Y-12 Plant has undergone many changes in the last 14 years. One of the most dramatic changes has occurred in the environmental programs with measurable improvements in environmental quality, the development of an award-winning pollution prevention program, and the institution of an environmentally-conscious work ethic among the work force. Because the plant is committed to achieving excellence, not just compliance with laws and regulations, a highly structured, multimedia environmental management program is in place. This program, combined with a commitment to protect the environment while striving for continued improvement, has placed Y-12 in the position to reach excellence. As a result of the Y-12 Plant`s changing mission, they are now working closely with American industry through technology transfer to share their experiences and {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}--including environmental and pollution prevention technology. To facilitate this effort, the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology has been established at the Y-12 Plant. Through the Centers, the Oak Ridge staff applies skills, capabilities, and facilities developed over a 50-year history of the Oak Ridge Complex to a variety of peacetime missions. The services found at the Centers are a key to helping America`s businesses--both small and large--compete in the global marketplace while protecting the nations environment and conserving its resources.

  13. Microbial and Plant-Assisted Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omena Bernard Ojuederie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution from hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals, has adversely affected the natural ecosystem to the detriment of man. These pollutants arise from anthropogenic sources as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Toxic metals could accumulate in agricultural soils and get into the food chain, thereby becoming a major threat to food security. Conventional and physical methods are expensive and not effective in areas with low metal toxicity. Bioremediation is therefore an eco-friendly and efficient method of reclaiming environments contaminated with heavy metals by making use of the inherent biological mechanisms of microorganisms and plants to eradicate hazardous contaminants. This review discusses the toxic effects of heavy metal pollution and the mechanisms used by microbes and plants for environmental remediation. It also emphasized the importance of modern biotechnological techniques and approaches in improving the ability of microbial enzymes to effectively degrade heavy metals at a faster rate, highlighting recent advances in microbial bioremediation and phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals from the environment as well as future prospects and limitations. However, strict adherence to biosafety regulations must be followed in the use of biotechnological methods to ensure safety of the environment.

  14. Microbial and Plant-Assisted Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojuederie, Omena Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution from hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals, has adversely affected the natural ecosystem to the detriment of man. These pollutants arise from anthropogenic sources as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Toxic metals could accumulate in agricultural soils and get into the food chain, thereby becoming a major threat to food security. Conventional and physical methods are expensive and not effective in areas with low metal toxicity. Bioremediation is therefore an eco-friendly and efficient method of reclaiming environments contaminated with heavy metals by making use of the inherent biological mechanisms of microorganisms and plants to eradicate hazardous contaminants. This review discusses the toxic effects of heavy metal pollution and the mechanisms used by microbes and plants for environmental remediation. It also emphasized the importance of modern biotechnological techniques and approaches in improving the ability of microbial enzymes to effectively degrade heavy metals at a faster rate, highlighting recent advances in microbial bioremediation and phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals from the environment as well as future prospects and limitations. However, strict adherence to biosafety regulations must be followed in the use of biotechnological methods to ensure safety of the environment. PMID:29207531

  15. Sensor and Communication Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Koo, In Soo; Jung, Jong Eun; Hur Seop; Hong, Seok Boong

    2009-10-15

    As the result of the rapid development of IT technology, an on-line diagnostic system using the fieldbus communication network coupled with a smart sensor module will be widely used at the nuclear power plant in the near future. The smart sensor system is very useful for the prompt understanding of abnormal state of the key equipment installed in the nuclear power plant. In this paper, it is assumed that a smart sensor system based on the fieldbus communication network for the surveillance and diagnostics of safety-critical equipment will be installed in the harsh-environment of the nuclear power plant. It means that the key components of fieldbus communication system including microprocessor, FPGA, and ASIC devices, are to be installed in the RPV (reactor pressure vessel) and the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, which is the area of a high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. Gamma radiation constraints for the DBA (design basis accident) qualification of the RTD sensor installed in the harsh environment of nuclear power plant, are typically on the order of 4 kGy/h. In order to use a fieldbus communication network as an ad-hoc diagnostics sensor network in the vicinity of the RCS pump area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of IT-based micro-electronic components in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. An intelligent CCD camera system, which are composed of advanced micro-electronics devices based on IT technology, have been gamma irradiated at the dose rate of about 4.2 kGy/h during an hour up to a total dose of 4 kGy. The degradation performance of the gamma irradiated CCD camera system is explained.

  16. Sensor and Communication Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Koo, In Soo; Jung, Jong Eun; Hur Seop; Hong, Seok Boong

    2009-10-01

    As the result of the rapid development of IT technology, an on-line diagnostic system using the fieldbus communication network coupled with a smart sensor module will be widely used at the nuclear power plant in the near future. The smart sensor system is very useful for the prompt understanding of abnormal state of the key equipment installed in the nuclear power plant. In this paper, it is assumed that a smart sensor system based on the fieldbus communication network for the surveillance and diagnostics of safety-critical equipment will be installed in the harsh-environment of the nuclear power plant. It means that the key components of fieldbus communication system including microprocessor, FPGA, and ASIC devices, are to be installed in the RPV (reactor pressure vessel) and the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, which is the area of a high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. Gamma radiation constraints for the DBA (design basis accident) qualification of the RTD sensor installed in the harsh environment of nuclear power plant, are typically on the order of 4 kGy/h. In order to use a fieldbus communication network as an ad-hoc diagnostics sensor network in the vicinity of the RCS pump area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of IT-based micro-electronic components in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. An intelligent CCD camera system, which are composed of advanced micro-electronics devices based on IT technology, have been gamma irradiated at the dose rate of about 4.2 kGy/h during an hour up to a total dose of 4 kGy. The degradation performance of the gamma irradiated CCD camera system is explained

  17. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  19. Mass balance of pent achloroni trobenzene-14c and metabolites in a closed aerated soil plant or soil-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out with pentachloronitrobenzene- 14 C and soils with and without plants in a closed aerated laboratory system. In both experiments, degradation to 14 CO 2 within 16 or 53 days, respectively, was very low (=0,01% of initially applied 14 C). Volatilization loses were about 15% in the system with plants (16 days) and were negligible in the soil without plants (53 days). The uptake into plants within 16 days was 5.26% of initially applied 14 C(0.86% unchanged parent compound, 3.35% soluble metabolites, and 1.05% unextractable residues); the major portion of soluble metabolites was highly polar conjugates which were not characterized further. The radioactivity left in both soils after 16 or 53 days, respectively, considered of 57 or 37% unchanged parent compound, 10 or 42% soluble metabolites, and 13 or 25% soil-bound residues. In the soil without plants, the following conversion products were identified after 53 days: pentachloroaniline (18.7% of initially applied 14 C), pentachlorthioanisole (17.3%), pentachlorobenzene, and pentachlorophenylmethylsulphoxide (2.6% each). (author)

  20. Rationale for evaluating a closed food chain for space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, M.; Spurlock, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Closed food cycles for long duration space flight and space habitation are examined. Wash water for a crew of six is economically recyclable after a week, while a total closed loop water system is effective only if the stay exceeds six months' length. The stoichiometry of net plant growth is calculated and it is shown that the return of urine, feces, and inedible plant parts to the food chain, along with the addition of photosynthesis, closes the food chain loop. Scenarios are presented to explore the technical feasibility of achieving a closed loop system. An optimal choice of plants is followed by processing, waste conversion, equipment specifications, and control requirements, and finally, cost-effectiveness.

  1. A numerical study to evaluate the effects of a plant canopy on the modification of thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Cho, T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear that ground conditions have a large effect on the thermal environment. Plant canopies have their own characteristic types of architecture and have a great influence upon the action and reaction processes occurring between plants and their environment through the modification and interception of fluxes of radiation, heat and mass. A numerical experiment was carried out to determine the diurnal changes occurring in soil and air temperatures near the ground surface covered by a plant. The model assumed that a canopy can be mathematically condensed into a single plane and treated as a single ‘big leaf’. The stomatal resistance was estimated by using the rectangular hyperbolic relationship between stomatal resistance and irradiance. Wind velocity, potential temperature and specific humidity values of 3.6m/s, 25°C and 0.0015 were applied respectively at the upper boundary (100 m), and a temperature of 25°C was specified for the lower boundary (-0.5m). All these conditions were kept constant throughout the simulation period. The analysis was performed on the basis of irradiant data obtained in Fukuoka City (latitude 33° 38'N) on 26 th July, 1978. The temperature profiles during daylight were characterized by curves with a maximum in the canopy layer. The temperature range on the soil surface was reduced owing to the effect of shading by the leaves. These phenomena make the formation of the thermal environment on a plant canopy extremely complex. In the case presented in this paper, the type of plant canopy investigated was similar to that of a soybean field with plants 1.00 m high, but the method could easily be adapted to simulate the thermal environment of a tall canopy, such as that in a forest. (author)

  2. Review of annual radioecological studies carried out since 1991 in the French nuclear power plants environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Gontier, G.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the IRSN carries out annual radioecological studies in the environment of the French Nuclear Power Plants. More than 5,000 samples, collected in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the 20 studied plants, have been analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry. This paper presents the main goals and methods for such studies, and the lessons learnt from 11 years results. The French NPP routine atmospheric releases do not lead to detectable radioactive inputs into their surroundings. For this reason, IRSN decided to reduce the number of analysis concerning terrestrial samples since 2000. On the other hand, NPP liquid discharges into rivers are responsible for the presence of low 60 Co, 58 Co, 110m Ag and 54 Mn activities and significant difference in 137 Cs/ 134 Cs activity ratios measured in aquatic compartments. Radioactive discharges of artificial gamma emitters are also detectable in the Channel marine environment around NPP. Nevertheless, this influence is often concealed by radionuclides released by COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. Beyond important evaluations concerning the presence of artificial radionuclides in NPP's environment, studies conducted since 1991 give us an important database that can be used for a better knowledge of transfers and distribution of radioactivity through the environment. (author)

  3. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  4. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tai eChen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analogue electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  5. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  6. Heavy metals in contaminated environment: Destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextraction in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lajayer, Behnam; Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Nikabadi, Shahab

    2017-11-01

    Contamination of soils, water and air with toxic heavy metals by various human activities is a crucial environmental problem in both developing and developed countries. Heavy metals could be introduced into medicinal plant products through contaminated environment (soil, water and air resources) and/or poor production practices. Growing of medicinal plants in heavy metal polluted environments may eventually affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, causing significant changes in the quantity and quality of these compounds. Certain medicinal and aromatic plants can absorb and accumulate metal contaminants in the harvestable foliage and, therefore, considered to be a feasible alternative for remediation of polluted sites without any contamination of essential oils. Plants use different strategies and complex arrays of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defense systems to cope with overproduction of ROS causes from the heavy metals entered their cells through foliar and/or root systems. This review summarizes the reports of recent investigations involving heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants and its effects on elicitation of secondary metabolites, toxicity and detoxification pathways, international standards regarding in plants and plant-based products, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-medicinal plants systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A.

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  8. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  9. Differences in Competitive Ability between Plants from Nonnative and Native Populations of a Tropical Invader Relates to Adaptive Responses in Abiotic and Biotic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ru; Barclay, Gregor F.; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of competitive ability of invasive plant species is generally studied in the context of adaptive responses to novel biotic environments (enemy release) in introduced ranges. However, invasive plants may also respond to novel abiotic environments. Here we studied differences in competitive ability between Chromolaena odorata plants of populations from nonnative versus native ranges, considering biogeographical differences in both biotic and abiotic environments. An intraspecific competition experiment was conducted at two nutrient levels in a common garden. In both low and high nutrient treatments, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed consistently lower root to shoot ratios than did plants from native ranges grown in both monoculture and competition. In the low nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed significantly lower competitive ability (competition-driven decreases in plant height and biomass were more), which was associated with their lower root to shoot ratios and higher total leaf phenolic content (defense trait). In the high nutrient treatment, C. odorata plants from nonnative ranges showed lower leaf toughness and cellulosic contents (defense traits) but similar competitive ability compared with plants from native ranges, which was also associated with their lower root to shoot ratios. Our results indicate that genetically based shifts in biomass allocation (responses to abiotic environments) also influence competitive abilities of invasive plants, and provide a first potential mechanism for the interaction between range and environment (environment-dependent difference between ranges). PMID:23977140

  10. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  11. Teleobservation in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteau, M.

    1983-01-01

    For maintenance operations in radiation environment, French nuclear industry uses television cameras operating in closed circuit, specially designed to penetrate in reactor cores and in active cells of reprocessing plants. The nuclear cameras, used by VISIONIC are the product of 20 years of experience. They are tight, submersible, and equipped with objectives which are not affected by radiations and are characterized by their miniaturization. This equipment complies with international television standards C.C.I.R. 625 intertwined lines. In order to facilitate the approach of cameras, VISIONIC uses remote handling equipment such as remotely operated caterpillar trolleys

  12. Topical radiation protection questions of use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, J.; Csupka, S.; Petrasova, M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems of the use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants. The analysis of emission activity in nuclear power plants presently under construction shows that for normal operation no precautions are necessary. For accidents, specific health protection measures are planned. (author)

  13. Suppressive composts: microbial ecology links between abiotic environments and healthy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Yitzhak; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2012-01-01

    Suppressive compost provides an environment in which plant disease development is reduced, even in the presence of a pathogen and a susceptible host. Despite the numerous positive reports, its practical application is still limited. The main reason for this is the lack of reliable prediction and quality control tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of the suppression effect. Plant disease suppression is the direct result of the activity of consortia of antagonistic microorganisms that naturally recolonize the compost during the cooling phase of the process. Thus, it is imperative to increase the level of understanding of compost microbial ecology and population dynamics. This may lead to the development of an ecological theory for complex ecosystems as well as favor the establishment of hypothesis-driven studies.

  14. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  15. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  16. The influence of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions on environment PM2.5 in Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, He; Zhang, Huafei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, in the Northeast of China, the heating period comes with large range of haze weather. All the units of coal power plants in Jilin Province have completed the cogeneration reformation; they provide local city heat energy. Many people believe that coal power plants heating caused the heavy haze. In is paper, by compared concentration of PM2.5 in environment in heating period and non heating period, meanwhile the capacity of local coal power plants, conclude that the PM2.5 emission of coal power plants not directly cause the heavy haze in Changchun and Jilin in the end of October and early November. In addition, the water-soluble iron composition of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions is compared with environment, which further proves that the heating supply in coal power plants is not the cause of high concentration of PM2.5 in Jilin province.

  17. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  18. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  19. Phytomonas: trypanosomatids adapted to plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jaskowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 100 years after trypanosomatids were first discovered in plant tissues, Phytomonas parasites have now been isolated across the globe from members of 24 different plant families. Most identified species have not been associated with any plant pathology and to date only two species are definitively known to cause plant disease. These diseases (wilt of palm and coffee phloem necrosis are problematic in areas of South America where they threaten the economies of developing countries. In contrast to their mammalian infective relatives, our knowledge of the biology of Phytomonas parasites and how they interact with their plant hosts is limited. This review draws together a century of research into plant trypanosomatids, from the first isolations and experimental infections to the recent publication of the first Phytomonas genomes. The availability of genomic data for these plant parasites opens a new avenue for comparative investigations into trypanosomatid biology and provides fresh insight into how this important group of parasites have adapted to survive in a spectrum of hosts from crocodiles to coconuts.

  20. Irradiation Testing Vehicles for Fast Reactors from Open Test Assemblies to Closed Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.

  1. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  2. Environment of the quasar PG 1613 + 65 (Mkn 876) - a close interacting pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.; Green, R.F.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic and two-color imaging of the environment of the bright, low-redshift quasar PG 1613 + 65 = Mkn 876 is presented. The quasar is situated in a poor cluster of galaxies of Abell richness class 0. The quasar's morphology includes a 25 arcsec long tidal tail emanating from the east side, 180 deg from the position angle of a secondary nucleus 1.9 arcsec from the main nucleus. The nebulous component of the quasar is analyzed and found to be more than twice as bright as a first-rank cluster galaxy. The average colors of the tidal tail and the main body are consistent with those of late-type spiral galaxies. The possibility that the quasar host is interacting with a very close neighbor is assessed, and the star-forming effects of such an interaction on the host galaxy are considered. 43 references

  3. The Panacea Plants for Environment and Humanity: Caper and Ritha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadim YEMİŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caper and Ritha are plants which have very important effects on both living beings and natural habitat. They are used in many areas like medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and agriculture because of their positive features. Caper is compatible with the Mediterranean ecosystem and resistant to drought and high-salinity. When compared to the other most plants, it can remain green for a long time without water even in the summer season. Due to this magnificent property, this plant is effectively used for environmental protection. It has been reported that Caper contains biologically active compounds such as glucosinolates, alkoloids, phenolics, flavonoid, tocopherol and minerals such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Ritha grows in Asia’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It contributes to the environment like Caper because, it has ability to capture the chemical pollution from the soil. So, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the land by holding heavy metals like mercury, iron and zinc in the leaves and grabbing lead and cadmium in its fruits. Moreover, it biologically decomposes injurious organic molecules such as hexachlorobenzene and naphthalene. Furthermore, the nectar of Ritha can kill the flies and larvae of Southern cattle mite’s species called Boophilus microplus.

  4. Closed loop identification using a modified Hansen scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    in closed loop [4], and one such method is the Hansen scheme [1]. Standard identification using Hansen scheme demands generating the identification signals indirectly. In this paper it is instead proposed to use the relationship between the Youla factorization of a plant and its stabilizing controller...... in order to keep the system stable. Furthermore because the dynamics of such a system depends on the rotational speed it is needed to conduct an identification while the system is part of a closed loop scheme. The authors believe the paper able to contribute towards a simpler and more direct way...... of identifying closed loop plants using Hansen scheme....

  5. One Layer Nonlinear Economic Closed-Loop Generalized Predictive Control for a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham El bahja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main scope of this paper is the proposal of a new single layer Nonlinear Economic Closed-Loop Generalized Predictive Control (NECLGPC as an efficient advanced control technique for improving economics in the operation of nonlinear plants. Instead of the classic dual-mode MPC (model predictive controller schemes, where the terminal control law defined in the terminal region is obtained offline solving a linear quadratic regulator problem, here the terminal control law in the NECLGPC is determined online by an unconstrained Nonlinear Generalized Predictive Control (NGPC. In order to make the optimization problem more tractable two considerations have been made in the present work. Firstly, the prediction model consisting of a nonlinear phenomenological model of the plant is expressed with linear structure and state dependent matrices. Secondly, instead of including the nonlinear economic cost in the objective function, an approximation of the reduced gradient of the economic function is used. These assumptions allow us to design an economic unconstrained nonlinear GPC analytically and to state the NECLGPC allow for the design of an economic problem as a QP (Quadratic Programing problem each sampling time. Four controllers based on GPC that differ in designs and structures are compared with the proposed control technique in terms of process performance and energy costs. Particularly, the methodology is implemented in the N-Removal process of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP and the results prove the efficiency of the method and that it can be used profitably in practical cases.

  6. Plants: An International Scientific Open Access Journal to Publish All Facets of Plants, Their Functions and Interactions with the Environment and Other Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W.G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the two major groups of living organisms that are an essential entity to the function of the biosphere. Plants can be found in all known parts of the earth, in all shapes and sizes. They include the green algae, mosses, ferns, vines, grasses, bushes, herbs, flowering plants and trees. Although some plants are parasitic, most produce their own food through photosynthesis. Most plants initiate from a seed. The importance of plants in the food chain dates back to ancient times. The first humans gathered wild plants for food. As settlements developed, food crops were cultivated, leading to selection of high-yielding cultivated varieties to feed the growing populations. Unlike plants, humans and other animals are unable to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they are dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants. Plants are found in natural ecosystems such as rain forests, and also in agricultural areas and urbanized settings. They are an essential part of our daily lives providing food, clean air, and important ecosystem functions. The study of plants and their function could be considered the most complex of interactions. From the time a seed germinates, it goes through a myriad of physiological processes that can be closely studied using modern tools and molecular biological methods. An open access journal such as Plants will give millions of readers access to that information around the world. PMID:27137635

  7. PROVIDING PLANT DATA ANALYTICS THROUGH A SEAMLESS DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    As technology continues to evolve and become more integrated into a worker’s daily routine in the Nuclear Power industry the need for easy access to data becomes a priority. Not only does the need for data increase but the amount of data collected increases. In most cases the data is collected and stored in various software applications, many of which are legacy systems, which do not offer any other option to access the data except through the application’s user interface. Furthermore the data gets grouped in “silos” according to work function and not necessarily by subject. Hence, in order to access all the information needed for a particular task or analysis one may have to access multiple applications to gather all the data needed. The industry and the research community have identified the need for a digital architecture and more importantly the need for a Seamless Digital Environment. An SDE provides a means to access multiple applications, gather the data points needed, conduct the analysis requested, and present the result to the user with minimal or no effort by the user. In addition, the nuclear utilities have identified the need for research focused on data analytics. The effort should develop and evaluate use cases for data mining and analytics for employing information from plant sensors and database for use in developing improved business analytics. Idaho National Laboratory is leading such effort, which is conducted in close collaboration with vendors, nuclear utilities, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and Electric Power Research Institute. The goal of the study is to research potential approaches to building an analytics solution for equipment reliability, on a small scale, focusing on either a single piece of equipment or a single system. The analytics solution will likely consist of a data integration layer, predictive and machine learning layer and the user interface layer that will display the output of the analysis in a straight

  8. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  9. Plant Community and Soil Environment Response to Summer Fire in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire is a keystone process in many ecosystems, especially grasslands. However, documentation of plant community and soil environment responses to fire is limited for semiarid grasslands relative to that for mesic grasslands. Replicated summer fire research is lacking, but much needed because summe...

  10. Energy and exergy analysis of a closed Brayton cycle-based combined cycle for solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Hasanzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combined cycle is proposed for solar power tower plants. • The effects of solar subsystem and power cycle parameters are examined. • The proposed combined cycle yields exergy efficiencies of higher than 70%. • For the overall power plant exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% is achievable. - Abstract: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology offers an interesting potential for future power generation and research on CSP systems of all types, particularly those with central receiver system (CRS) has been attracting a lot of attention recently. Today, these power plants cannot compete with the conventional power generation systems in terms of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and if a competitive LCOE is to be reached, employing an efficient thermodynamic power cycle is deemed essential. In the present work, a novel combined cycle is proposed for power generation from solar power towers. The proposed system consists of a closed Brayton cycle, which uses helium as the working fluid, and two organic Rankine cycles which are employed to recover the waste heat of the Brayton cycle. The system is thermodynamically assessed from both the first and second law viewpoints. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of key operating parameters (including solar subsystem and power cycle parameters) on the overall power plant performance. The results indicate that exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% are achieved for the overall power plant. Also, according to the results, the power cycle proposed in this work has a better performance than the other investigated Rankine and supercritical CO_2 systems operating under similar conditions, for these types of solar power plants.

  11. Shuffler calibration and measurement of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU-waste in a plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The active-passive shuffler installed and certified a few years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data presently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where there may be sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation which causes distortions in the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be indicated, along with those adopted here

  12. The impact of closed-loop electronic medication management on time to first dose: a comparative study between paper and digital hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jodie A; Smith, Ian R; Tariq, Amina

    2018-01-22

    Closed-loop electronic medication management systems (EMMS) are recognised as an effective intervention to improve medication safety, yet evidence of their effectiveness in hospitals is limited. Few studies have compared medication turnaround time for a closed-loop electronic versus paper-based medication management environment. To compare medication turnaround times in a paper-based hospital environment with a digital hospital equipped with a closed-loop EMMS, consisting of computerised physician order entry, profiled automated dispensing cabinets packaged with unit dose medications and barcode medication administration. Data were collected during 2 weeks at three private hospital sites (one with closed-loop EMMS) within the same organisation network in Queensland, Australia. Time between scheduled and actual administration times was analysed for first dose of time-critical and non-critical medications located on the ward or sourced via pharmacy. Medication turnaround times at the EMMS site were less compared to the paper-based sites (median, IQR: 35 min, 8-57 min versus 120 min, 30-180 min, P medications, 77% were administered within 60 min of scheduled time at the EMMS site versus 38% for the paper-based sites. Similar difference was observed for non-critical medications, 80% were administered within 60 min of their scheduled time at the EMMS site versus 41% at the paper-based facilities. The study indicates medication turnaround times utilising a closed-loop EMMS are less compared to paper-based systems. This improvement may be attributable to increased accessibility of medications using automated dispensing cabinets and electronic medication administration records flagging tasks to nurses in real time. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Sensor and Communication Network Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Park, Hee Yoon; Hong, Seok Bong; Koo, In Soo

    2008-02-01

    One of the challenges in harsh environments qualification and verification for emerging new I and C system of the nuclear power plant is to define the operational environment of these new emerging I and C sensor and communication network such that they are tested to the limits of a mission without requiring expensive over design. To aid this, this report defines, discusses and recommends environmental guideline and verification requirements for using state-of-the-art RPS sensors, fiber optic communication system, wireless communication and wireless smart sensors in nuclear harsh environments. This report focuses on advances in sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, neutron and thermal power sensors) and their potential impact. Discussed are: radiation, thermal, electromagnetic, and electrical environment specifications. Presented are the typical performance data (survivability guidelines and experimental data), evaluation procedure and standard test method of communication devices, state-of-the-art RPS sensors, and communication systems

  14. Sensor and Communication Network Technology for Harsh Environments in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Park, Hee Yoon; Hong, Seok Bong; Koo, In Soo

    2008-02-15

    One of the challenges in harsh environments qualification and verification for emerging new I and C system of the nuclear power plant is to define the operational environment of these new emerging I and C sensor and communication network such that they are tested to the limits of a mission without requiring expensive over design. To aid this, this report defines, discusses and recommends environmental guideline and verification requirements for using state-of-the-art RPS sensors, fiber optic communication system, wireless communication and wireless smart sensors in nuclear harsh environments. This report focuses on advances in sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, neutron and thermal power sensors) and their potential impact. Discussed are: radiation, thermal, electromagnetic, and electrical environment specifications. Presented are the typical performance data (survivability guidelines and experimental data), evaluation procedure and standard test method of communication devices, state-of-the-art RPS sensors, and communication systems.

  15. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  16. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  17. The hydrodynamics of plant spacing distance: Optimizing consumptive and non-consumptive water use in water-limited environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Howington, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of soil moisture in water-stressed environments is one of the primary factors controlling plant performance and overall plant community productivity and structure. The minimization of non-consumptive water loss, or water not utilized by plants (i.e. consumptive use), to bare soil evaporation is a key plant survival strategy and important agricultural consideration. Competitive (negative) and facilitative (positive) interactions between individual plants play a pivotal role in controlling the local coupled soil-plant-atmosphere hydrodynamics that affect both consumptive and non-consumptive water use. The strength of these two types of interactions vary with spacing distance between individuals. In a recent PNAS publication, we hypothesized that there exists a quantifiable spacing distance between plants that optimizes the balance between competition and facilitation, and hence maximizes water conservation. This study expands upon on our previous work, for which only a subset of the data generated was used, through the development and testing of a numerical model that can test a conceptual model we presented. The model simulates soil-plant-atmosphere continuum heat and mass transfer hydrodynamics, taking into account the complex feedbacks that exist between the near-surface atmosphere, subsurface, and plants. This model has been developed to explore the combined effects of subsurface competition and micro-climatic amelioration (i.e., facilitation) on local soil moisture redistribution and fluxes in the context of water-stressed environments that experienced sustained winds. We believe the results have the potential to provide new insights into climatological, ecohydrological, and hydrological problems pertaining to: the extensively used and much debated stress-gradient hypothesis, plant community population self-organization, agricultural best practices (e.g., water management), and spatial heterogeneity of land-atmosphere fluxes.

  18. Phylogenetic Conservatism in Plant Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Phenological events defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism the tendency for closely related species to share similar ecological and biological attributes in phenological traits across flowering plants. We aggregated published and unpublished data on timing of first flower and first leaf, encompassing 4000 species at 23 sites across the Northern Hemisphere. We reconstructed the phylogeny for the set of included species, first, using the software program Phylomatic, and second, from DNA data. We then quantified phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology within and across sites. We show that more closely related species tend to flower and leaf at similar times. By contrasting mean flowering times within and across sites, however, we illustrate that it is not the time of year that is conserved, but rather the phenological responses to a common set of abiotic cues. Our findings suggest that species cannot be treated as statistically independent when modelling phenological responses.Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conserved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species' shared evolutionary histories.

  19. 3. A Closed Aquatic System for Space and Earth Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Ranke, J.; Schirmer, M.

    Increased durations in space travel as well as living in extreme environments are requiring reliable life support systems in general and bioregenerative ones in detail. Waste water management, air revitalization and food production are obviously center goals in this research, however, in addition a potential influence by chemicals, drugs etc. released to the closed environment must be considered. On this basis ecotoxicological data become more and more important for CELSS (Closed Ecological Life Support System) development and performance. The experiences gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of an aquatic habitat, called AquaHab (formerly CBRU), which is a closed, self-sustaining system with a total water volume of 9 liters. In the frame program of a R&D project funded by the state of Bremen and OHB System, AquaHab is under adaptation to become an ecotoxicological research unit containing for example Japanese Medaka or Zebra Fish, amphipods, water snails and water plants. Test runs were standardized and analytical methods were developed. Beside general biological and water chemical parameters, activity measurements of biotransforming enzymes (G6PDH, CytP450-Oxidase, Peroxidase) and cell viability tests as well as residual analysis of the applied substance and respective metabolites were selected as evaluation criteria. In a first series of tests low doses effects of TBT (Tributyltin, 0.1 to 20 μgTBT/l nominal concentration) were analyzed. The AquaHab and data obtained for applied environmental risk assessment will be presented at the assembly.

  20. Montane plant environments in the Fynbos Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental data collected at 507 plots on 22 transects, and soil analytical data from 81 of these plots, have been used to describe the plant environments of the mountains in the Fynbos Biome. Two major regional gradients are recognized: a west-east gradient and a coast-interior gradient. Of particular consequence for fynbos-environment studies is the increase in the proportion of fine soil particles from west to east. At least some aspects of soil fertility also increase towards the east. The edaphic changes are paralleled by climatic changes: chiefly a decrease in the severity of summer drought towards the east. On the coast-interior gradient a major non-climatic variable in the gradient is rock cover. High rock cover is a feature of the interior ranges. Soils with organic horizons or with E horizons are a feature on the coastal mountains, but are generally lacking on the interior mountains. The other environmental gradients recognized occur on individual transects and all include edaphic variables. The rockiness-soil depth gradient, on which an increase in rockiness is associated with a decrease in soil depth and usually a decrease in clay content, tends to occur in three situations. Firstly, it is associated with local topographic variation; the shallow, rocky soils being a feature of the steeper slopes. Secondly, it is associated with the aspect gradient; the hot, dry northern aspects having shallow, rocky, less developed soils. Thirdly, it tends to be associated with the altitude-rainfall gradient: shallower soils being found at higher altitudes. It is also at higher altitudes that higher rainfall is found. Variation in oxidizable carbon is chiefly accounted for by the altitude-rainfall gradient. Whereas at a biome-wide level, aspects of soil fertility are related to soil texture, it appears that on individual transects fertility is linked to amounts of plant remains in the soil and to rainfall. Apart from these gradients, which are

  1. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model.

  2. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Musilova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the “secondary compound hypothesis” and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  3. Occurrence of live corals in close vicinity of nuclear power plant, Tarapur, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambekar, Ajit; Kubal, Priti; Prakash, Chandra; Sawant, Paramita B.; Pal, Asim K.; Lakra, W.S.; Baburajan, A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been world-wide concern over ecosystem health around nuclear power plants due to the release of warm water effluent into marine environment. The Tarapur atomic power station has been running for last four decades yet the live corals were encountered at intertidal area within the 8 km radius of power plant. The prima facie data recorded on coral belongs to three different species, i.e., Fevites complanata, Goniopora minor and Porites lutea. The density of corals was determined through line transect intersect method by employing a 1 m 2 quadrant at every 10 m interval. Among the different physico-chemical parameters, surface water temperature (29.5 °C to 38 °C), salinity (32% to 35.7%), pH (7.8 to 8.2), turbidity (7 to 11 NTU), total suspended solids (272 to 327 ppm) with nutrients like ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and inorganic phosphates were analysed. The sediment texture was mainly dominated by sand >silt>clay, as all the intertidal locations are of rocky habitat. The organic carbon content of sediment was in the range of 0.78% to 1.98%. During the present study, it was observed that the impact of warm water effluent is local and it got decreased with increase in distance. It was also observed that the coral colonies were affected due to conventional fishing activities beyond 3 km of nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Eeuwijk, van, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model. Genotype by environment interaction is then taken to be equivalent to non-additivity. This thesis criticizes the analysis of variance approach. Modelling genotype by environment interaction by non-addit...

  5. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  6. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  7. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  9. Marine environment status assessment based on macrophytobenthic plants as bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Danowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of study was to develop the environmental quality standards (EQS MP ) for selected heavy metals: Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine macrophytobenthic plants: Chara baltica, Cladophora spp., Coccotylus truncatus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Stuckenia pectinata and Zanichellia palustris, collected in designated areas of the southern Baltic Sea in period 2008–2015. The calculated concentration ratios (CR), which attained very high values: 10 4 L kg −1 for lead, 10 3 L kg −1 for nickel and mercury and even 10 5 L kg −1 for cadmium formed the basis for the determination of EQS MP values. The EQS MP values were: 26 mg kg −1 d.w. for Pb, 33 mg kg −1 d.w. for Cd, 32 mg kg −1 d.w. for Ni and 0.4 mg kg −1 d.w. for Hg. The application of macrophytobenthic plants as bioindicators in marine environment status assessment of certain areas of the Baltic Sea is also described in the paper. - Highlights: • Macrophytobenthic plants were applied as a bioindicators for heavy metals pollution assessment. • The environmental quality standards for Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg in macrophytobenthic plants were evaluated. • The marine environment status assessment method based on bioindicators was proposed.

  10. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  11. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  12. Living near a nuclear plant. Health Environment Workshop, 2. semester Year 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevreux, Pierre; Verzat, Valentine

    2012-05-01

    As nuclear energy is a matter of debate as a source of energy because of the huge hazards related to the possibility of a nuclear accident, it is often forgotten that, in its normal operation, a nuclear plant releases radioactive isotopes and many chemical compounds in the environment, and health studies performed on the long term on people living near nuclear plants begin to reveal, for example, an increase of child leukaemia. In this report, and after some recalls about a nuclear plant operation (water supply, overview of releases of radioactive isotopes and chemical compounds), the authors discuss the impact on child cancer by commenting some knowledge about the effect of low doses, and by commenting the results of two studies (KiKK of 2008, and INSERM). They discuss the posture of the ASN and the associated controversy, and finally outline the relevance of the different arguments

  13. Monitoring for radioactive materials releasing to environment in M310 reformatived nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhenyu; Yang Guangli; Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Airborne radioactive materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) releases to the environment from the stack of NPP. Radioactive liquid waste releases of the ocean, the fluvial and the lake through the liquid waste letdyke of NPP. Further more, a few radioactive waste may be taken out of the NPP by vehicle or personnel. For the purpose of strict management and control above-mentioned waste, we use detect equipment monitoring radioactive waste of NPP. Management and control for the releasing of radioactive material to the environment in M310 reformatived NPP is strict and safety. (authors)

  14. 40 CFR 73.38 - Closing of accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of accounts. 73.38 Section 73...) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.38 Closing of accounts. (a) General... close the general account by submitting an allowance transfer, pursuant to § 73.50 and § 73.52...

  15. Concepts for the calculation of radiation exposure in the environment of nuclear plants for planning and surveillance purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.; Bruessermann, K.; Schwarz, G.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with the release of radioactive substances from nuclear plants, the following requirements are to be met in respect of the assessment of radiation exposure of persons in the environment of the plant: for the purpose of planning and licencing nuclear plants, the release rates of radioactive substances are to be limited to such a degree that the dose limit values specified in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are not exceeded at any time or on any site. This applies possibly under consideration of the pre-exposure rate. For long-lived radionuclides this requirement involves the calculation of annual doses at the end of a period determined by the time of operation of the plant and by the exposure time of the persons. During the operation of nuclear plants it is necessary to calculate the radiation exposure rates resulting from the emission measured for the year of reference. This application requires the calculation of the dose commitment resulting in the future on the basis of annual emissions for persons living in the environment of the plant. In connection with the long-term prediction of the environmental impact caused by the entire nuclear industry, problems will also be arising in conjunction with the case history of the environmental exposure being subject to respective alterations as a result of additional plants

  16. Comparison of the effects of nuclear power plants and thermal power plants on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.; Teverovskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ecological effects produced by a thermal power station (TPS) and a nuclear power plant (NPP) of similar electric capacity has been made. The ecological advantages of NPP over TPS are revealed in analysis of aerosol and gas blow-out and its danger for the environment. From the above data it follows that TPS as compared with NPP of similar electric capacity produces a 100 and 1000 fold higher air pollution effect than the latter. The dose of TPS radiation effect is minimum 500 times higher than that of NPP at normal operation. Large-scale construction of NPP is one of the most perfect means of atmosphere protection against harmful industrial discharges

  17. Preliminary field dose rate determination in the environment of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, I.; Zombori, P.; Koblinger, L.; Andrasi, A.; Deme, S.

    1983-01-01

    The in situ measurements were performed by a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and a GM detector at 23 points in the environment of the power plant. During the sophisticated calibration procedure the energy and direction dependences of the detector responses were also taken into account. The dose rates were also determined by the POKER-CAMP computer code for natural radionuclides with an assumed source distribution. On the basis of the good agreement between the measured and calculated values the sensitivity of the measuring system was assessed for some given distributed radionuclides released from the power plant. (author)

  18. Maryland power plants and the environment. A review of the impacts of power plants and transmission lines on Maryland's natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) is required by Maryland law to review and evaluate the potential impacts to Maryland's environment from the construction and operation of electric power generating and transmission systems. PPRP summarizes these evaluations every other year in a document known as the Cumulative Environmental Impact Report (CEIR). This volume represents the tenth edition (CEIR-10), and it summarizes the current state of knowledge which PPRP has gained from more than 25 years of continuous monitoring of power plant impacts in Maryland. PPRP conducts a range of research and monitoring projects on the topics addressed in this CEIR and many other issues as well. In fact, PPRP publishes a Bibliography every year that lists the general and site-specific power plant related reports that PPRP has produced since the early 1970s

  19. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  20. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  1. Mercury controls for coal-fired power plants - status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offen, G.; Shick, N.; Chang, R.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.; Rhudy, R. [EPRI, Palo Alto (US)

    2005-05-01

    Although the US Environmental Protection Agency has issued its mercury rule, setting limits for emissions from new power plants and placing an eventual cap on emissions from all plants, mercury control technologies offering sustainable performance and known applicability, impact, and cost are still in the future. Co-operative funding for long-term, full-scale tests of technologies in advanced stages of development, and support for emerging ones, promises to close the gap. The goal is to learn how to tailor control technologies to flue gas environments at individual power plants. In this paper the authors describe the current performance of mercury control technologies and outline the research needed to demonstrate their easiness for commercial deployment. 4 figs.

  2. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-05-09

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception.

  3. Allelopathy of plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Baba, K.; Fujii, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Allelopathy is a chemical way of interaction among many organisms living together on the earth, and forming ecological systems as the member of the biosphere. Biosynthesis of allelochemicals, their release, transport and sensing mechanism at the recipient organisms, which is associated with allelopathy, are under the influence of gravity in many aspects. Such gravitational action on the allelopathy could be ranged from perturbation on biochemical networks in the cells to macroscopic transportation phenomena around the organisms. If gravity is an environmental factor that governs those processes, allelopathy at the absence of gravity on space craft, or under the different magnitude of gravity on the outer planets might differ from allelopathy on the ground. Another important factor in allelopathy in space application is physical closure of living environment, and lack of natural process to decompose allelopathic chemicals or the sink among material circulation in the biosphere. Many organisms and ecological system may behave differently in spacecrafts or on outer planets, based on the modified inter-organisms and -species interactions associated with alleopahty. In order to examine allelopathy under exotic gravity and closed environment, we imposed pseudo-microgravity and physical closure on a plant-plant allelopathy system. Two plant species were co-cultured in a closed vessel, and gravity vector was randomized by the 3D-clinorotation. Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) is known to induce strong allelopathic action on many plant species. Velvet bean and lettuce was chosen as the pair. Growth of lettuce seedlings, co-cultured with velvet bean, was analyzed under the 3D-clinorotation, and compared it with growth of the ground control group. The degree of allelopathic suppression on the lettuce root growth was less on the 3D-clinorotation. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy-phennylalanine), released from root is the major substance responsible to the allelopathy of velvet bean

  4. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  5. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  6. Development of techniques for electrochemical studies in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the oxide films on the engineering alloys used as construction materials in power plants change as a result of exposure to aqueous environments. The susceptibility of the materials to different forms of corrosion is influenced by the properties of these oxide films. The structure and electrochemical properties of the oxide films are in turn dependent on the applied water chemistry. Therefore, water chemistry control has been used in minimising the impact of different corrosion phenomena in operating power plants. Since there is not only one ideal operational specification for all light water reactors, individually designed water chemistry programs are needed to take into account plant-specific design features and particular problem areas. The applicability of alternative water chemistry practices require fast and reliable in-line electrochemical techniques to monitor possible changes in the oxidation behaviour of nuclear power plant materials. This thesis summarises the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland over the past 10 years to increase the knowledge of factors affecting the oxidation behaviour of construction materials in aqueous coolants at high temperatures. The work started with the development of electrodes for measurement of high temperature water chemistry parameters such as pH and the corrosion potential of construction materials. After laboratory testing these electrodes were used both in test reactors and in operating nuclear power plants. These measurements showed that high temperature water chemistry monitoring may be more accurate than corresponding room temperature measurements, particularly during transient situations. However, it was also found that understanding the processes taking place within and on oxide films requires a combination of electrochemical techniques enabling characterisation of the electronic properties of these films. This conclusion resulted in development of a controlled

  7. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  8. Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Mori, Izumi C; Furuichi, Takuya; Munemasa, Shintaro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-03-01

    Plant stomata limit both carbon dioxide uptake and water loss; hence, stomatal aperture is carefully set as the environment fluctuates. Aperture area is known to be regulated in part by ion transport, but few of the transporters have been characterized. Here we report that AtALMT12 (At4g17970), a homolog of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) of wheat, is expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in AtALMT12 impair stomatal closure induced by ABA, calcium and darkness, but do not abolish either the rapidly activated or the slowly activated anion currents previously identified as being important for stomatal closure. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, AtALMT12 facilitates chloride and nitrate currents, but not those of organic solutes. Therefore, we conclude that AtALMT12 is a novel class of anion transporter involved in stomatal closure.

  9. Impact of coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on surrounding vegetative environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, D.K.; Senger, C.B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Vegetative system around the thermal power plants are exposed to perpetual emissions of particulates as well as gaseous pollutants in various forms and nature. These emissions evidently are reflected in plant responses. In order to assess the response of natural flora of this region, 2 plant species, that is Mangifera indica and Holarrhina artidysentrica and certain pollution sensitive parameter, such as leaf area, pH of wash water of foliage and sugar content of the leaves were identified for this study. It was observed that the pH of wash solution of leaves was close to neutral in upstream locations and in polluted zone pH was acidic. Leaf area was higher in least polluted zone and lower in more polluted locations. Dust deposition on leaves was observed be lower in upstream locations and higher in influenced areas. Sugar variations in leaves showed negative impact in affected areas. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  10. HARDWARE ENVIRONMENT FACTOR FOR CONTROL SIGNAL TRANSFER TO A PLANT IN THE SYNTHESIS PROBLEM OF DISCRETE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Nuyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to revise certain provisions of the existing theory of discrete systems in the organization of hardware environment control signal transmission to a technical plant. It is known that the formation of a digital signal in discrete control problem of continuous plant is carried out by microcontroller or micro-computer and is represented by a parallel code, which dimension is determined by the hardware used. The parallel code for a digital clock cycle of the designed system is transmitted to the terminal device of a technical continuous plant, where the digital-to-analog conversion takes place. This kind of control signal transmission to the technical plant asserts its implementation by means of parallel buses. It is known that the length of a parallel bus is limited to an amount not exceeding half a meter due to the existing interference environment with modern standards of length. Thus, if the placement of the control signal and control plant is such that their connecting bus length exceeds more than half a meter, there is the inevitable transition from the parallel control signal to an allotted serial. The paper deals with the system factors arising in the transition from the parallel control signal to the serial by modern interfaces. Provisions of the paper are illustrated by an example. This paper is intended for system analytics and channel specialists. The resulting algorithm is applicable for control of plants (electric drive, in particular in the large industrial factories.

  11. Management of waste heat at nuclear power plants: Its potential impact on the environment and its possible economic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.H.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from nuclear power plants by means of once-through and closed-cycle cooling systems is examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) are identified. Examples of thermal standards established for once-through cooling on open coastal waters are presented. The design and general layout of various types of cooling systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the cooling systems are presented, with particular emphasis on the discussion of potential environmental impacts. Modeling techniques available for impact assessment are presented. Proper selection and application of the models depend on the availability of site characteristics and understanding of the modeling techniques. Guidelines for choosing an appropriate model are presented. Various methods have been developed for the beneficial use of waste heat largely dissipated to the environment. Examples and associated problems of waste-heat utilization are discussed for agricultural, industrial, aquacultural, and residential uses

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 9: Closed-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to give a topping cycle efficiency of 59.3%; however when combined with an integrated gasifier and optimistic steam bottomer the coal to bus bar efficiency drops to 45.5%. A 1978 K (3100 F) cycle has an efficiency of 55.1% and a power plant efficiency of 42.2%. The high cost of the external heating loop components results in a cost of electricity of 21.41 mills/MJ (77.07 mills/kWh) for the high temperature system and 19.0 mills/MJ (68.5 mills/kWh) for the lower temperature system. It is, therefore, thought that this cycle may be more applicable to internally heated systems such as some futuristic high temperature gas cooled reactor.

  13. Bioreactors for plant cells: hardware configuration and internal environment optimization as tools for wider commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Weber, Jost

    2014-07-01

    Mass production of value-added molecules (including native and heterologous therapeutic proteins and enzymes) by plant cell culture has been demonstrated as an efficient alternative to classical technologies [i.e. natural harvest and chemical (semi)synthesis]. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up plant cell culture-based processes (most notably to produce paclitaxel) and several commercial processes have been established so far. The choice of a suitable bioreactor design (or modification of an existing commercially available reactor) and the optimization of its internal environment have been proven as powerful tools toward successful mass production of desired molecules. This review highlights recent progress (mostly in the last 5 years) in hardware configuration and optimization of bioreactor culture conditions for suspended plant cells.

  14. Biotic controls on CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands - a closed environment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, TR; Panikov, N; Mastepanov, M

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of the important greenhouse gas CH4. Here we explore the use of an experimental system developed for the determination of continuous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in closed ecosystem monoliths including the capture of (CO2)-C-14 and (CH4)-C-14 following pulse labelling...... with (CO2)-C-14. We show that, in the ecosystem studied, ebullition (bubble emission) may account for 18 to 50% of the total CH4 emission, representing fluxes that have been difficult to estimate accurately in the past. Furthermore, using plant removal and C-14 labelling techniques, we use the system....../atmosphere interactions, including possible feedback effects on climate change. In recent years much attention has been devoted to ascertaining and subsequently using the relationship between net ecosystem productivity and CH4 emission as a basis for extrapolation of fluxes across large areas. The experimental system...

  15. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  16. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  17. Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1978-01-01

    Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) is emphasized to substantiate the claim that this prime-mover technology is well established. European fossil-fired plants with air as the working fluid have been individually operated over 100,000 hours, have demonstrated very high availability and reliability, and have been economically successful. Following the initial success of the small air closed cycle gas turbine plants, the next step was the exploitation of helium as the working fluid for plants above 50 MWe. The first fossil fired combined power and heat plant at Oberhausen, using a helium turbine, plays an important role for future nuclear systems and this is briefly discussed. The combining of an HTGR and an advanced proven power conversion system (CCGT) represents the most interesting and challenging project. The key to acceptance of the CCGT in the near term is the introduction of a small nuclear cogeneration plant (100 to 300 MWe) that utilizes the waste heat, demonstrating a very high fuel utilization efficiency: aspects of such a plant are outlined. (author)

  18. Uranium Dioxides and Debris Fragments Released to the Environment with Cesium-Rich Microparticles from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Asumi; Imoto, Junpei; Suetake, Mizuki; Komiya, Tatsuki; Furuki, Genki; Ikehara, Ryohei; Yamasaki, Shinya; Law, Gareth T W; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2018-03-06

    Trace U was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) during the meltdowns, but the speciation of the released components of the nuclear fuel remains unknown. We report, for the first time, the atomic-scale characteristics of nanofragments of the nuclear fuels that were released from the FDNPP into the environment. Nanofragments of an intrinsic U-phase were discovered to be closely associated with radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) in paddy soils collected ∼4 km from the FDNPP. The nanoscale fuel fragments were either encapsulated by or attached to CsMPs and occurred in two different forms: (i) UO 2+X nanocrystals of ∼70 nm size, which are embedded into magnetite associated with Tc and Mo on the surface and (ii) Isometric (U,Zr)O 2+X nanocrystals of ∼200 nm size, with the U/(U+Zr) molar ratio ranging from 0.14 to 0.91, with intrinsic pores (∼6 nm), indicating the entrapment of vapors or fission-product gases during crystallization. These results document the heterogeneous physical and chemical properties of debris at the nanoscale, which is a mixture of melted fuel and reactor materials, reflecting the complex thermal processes within the FDNPP reactor during meltdown. Still CsMPs are an important medium for the transport of debris fragments into the environment in a respirable form.

  19. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  20. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    /kg in stems of Salix purpurea), the estimated Cr offtake from LL by plants represented only a small proportion of the LL Cr mass load during the observation period, resulting in no dispersion of Cr into the environment through leaf drop.

  1. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  2. Implications of competitive markets for operation and funds flow at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, R.N.; Leigh, R.W.; Mubayi, V.

    1997-01-01

    The authors employ a detailed electric utility production costing and capacity planning model to examine the use of nuclear power plants under the current (utility-owned) arrangements and under situations which may arise in a competitive market for electric service. The modeling is carried out for a synthetic but realistic power pool based on components of actual utilities in the northeast United States. Under the current arrangements, the costs of nuclear power plant operation are subsumed under capital costs and entered into the open-quotes raw base,close quotes the totality of which determines customer charges. A future competitive environment may be characterized by the absence of a open-quotes rate base,close quotes at least for generation. In this environment, all generation units are in effect independently owned. The authors examine this possibility by estimating the revenue which would flow to nuclear plants at competitive market prices and compare that revenue, to anticipated expenses for fuel, O ampersand M and amortization of capital (where appropriate), and for potential additional expenses such as safety requirements and payments to decommissioning funds. They also incorporate financial relief for the portion of these costs which can be considered open-quotes stranded investmentsclose quotes based on FERC and prospective state regulatory policies. In this competitive environment some nuclear plants may not remain economically viable. Their replacement by newly constructed fossil-fueled units will require substantial capital and lead to increased emissions and fuel use, which are calculated. The authors calculations show that while it may be clearly economically advantageous for individual owners to shut down unviable nuclear capacity, such early retirements may result in significant economic losses to the power pool as a whole

  3. Germination and seedling establishment of spiny hopsage in response to planting date and seedbed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Marshall R. Haferkamp; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Reestablishment of spiny hopsrge (Grayia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) in the shrub steppe requires development of appropriate seeding technology. We examined the effect of planting date and seedbed environment on germination and seedling establishment of 2 seed sources at 2 southwestern Idaho sites. Seedbeds were prepared by rototilling. In 1987-88, seeds...

  4. High temperature corrosion in the service environments of a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear process heat plant the heat-exchanging components fabricated from nickel- and Fe-Ni-based alloys are subjected to corrosive service environments at temperatures up to 950 0 C for service lives of up to 140 000 h. In this paper the corrosion behaviour of the high temperature alloys in the different service environments will be described. It is shown that the degree of protection provided by Cr 2 O 3 -based surface oxide scales against carburization and decarburization of the alloys is primarily determined not by the oxidation potential of the atmospheres but by a dynamic process involving, on the one hand, the oxidizing gas species and the metal and, on the other hand, the carbon in the alloy and the oxide scale. (orig.)

  5. Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture (CEA) facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming. The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for ...

  6. Role of co-occurring competition and facilitation in plant spacing hydrodynamics in water-limited environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Plant performance (i.e., fecundity, growth, survival) depends on an individual’s access to space and resources. At the community level, plant performance is reflected in observable vegetation patterning (i.e., spacing distance, density) often controlled by limiting resources. Resource availability is, in turn, strongly dependent on plant patterning mediated by competitive and facilitative plant–plant interactions. Co-occurring competition and facilitation has never been specifically investigated from a hydrodynamic perspective. To address this knowledge gap, and to overcome limitations of field studies, three intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted using a climate-controlled wind tunnel–porous media test facility to simulate the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. The spacing between two synthetic plants, a design consideration introduced by the authors in a recent publication, was varied between experiments; edaphic and mean atmospheric conditions were held constant. The strength of the above- and belowground plant–plant interactions changed with spacing distance, allowing the creation of a hydrodynamic conceptual model based on established ecological theories. Greatest soil water loss was observed for the experiment with the smallest spacing where competition dominated. Facilitation dominated at the intermediate spacing; little to no interactions were observed for the largest plant spacing. Results suggest that there exists an optimal spacing distance range that lowers plant environmental stress, thus improving plant performance through reduced atmospheric demand and conservation of available soil water. These findings may provide a foundation for improving our understanding of many climatological, ecohydrological, and hydrological problems pertaining to the hydrodynamics of water-limited environments where plant–plant interactions and community self-organization are important. PMID:28807999

  7. Thermonuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental safety and protection from the effects of the thermonuclear power plants are discussed. Factors are assessed which should be considered in the choice of fuel and breeding material of a thermonuclear reactor, the problems of structural material activation and the overall reactor concepts. Main specifications are given of the US thermonuclear power plant projects with D-T reaction based reactors. The overall amounts of tritium in the reactor cycles are shown. The potential biological risk is evaluated for the different materials considered for the UWMAK-1 project. Discussed are possible pathways of activity release in normal plant operation, non-radioactive aspects, such as waste heat, the magnetic field effect on personnel and population, etc., as well as possible environmental impacts in case of accidents. (B.S.)

  8. Commissioning of closed loop controls at CPP, HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sukumar; Narasimham, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The captive power plant (CPP) for Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru is equipped with 3x265 T/hr steam capacity boilers. The control system is built around ASEA master hardware for sequence interlocks, closed loop control, and data acquisition functions. This paper describes the configuration of the system hardware, the steps carried out during commissioning of closed loop controls in distributed digital control systems and also the problems faced during the commissioning of closed loops. (author). 3 figs

  9. Technical solutions for mitigating adverse impacts on the environment implemented at Deva Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, Victor; Egyed, Francisc; Manea, Laurean

    2004-01-01

    Situated at the south-west of Transylvania, 9 km from Deva town on the Mures River bank, Deva Power Plant has an installed capacity of 1260 MW, in six 210 MW generation units. Each unit operates with two steam boilers of 330 t/h, and steam rated parameters are 13.72 MPa and 550 deg C. The generated electricity is delivered in the national grid at voltage levels of 200 and 400 kV; there exists also the possibility of delivering electricity to the neighbouring countries through the power line Sibiu - Arad - Szeged. The Power Plant also produces thermal energy. The total installed thermal capacity is 400 MWt. Deva Power Plant was commissioned in three stages. During the first stage, between 1969 and 1971, Units No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were commissioned, followed by Unit No. 5 in 1977 and by Unit No. 6 in 1980. All main equipment was manufactured in Russia. The main fuel utilised here is hard coal extracted from Valea Jiului basins, with calorific value between 14600 and 18800 kJ/kg. Natural gas is used as a flame support fuel. Deva Power Plant has actually produced 9% to 12% of the total electricity produced in the country and 18% to 25% of the electricity produced on coal. Continuous efforts have been made for the rehabilitation and modernisation of this power plant aiming to improve operational safety whilst equal interest has been paid to mitigating the environmental damage caused by the great size combustion systems. In this paper we present some of the preoccupations concerning earliest as well as prospective actions to be taken to protect the environment and to comply with the relevant standards and laws in force. The major role played by Deva Power Plant within the National Power Grid secured through reliable and steady operation also means undertaking exceptional environmental protection actions, to comply with current requirements. By its comprehensive modernisation programme already in progress, Deva Power Plant focus on the continuous upgrading of their plant in

  10. The abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the atmospheric environment of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Qiu, Tianlei; Sun, Yanmei; Wang, Xuming

    2018-07-01

    Composting is considered to reduce the introduction of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment through land application of manure; however, the possible pollution of ARGs in the atmospheric environment of composting plants is unknown. In this study, 29 air samples including up- and downwind, composting, packaging, and office areas from 4 composting plants were collected. Dynamic concentrations of 22 subtypes of ARGs, class 1 integron (intl1), and 2 potential human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and bacterial communities were investigated using droplet digital PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. In this study, intl1 and 22 subtypes of ARGs (except tetQ) were detected in air of composting, packaging, office, and downwind areas. The highest concentration of 15 out of 22 subtypes of ARGs was detected in the packaging areas, and intl1 also had the maximum average concentration of 10 4  copies/m 3 , with up to (1.78 ± 0.49) × 10 -2 copies/16S rRNA copy. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling of ARGs, potential HPBs, and bacterial components all indicated that the bioaerosol pollutant pattern in packaging areas was most similar to that in composting areas, followed by office, downwind, and upwind areas. The co-occurrence between ARGs and bacterial taxa assessed by Procrustes test, mantel test, and network analysis implied that aerosolized ARG fragments from composting and packaging areas contributed to the compositions of ARG aerosols in office and downwind areas. The results presented here show that atmoshperic environments of composting plants harbor abundant and diverse ARGs, which highlight the urgent need for comprehensive evaluation of potential human health and ecological risks of composts during both production as well as land application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Close Air Support in a Joint Environment: Disconnect Between the Services and How Can Close Air Support Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    military expecting technology to close the gap between the lack of CAS training and the expected pilot proficiency in multiple roles? To be an... Research Project. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 19 March 2004. McGrath, John. Fire for Effect: Field Artillery and Close Air Support in...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations

  12. GM plants with increased tolerance to unfavourable environment – benefits and potential risks

    OpenAIRE

    Djilianov, Dimitar

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture faces the great challenges to meet the increasing demands of the society for food and row materials and the progressing global warming. To solve these problems we need to develop new crop varieties with high yield and highly tolerant to abitoic stress and at the same time to ensure sustainable development of the society and environment. In this respect it is expected that modern biotechnologies will help plant breeding. The development of genetically modified crop...

  13. Use of a field model to analyze probable fire environments encountered within the complex geometries of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Usher, J.L.; Singhal, A.K.; Tam, L.T.

    1985-08-01

    A fire in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can damage equipment needed to safely operate the plant and thereby either directly cause an accident or else reduce the plant's margin of safety. The development of a field-model fire code to analyze the probable fire environments encountered within NPP is discussed. A set of fire tests carried out under the aegis of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. The results of these tests are then utilized to validate the field model

  14. Root foraging increases performance of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans in heterogeneous nutrient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwen; van Kleunen, Mark; During, Heinjo J; Werger, Marinus J A

    2013-01-01

    Plastic root-foraging responses have been widely recognized as an important strategy for plants to explore heterogeneously distributed resources. However, the benefits and costs of root foraging have received little attention. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew pairs of connected ramets of 22 genotypes of the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans in paired pots, between which the contrast in nutrient availability was set as null, medium and high, but with the total nutrient amount kept the same. We calculated root-foraging intensity of each individual ramet pair as the difference in root mass between paired ramets divided by the total root mass. For each genotype, we then calculated root-foraging ability as the slope of the regression of root-foraging intensity against patch contrast. For all genotypes, root-foraging intensity increased with patch contrast and the total biomass and number of offspring ramets were lowest at high patch contrast. Among genotypes, root-foraging intensity was positively related to production of offspring ramets and biomass in the high patch-contrast treatment, which indicates an evolutionary benefit of root foraging in heterogeneous environments. However, we found no significant evidence that the ability of plastic foraging imposes costs under homogeneous conditions (i.e. when foraging is not needed). Our results show that plants of P. reptans adjust their root-foraging intensity according to patch contrast. Moreover, the results show that the root foraging has an evolutionary advantage in heterogeneous environments, while costs of having the ability of plastic root foraging were absent or very small.

  15. Lighting considerations in controlled environments for nonphotosynthetic plant responses to blue and ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, M.M.; Flint, S.D. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This essay will consider both physical and photobiological aspects of controlled environment lighting in the spectral region beginning in the blue and taken to the normal limit of the solar spectrum in the ultraviolet. The primary emphasis is directed to questions of plant response to sunlight. Measurement and computations used in radiation dosimetry in this part of the spectrum are also briefly treated. Because of interest in the ozone depletion problem, there has been some activity in plant UV-B research and there are several recent reviews available. Some aspects of growth chamber lighting as it relates to UV-B research were covered earlier. Apart from work related to the blue/UV-A receptor, less attention has been given to UV-A responses.

  16. Sustainable Sanitation—A Cost-Effective Tool to Improve Plant Yields and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Karinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human urine and faeces are products formed every day in every human society. The volume and fertilisation value of urine is higher than that of faeces. This paper reviews data that urine has been used successfully as a fertiliser for cereals and some vegetables. According to the literature, urine fertilised plants may have produced higher, similar or slightly lower yields than mineral fertilized plants but they invariably resulted in higher yields than non-fertilised plants. There have been no microbiological risks associated with any products. The taste and chemical quality of the products are similar to plants treated with mineral fertilisers. Separating toilets, where urine and faeces are separated already in the toilet, could be beneficial not only in poor but also in the industrialized countries. A separating toilet could be installed also in old buildings and it could allow individuals to live in coastal areas, mountainous or other sensitive environments. In poor areas, urine fertilisation could increase food production also in home plots and reduce hunger. It could also combat water contamination and help to reduce diseases caused by enteric micro-organisms. If urine were to be viewed as a resource rather than a waste product, more families could be encouraged to install low-cost toilets which would especially improve the wellbeing of women.

  17. Shifts in functional plant groups in ditch banks under agri-environment schemes and in nature reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.F.A.; Schaffers, A.P.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Management of ditch banks of agricultural fields is considered to be a promising and multifunctional application of agri-environment schemes (AES) on farmland. Our previous research has shown that in the Netherlands, there is a small increase in the number of target plant species of AES in ditch

  18. Natural genetic variation in stomatal response can help to increase acclimation of plants to dried environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van U.

    2018-01-01

    In the current century, global warming is becoming an alarming issue causing an increase in the area of barren lands. Arid and semi-arid regions are characterised with shortage of water in both under- and above-ground environments. Plants with high water use efficiency should be considered for

  19. Multi-agent framework for negotiation in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretan, Adina; Coutinho, Carlos; Bratu, Ben; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer support for small and medium enterprises which cannot or do not want to fulfill a big contract alone. Each organization has limited resources and in order to better accomplish a higher external demand, the managers are forced to outsource parts of their contracts even to concurrent organizations. In this concurrent environment each enterprise wants to preserve its decision autonomy and to disclose as little as possible from its business information. To describe this interaction, our approach is to define a framework for managing parallel and concurrent negotiations among independent organizations acting in the same industrial market. The complexity of our negotiation framework is done by the dynamic environment in which multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over the same set of resources. Moreover, the proposed framework helps the organizations within the collaborative networked environment to augment their efficiency and ability to react to unforeseen situations, thus improving their market competitiveness.

  20. How nitric oxide donors can protect plants in a changing environment: what we know so far and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free radical nitric oxide (NO plays important roles in plant growth and defense. Owing to its small size and lipophilicity, NO acts as a crucial signaling molecule in plants, crossing cell membranes and enhancing cell communication. Indeed, NO donors have been shown to modulate a variety of physiological processes, such as plant greening, seed germination, iron homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration. Recently, several papers have reported the protective actions upon application of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. Exogenous NO is able to improve plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, metal toxicity, and extreme temperatures. This protection is assigned to the NO-mediated redox signaling in plants, which involves interplay with reactive oxygen species and modulation of gene expression and protein function. This review reports and discusses the recent advantages, pitfalls, challenges, and perspectives in the applications of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. The combination of nanotechnology and NO donors as an efficient approach to protect plants under challenging environments is also discussed.

  1. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  2. Thermal Interaction of Closely Spaced Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tøgersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding ther...... thermal sensation is evaluated using questionnaires for the various densities. The results indicate that it may be acceptable to consider persons standalone, in a thermal sense, disregarding thermal interaction at usual densities in the design of large enclosures.......This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding...

  3. Effect of operating conditions and environment on properties of materials of PWR type nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.

    1987-01-01

    Operating reliability and service life of PWR type nuclear power plants are discussed with respect to the material properties of the plant components. The effects of the operating environment on the material properties and the methods of their determination are characterized. Discussed are core materials, such as fuel, its cladding and regulating rod materials, and the materials of pipes, steam generators and condensers. The advances in the production of pressure vessel materials and their degradation during operation are treated in great detail. (Z.M.)

  4. Reduced plant competition among kin can be explained by Jensen's inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Chow, Theresa; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-12-01

    Plants often compete with closely related individuals due to limited dispersal, leading to two commonly invoked predictions on competitive outcomes. Kin selection, from evolutionary theory, predicts that competition between relatives will likely be weaker. The niche partitioning hypothesis, from ecological theory, predicts that competition between close relatives will likely be stronger. We tested for evidence consistent with either of these predictions by growing an annual legume in kin and nonkin groups in the greenhouse. We grew plant groups in treatments of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria differing in strain identity and composition to determine if differences in the microbial environment can facilitate or obscure plant competition patterns consistent with kin selection or niche partitioning. Nonkin groups had lower fitness than expected, based on fitness estimates of the same genotypes grown among kin. Higher fitness among kin groups was observed in mixtures of N-fixing bacteria strains compared to single inoculations of bacteria strains present in the soil, which increased fitness differences between kin and nonkin groups. Lower fitness in nonkin groups was likely caused by increased competitive asymmetry in nonkin groups due to genetic differences in plant size combined with saturating relationships with plant size and fitness- i.e. Jensen's inequality. Our study suggests that microbial soil symbionts alter competitive dynamics among kin and nonkin. Our study also suggests that kin groups can have higher fitness, as predicted by kin selection theory, through a commonly heritable trait (plant size), without requiring kin recognition mechanisms.

  5. Uptake of radionuclides by farm animals close to a major nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of artificially produced radionuclides in the pasture-cow-milk pathway has been made at a farm close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing installation at Sellafield. The routine discharges from the plant have resulted in enhanced levels of several artificial radionuclides in the local environment. The annual depositions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs at the farm were a factor of about five higher than the average deposition of these radionuclides in the UK. Even if extremely cautious assumptions concerning local eating habits are made, the consumption of meat and dairy products from this farm would give rise to an annual activity intake of less than one percent of the limit for adult members of the public. (orig./HP)

  6. Leaf Potential Productivity at Different Canopy Levels in Densely-planted and Intermediately-thinned Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying SUN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most apple orchards in the apple production districts in China were densely planted with vigorous rootstocks during the 1980s. These orchards have suffered micro-environmental deterioration and loss of fruit quality because of the closed canopy. Modification of the densely-planted orchards is a priority in current apple production. Intermediate thinning is a basic technique used to transform densely-planted apple orchards in China. Our goal was to provide theoretical basis for studying the effect of thinning on the efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, fruit quality, and yield. We measured leaf area, solar radiation, and leaf air exchange at different tree canopy levels and by fitting relevant photosynthetic models, vertical distribution characteristics of leaf photosynthetic potentials and PAR were analyzed in various levels within canopies in densely-planted and intermediately-thinned orchards. Intermediate thinning significantly improved the radiant environment inside the canopies. PAR distribution within the canopies in the intermediately-thinned orchard was better distributed than in the densely-planted orchards. The invalid space under 30.0% of relative photosynthetically active radiation (PARr was nearly zero in the intermediately-thinned orchard; but minimum PARr was 17.0% and the space under 0.30 of the relative height of the canopy was invalid for photosynthesis in the densely-planted orchard. The leaf photosynthetic efficiency in the intermediately-thinned orchard was improved. Photosynthetic rates (Pn at the middle and bottom levels of the canopy, respectively, were increased by 7.80% and 10.20% in the intermediately-thinned orchard. Leaf development, which influences photosynthetic potential, was closely related to the surrounding micro-environment, especially light. Leaf photosynthetic potentials were correlated with leaf nitrogen content (Nl and specific leaf weight (Ml at various levels of canopies. Compared

  7. Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: The mediating role of perceived attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Natural elements in the built healthcare environment have shown to hold potential stress-reducing properties. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism of stress-reducing effects of nature, the present study investigates whether the stress-reducing effects of indoor plants occur

  8. Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment : The mediating role of perceived attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Pruyn, A.Th.

    Objective: Natural elements in the built healthcare environment have shown to hold potential stress-reducing properties. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism of stress-reducing effects of nature, the present study investigates whether the stress-reducing effects of indoor plants occur

  9. Closed cycle MHD specialist meeting. Progress report, 1971--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietjens, L.H.

    1972-04-01

    Abstracts of the conference papers on closed cycle MHD research are presented. The general areas of discussion are the following: results on closed cycle experiments; plasma properties, and instabilities and stabilization in nonequilibrium plasmas; loss mechanisms, current distributions, electrode effects, boundary layers, and gas dynamic effects; and design concepts of large MHD generators, and nuclear MHD power plants. (GRA)

  10. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejstrik, V.

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared. (Z.M.)

  11. Nuclear and thermal power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejstrik, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Pruhonice. Ustav Krajinne Ekologie

    1978-01-01

    The growth is briefly outlined of world daily power consumption and the possibilities are discussed of meeting this demand. Coal and nuclear power are of primary importance as energy resources for the present and the near future. Production costs per 1 kWh of electric power in nuclear power plants are already lower than in fossil fuel power plants and both types of power plants have an environmental impact. Activities are presented of radioisotopes resulting from nuclear reactor operation and their release and environmental impact are discussed. An analysis is made of emissions from combustion processes and of wastes from fossil-fuel power plant operation. The environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants are compared.

  12. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  13. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  14. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  15. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  16. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  17. The distribution of tritium in the terrestrial and aquatic environments of the Creys-Malville nuclear power plant (2002-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Baumier, D.; Fourre, E.; Dapoigny, A.; Clavel, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Creys-Malville nuclear plant, located on the left bank of the Rhone, was shut down in 1998. The facilities are currently in their initial stage of dismantling. In order to establish a baseline for tritium in the vicinity of the site prior to the main dismantling phase, we carried out a monitoring program between 2002 and 2005 in the main terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the local environment. Tritium levels in the groundwaters and in the Rhone waters correspond to the regional tritium concentration in precipitation. The data obtained for the terrestrial environment are also in good agreement with the regional background and do not show any specific signature linked to the nuclear plant. The various aquatic compartments of the Rhone (fish, plant, sediment) are significantly enriched in tritium both upstream and downstream of the power plant: although Tissue-Free Water Tritium concentrations are in equilibrium with the river water, the non-exchangeable fraction of organic bound tritium in plants and fishes shows values which outpace the river water background by one to two orders of magnitude, and up to four to five orders of magnitude in the sediments. This tritium anomaly is not related to the nuclear plant, as it is already present at the Swiss border 100 km upstream of the site. Although fine particles of tritiated polystyrene entering the composition of the luminous paints used by the clock industry have been suspected on several occasions, the exact nature and the origin of this tritium source remain unknown and require further investigations

  18. High-school students' reasoning while constructing plant growth models in a computer-supported educational environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

    2005-08-01

    This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students’ reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels (‘macro-phenomenological’ and ‘micro-conceptual’ level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their ability to shift between or within these levels. The focus is on the types of reasoning developed in the modeling process, as well as on the reasoning coherence around the central concept of plant growth. The findings of the study show that a significant proportion of the 18 participating dyads perform modeling on both levels, while their ability to shift between them as well as between the various elements of the ‘micro-conceptual’ level is rather constrained. Furthermore, the reasoning types identified in peers’ modeling process are ‘convergent’, ‘serial’, ‘linked’ and ‘convergent attached’, with the first type being the most frequent. Finally, a significant part of the participating dyads display a satisfactory degree of reasoning ‘coherence’, performing their task committed to the main objective of exploring plant growth. Teaching implications of the findings are also discussed.

  19. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Holm, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Barseback nuclear power plant, located on the Oresund sound between Denmark and Sweden, consists of two boiling water reactors. The release of radionuclides, mainly activation products, is quite low during normal operation. During the summer, when annual overhaul and partial refuelling take place, the discharge is much higher. Samples of seaweeds and crustaceans collected along the coast were analyzed for radionuclides. Seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus, F. Serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum and Cladophora glomerata) and crustaceans (Idothea and Gammarus) proved to be excellent bioindicators for radioactive corrosion products released from the nuclear power plant into the marine environment. These bioindicators have been used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of the released radioactivity. The activity has been followed up to 150 km from the power plant, and the decrease in activity concentration in the bioindicators with distance can be expressed by a power function. The variation with time of activity concentration reflects the amount of activity discharged from the power plant, with good resolution in time. The bioindicators exhibit different uptake patterns of the radionuclides detected. The crustacean Idothea showed variations in the Co/sup 60/ activity concentration between winter and summer. 9 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Performance analysis of WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report examines one particular design, the WWER-440/230, the first generation of commercial WWERs, essentially comparable to the western PWR. This design was installed widely in eastern Europe with a total of 16 unites being completed in what are now Armenia, Bulgaria, Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) the Slovak Republic and Russia. The plants in Armenia and Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) have been closed down, but particularly in Bulgaria and to a lesser extent the Slovak Republic the remaining plants supply a significant proportion of the electricity of the country and decisions to close them could not be taken lightly. The aim of this report is twofold: first to determine whether the impression given by these good overall performance indicators is confirmed using more detailed indicators covering a wide range of factors; second, to see to what extent good performance can be attributed to the industrial and institutional environment in which these plants were designed, built and operated. Particular attention is paid to identifying factors that may impact the quality of the service provided, especially those factors under management control which can be strongly influenced by current and future policy changes and those factors that are beyond the plant management control but could have influenced the performance of the power plants. Issues concerning the safety of these plants are of considerable importance, but they remain outside the scope of this report. Conclusions and recommendations formulated by the IAEA related to WWER safety are contained in the series of reports prepared in the framework of the Extrabudgetary Programme on WWER Safety. A programme progress report was published in 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-773). Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Performance analysis of WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report examines one particular design, the WWER-440/230, the first generation of commercial WWERs, essentially comparable to the western PWR. This design was installed widely in eastern Europe with a total of 16 unites being completed in what are now Armenia, Bulgaria, Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) the Slovak Republic and Russia. The plants in Armenia and Germany (the former German Democratic Republic) have been closed down, but particularly in Bulgaria and to a lesser extent the Slovak Republic the remaining plants supply a significant proportion of the electricity of the country and decisions to close them could not be taken lightly. The aim of this report is twofold: first to determine whether the impression given by these good overall performance indicators is confirmed using more detailed indicators covering a wide range of factors; second, to see to what extent good performance can be attributed to the industrial and institutional environment in which these plants were designed, built and operated. Particular attention is paid to identifying factors that may impact the quality of the service provided, especially those factors under management control which can be strongly influenced by current and future policy changes and those factors that are beyond the plant management control but could have influenced the performance of the power plants. Issues concerning the safety of these plants are of considerable importance, but they remain outside the scope of this report. Conclusions and recommendations formulated by the IAEA related to WWER safety are contained in the series of reports prepared in the framework of the Extrabudgetary Programme on WWER Safety. A programme progress report was published in 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-773). Refs, figs, tabs.

  2. EVOLUTIONARY AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PLANT STRESS TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik G. Yusufov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim is to study the threshold sensitivity to salinization of the environment of individual isolated structures for evaluating the salt tolerance of plants. Methods. Comparison of the reaction to salinization of seeds, sprouts, epicotyls, leaves, cotyledons and flowers in species of cultural and natural flora. The following parameters were taken into account in the work: the life span, the time and capacity of for mation of roots and buds, and the wet and dry biomass of species. The results were processed by Statara version 3.0 Shareware (Statistic 5.0 by the parameters of the interaction of roots and shoots. Results. Plant individuals are characterized by the presence of structures that differ in specialization and life span. The question of the correspondence of reactions of structures with the salt tolerance of plants needs to be studied. The stability of the individual as an integral system is determined by the interaction of organs and structures with each other and with other components of the complex community. It evolves in the course of evolution by selecting individuals in the formation of stable plant communities. Quantitative methods of autoecology and genetics of populations are used to understand its mechanisms and role. Conclusion. The structure of an individual plant in an isolated culture is characterized by the specific reaction to salinization of the environment. In this case, the reaction of seeds, sprouts and isolated epicotyls corresponds most closely to the stability of the individual under the stress.

  3. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  4. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jie; Gao Zishen; Xian Qiming; Yu Hongxia; Feng Jianfang

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes and surface sediments from the Nongkang River in Jinhu, Jiangsu Province, China. The present study is the first to report PBDE concentrations in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China. The concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes ranged from < LOD to 130, < LOD to 252 and < LOD to 33.3 ng/g lipid wt, respectively, while the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in surface sediments from sewage outfall, upstream and downstream of the river were 52, 9.2, 7.1 ng/g organic carbon wt, respectively. Contamination by PBDEs in this area was not serious when compared with other regions of the world. A relatively high proportion of BDE-183 was found, consistent with the octa-BDE technical mixtures from the manufacturing plant by the side of the river. - The first study to report concentrations of PBDEs in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China.

  5. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  6. Physical environment design criteria for the new control room in the ENEA TRIGA-RC1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, M.; Di Giulio, A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallelly to the plant modifications, many changes of the instrumentation in the Control Room (CR) were necessary in order to deal with the various aged components and the completion and integration needs turning out from the experience in reactor running. In the room, besides the control activity of the RC1 plant, continuous training and updating activities are currently performed which are intended for the operators working in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. The design of the physical environment of the new CR - carried out in a more general research project between ENEA and Politecnico di Milano - was based on the following fundamental criteria: - to ensure conditions fit for the performance of the suspervision, diagnosis and control tasks the operators are entrusted with; - to set up a model of control room for the more complex power plants. First of all a detailed analysis of the environmental conditions relating to microclimate, lighting and noise was accomplished. Afterwards, the goals to be attained were defined as well as the technical means necessary for providing the operators with comfortable working conditions

  7. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  8. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  9. Closing open SDL-systems for model checking with DTSpin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ioustinova (Natalia); N. Sidorova; M. Steffen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModel checkers like Spin can handle closed reactive systems, only. Thus to handle open systems, in particular when using assume-guarantee reasoning, we need to be able to close (sub-)systems, which is commonly done by adding an environment process. For models with asynchronous

  10. Impact of a coal fired power plant on 226Ra activity level in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with radioactivity contamination originating from a coal fired power plant which, due to its location, may present a remarkable environmental problem. The plant is situated in a bay of the Adriatic close to the densely populated area with highly developed touristic activity. Its operation may cause significant damage to rich marine ecosystem characteristic for this part of the Croatian Adriatic as well as endanger urban and touristic developmental prospects of the area. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustible ash and slag showed increased natural radioactivity levels which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic

  11. A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Beohar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of CO2 emission from a thermal power plant in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toja-Silva, Francisco; Chen, Jia; Hachinger, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, a societal challenge for the European Union, is affecting all regions in Europe and has a profound impact on society and environment. It is now clear that the present global warming period is due to the strong anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, occurring at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, the identification and control of the greenhouse gas sources has a great relevance. Since the GHG emissions from cities are the largest human contribution to climate change, the present investigation focuses on the urban environment. Bottom-up annual emission inventories are compiled for most countries. However, a rigorous approach requires to perform experimental measurements in order to verify the official estimates. Measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of GHG (XGHG) can be used for this. To comprehensively detect and quantify GHG emission sources, these punctual column data, however, have to be extended to the surrounding urban map, requiring a deep understanding of the gas transport. The resulting emission estimation will serve several practical purposes, e.g. the verification of official emission rates and the determination of trends in urban emissions. They will enable the administration to make targeted and economically efficient decisions about mitigation options, and help to stop unintentional and furtive releases. With this aim, this investigation presents a completely new approach to the analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel thermal power plants in urban environments by combining differential column measurements with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in order to deeply understand the experimental conditions. The case study is a natural gas-fueled cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) thermal power plant inside the city of Munich (Germany). The software used for the simulations (OpenFOAM) was modified in order to use the most advanced RANS turbulence modeling (i.e. Durbin) and

  13. Flow and transport in the natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, W. L.

    An international symposium on flow and transport in the natural environment was held in early September in Canberra. The meeting, sponsored by the Australian Academy o f Science and hosted by the Division of Environmental Mechanics to mark the official opening of Stage 2 of its laboratory, attracted over 100 scientists representing 10 countries.The symposium, organized around flow and transport processes in soil, plants, and the lower layers of the atmosphere, identified and discussed areas where significant advances have taken place over the past 20 years. In addition, it pointed to gaps and weaknesses in present-day understanding. A quarter of the meeting was devoted to closely related transport processes arising in industrial applications.

  14. Identifying the plant-associated microbiome across aquatic and terrestrial environments: the effects of amplification method on taxa discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackrel, Sara L. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA; Owens, Sarah M. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Gilbert, Jack A. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; The Microbiome Center, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave Chicago IL 60637 USA; Pfister, Catherine A. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2017-01-25

    Plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments contain a diverse microbiome. Yet, the chloroplast and mitochondria organelles of the plant eukaryotic cell originate from free-living cyanobacteria and Rickettsiales. This represents a challenge for sequencing the plant microbiome with universal primers, as ~99% of 16S rRNA sequences may consist of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. Peptide nucleic acid clamps offer a potential solution by blocking amplification of host-associated sequences. We assessed the efficacy of chloroplast and mitochondria-blocking clamps against a range of microbial taxa from soil, freshwater and marine environments. While we found that the mitochondrial blocking clamps appear to be a robust method for assessing animal-associated microbiota, Proteobacterial 16S rRNA binds to the chloroplast-blocking clamp, resulting in a strong sequencing bias against this group. We attribute this bias to a conserved 14-bp sequence in the Proteobacteria that matches the 17-bp chloroplast-blocking clamp sequence. By scanning the Greengenes database, we provide a reference list of nearly 1500 taxa that contain this 14-bp sequence, including 48 families such as the Rhodobacteraceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Kiloniellaceae and Caulobacteraceae. To determine where these taxa are found in nature, we mapped this taxa reference list against the Earth Microbiome Project database. These taxa are abundant in a variety of environments, particularly aquatic and semiaquatic freshwater and marine habitats. To facilitate informed decisions on effective use of organelle-blocking clamps, we provide a searchable database of microbial taxa in the Greengenes and Silva databases matching various n-mer oligonucleotides of each PNA sequence.

  15. Timing of plant phenophases since 1752 in the boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubin, Eero; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Valkama, Jari

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and climate change will significantly affect on forest environment in northern latitudes. There is the strong evidence that increase of early spring and late autumn temperatures will have impacts on growth and growth cycles. In Finland the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Luke since 2015) established in 1996 National Phenological Network to study changes of phenophases all over the country representing southern, middle and northern boreal forest zones. Continuous detailed scientific monitoring includes eleven forest plant species and it forms an excellent basis to evaluate responses of forest vegetation in respect to climate change. Monitoring is done together with Universities and other Institutes. Prior to the establishment of the Finnish National Phenological Network observations has been made solely based on volunteers since 1752. This citizen-science data is very important to analyze phenophases together with the results of the National Network. The long-term data since 1752 shows e.g. an advancement in the onset of Prunus padus flowering by five days per 100 years and correspondingly three days in the rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The latest results of the Finnish National Network (1996 - 2014) fits well to this long term trend. In the Finnish National Phenological Network we have monitored phenophases of forest spieces throughout the growth period, focusing on nine forest tree species and two dwarf shrubs. The results can be followed in real time at: http://www.metla.fi/metinfo/fenologia/index-en.htm. We have observed big differences in phenophases between southern and northern boreal zone. Onset of downy birch leafing happens one month later in the north compared with southern boreal zone. Coming into leaf has clearly occurred earlier during the research period since 1996 in the northern boreal zone compared with southern boreal zone. This indicates the response of climate change. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall was observed remained

  16. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: A remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive pl...

  17. Nuclear plant's virtual simulation for on-line radioactive environment monitoring and dose assessment for personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of nuclear plant's simulation for online dose rate monitoring and dose assessment for personnel, using virtual reality technology. The platform used for virtual simulation was adapted from a low cost game engine, taking advantage of all its image rendering capabilities, as well as the physics for movement and collision, and networking capabilities for multi-user interactive navigation. A real nuclear plant was virtually modeled and simulated, so that a number of users can navigate simultaneously in this virtual environment in first or third person view, each one receiving visual information about both the radiation dose rate in each actual position, and the radiation dose received. Currently, this research and development activity has been extended to consider also on-line measurements collected from radiation monitors installed in the real plant that feed the simulation platform with dose rate data, through a TCP/IP network. Results are shown and commented, and other improvements are discussed, as the execution of a more detailed dose rate mapping campaign.

  18. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  19. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  20. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts of th...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants....

  1. A Study on the Field Data Communication Structure under Harsh Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Hong, S. B.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, D. H.; Chung, K. I.; Kim, C. H.; Koo, I. S.; Cho, J. W.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    As digitizing the I and C systems in nuclear plants, The SMART sensors/ actuators are considered as a alternative of the conventional field devices. Because the digitization of the filed level devises is still primitive, it is necessary to perform the relative R and D. Especially, it is difficult to adopt the digital devices in a containment building of the nuclear plants due to the harsh environment conditions such as high level radiation and high temperature. Considering the tendency of the reliability enhancement, from now on, the digital device will be adopted in the harsh environment. The major technical issues of the field level digitization are a SMART transmitter/actuator technology, a network technology and an equipment qualification in harsh environment. This report describes the study results regarding the field level data network. There are many merits such as an automatic test, a diagnostics and auto-calibration when digitizing of the I and C systems. While, the data capacity will be much increased compare to the conventional systems. The future field data network should have larger data transmission speed compare to the current sensor networks such as HART and deviceNET. The candidate commercial network has been selected considering the nuclear requirements. Based on the this network, a protocol structure and a access control structure are recommended. Instruments in containment building are analyzed and the design bases and requirements have been setup to assure the safety and performance of the field data communication. According to the design bases, requirements and the node allocation criteria, the field network has been divided by functional segmentation and each instrument has been allocated to each individual data network

  2. Rate Constants of PSII Photoinhibition and its Repair, and PSII Fluorescence Parameters in Field Plants in Relation to their Growth Light Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kazunori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Kanel, Dhana Raj; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The extent of photoinhibition of PSII is determined by a balance between the rate of photodamage to PSII and that of repair of the damaged PSII. It has already been indicated that the rate constants of photodamage (kpi) and repair (krec) of the leaves differ depending on their growth light environment. However, there are no studies using plants in the field. We examined these rate constants and fluorescence parameters of several field-grown plants to determine inter-relationships between these values and the growth environment. The kpi values were strongly related to the excess energy, EY, of the puddle model and non-regulated energy dissipation, Y(NO), of the lake model, both multiplied by the photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) level during the photoinhibitory treatment. In contrast, the krec values corrected against in situ air temperature were very strongly related to the daily PPFD level. The plants from the fields showed higher NPQ than the chamber-grown plants, probably because these field plants acclimated to stronger lightflecks than the averaged growth PPFD. Comparing chamber-grown plants and the field plants, we showed that kpi is determined by the incident light level and the photosynthetic capacities such as in situ rate of PSII electron transport and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) [e.g. Y(NO)×PPFD] and that krec is mostly determined by the growth light and temperature levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  4. Smile (System/Machine-Independent Local Environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This document defines the characteristics of Smile, a System/machine-independent local environment. This environment consists primarily of a number of primitives (types, macros, procedure calls, and variables) that a program may use; these primitives provide facilities, such as memory allocation, timing, tasking and synchronization beyond those typically provided by a programming language. The intent is that a program will be portable from system to system and from machine to machine if it relies only on the portable aspects of its programming language and on the Smile primitives. For this to be so, Smile itself must be implemented on each system and machine, most likely using non-portable constructions; that is, while the environment provided by Smile is intended to be portable, the implementation of Smile is not necessarily so. In order to make the implementation of Smile as easy as possible and thereby expedite the porting of programs to a new system or a new machine, Smile has been defined to provide a minimal portable environment; that is, simple primitives are defined, out of which more complex facilities may be constructed using portable procedures. The implementation of Smile can be as any of the following: the underlying software environment for the operating system of an otherwise {open_quotes}bare{close_quotes} machine, a {open_quotes}guest{close_quotes} system environment built upon a preexisting operating system, an environment within a {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} process run by an operating system, or a single environment for an entire machine, encompassing both system and {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} processes. In the first three of these cases the tasks provided by Smile are {open_quotes}lightweight processes{close_quotes} multiplexed within preexisting processes or the system, while in the last case they also include the system processes themselves.

  5. Propagation environments [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...

  6. Radiological control for 203Hg radiotracer determinations of mercury inventories at chlor-alkali plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J E; Lee, C

    2001-11-01

    20Hg has been used safely to determine mercury inventories in large electrochemical process cells in the chlorine industry by a process of isotopic dilution. Laboratory conversion and processing of irradiated HgO can be done in closed systems with non-detectable releases to work areas or the environment and with exposure to whole body <0.25 mSv (25 mrem) and <3 mSv (300 mrem) to extremities. Personnel exposures during plant operations are controlled to non-detectable levels for whole body exposure and <0.3 mSv (30 mrem) to extremities for the operator; exposures for other plant personnel are non-detectable.

  7. Closing the gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a representative of the Oil Companies' European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection (CONCAWE), argues the advantages of closing the gasoline system. Because this decouples the product from the environment, health risks and environmental damage are reduced. It is also more effective than changing the composition of gasoline because it offers better cost effectiveness, energy efficiency and the minimization of carbon dioxide release into the environment. However it will take time and political will to change until all European vehicles are fitted with three way catalysts and carbon canisters: control systems to monitor such systems will also need to be set up. However CONCAWE still recommends its adoption. (UK)

  8. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  9. Exploration of plant genomes in the FLAGdb++ environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leplé Jean-Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the contexts of genomics, post-genomics and systems biology approaches, data integration presents a major concern. Databases provide crucial solutions: they store, organize and allow information to be queried, they enhance the visibility of newly produced data by comparing them with previously published results, and facilitate the exploration and development of both existing hypotheses and new ideas. Results The FLAGdb++ information system was developed with the aim of using whole plant genomes as physical references in order to gather and merge available genomic data from in silico or experimental approaches. Available through a JAVA application, original interfaces and tools assist the functional study of plant genes by considering them in their specific context: chromosome, gene family, orthology group, co-expression cluster and functional network. FLAGdb++ is mainly dedicated to the exploration of large gene groups in order to decipher functional connections, to highlight shared or specific structural or functional features, and to facilitate translational tasks between plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. Conclusion Combining original data with the output of experts and graphical displays that differ from classical plant genome browsers, FLAGdb++ presents a powerful complementary tool for exploring plant genomes and exploiting structural and functional resources, without the need for computer programming knowledge. First launched in 2002, a 15th version of FLAGdb++ is now available and comprises four model plant genomes and over eight million genomic features.

  10. Rice Blast Control and Polyvarietal Planting in the Philippines: A Study in Genotype by Environment Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Falvo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to biogeography are based on organismic biology. Certain biogeographical phenomena, however, cannot be fully understood using organismic approaches to biogeography. I employed an approach based on molecular biology and biochemistry that I call genotype by environment biogeography in order to provide a more complete understanding of why the dispersal of rice blast disease is less efficient in fields planted with mixtures of rice varieties. In a case study of an upland ricefield in the Philippines, I found that planting varietal mixtures results in a form of effective blast control that I call intrafield gene deployment. I suggest that intrafield gene deployment be used to design more effective methods of blast control in intensive rice agriculture.

  11. A landscape simulation system for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Miki; Usami, Yoshiaki.

    1997-01-01

    As scenes of power plants give many influences to environments, the plants that harmonized with the environments are demanded. We developed a landscape simulation system for the plants by using computer graphics technologies. This system has functions to generate realistic images about plant buildings and environments. Since the system contains information of ridge lines in addition to usual terrain data, the terrain shapes are expressed more precisely. Because the system enables users to visualize plant construction plans, the advance evaluations of plant scenes become possible. We regard this system as useful for environmental assessment of power plants. (author)

  12. Soil fertility characteristics as affected by close spacing of conilon coffee plants Características da fertilidade do solo influenciadas pelo plantio adensado de café conilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guarçoni M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In arabica coffee crops grown at high altitudes with lower temperatures, soil fertility can be improved by condensed spacing. However, at low lands with warmer temperatures in which conilon coffee is grown, the effect of close spacing on the soil characteristics may change. Aiming to determine the effect of coffee-trees close planting grown with or without NPK fertilization on the soil fertility characteristics, soil samples were collected (0-20 and 20-40 cm depth within four different conilon crop spacings (2,222; 3,333; 4,000; and 5,000 plants/ha. It was determined pH, H+Al, effective CEC (t, pH 7.0 CEC (T, base saturation (v, aluminum saturation (m values and organic matter (OM, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Al3+ contents. The analytical results were compared by Student t test and regression analysis. Conilon coffee-trees with close planting only changed soil fertility characteristics when coffee plants received annual NPK fertilization. Close planting substantially increased P and K contents and the T value in the upper soil layer and P and K contents and T, t and H+Al values in the lower soil layer.O plantio adensado melhora a fertilidade do solo em lavouras de café arábica, cultura típica de regiões altas e de temperaturas amenas. O café conilon é cultivado em regiões baixas e quentes, o que pode modificar os efeitos do adensamento sobre a fertilidade do solo. Visando determinar a influência do adensamento de plantio do café conilon, com ou sem adubação, nas características da fertilidade do solo, foram coletadas amostras de solo (0-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade em quatro densidades de plantio (2.222; 3.333; 4.000 e 5.000 plantas/ha. Foram determinados os valores de pH, H+Al, CTC efetiva (t, CTC pH 7,0 (T, saturação por bases (V e saturação por alumínio (m e os teores de matéria orgânica (MO, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Al3+. Os resultados analíticos foram comparados pelo teste t de Student e por análise de regressão. O adensamento de

  13. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, D.; Fowler, J.; Frier, S.

    2006-01-01

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  14. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by

  15. Should we plant trees to offset greenhouse gas emissions in semi-arid environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.; Gillespie, T. W.; Li, W.; McCarthy, H. R.; Saatchi, S.; Saphores, J.

    2008-12-01

    Urban tree planting programs have been gaining popularity in the United States. Urban trees have been associated with a variety of environmental benefits, including improvements in air quality, mitigation of urban heat island effects, reductions in stormwater runoff, and more recently, carbon sequestration. There are also other potential aesthetic and economic benefits of urban forests, which have been shown to affect real estate values. However, there may also be significant economic and environmental costs of planting and maintaining trees in urban areas, particularly in semi-arid environments where trees are not native and require irrigation and fertilization. We are conducting an analysis of the Million Tree Initiative in the city of Los Angeles, which has committed to a major tree planting program. Los Angeles currently has a low tree canopy cover relative to other cities, particularly in its low income neighborhoods. We are evaluating the decision-making processes associated with the new tree planting program, its perceived benefits, and its actual benefits based on measurements of plant and ecosystem processes such as transpiration, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency; remote sensing analyses of tree cover and surface temperature; and economic analyses. We have found great variability in the interpretation of the program by its various participants, but also significant institutional learning as the program has evolved. Our datasets have challenged some of the common assumptions of the program, for example, the assumption that native species use less water than imported species and are therefore more environmentally beneficial in terms of water resources. We have also found significant impacts of the urban forest on air temperature, which may reduce energy use during the summer due to reductions in air conditioning. This is likely to be a larger effect of urban trees on greenhouse gas emissions than direct carbon sequestration alone, which is a very

  16. Growth and phenolic compounds of Lactuca sativa L. grown in a closed-type plant production system with UV-A, -B, or -C lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Son, Jung Eek; Oh, Myung-Min

    2014-01-30

    The production of high-quality crops based on phytochemicals is a strategy for accelerating the practical use of plant factories. Previous studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light is effective in improving phytochemical production. This study aimed to determine the effect of various UV wavelengths on growth and phenolic compound accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in a closed-type plant production system. Seven days, 1 day and 0.25 day were determined as the upper limit of the irradiation periods for UV-A, -B, and -C, respectively, in the lettuce based on physiological disorders and the fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m). Continuous UV-A treatment significantly induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidants until 4 days of treatment without growth inhibition, consistent with an increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and PAL activity. Repeated or gradual UV-B exposure yielded approximately 1.4-3.6 times more total phenolics and antioxidants, respectively, than the controls did 2 days after the treatments, although both treatments inhibited lettuce growth. Repeated UV-C exposure increased phenolics but severely inhibited the growth of lettuce plants. Our data suggest that UV irradiation can improve the accumulation of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in lettuce cultivated in plant factories. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Social consequences of closing the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baubinas, R.; Burneika, D.

    2001-01-01

    The possible social consequences of closing the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant are studied. The social and economical situation in Visaginas and in the Utena region as a precondition for possible social consequences is shown. Also, two main groups of factors that can possibly influence the situation in the labour market are analysed. The problems of the enterprises that create working places and of the inhabitants of Visaginas whose possible behaviour can affect the situation in the labour market are discussed. Also, some proposals to neutralize the social costs of closing the Ignalina NPP are made. (author)

  18. Response of rice to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in control lab environment and field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on different growth parameters of rice variety JP-5. Three bacterial strains (Azospirillum brasilense R1, Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1) were used to inoculate rice varietyJP-5 at control lab environment and field. Plant growth promotion was observed in all inoculated treatments over non-inoculated, which was evident from increase in root area, root length, number of tillers, straw and grain yields and total weight of plant. Azospirillum brasilense R1 was more effective in plant growth promotion than other strains and showed 19% increase in the straw weight and 39.5% increase in grain weight. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1 increased grain weight by 18.5% and 13.8% respectively. The study revealed that beneficial strains of PGPR can be used as biofertilizer for rice. (author)

  19. Reemployment of Displaced Workers – The Case of a Plant Closing on a Remote Region in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Jolkkonen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the reemployment of displaced workers and individual factors that predict reemployment and education, earnings in new jobs, and paths to reemployment. This article is based on a case study of the closing down of the Perlos Ltd plants in North Karelia in eastern Finland. From the 1990s, the Perlos Corporation grew from a Nokia subcontractor into a globally operating limited company with a global workforce of over 13,000 workers and almost 2,000 workers in North Karelia. In 2007, the corporation closed down all its production activities in Finland. In the case study, various data sources were used but this article is based mainly on the questionnaire conducted in 2008 among 1,217 trade union members. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses are used as analysis methods. Against expectations, the fast reemployment of the displaced workers was a surprise, which can be explained by the good demand and hidden need for labor in other firms in this region. However, the demand was specific and differentiated between the workers’ job opportunities. White-collar workers had better chances of reemployment. Gender, next to the occupational status, was an important predictor for reemployment. On the other hand, education, the willingness to move, and family status were not statistically significant explanatory factors for reemployment. The age of the job seekers was one important factor predicting unemployment.

  20. The waste isolation pilot plant: A new regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, M.W.; Schneider, S.P.; Saris, E.C.; Austin, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is ready to embark on a multiyear test program, using radioactive waste, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP is a deep geologic repository, constructed in ancient salt beds in southeastern New Mexico. It was authorized by Congress in 1979 as a research and development facility to demonstrate safe disposal of the nation's defense transuranic (TRU) waste. Nonradioactive testing in the repository has been under way for several years. The DOE is now ready to begin underground experiments at WIPP with small amounts of TRU waste. Radioactive waste testing in an actual repository environment will reduce uncertainties associated with predictions of long-term repository performance. However, the authority for DOE to begin this new phase of the test program no longer resides within the department. The WIPP is now subject to a new level of regulatory oversight by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies, as set forth by Public Law 102-579, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, signed by the President on October 30, 1992. This paper discusses the act's new regulatory requirements for WIPP

  1. Bioaccumulation of nickel in tomato plants: risks to human health and agro-environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, L; Marrocos, P; Montalván Olivares, D M; Velasco, F G; Luzardo, F H M; Mota de Jesus, R

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, industry, and mining have contributed significantly to the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, which in turn cause problems to human health and to the environment. The present work aims to study the effects of nickel (Ni) on the development of tomato plants, the risks to human health associated to the consumption of contaminated tomatoes, and the consequences to the environment. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment for a period of 120 days, and the plants were cultivated in soils with four different concentrations of Ni: 0, 35, 70, and 105 mg kg -1 . The concentration of nickel in each part (root, stem, leaf, and fruit) of the tomato plant was measured at four different stages of the cycle: 30, 60, 90, and 120 days, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). At the end of the cycle, the concentration of certain macro- and micronutrients was also determined and related to the corresponding Ni concentration in the soil. The distribution of Ni in the parts of the plant was analyzed from the bioaccumulation factor temporal behavior. Nickel concentrations found in the fruit were too low to pose a risk to human health. As a result of this research, it was verified that soils with nickel concentrations close to 70 mg kg -1 , which is the limit established by the CONAMA resolution (420/2009), may actually represent an optimum concentration value for the development of tomato plants. It also increases productivity per plant and reduces the use of resources such as water and agricultural inputs.

  2. Tritium in water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.

    1977-10-01

    A summary is presented of the results obtained in programs on the measurement of the T concentration in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KFK). The amount of T released with the waste water and the exhaust air from the KFK in the years 1969 until 1976 is indicated. The total releases ranged from 2000 Ci/a to 5200 Ci/a in the period of reporting. The fractions contained in the exhaust air and in the waste water were subjected to considerable variations over the years. The results of measurements for water samples are presented as annual mean values. The annual values of measured results obtained for precipitations on the site clearly exceed the values measured at sampling stations outside the KFK. Of the surface waters monitored the rivers Rhine and Neckar showed the highest T values. In smaller flowing waters the T concentration is also influenced by the percentage of waste water from communities. Obviously the tritium content of the ground and drinking water depends on the depth of sampling. Drinking water raised from a small depth in the vicinity of the Rhine is subjected to the same variations as the water from the river Rhine. To find out relations to the T offer of the relevant media close to the plants, the T concentrations in tissue water of plants and in air humidity, ground water and precipitations were investigated. Variations of the T concentration in air humidity correlate with the variations of the T concentration in the tissue water of plants. The T concentration level in the tissue water of plants is close to the T concentration in air humidity. The following time constants and half-lives, respectively, are found: for oak and hornbeam leaves 2+-1 days, for spruce needles 3+-1.5 days, for pine needles 6+-3 days. The dispersion of T released into the air and into the water is dealt with briefly. (orig.) [de

  3. UNDERSTANDING PLANT-SOIL RELATIONSHIPS USING CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although soil is a component of terrestrial ecosystems, it is comprised of a complex web of interacting organisms, and therefore, can be considered itself as an ecosystem. Soil microflora and fauna derive energy from plants and plant residues and serve important functions in mai...

  4. Close Encounters with the Turbulent Environment of Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Arthur; Levey, Richard

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of urban education, public school educators must be joined by the public, legislators, business leaders, and social planners. These individuals will need to understand public policy priorities, as well as the social, economic, and political forces which define our present environment. (Author/GC)

  5. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  6. Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to low VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling stomatal movements in different environments. We characterized the stomatal responses of 41 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to closing stimuli (ABA and desiccation) after they had been exposed for 4 days to moderate VPD (1.17 kPa) or low VPD (0.23 kPa). A fast screening system was used to test stomatal response to ABA using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging under low O2 concentrations of leaf discs floating on ABA solutions. In all accessions stomatal conductance (gs) was increased after prior exposure to low VPD. After exposure to low VPD, stomata of 39 out of 41 of the accessions showed a diminished ABA closing response; only stomata of low VPD-exposed Map-42 and C24 were as responsive to ABA as moderate VPD-exposed plants. In response to desiccation, most of the accessions showed a normal stomata closing response following low VPD exposure. Only low VPD-exposed Cvi-0 and Rrs-7 showed significantly less stomatal closure compared with moderate VPD-exposed plants. Using principle component analysis (PCA), accessions could be categorized to very sensitive, moderately sensitive, and less sensitive to closing stimuli. In conclusion, we present evidence for different stomatal responses to closing stimuli after long-term exposure to low VPD across Arabidopsis accessions. The variation can be a useful tool for finding the mechanism of stomatal malfunctioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  8. Soil to plant transfer factor in the vicinity of coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, M.; Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the monitoring of working and living environment results in 5 coal fired powered plants, for the period from 2004. to 2009. are presented. Soil-plant transfer factor, suitable for estimation of possible contamination of food chain was chosen, as a measure of influence of power plants on the environment. The results gathered over the years of monitoring of working and living environment in the vicinity of the coal fired power plant were analyzed, and it was determined that no significant discrepancy exists comparing to the results reported in world literature. Also, the basic mathematical analysis was conducted, in order to assess the model of the behavior of the results in respect to the frequency count. (author) [sr

  9. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing radionuclide mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Cowan, C.E.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, the mobility of radionuclides. These effects were assessed for coniferous and hardwood tree species by using plants grown in lysimeter systems and examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. The study demonstrated formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides, and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management and exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed. This research provides a basis for focusing on key complexing agents in future studies to measure critical affinity constants and to incorporate this information into mathematical models describing biological effects on radionuclide mobility. 26 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  10. Consideration of Task Performance for Robots Engaged in Extremely Dangerous Environment in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Mo; Han, Kee Soo; Yi, Sung Deok; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, it is started to pay more attention to operation and accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For domestic nuclear industry, it was recommended to establish corresponding strategies against accidents due to extremely dangerous natural disasters. Each nuclear power plant is also preparing to establish strategies to secure nuclear safety functions by estimating the counterplans for extreme accidents. Robots are particularly being used to access the areas where those are dangerous for human beings to access or to restore the accident. Robot technologies in NPPs are emerging cutting-edge technologies that are just a start except the developed countries like USA, Japan, etc. But they are carefully considered because they have the advantages of performing tasks in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs instead of human beings. In this study, the applicability of robots will be considered in extremely dangerous environment in NPPs. Accurate judgment of the inside situation of the plant and quick actions in the extreme condition like earthquake accompanied by loss of all AC powers should be considered as major function in terms of prevention of accident spread. According to the reported stress test results of domestic NPPs, the difficult things for operators to carry out in extreme conditions can be predictable, therefore the active use of robots as accident mitigation strategies will be helpful to reduce the unnecessary spending for facility improvement. Current trend of domestic and foreign robot technology development focuses on the information search of the inside of the plant and development of preventive maintenance of NPPs. As seen actually in Fukushima Daiichi, main roles of robots place emphasis on measuring the inside radiation level accessing to the area where operator cannot access and delivering information which can support operator's decision-making and actions. Therefore, it is considered that development of

  11. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee

    2006-01-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs

  12. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs.

  13. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops.

  14. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, W.R.; Freitas Fonseca, M. de; Pinto, F.N.; Freitas Rebelo, Mauro de; Silva dos Santos, Sergio; Gloria da Silveira, Ene; Torres, J.P.M.; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment

  15. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Márlon de Freitas; Pinto, Fernando Neves; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas; dos Santos, Sérgio Silva; da Silveira, Ene Glória; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Christian

    2004-10-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment.

  16. A plant gene for photolyase: an enzyme catalyzing the repair of UV-light-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batschauer, A.

    1993-01-01

    Photolyases are thought to be critical components of the defense of plants against damage to DNA by solar ultraviolet light, but nothing is known about their molecular or enzymatic nature. The molecular cloning of a photolyase from mustard (Sinapis alba) described here is intended to increase the knowledge about this important repair mechanism in plant species at a molecular level. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 501 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57 kDa. There is a strong sequence similarity to bacterial and yeast photolyases, with a close relationship to enzymes with a deazaflavin chromophor. The plant photolyase is shown to be functional in Escherichia coli which also indicates conservation of photolyases during evolution. It is demonstrated that photolyase expression in plants is light induced, thus providing good evidence for the adaptation of plants to their environment in order to diminish the harmful effects of sunlight. (author)

  17. Challenges using a 252Cf shuffler instrument in a plant environment to measure mixtures of uranium and plutonium transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    An active-passive 252 Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU) waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here

  18. Ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation in educational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Takao; Otsubo, Tomonobu; Ikke, Satoshi; Taguchi, Noriko; Takeda, Rie

    2005-01-01

    By chance, we measured gamma dose rates in our school, and around the JCO Tokai Plant during the criticality on September 30 in 1999, with our GM survey meter. At that time, we made sure to estimate the position of criticality reaction (source point), and the source intensity of criticality reaction, with our own data, measured along the public roads, route 6 and local road 62. The intensity of gamma dose rates along the road was analyzed as Lorentz functions. At the time, there were no environmental radiation data about the criticality accident, or all the data, especially radioactivity and dose rates around the JCO Tokai Plant, was closed to the public. Recently, we are interested in the intensity of non-ionizing radiation, especially extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field, and electric field, in our environment. We adopted the same method to analyze the source position and source intensity of an ELF magnetic field and electric behind a wall. (author)

  19. Nitric oxide-sphingolipid interplays in plant signalling: a new enigma from the Sphinx?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eGuillas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO emerged as one of the major signalling molecules operating during plant development and plant responses to its environment. Beyond the identification of the direct molecular targets of NO, a series of studies considered its interplay with other actors of signal transduction and the integration of nitric oxide into complex signalling networks. Beside the close relationships between NO and calcium or phosphatidic acid signalling pathways that are now well-established, recent reports paved the way for interplays between NO and sphingolipids. This mini-review summarises our current knowledge of the influence NO and sphingolipids might exert on each other in plant physiology. Based on comparisons with examples from the animal field, it further indicates that, although sphingolipid-NO interplays are common features in signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets significantly differ.

  20. Nitric oxide-sphingolipid interplays in plant signalling: a new enigma from the Sphinx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillas, Isabelle; Puyaubert, Juliette; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2013-09-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) emerged as one of the major signaling molecules operating during plant development and plant responses to its environment. Beyond the identification of the direct molecular targets of NO, a series of studies considered its interplay with other actors of signal transduction and the integration of NO into complex signaling networks. Beside the close relationships between NO and calcium or phosphatidic acid signaling pathways that are now well-established, recent reports paved the way for interplays between NO and sphingolipids (SLs). This mini-review summarizes our current knowledge of the influence NO and SLs might exert on each other in plant physiology. Based on comparisons with examples from the animal field, it further indicates that, although SL-NO interplays are common features in signaling networks of eukaryotic cells, the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets significantly differ.

  1. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  2. Plutonium in the lungs of pronghorn antelope near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Dickson, R.L.; Autenrieth, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The lungs of pronghorn antelope which are common on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site were sampled as a bioindicator of plutonium in the environment near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant which is located on the INEL site. Lungs were collected from September 1972 to December 1976 and analyzed for Pu. The source of Pu found in the lungs could be determined from a study of the 238 Pu/ 239-240 Pu ratio as there is a higher proportion of 238 Pu in the chemical plant releases than in world-wide fallout in the soils of Southeastern Idaho. Results indicate that 238 Pu from the chemical plant is being deposited in lungs and possibly other tissues of pronghorn. Only a proportion of the animals close to the plant had detectable quantities. Concentrations were near the detection limits and do not constitute a health hazard to the pronghorn. Meaningful comparisons can be made to radiation protection standards since pronghorn lungs are similar in size to man's. (author)

  3. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa

    2008-01-01

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)

  4. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of the electric field close to the body in realistic environments for application in personal radiofrequency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, S.; McKenzie, R.; Cosic, I.

    2011-01-01

    Personal dosemeters can play an important role in epidemiological studies and in radiofrequency safety programmes. In this study, a Monte Carlo approach is used in conjunction with the finite difference time domain method to obtain distributions of the electric field strength close to a human body model in simulated realistic environments. The field is a proxy for the response of an ideal body-worn electric field dosemeter. A set of eight environments were modelled based on the statistics of Rayleigh, Rice and log-normal fading to simulate outdoor and indoor multi-path exposures at 450, 900 and 2100 MHz. Results indicate that a dosemeter mounted randomly within 10-50 mm of the adult or child body model (torso region) will on average underestimate the spatially averaged value of the incident electric field strength by a factor of 0.52 to 0.74 over the frequencies of 450, 900 and 2100 MHz. The uncertainty in results, assessed at the 95 % confidence level (between the 2.5. and 97.5. percentiles) was largest at 2100 MHz and smallest at 450 MHz. (authors)

  6. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  7. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of three material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base materials, and Ti-base materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments included anoxic brine and anoxic brine with overpressures of CO 2 , H 2 S, and H 2 . Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H 2 on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO 2 caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO 2 -induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO 2 were present in sufficient quantities. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H 2 S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of a protective iron sulfide reaction product. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H 2 S. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures

  8. Closed hierarchy of correlations in Markovian open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žunkovič, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    We study the Lindblad master equation in the space of operators and provide simple criteria for closeness of the hierarchy of equations for correlations. We separately consider the time evolution of closed and open systems and show that open systems satisfying the closeness conditions are not necessarily of Gaussian type. In addition, we show that dissipation can induce the closeness of the hierarchy of correlations in interacting quantum systems. As an example we study an interacting optomechanical model, the Fermi–Hubbard model, and the Rabi model, all coupled to a fine-tuned Markovian environment and obtain exact analytic expressions for the time evolution of two-point correlations. (paper)

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from a poultry farm and processing plant environment in the state of Kuwait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Nasser, Affaf; Al-Safar, AbdulAmir

    2007-01-01

    the farm included hatching eggs, paper liners, litter, feed, water, drinkers, air, bird rinse, and ceca. While samples collected from the processing plant included carcass rinse and ceca. Out of 2882 samples collected from the farm, the overall percentage prevalence of Salmonella was 5.4% with prevalence......The prevalence of Salmonella isolated from a poultry farm and from the poultry processing plant environment were evaluated from August 2004 to July 2005 along with microbial antibiotic resistance. In total, 3242 samples were collected from the farm and processing plant. Samples collected from...... rates of 10%, 1.5%, 0.7%, 0.2%, 13.5%, and 12.6% for hatching eggs, litter, feed, drinkers, bird rinse and ceca, respectively. No Salmonella were detected in any of the paper liner, water, or air samples. Out of 360 samples collected from the processing plant, the overall percentage prevalence...

  10. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  11. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment

  12. The 2002/2003 radionuclide concentration in the marine environment at various distances from the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Raaf, C.L.; Mattsson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The activity concentration of 137Cs, 131I, 65Zn, 60Co, 58Co, 54Mn, and 40K were determined in samples of brown seaweed (Fucus) and some other marine plants using low background high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. The algae were mainly sampled in the bay just north of the Barsebaeck NPP (55.4 N, 12.6 E) in the south of Sweden to study the contamination levels in the nearest shallow waters. One aim of the study was to investigate whether the levels were high enough to expect environmental effects. Some samples were also taken at longer distances up to 130 km from the Barsebaeck NPP. Measurable levels of the neutron activation products 65Zn (up to 17 Bq/kg dw), 60Co (100-600 Bq/kg dw), 58Co (1-160 Bq/kg dw) and 54Mn (12-90 Bq/kg dw) were found in the algae samples within a distance of 5 km from the plant. The decrease in activity concentration with distance from the plant could be described by a power function with an exponent ranging from 1.4 to 2.4. This was in fair agreement with the value for a true two-dimensional dispersion model. The present-day concentrations were found to be considerably lower than in earlier studies made in the late 1970s, especially for 65Zn and 58Co. The activity concentration of gamma emitting radio-nuclides in Fucus vesiculosus from the bay just north of Barsebaeck is today dominated by (in order of decreasing concentration): natural 40K, 60Co from the plant, 137Cs mainly from the Chernobyl debris, 54Mn and 58Co from the plant. It is not likely that any effects from the very marginal absorbed dose contribution from the Barsebaeck NPP releases can be found even in the nearest environment. The study has also shown that the eelgrass Zostera marina may be a bioindicator to use in further studies of the radiation environment in shallow water, especially for 60Co and 54Mn. (author)(tk)

  13. Environmental assessment, Pinellas Plant site, Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment is to describe the operations at the Pinellas Plant, discuss the locale in which the plant is situated and assess the actual and possible impacts of plant operation on the surrounding environment. The facility and the local environment are described; impacts on the economy, local community and the environment discussed, and alternatives presented. A comparison of the environmental impact of operating the Pinellas Plant versus the benefits gained by its operation suggests that the plant should continue its function of supplying nuclear weapons components for the US Department of Energy

  14. Combined cycle power plants: technological prospects for improving the efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauri, R.

    2009-01-01

    The combined cycle power plants characteristics are better than one course open to a closed loop presenting an electrical efficiency close to 60% do not reach for gas turbine engines for power plants and conventional steam engines. [it

  15. Species specific and environment induced variation of δ13C and δ15N in alpine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in δ13C and δ15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. 2500 m elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar δ13C and δ15N varied among species by about 3-4 ‰ and 7-8 ‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of δ13C and δ15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. δ13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, δ15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7 ‰ except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea. There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar δ15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. δ15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil δ15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in δ13C and δ15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic and insensitive to obvious environmental cues.

  16. Plants. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Designed to serve as a resource tool in a high school vocational agriculture curriculum dealing with the environment as it relates to agriculture, this unit is concerned with plants. Plants are defined and their characteristics described. A section on the effects of environment on higher plants covers temperature, light, water, nutrients, air,…

  17. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  18. Impact of power plant KRSKO on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hak, Nena; Lulic, Stipe

    1993-01-01

    The Sava river is among the largest rivers in the Republic of Croatia. It drains 95.000 square kilometers before meeting the Danube River. The Sava river and its surroundings we being exploited in agriculture, forestry, power generation (one nuclear power plant and several thermal power plants), oil transportation, gravel extraction and recreation. At last, the Sava River is the major source of fresh water for industry and population. Different authorized institutions from the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia are included in programs of nonradiological and radiological monitoring of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPPK). Quarterly, the institutions from the Republic of Croatia, NPP Krsko and the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Croatia, submit public information in the Republic of Croatia about NPP Krsko operation and its environmental impact

  19. On exergy analysis of industrial plants and significance of ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rian, Berit

    2011-07-01

    The exergy analysis has been a relatively mature theory for more than 30 years. However, it is not that developed in terms of procedures for optimizing systems, which partly explains why it is not that common. Misconceptions and prejudices, even among scientists, are also partly to blame.The main objective of this work was to contribute to the development of an understanding and methodology of the exergy analysis. The thesis was mainly based on three papers, two of which provided very different examples from existing industrial systems in Norway, thus showing the societal perspective in terms of resource utilization and thermodynamics. The last paper and the following investigation were limited to certain aspects of ambient conditions. Two Norwegian operational plants have been studied, one operative for close to 30 years (Kaarstoe steam production and distribution system), while the other has just started its expected 30 years of production (Snoehvit LNG plant). In addition to mapping the current operational status of these plants, the study of the Kaarstoe steam production and distribution system concluded that the potential for increasing the thermodynamic performance by rather cautious actions was significant, whereas the study of the Snoehvit LNG plant showed the considerable profit which the Arctic location provided in terms of reduced fuel consumption. The significance of the ambient temperature led to the study of systems with two ambient bodies (i.e. ambient water and ambient air) of different temperatures, here three different systems were investigated: A regenerative steam injection gas turbine (RSTIG), a simple Linde air liquefaction plant (Air Liq) and an air-source heat pump water heater (HPWH). In particular, the effect of the chosen environment on exergy analysis was negligible for RSTIG, modest for Air Liq and critical for HPWH. It was found that the amount of exergy received from the alternative ambient body, compared to the main exergy flow of

  20. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  1. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  2. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  3. Toward semi-autonomous control of mobile robots for constrained environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, O.; Cara, O.

    1991-01-01

    Drawing from long-time experience in nuclear maintenance robotics, FRAMATOME leads with several partners an important effort with the goal of developing the decision and operator assistance capabilities of mobile robots. Future robots shall be better adapted (in size and configuration) to the operational requirements of nuclear plants work than current demonstrators. Due regards shall be paid to safety aspects and qualification procedure shall be specified soon. Also, dosimetry gains (e.g. as evaluated by DOSIANA) shall be evaluated to establish further the advantages of robotic solutions. Current achievements and plans for the next two years are expected to provide the necessary know-how for semi-autonomous control of various mobile robots in actual missions in nuclear plant environment. These advances in many closely connected disciplines and technologies should put FRAMATOME in a leader position as systems integrator or as developer for future markets in autonomous mobile robotics, not only in the nuclear field but in other domains as well. (author)

  4. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  5. Aluminium Toxicity to Plants as Influenced by the Properties of the Root Growth Environment Affected by Other Co-Stressors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siecińska, Joanna; Nosalewicz, Artur

    Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought. Described effects of aluminium toxicity include: root growth inhibition, reduction in the uptake of mineral nutrients resulting from the inhibition of transport processes through ion channels; epigenetic changes to DNA resulting in gene silencing. Complex processes occurring in the rhizosphere are highlighted, including the role of soil organic matter and aluminium detoxification by mucilage.There is a considerable research gap in the understanding of root growth in the soil environment in the presence of toxic aluminium concentrations as affected by interactions with abiotic stressors. This knowledge is important for the selection of feasible methods aimed at the reduction of negative consequences of crop production in acidic soils affected by adverse growth environment.

  6. Environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding environs during 1986: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Wiehle, W.E.; Valentine, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report provides monitoring data for the installation and surrounding environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; provides detailed information about the installation; provides detailed information on input and assumption used in all calculations; integrates monitoring data and related studies in one document to pull together, highlight, and summarize the information contained in many documents; provides trend analyses, where possible, to indicate increases and decreases in environmental conditions; and provides general information on the plant site and quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE reservation and PORTS are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and the environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 68 refs., 203 figs., 112 tabs

  7. High-contrast imaging of the close environment of HD 142527. VLT/NaCo adaptive optics thermal and angular differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Thébault, P.; Milli, J.; Girard, J. H.; Bonnefoy, M.

    2012-10-01

    Context. It has long been suggested that circumstellar disks surrounding young stars may be the signposts of planets, and even more so since the recent discoveries of embedded substellar companions. According to models, the planet-disk interaction may create large structures, gaps, rings, or spirals in the disk. In that sense, the Herbig star HD 142527 is particularly compelling, as its massive disk displays intriguing asymmetries that suggest the existence of a dynamical peturber of unknown nature. Aims: Our goal was to obtain deep thermal images of the close circumstellar environment of HD 142527 to re-image the reported close-in structures (cavity, spiral arms) of the disk and to search for stellar and substellar companions that could be connected to their presence. Methods: We obtained high-contrast images with the NaCo adaptive optics system at the Very Large Telescope in L'-band. We applied different analysis strategies using both classical PSF-subtraction and angular differential imaging to probe for any extended structures or point-like sources. Results: The circumstellar environment of HD 142527 is revealed at an unprecedented spatial resolution down to the subarcsecond level for the first time at 3.8 μm. Our images reveal important radial and azimuthal asymmetries that invalidate an elliptical shape for the disk. It instead suggests a bright inhomogeneous spiral arm plus various fainter spiral arms. We also confirm an inner cavity down to 30 AU and two important dips at position angles of 0 and 135 deg. The detection performance in angular differential imaging enables exploration of the planetary mass regime for projected physical separations as close as 40 AU. Use of our detection map together with Monte Carlo simulations sets stringent constraints on the presence of planetary mass, brown dwarf or stellar companions as a function of the semi-major axis. They severely limit any presence of massive giant planets with semi-major axis beyond 50 AU, i

  8. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  9. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  10. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  11. Secreted pitfall-trap fluid of carnivorous Nepenthes plants is unsuitable for microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Franziska; Rott, Matthias; Rottloff, Sandy; Paetz, Christian; Hilke, Ines; Raessler, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes possess modified leaves that form pitfall traps in order to capture prey, mainly arthropods, to make additional nutrients available for the plant. These pitchers contain a digestive fluid due to the presence of hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, the composition of the digestive fluid was further analysed with regard to mineral nutrients and low molecular-weight compounds. A potential contribution of microbes to the composition of pitcher fluid was investigated. Fluids from closed pitchers were harvested and analysed for mineral nutrients using analytical techniques based on ion-chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Secondary metabolites were identified by a combination of LC-MS and NMR. The presence of bacteria in the pitcher fluid was investigated by PCR of 16S-rRNA genes. Growth analyses of bacteria and yeast were performed in vitro with harvested pitcher fluid and in vivo within pitchers with injected microbes. The pitcher fluid from closed pitchers was found to be primarily an approx. 25-mm KCl solution, which is free of bacteria and unsuitable for microbial growth probably due to the lack of essential mineral nutrients such as phosphate and inorganic nitrogen. The fluid also contained antimicrobial naphthoquinones, plumbagin and 7-methyl-juglone, and defensive proteins such as the thaumatin-like protein. Challenging with bacteria or yeast caused bactericide as well as fungistatic properties in the fluid. Our results reveal that Nepenthes pitcher fluids represent a dynamic system that is able to react to the presence of microbes. The secreted liquid of closed and freshly opened Nepenthes pitchers is exclusively plant-derived. It is unsuitable to serve as an environment for microbial growth. Thus, Nepenthes plants can avoid and control, at least to some extent, the microbial colonization of their pitfall traps and, thereby, reduce the need to vie with microbes for the prey

  12. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh eSheibani-Tezerji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7 and S8, which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7, commensal (S8, to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6 in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  13. Computerized information system for inventory-taking and verification at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant with closed production lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Brueckner, C.; Hartmann, G.

    1976-01-01

    By means of a model the use of electronic data processing is studied for preparing inventory listings and for inventory verification in a fabrication plant for Pu-U mixed-oxide fuel pins. It is postulated that interruptions in operation should be avoided as much as possible. Closed-Line production is assumed so that access to nuclear material calls for special withdrawal via locks. The production line is subdivided into sections with measuring points placed in between to record the nuclear material flow. The measured results are fed to a central data acquisition and reporting system capable of calculating on-line from these results the book inventories present in the individual sections. Inventory-taking and verification are carried out simultaneously in the sections of the production line using the EDP system. The production is not interrupted for this purpose. The production stream is tagged prior to reaching a section to be measured and is subsequently measured when entering the respective section until the tag has reached the end of the section. The measurement can be verified by inspectors. Movements of nuclear materials in and from other plant areas such as the storage area are likewise fed into the central data processing system so that inventory lists can be recalled at any moment. By this means the inventory can be taken quickly and at any time. The inventory is verified in the conventional way. (author)

  14. Research on plant utilization and adaptation to environment of human in Guangxi of Southern China during the latest 30000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xie, G.

    2017-12-01

    It is an important scientific problem in the study of the relationship between man and land to select the key areas and important periods of human evolution. In the latest 30 thousand years, it is an important period for late Pleistocene climate change, which has a profound impact on human evolution. Southern China including Guangxi has a unique geographical landscape pattern and unique vegetation and climate background, which is not only an important channel for the diffusion and migration of ancient humans but also an ideal refuge to avoid climate changes. It preserved the rich archaeological remains of the evolution and development of human beings, and provided a rare place for the adaptive strategies of human survival and early the environment. In this paper, Yahuai cave site in Guangxi will be selected for investigation. We will analyze the continuous accumulation of ancient human remains, and utilized AMS14C to reconstruct the dating framework. We will also extract the plant information and environment of the site through pollen, phytolith, grain and starch grains. We will further explore the succession mode of utilization of plant resources and its relationship with climate change and reveal the adaptability to the environment and strategy.

  15. Discovering ways to improve crop production and plant quality [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Working with plants is a process of discovery. Being curious and aware, paying close attention, and staying open and adaptive are important practices. Books and people can help us learn about plants in the nursery, but the very best teachers are the plants themselves. "Research" is simply paying close attention, tracking what is happening and what is causing...

  16. Transuranic elements in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1975-04-01

    Transuranic elements are present in marine environments as a result of worldwide fallout, close-in fallout, the SNAP-9A burnup, pipeline disposal of reprocessing wastes, neutron capture by uranium in one-pass cooling-water reactors and the B-52 crash in Thule, Greenland. Distributions and movements of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from these introductions in the Atlantic Ocean are being studied partly because the transuranic elements themselves are geochemically interesting, partly because they appear to serve as tracers for specific oceanographic processes, and partly because of concern that man is faced with the problem of disposal of rapidly increasing amounts of transuranics as radioactive waste, and that we must be able, soon, to predict the fates and the effects of those amounts that reach the coastal waters or the deep oceans. Plutonium and americium are widely distributed in the oceans as a result of man's activities. Both appear to be more mobile than expected, and Pu shows little behavior in these environments that had been predicted from laboratory studies. Although their associations with biological material seem to be most striking for rooted plants or Sargassum, it is too premature to dismiss the possibility of their being a real hazard to marine life

  17. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  18. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  19. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  20. Theoretical and substantive concept of sustainable close-to-nature managed progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the principles of sustainability in the economic, social and environmental field means that organisation and (material operation of a society is permanently adapted to the environment. Sustainable close-to-naturemanaged development, or in a broader sense progress, means permanent (sustainable and simultaneous improvement of material, social and environmental quality of life, thus a permanent raise of the welfare in its broader sense of all inhabitants within the capacities (limitations of the environment. The opportunity of geography is to take an active part in the realisation of close-to-nature managed patterns of the spatial organisation of human activity.

  1. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the US as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 million t (million t TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for tens of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently approximately 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is

  2. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  3. Accumulation of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids in Periwinkle Seedlings ("Catharanthus roseus") as a Model for the Study of Plant-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ham, Maria de Lourdes; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Alkaloids are part of the chemical arsenal designed to protect plants against an adverse environment. Therefore, their synthesis and accumulation are frequently induced in response to certain environmental conditions and are mediated by chemical signals, which are formed as the first responses to the external stimulus. A set of experiments using…

  4. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  5. Modeling closed nuclear fuel cycles processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, O.V. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova, 5a street, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeeva, I.R. [Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics, Vasiliev street 13, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456770 (Russian Federation); Liventsov, S.N. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Computer models of processes are necessary for determination of optimal operating conditions for closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) processes. Computer models can be quickly changed in accordance with new and fresh data from experimental research. 3 kinds of process simulation are necessary. First, the VIZART software package is a balance model development used for calculating the material flow in technological processes. VIZART involves taking into account of equipment capacity, transport lines and storage volumes. Secondly, it is necessary to simulate the physico-chemical processes that are involved in the closure of NFC. The third kind of simulation is the development of software that allows the optimization, diagnostics and control of the processes which implies real-time simulation of product flows on the whole plant or on separate lines of the plant. (A.C.)

  6. Radioactive Control of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant Environment in the Year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Miklavzic, U.; Franic, Z.; Kanduc, M.

    1998-01-01

    Regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPPK) radioactivity control comprises the supervisions of the inventory of liquid and gaseous emissions at the source, and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (imisson). The controlled environment area consists primarily of a 12 kilometers large circle around the object, where the largest values of imission could be expected, and where possible changes in the Sava river and the underground waters could first be noticed. The circle has been enlarged upon the territory of the Republic of Croatia (RC) from Jesenice on Dolenjsko until Podsused (30 km of air - line distance). As reference points relevant for the readiness in the case of accident, especially for detection of iodine and aerosol air transport, the program comprises also measuring points in the RC at larger distances (from 14 to 27 km) in the direction of Zagreb its larger western surroundings (passive Thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in the each 42 km long). Continuous control of emission is performed by the radiological service of KNPP by routine procedures, supplemented by adequate measurements from other authorized institutions (intercomparisons, parallel measurements of representative and other samples). Summarised results of radioactive measurements for man-made and natural radionuclides are presented for different transfer media and exposure pathways in the form of assessed effective doses. Conservatively estimated dose burdens received by a member of the reference (critical) population group as the result of NPP emissions amount to a value of the committed effective dose equivalent smaller than 20 μSv/year. This value represents less than 1 % of the annual dose received on average from natural and artificial sources by a member of the general public in the normal environment. The yearly doses from natural radioactivity, global contamination (Chernobyl, atmospheric nuclear explosions), non-nuclear industries and

  7. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    factors affect plants' growth, morphology, physiology and biochemistry. Many research works .... Hardwood and Conifer tree species n central Wisconsin: Influence of light regime and .... Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots ...

  8. Tritium behavior pattern in some soil-plant systems in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the distribution pattern of tritium in the soil/plant environment gives valuable ecological information on the natural water balance. The results of such a study for the conditions obtaining in India are given in this paper. Field studies are carried out by injection of tritium into some soil/plant systems and following the transfer pathways. The method of extraction for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) is based on the vacuum freeze-drying technique while the tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) is estimated by a modified version of the Shoniger method. The determination of residence time of tritium in aqueous and organic phase in a number of tropical trees has been carried out both for stem-injection as well as intake from the soil. From the results of this study the tree biomass and transpiration rates have been determined. The tritium profile over time, for an acute exposure in certain trees such as Morinda Tinetoria, Achras Sapota etc. shows significantly different patterns compared to the normal pattern shown by Mangifera Indica, Terminalia Catappa, Ficus Glomerata etc. The period of investigation in each case varied from 400 to 1000 h. In most of the cases, the TBT fractions were very low compared to TFWT fractions in the initial stages. The tritium behavior in the tree reflects significant characteristics of the tritium behavior in the soil system. The authors have found that the leaf sampling can be used as an indicator of total environmental tritium behavior. (author)

  9. Uptake and allocation of 15N in alpine plants. Implications for the importance of competitive ability in predicting community structure in a stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodose, T.A.; Jaeger, C.H.; Bowman, W.D.; Schardt, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several potential components of competitive ability were determined for 13 plant species in a N-limited alpine moist meadow community in order to determine if competition had an influence on relative abundance in this stressful environment. The components of competitive ability examined were 15 N uptake rate, 15 N allocation, whole plant biomass, root:shoot ratio, and tissue N concentrations. It was hypothesized that 15 N uptake rate would be the component most correlated with relative abundance. However, 15 N uptake rate was negatively correlated with percent cover in the community. In contrast, whole plant biomass and root:shoot ratio were positively correlated with relative abundance. Tissue N concentrations and 15 N allocation were not important predictors of relative abundance. These results suggest that in a harsh environment, high resource uptake rates are not indicative of competitive ability, but may instead by a mechanism by which rare species are able to coexist with competitive dominants. (au) 47 refs

  10. Evaluation of engineering foods for closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    A nutritionally adequate and acceptable diet was evaluated and developed. A design for a multipurpose food plant is discussed. The types and amounts of foods needed to be regenerated in a partially closed ecological life support system (PCELSS) were proposed. All steps of food processes to be utilized in the multipurpose food plant of PCELSS were also considered. Equipment specifications, simplification of the proposed processes, and food waste treatment were analyzed.

  11. Multitube coaxial closed cycle gas laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A gas laser design capable of long term reliable operation in a commercial environment is disclosed. Various construction details which insulate the laser optics from mechanical distortions and vibrations inevitably present in the environment are developed. Also, a versatile optical cavity made up of modular units which render the basic laser configuration adaptable to alternate designs with different output capabilities is shown in detail. The system built around a convection laser operated in a closed cycle and the working medium is a gas which is excited by direct current electric discharges. (auth)

  12. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  13. In vitro food production for isolated closed environments: formation of ripe tomato fruits from excised flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P B; K-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1997-01-01

    Excised preanthesis flower buds of young Pixie Hybrid tomato plants develop into red ripe fruits in aseptic culture on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with 3% sucrose at pH 5.8. The addition of certain synthetic auxins (IAA, NAA, IBA), auxin precursors (ISA), or cytokinins (KIN, IPA, ZEA, BAP) to the medium improved the percentage of buds developing into fruits, the weight of the ripe fruits, or both. The best results were obtained by an auxin-cytokinin combination of 10 microM IBA with 1 microM BAP. Storage of the excised buds at low temperature (6 degrees C) for up to 4 weeks before transfer to 27 degrees C caused only minimal deterioration in size and number of the fruit crop. Extension of low-temperature storage to 8 weeks produced smaller fruits that took longer to develop. This system could produce fresh, ripe small tomatoes on a sustained basis for up to 2 months for an isolated environment such as a space vehicle or submarine.

  14. Slovak Electric, plc, Environment report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities in environment protection carried out by the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) The address of general director; (2) Conception of environmental protection in joint stock company SE, a.s.; (3) Air protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system in joint stock company Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.; (7) Finances spent to protection and setting of environment; (8) Vojany power plant(SE-EVO); (9) Novaky power plant (SE-ENO); (10) Kosice power plant (SE-TEKO); (11) Trencin water power stations (SE-VET); (12) Dobsina water power stations (SE-VED); (13) Bohunice nuclear power plant (SE-EBO); (14) Mochovce nuclear power plant (SE-EMO); (15) Bratislava transmission system plant (SE-PS); (16) Bohunice radioactive waste treatment and conditioning centre

  15. Does co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with endophytic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth in a polluted environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ważny, Rafał; Rozpądek, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J; Śliwa, Marta; Stojakowska, Anna; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. resulted in increased biomass yield of plants cultivated on the polluted substrate, whereas co-inoculation with T. asperellum and the AM fungus increased plant biomass on the non-polluted substrate. In the presence of Mucor sp., mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule richness were increased in the non-polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. increased Zn concentration in leaves and roots. The concentration of sesquiterpene lactones in plant leaves was decreased by AM fungus inoculation in both substrates. Despite enhanced host plant costs caused by maintaining symbiosis with numerous microorganisms, interaction of wild lettuce with both mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi was more beneficial than that with a single fungus. The study shows the potential of double inoculation in unfavourable environments, including agricultural areas and toxic metal-polluted areas.

  16. 210Po and 210Pb emissions to air from the thermal phosphorus plant in Europe: measurements in the environment and dose assessment for regulatory purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Knetsch, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1983 in The Netherlands, an environmental survey at a river estuary revealed elevated radionuclide concentrations above the background level. The source was identified as an industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus, by means of a thermal process. Within a few years a permit for emissions of radionuclides to the environment was requested under the prevailing Nuclear Energy Act, and granted. Since 1987 the industry reports its emission data to the mandated Ministry. This phosphorus plant contributes the highest release of 210 Po and 210 Pb to air in the Netherlands. The difficulty of identifying the enhanced activity due to the elemental phosphorus through environmental measurement is here illustrated by showing, by means of an air dispersion model, that the radioactivity added by the phosphorus plant to the environment is comparable to the natural background level. The estimate of the excess air concentration given exclusively by a continuous annual emission of 500 GBq, bound to aerosols of size less than 1 micron, varies from 450 to 750 micro Bq/m 3 at a distance of 3.5 km from the phosphorus plant, depending on yearly weather variations. This may be compared to the natural background level as it is measured at a distance of over 100 km inland from the phosphorus plant, at RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The yearly average measured 210 Pb activity concentration in air is 363±5 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009 which is within range of other years. At the coastal site where the phosphorus plant is located, the natural background will be lower. The gross beta activity concentration near the phosphorus plant is 296 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009: this includes the emissions to air from the sintering process. The emission to air for the year 2009 reported by the phosphorus plan is 80 GBq/y of 210 Pb

  17. Effectiveness of Indoor Plant to Reduce CO2 in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Mohd Mahathir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern country strongly emphasizes on indoor air quality (IAQ because it can effect on human health and productivity. Numerous efforts were performed to make sure that sustainability of IAQ is guaranteed. In the last 4th decade, researchers discover that indoor plants have abilities to reduce indoor air pollution. Generally, plants, carbon dioxide (CO2, light, and temperature involve in the photosynthesis process. This paper intends to study the effectiveness of seven indoor plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to reduce CO2 with different light level. This study was conducted in one cubic meter of chamber, and each plant was put into the chamber individually with CO2 concentration in the chamber is set at 1000±50ppm, and light intensities is set at 300 and 700 lux, while temperature were fixed at 25±1°C. Based on the results, only the Spider Plant was not able to absorb CO2 during the test at 300 lux of light intensity. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant performed well when tested at 300 or 700 lux of light intensity compare to other investigates plants. This study can conclude that light intensity play an important role for the plant to absorb CO2 effectively. All the indoor plants absorbed more CO2, when the light intensity is increased.

  18. Value of information in closed-loop reservoir managment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.G.D.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    This paper proposes a new methodology to perform value of information (VOI) analysis within a closed-loop reservoir management (CLRM) framework. The workflow combines tools such as robust optimization and history matching in an environment of uncertainty characterization. The approach is illustrated

  19. Marine environment status assessment based on macrophytobenthic plants as bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Danowska, Beata

    2017-05-15

    The main aim of study was to develop the environmental quality standards (EQS MP ) for selected heavy metals: Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine macrophytobenthic plants: Chara baltica, Cladophora spp., Coccotylus truncatus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Stuckenia pectinata and Zanichellia palustris, collected in designated areas of the southern Baltic Sea in period 2008-2015. The calculated concentration ratios (CR), which attained very high values: 10 4 Lkg -1 for lead, 10 3 Lkg -1 for nickel and mercury and even 10 5 Lkg -1 for cadmium formed the basis for the determination of EQS MP values. The EQS MP values were: 26mgkg -1 d.w. for Pb, 33mgkg -1 d.w. for Cd, 32mgkg -1 d.w. for Ni and 0.4mgkg -1 d.w. for Hg. The application of macrophytobenthic plants as bioindicators in marine environment status assessment of certain areas of the Baltic Sea is also described in the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  1. Synthesis of Ceramic Protective Coatings for Chemical Plant Parts Operated in Hi-temperature and Corrosive/Erosive Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, M. C.; Park, J. R.; Hong, K. T.; Seok, H. K.

    2005-01-01

    Some feasibility studies are conducted to produce an advanced ceramic coating, which reveals superior chemical and mechanical strength, on metal base structure used in chemical plant. This advanced coating on metallic frame can replace ceramic delivery pipe and reaction chamber used in chemical plant, which are operated in hi-temperature and corrosive/erosive environment. An dual spraying is adopted to reduce the residual stress in order to increase the coating thickness and the residual stress is estimated by in-situ manner. Then new methodology is tried to form special coating of yttrium aluminum garnet(YAG), which reveals hi-strength and low-creep rates at hi-temperature, superior anti-corrosion property, hi-stability against Alkali-Vapor corrosion, and so on, on iron base structure. To verify the formation of YAG during thermal spraying, XRD(X ray diffraction) technique was used

  2. Working environment in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers, of which 7 are devoted to nuclear power generation. They are concerned with the working environment in the controlled areas of the Bohunice nuclear power plant, the unsuitable design of the control rooms with respect to reliability and safety of operation of the nuclear power plant, optimization of the man-working conditions relation, operation of transport facilities, refuelling and fuel element inspection, the human factor and the probabilityy assessment of the nuclear power plant operating safety, a proposal to establish a universal ergonometric programme for the electric power distribution system, and physical factors in the ergonometric analysis of the working environment. (J.B.)

  3. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing the mobility of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, affecting radionuclide mobility. These changes were assessed for coniferous and deciduous trees grown in lysimeter systems by examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. Our studies demonstrated the formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management or exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed

  4. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  5. Measuring Situation Awareness of Operating Team in Different Main Control Room Environments of Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woo Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.

  6. Environmental survey near a decommissioning nuclear facility: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville - Environmental survey near a nuclear facility undergoing decommissioning: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Chauveau, J.L. [EDF CIDEN, Division Environnement, 154 Avenue Thiers, 69458 Lyon (France); Pourcelot, L.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Cossonnet, P.C. [IRSN, LERCM Cadarache and LMRE Orsay (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 1572-CEA/CNRS/UVQS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    and adapts it to the specific radionuclides generated by the decommissioning phase. Some results from the terrestrial monitoring of the decommissioning site of Creys-Malville are presented here. Data highlight the very weak influence of gaseous discharges during all the operating phases and the decommissioning of the facility. Since the beginning (1985) to the end of plant operation (1998), tritium detected in the terrestrial environment near the Creys-Malville site (some Bq.L{sup -1} to a few tens of Bq.L{sup -1}) is almost exclusively linked to the global fall-out of nuclear bomb tests. During decommissioning operations, most of the observed environmental values remain very close to the ambient levels measured in zones not influenced by radioactive releases from nuclear activities i.e. 1 to 10 Bq.L{sup -1} (depending on the nature of the samples analyzed). In connection with the specific decommissioning operations, a slight influence of discharges had been briefly observed in the terrestrial environment; the measured concentrations were from 1 to 18 Bq.L{sup -1} for free water tritium, and from 1 to 11 Bq.L{sup -1} for organically bound tritium. (authors)

  7. Army Attack Aviation Returning to the Close Fight: Impact of the MOUT Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tate, Frank

    2001-01-01

    .... attack helicopters and their employment, an analysis of the modern threat environment which indicates a strong likelihood of fighting in urban environments, a review of existing aviation doctrine...

  8. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  10. Archiving plant inspection data in a virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan

    2004-01-01

    ''Digital Maintenance Field Technology'' was proposed for reliable and robust maintenance of a nuclear power plant. It digitizes and maintains whole information of maintenance fields in computer system for a long time. Digital Field Archival Technology'' is one of three core technologies of the ''Digital Maintenance Field Technology''. The essential functions of the Digital Field Archival Technology'' is to store, maintain and visualize the inspection data during a long period. In order to enable the operators or other agents to review the plant information at any time, at any location and in any form, the information must be stored with collect indexes of time and space. The virtual space resembling the real space is suitable to store the observed information. In this paper, the concept to store the observed information into the virtual space is realized under the assumption that the geometrical structure of real plant is static and reconstructed in the virtual space. The system for storing observed information especially image data gotten by mobile inspection robots and visualizing the stored data as desired is introduced. (author)

  11. Behavior of sartans (antihypertensive drugs) in wastewater treatment plants, their occurrence and risk for the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Anne; Asner, Robert; Schüssler, Walter; Kopf, Willi; Weiß, Klaus; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2014-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic trace contaminants reach wastewaters and are often not satisfactorily eliminated in sewage treatment plants. These contaminants and/or their degradation products may reach surface waters, thus influencing aquatic life. In this study, the behavior of five different antihypertonic pharmaceuticals from the sartan group (candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan and valsartan) is investigated in lab-scale sewage plants. The elimination of the substances with related structures varied broadly from 17 % for olmesartan up to 96 % for valsartan. Monitoring data for these drugs in wastewater effluents of six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Bavaria, and at eight rivers, showed median concentrations for, e.g. valsartan of 1.1 and 0.13 μg L(-1), respectively. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were calculated and are mostly consistent with the measured environmental concentrations (MEC). The selected sartans and the mixture of the five sartans showed no ecotoxic effects on aquatic organisms in relevant concentrations. Nevertheless, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment should be reduced to minimize the risk of their distribution in surface waters, ground waters and bank filtrates used for drinking water.

  12. Plant survival in a changing environment: the role of nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eSimontacchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant´s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations.Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant´s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signalling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation.

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of Closed Steady or Cyclic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGovern

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Closed, steady or cyclic thermodynamic systems, which have temperature variations over their boundaries, can represent an extremely large range of plants, devices or natural objects, such as combined heating, cooling and power plants, computers and data centres, and planets. Energy transfer rates can occur across the boundary, which are characterized as heat or work. We focus on the finite time thermodynamics aspects, on energy-based performance parameters, on rational efficiency and on the environmental reference temperature. To do this, we examine the net work rate of a closed, steady or cyclic system bounded by thermal resistances linked to isothermal reservoirs in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Citing relevant references from the literature, we propose a methodology that can improve the thermodynamic analysis of an energy-transforming or an exergy-destroying plant. Through the reflections and analysis presented, we have found an explanation of the second law that clarifies the link between the Clausius integral of heat over temperature and the reference temperature of the Gouy–Stodola theorem. With this insight and approach, the specification of the environmental reference temperature in exergy analysis becomes more solid. We have explained the relationship between the Curzon Ahlborn heat engine and an irreversible Carnot heat engine. We have outlined the nature of subsystem rational efficiencies and have found Rant’s anergy to play an important role. We postulate that heat transfer through thermal resistance is the sole basis of irreversibility.

  14. Radiation safety ensuring and environment protection dealing with radioactive waste management in the system of the special plants ''Radon''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkina, Lidia

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with the Russian special plants ''Radon'', a system of 16 regional plants devoted to radioactive waste management. The plants are intended to receive solid radioactive wastes and liquid radioactive wastes of low and medium levels of activity for reprocessing and final disposal. The following topics are discussed: (1) waste characterization, (2) storage construction, (3) preparation of waste for burial, (4) site selection, (5) tasks of the plant, (6) division of plant territory into zones, (7) radiation monitoring, (8) prevention of accidents and elimination of their consequences, (10) training of staff, (11) sanitary treatment of staff and equipment decontamination. Lack of financial means is a major problem. The closure of the Murmansk special plant Radon has caused great problems for the North-European District. The Leningrad special plant Radon has been forced to accept radioactive waste from the Arkhangelsk region. The exhaustion of reserve volumes for solid radioactive waste acceptance at this plant affects the entire North-Western Russia. At present, spent sources of ionising radiation are buried in shallow land-based storage facilities of well type. It was found on inspection that such burial of sources containing nuclides with half-life of more than 30 years must be stopped. Existing storages are inadequate for safe storage of such sources throughout their hazardous period, and are not adjusted for extraction of such sources in the future. The spent sources containing long-lived nuclides must be temporarily stored in transport containers in separate sections of solid waste storage facilities. In 1997, analysis of radiation state parameters for radioactive waste burial at special plants Radon showed that the radiation dose rate at working places and the average annual volumetric activity of radionuclides in the environment were within the admissible limits

  15. Review on phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Wang Erqi

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation, a promising technology using plants to remove radioactive contaminants from the environment or to render them harmless, has become a hot topic in current research. Studies on phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated environment are reviewed with special focuses on several subsets including types of phytoremediation of uranium (such as phytoextraction, rhizofiltration and phytostabilization), influencing factors (such as plant species, soil properties, microorganism, soil amendments, fertilization and uranium speciation) of uranium accumulation by plants, cases studies and trend in phytoremediation of uranium. (authors)

  16. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  17. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  18. Challenges associated with the design of underground grinding plant at McArthur River project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrozek, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    McArthur River is an unique high grade uranium underground mine. Ore grinding and thickening are part of the underground operation. The grinding circuit is designed to operate in conditions different from conventional plant environments. Design of the grinding plant was a collective effort of a multi-disciplinary engineering team closely cooperating with project operating personnel. The equipment had to be selected to reflect widely varying ore properties. A user-friendly plant layout provides access to equipment inspections, services, and the delivery of necessary components. The size of the grinding chamber was limited in order to keep the rock stress levels within allowable values. All underground equipment brought to the construction site was restricted in size and weight. Plant construction faced limited storage space underground, tight erection sequencing, and schedule. Plant ventilation is a critical design feature. It efficiently removes radioactive dust from work areas, eliminates stagnant air pockets, and separates clean air from contaminated air areas. Radiation shielding on the equipment is designed to correspond with operational and maintenance functions. Plant operation is remotely controlled and requires little attendance. Video cameras are used on critical equipment and in controlled access areas. An extensive program of preventive and predictive maintenance allows highly reliable plant operation. (author)

  19. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This booklet for children emphasizes the exploration and protection of the environment. An introduction discusses the interaction between humankind and the environment, emphasizing that the earth is a closed system. Chapter 1, "Mission: Protect the Water," addresses human dependence on water, water pollution, and water treatment. Chapter…

  20. Determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the tropical environment of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, A.S.; Begum, A. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ullah, S.M. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Soil Science

    1998-07-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been determined for different plants/crops, such as rice, beans, peanuts, pineapple, cabbage, tomato, spinach and grass. They were obtained from radioisotope experiments on plants grown in pots under outdoor ambient tropical conditions for three growing seasons (1994-1996). In the case of {sup 137}Cs and concerning the above mentioned plants/crops, the average TFs were found to be 0.28, 0.25, 0.77, 0.19, 0.23, 0.28, 0.59 and 0.18, respectively. In the case of {sup 90}Sr, the average TFs were found to be 0.82, 0.51, 0.20, 0.82, 0.69, 0.59, 0.91 and 0.84, respectively. A minor seasonal variation was observed. This study provides a database of TFs for tropical environments to be used, e.g., for radiological safety assessment models. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  1. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.

    1996-01-01

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under 'hydro-peaking' management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m 3 /s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors)

  2. Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Kyla M; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2013-04-23

    Understanding how and why plant communities vary across space has long been a goal of ecology, yet parsing the relative importance of different influences has remained a challenge. Species-specific models are not generalizable, whereas broad plant functional type models lack important detail. Here we consider plant trait patterns at the local scale and ask whether plant chemical traits are more closely linked to environmental gradients or to changes in species composition. We used the visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectrometer of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to develop maps of four plant chemical traits--leaf nitrogen per mass, leaf carbon per mass, leaf water concentration, and canopy water content--across a diverse Mediterranean-type ecosystem (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA). For all four traits, plant community alone was the strongest predictor of trait variation (explaining 46-61% of the heterogeneity), whereas environmental gradients accounted for just one fourth of the variation in the traits. This result emphasizes the critical role that species composition plays in mediating nutrient and carbon cycling within and among different communities. Environmental filtering and limits to similarity can act strongly, simultaneously, in a spatially heterogeneous environment, but the local-scale environmental gradients alone cannot account for the variation across this landscape.

  3. Environment, safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.

    2000-01-01

    Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)

  4. Radioruthenium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Morita, Shigeki.

    1979-01-01

    A change in the amount of radioruthenium in the environment (due to nuclear tests and drainage from atomic energy plants) and the exposure dose are discussed. The level of 106 Ru in the environment due to radioactive fallout, changes in the level, and the characteristics of these changes are reported. Pollution caused by 106 Ru in drainage from atomic energy plants, especially from the Windscale reprocessing factory in the United Kingdom (which release Ru in the greatest amount), changes in the amount of Ru released and in the levels of environmental pollution, and the movement of Ru in the environment are considered. The intake of Ru into the human body by consumption of food produced in polluted areas and by inspiration of Ru present in the air is estimated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  6. Plasticity Regulators Modulate Specific Root Traits in Discrete Nitrogen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Miriam L.; Banta, Joshua A.; Katari, Manpreet S.; Hulsmans, Jo; Chen, Lisa; Ristova, Daniela; Tranchina, Daniel; Purugganan, Michael D.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such “tunability” in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment – a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment. PMID:24039603

  7. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may...

  8. Post-fire environments are favourable for plant functioning of seeder and resprouter Mediterranean shrubs, even under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Moreno, José M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how drought affects seeder and resprouter plants during post-fire regeneration is important for the anticipation of Mediterranean vegetation vulnerability in a context of increasing drought and fire caused by climate change. A Mediterranean shrubland was subjected to various drought treatments (including 45% rainfall reduction, 7 months drought yr -1 ), before and after experimental burning, by means of a rainout-shelter system with an irrigation facility. Predawn shoot water potential (Ψ pd ), relative growth rate (RGR), specific leaf area (SLA) and bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) were monitored in the main woody species during the first 3 yr after fire. Cistus ladanifer seedlings showed higher Ψ pd , RGR and SLA, and lower δ 13 C, than unburned plants during the first two post-fire years. Seedlings under drought maintained relatively high Ψ pd , but suffered a decrease in Ψ pd and RGR, and an increase in δ 13 C, relative to control treatments. Erica arborea, E. scoparia and Phillyrea angustifolia resprouts had higher Ψ pd and RGR than unburned plants during the first post-fire year. Resprouters were largely unaffected by drought. Overall, despite marked differences between the two functional groups, post-fire environments were favourable for plant functioning of both seeder and resprouter shrubs, even under the most severe drought conditions implemented. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Parameter masks for close talk speech segregation using deep neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep neural networks (DNN based close talk speech segregation algorithm is introduced. One nearby microphone is used to collect the target speech as close talk indicated, and another microphone is used to get the noise in environments. The time and energy difference between the two microphones signal is used as the segregation cue. A DNN estimator on each frequency channel is used to calculate the parameter masks. The parameter masks represent the target speech energy in each time frequency (T-F units. Experiment results show the good performance of the proposed system. The signal to noise ratio (SNR improvement is 8.1 dB on 0 dB noisy environment.

  10. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  11. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  12. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  13. Depositional Environments of Late Danian Plant Localities: Chubut Provice, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, E.; Slingerland, R. L.; Wilf, P.

    2010-12-01

    and bi-directional currents. Unique features within these two facies such as microdeltas and plane parallel lamination indicate complex micro-environments and flow patterns. Fossil plant remains lie within lateral accretion sets or siltstone facies both above and below the trough cross-bedded sandstone facies. At the top of the Salamanca we reach facies 6 and 7 which transition from sandstone to black mudstone of the Banco Negro. Mammal fossils found in the Banco Negro identify it as a non-marine continental facies. The Late Paleocene Rio Chico formation that overlies the Banco Negro is identified as a continental fluvial formation indicating that facies 6 represents emptying of the estuary and a longstanding regional transition from a marine to a continental environment. To understand the origin of the tidal flows, a paleogeographic model of the Late Danian Patagonian shelf was constructed from facies distributions within the Salamanca Fm. A 2D hydrodynamic model driven by predicted tides in the paleo-Atlantic produces a tidal range of approximately 2m and strong ebb and flood tides throughout the central estuary. These observations are consistent with our interpretation of a meso-tidal estuarine environment as the paleo-flora accumulation site.

  14. Environment server. Digital field information archival technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan

    2002-01-01

    For the safety operation of nuclear power plants, it is important to store various information about plants for a long period and visualize those stored information as desired. The system called Environment Server is developed for realizing it. In this paper, the general concepts of Environment Server is explained and its partial implementation for archiving the image information gathered by inspection mobile robots into virtual world and visualizing them is described. An extension of Environment Server for supporting attention sharing is also briefly introduced. (author)

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  16. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The

  17. Profiling the extended phenotype of plant pathogens: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Gail M

    2017-04-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in the triggering or overcoming of host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of the pathogen in culture. It is also important to recognize that the phenotype and evolution of pathogen and host are inextricably linked through their interactions, such that the environment experienced by a pathogen within a host, and its phenotype within the host, is a product of both its interaction with its host and its evolutionary history, including its co-evolution with host plants. As the phenotypic properties of a pathogen within a host cannot be defined in isolation from the host, it may be appropriate to think of pathogens as having an 'extended phenotype' that is the product of their genotype, host interactions and population structure within the host environment. This article reflects on the challenge of defining and studying this extended phenotype, in relation to the questions posed below, and considers how knowledge of the phenotype of pathogens in the host environment could be used to improve disease control. What determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? What aspects of pathogen biology should be considered in describing the extended phenotype of a pathogen within a host? How can we study the extended phenotype in ways that provide insights into the phenotypic properties of pathogens

  18. PGPR Potentially Improve Growth of Tomato Plants in Salt-Stressed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Zameer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are colonized bacterial species that has the capability to improve plant growth by certain direct and indirect means. Environmental factors including both biotic and abiotic stresses are among the major constraints to crop production. In the current study, the effectiveness of microbial inoculation (Bacillus megaterium for enhancing growth of tomato plants under salt stress conditions has been investigated. Significant improvement in shoot length, root length, leaf surface area, number of leaves, total weight of the shoot and root was observed in tomato plants inoculated with zm7 strain post 15 and 30 days of its application. Zm3, Zm4 and Zm6 strains improved the morphological parameters as compared to the control. Chlorophyll content a, chlorophyll content b, anthocyanin and carotenoid content was increased in tomato plants subjected to Zm7, Zm6 and Zm4 strains. Stress responsive genes; metallothionein and glutothion gene were found highly expressed in Zm7 treated tomato plants as compared to control, untreated plants. Significant correlation of anthocyanin was reported for carotenoids, chlorophyll-b, shoot weight and total weight of seedling while carotenoids were significantly correlated with leaf surface area, root length, chlorophyll-b and anthocyanin. Overall, Zm7 strain proved best for improvement in salt stressed plant’s morphological parameters and biochemical parameters as compared to control, untreated plants.

  19. Molybdenum and technetium cycle in the environment. Physical chemical evolution and mobility in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Denardi, J.L.; Colle, C.; Quinault, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Molybdenum 99 and technetium 99 from liquid discharges of base nuclear installations (reactors, reprocessing plants, UF 6 treatment, etc.) can reach the environment via irrigation waters and atmospheric deposits. The contribution to the soil by irrigation results in a physical-chemical transformation, the results of which, in the case of technetium 99, could be volatilization via microbes. The changes in the physical-chemical forms of technetium in different soils reveals the preponderant effect of the initial amount deposited. The determination of the rate of technetium and molybdenum assimilation shows a certain similarity in behaviour; yet the localization of these isotopes is not the same. The transfer of molybdenum and technetium via the root system is different in its intensity; this is mainly due to different physical-chemical forms. Finally, each isotope has an optimum assimilation threshold and a toxicity threshold. The study of the physical-chemical evolution and the mobility in the soil-plant-water table system of these two isotopes shows a new aspect with respect to certain transfer channels to the human being [fr

  20. Using a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    and expand, new analytical frameworks and tools are needed to identify factors influencing performance of services and systems in specific contexts, and to guide interventions. In this paper we apply a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance, using Uganda as a case study...... factors, influenced by basic operational and financial concerns, inter-institutional relations and public sector policies. Overall, there was a fairly close match between the plant health system attributes and plant clinic performance, suggesting that the framework can help explain system functioning....... A comparative study of plant clinics was carried out between July 2010 and September 2011 in the 12 districts where plant clinics were operating at that time. The framework enabled us to organise multiple issues and identify key features that affected the plant clinics. Clinic performance was, among other...

  1. The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Ribeiro, Andre L R; Levine, Adam P; Pontikos, Nikolas; Balloux, Francois; Segal, Anthony W; Roberts, Adam P; Smith, Andrew M

    2017-09-12

    The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition. IMPORTANCE Previous research shows that the salivary microbiomes of relatives are more similar than those of nonrelatives, but it remains difficult to distinguish the effects of relatedness and shared household environment. Furthermore, pedigree measures may not accurately measure host genetic similarity. In this study, we include genetic relatedness based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rather than

  2. Technology Of Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) for commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. Practiced in greenhouses to produce food on nonarable lands. Describes conceptual regenerative system that incorporates biological, physical, and chemical processes to support humans in extraterrestrial environments.

  3. A closed-loop forward osmosis-nanofiltration hybrid system: Understanding process implications through full-scale simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-12-30

    This study presents simulation of a closed-loop forward osmosis (FO)-nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system using fertiliser draw solution (DS) based on thermodynamic mass balance in a full-scale system neglecting the non-idealities such as finite membrane area that may exist in a real process. The simulation shows that the DS input parameters such as initial concentrations and its flow rates cannot be arbitrarily selected for a plant with defined volume output. For a fixed FO-NF plant capacity and feed concentration, the required initial DS flow rate varies inversely with the initial DS concentration or vice-versa. The net DS mass flow rate, a parameter constant for a fixed plant capacity but that increases linearly with the plant capacity and feed concentration, is the most important operational parameter of a closed-loop system. Increasing either of them or both increases the mass flow rate to the system directly affecting the final concentration of the diluted DS with direct energy implications to the NF process. Besides, the initial DS concentration and flow rates are also limited by the optimum recovery rates at which NF process can be operated which otherwise also have direct implications to the NF energy. This simulation also presents quantitative analysis of the reverse diffusion of fertiliser nutrients towards feed brine and the gradual accumulation of feed solutes within the closed system.

  4. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  5. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  6. Routine environmental audit of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12 Plant), Anderson County, Tennessee. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), State of Tennessee regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted August 22-September 2, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, open-quotes Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,close quotes establishes the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of DOE environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE's environmental programs within line organizations, and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements

  7. Report on safety and the environment 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The steps taken by AEA Technology to implement high safety and environmental standards and performance levels achieved are summarized. AEA's policy on safety and the environment is stated. The way that safety is organised, how plant safety cases are made, plant operations and safety 1992-93 and decommissioning work at several of AEA's plants are reported. Radiological doses for AEA plants are shown to have fallen since 1990. General industrial and office safety, what is learned from accidents and incidents, how the environment is protected, the occupational health services provided and the emergency arrangements in operation are also mentioned briefly. (UK)

  8. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  9. A predictive model of nuclear power plant crew decision-making and performance in a dynamic simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Kevin Anthony

    The safe operation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires close coordination between the human operators and plant systems. In order to maintain an adequate level of safety following an accident or other off-normal event, the operators often are called upon to perform complex tasks during dynamic situations with incomplete information. The safety of such complex systems can be greatly improved if the conditions that could lead operators to make poor decisions and commit erroneous actions during these situations can be predicted and mitigated. The primary goal of this research project was the development and validation of a cognitive model capable of simulating nuclear plant operator decision-making during accident conditions. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methods can improve the prediction of human error events by providing rich contextual information and an explicit consideration of feedback arising from man-machine interactions. The Accident Dynamics Simulator paired with the Information, Decision, and Action in a Crew context cognitive model (ADS-IDAC) shows promise for predicting situational contexts that might lead to human error events, particularly knowledge driven errors of commission. ADS-IDAC generates a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET) by applying simple branching rules that reflect variations in crew responses to plant events and system status changes. Branches can be generated to simulate slow or fast procedure execution speed, skipping of procedure steps, reliance on memorized information, activation of mental beliefs, variations in control inputs, and equipment failures. Complex operator mental models of plant behavior that guide crew actions can be represented within the ADS-IDAC mental belief framework and used to identify situational contexts that may lead to human error events. This research increased the capabilities of ADS-IDAC in several key areas. The ADS-IDAC computer code was improved to support additional

  10. Factors affecting the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golmakani, S.; Moghaddam, V.M.; Hosseini, T.

    2008-01-01

    Much of our food directly or indirectly originates from plant material; thus, detailed studies on plant contamination processes are an essential part of international environmental research. This overview attempts to identify and describe the most important parameters and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclide transfer to plants. Many parameters influence these processes. These parameters are related to: (1) plant, (2) soil, (3) radionuclide, (4) climate and (5) time. Often there is no boundary between the factors and they are linked to each other. Knowledge of important factors in radionuclide transfer to plants can help to assess and prevent radiological exposure of humans. This knowledge can also help to guide researches and modelling related to transfer of radionuclides to food chain. (authors)

  11. Approach to plant automation with evolving technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has provided support to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to advanced, automated control of new innovative liquid-metal-cooled nuclear power plants. The purpose of this effort is to conduct research that will help to ensure improved operability, reliability, and safety for advanced LMRs. The plan adopted to achieve these program goals in an efficient and timely manner consists of utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art controls technology through close interaction with other national laboratories, universities, industry and utilities. A broad range of applications for the control systems strategies and the design environment developed in the course of this program is likely. A natural evolution of automated control in nuclear power plants is envisioned by ORNL to be a phased transition from today's situation of some analog control at the subsystem level with significant operator interaction to the future capability for completely automated digital control with operator supervision. The technical accomplishments provided by this program will assist the industry to accelerate this transition and provide greater economy and safety. The development of this transition to advanced, automated control system designs is expected to have extensive benefits in reduced operating costs, fewer outages, enhanced safety, improved licensability, and improved public acceptance for commercial nuclear power plants. 24 refs

  12. Approach to plant automation with evolving technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has provided support to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to advanced, automated control of new innovative liquid-metal-cooled nuclear power plants. The purpose of this effort is to conduct research that will help to ensure improved operability, reliability, and safety for advanced LMRs. The plan adopted to achieve these program goals in an efficient and timely manner consists of utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the art controls technology through close interaction with other national laboratories, universities, industry and utilities. A broad range of applications for the control systems strategies and the design environment developed in the course of this program is likely. A natural evolution of automated control in nuclear power plants is envisioned by ORNL to be a phased transition from today's situation of some analog control at the subsystem level with significant operator interaction to the future capability for completely automated digital control with operator supervision. The technical accomplishments provided by this program will assist the industry to accelerate this transition and provide greater economy and safety. The development of this transition to advanced, automated control system designs is expected to have extensive benefits in reduced operating costs, fewer outages, enhanced safety, improved licensability, and improved public acceptance for commercial nuclear power plants

  13. Electricity generation of Maritsa-Iztok coal-fired power plant in Bulgaria and its complex impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrikov, M.; Antonov, A.; Hristov, Hr.

    2001-01-01

    Soil, water and vegetable samples from the region of Maritsa-Iztok Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPP) in Bulgaria have been studied using a large variety of methods for analysis: γ- and neutron activation analysis, γ-spectrometry, radiometry, mass- spectrometry, physicochemical analysis, soil sciences study. Detailed information about the concentration of ecologically important elements in the chain coal bottom ash, fly ashes environment (soil, water, air, vegetation) has been obtained, allowing to estimate the present ecological state of the region. (author)

  14. Experimental investigation on passive heat transfer by long closed two-phase thermosiphons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Claudia; Kulenovic, Rudi; Starflinger, Joerg [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)

    2017-07-15

    The removal of decay heat from spent fuel pools is presently realized by active cooling systems. In case of a station black out, a passive heat removal based on closed two-phase thermosiphons can contribute to the power plant safety. In this paper, the basic laboratory setup for closed two-phase thermosiphons and first experimental results are presented. Depending on the driving temperature difference and the heat input, steady-state and pulsating operation of the thermosiphons are investigated.

  15. Microbial mineralization processes in Antarctic soils and on plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelter, M.

    1991-01-01

    Soil samples and different plant material from the maritime and continental Antarctic were analyzed for their actual and potential respiration by different methods: total CO 2 -evolution, biological oxygen demand and use of 14C-labeled glucose which may serve as a model for dissolved organic carbohydrates. Since these methods are argued to indicate the mineralization of different fractions of the total organic material by different actual populations, a comparison between the data from these techniques is carried out with regard to their contributions of the total organic matter debris in these environments. The part of respired material calculated from 14C-studies may contribute to nearly 90% of the metabolized material. Results show that the individual fractions differ significantly with respect to the parent material. There are several aspects which have to be taken into account when looking at these data: the original content of water; the contents of dissolved and particulate carbohydrates; and, other edaphic factors. Of special interest is the overall respiration of plant material (mainly lichens) which is strongly influenced by the bacterial respiration of dissolved carbohydrates, probably by ongrowing organisms due to their efficiency in using dissolved organic matter. In terms of respiratory activity, the (bacterial) respiration of glucose may contribute to more than 50% of the total CO 2 -evolution. This influences considerably the modeling of overall respiration of plant material in those environments where close interactions between different parts of the system are very important for their life strategy. Further, the bacterial part may be an overlooked part of metabolic rates in Antarctic lichens

  16. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, G. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  17. Dose rate on the environment generated by a gamma irradiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J.

    2011-01-01

    A model for the absorbed dose rate calculation on the surroundings of a gamma irradiation plant is developed. In such plants, a part of the radiation emitted upwards reach the outdoors. The Compton scatterings on the wall of the exhausting pipes through de plant roof and on the outdoors air are modelled. The absorbed dose rate generated by the scattered radiation reaching the outdoors floor is calculated. The results of the models, to be used for the irradiation plant design and for the environmental studies, are showed on tables and graphics. (author) [es

  18. Plant uptake of radiocesium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Lesny, J.; Hornik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction field experiments were conducted on soil contaminated with radiocesium to determine the capacity of autochthonous grasses and weeds to accumulate 137 Cs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of spontaneously growing vegetation as a tool for decontamination of non-agricultural contaminated land. As a test field, the closed monitored area of the radioactive wastewater treatment plant of the Nuclear Power Plant in Jaslovskie Bohunice, Slovakia was used. contamination was irregularly distributed from the level of background to spots with maximal activity up to 900 Bq/g soil. Sequential extraction analysis of soil samples showed the following extractability of radiocesium (as percent of total): water 2 = 0.3-1.1%; 1M CH 3 COONa = 0.3-0.9%; 0.04 M NH 4 Cl (in 25% CH 3 COOH) = 0.9-1.4% and 30% H 2 O 2 - 0.02 M HNO 3 = 4.5-9.0%.Specific radioactivity of the most efficiently bioaccumulating plant species did not exceed 4.0 BqKg -1 (dry weight biomass). These correspond to the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) values up to 44.4x10 -4 BqKg -1 crop, d.w.)/(BqKg -1 soil d.w). Aggregated transfer factor (T ag ) of the average sample of the whole crop harvested from defined area was 0.5x10 -5 (Bqkg -1 d.w. crop)/(Bqm -2 soil). It can be concluded that low mobility of radiocesium in analysed soil type, confirmed by sequential extraction analyses, is the main hindrance for practical application for autochthonous plants as a phytoremediation tool for aged contaminated area of non-cultivated sites. Plant cover can efficiently serve only as a soil surface-stabilising layer, mitigating the migration of radiocesium into the surrounding environment. (author)

  19. Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jouko

    2003-05-01

    Aftercare of closed sanitary landfills in a major environmental problem. Rehabilitation of the landfill with vegetation and reducing leachate production are two issues that must be dealt. For this reason, Finnish Environment Institute has conducted several projects on closed landfills. This research aims at determining the physical and chemical properties of the soils at three closed landfills in Helsinki, Finland. Research was conducted to understand the impact by studying the following properties: Chemical, nutrient metal, gamma and radon analysis of surface soils of three closed landfills in Helsinki area.

  20. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  1. Measurement of Tritium Activity in Plants by Ice Extraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; Ovad, S.; Tubul, Y.; Tsroya, S.; Gonen, R.; Abraham, A.; Weinstein, M.; German, U.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is produced primarily by interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. However, nuclear installations may add significantly tritium to the surroundings, increasing its concentration. The main sources of tritium released by man are linked to the nuclear power cycle: nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or tritium production plants. Tritium is found in the environment mainly as tritiated water, in gaseous or liquid form (HTO, T2O), in the surrounding air and in soil. It accumulates in plants, which may use as a measure to the level of tritium concentration in the environment. The most common routes of tritium uptake from the environment in plants are from atmospheric humidity and by precipitation water which entered the soil. The fraction of tritium bound to the plant tissue is small compared to that present as tritiated water in the plant (from 0.06% to 0.3% for growing crops). The tritiated water uptake is through the roots, as tritiated water from the soil follows a pathway similar to that of ordinary water. As most tritium in plants consists of tritiated water, the measurements of only the tissue free water tritium concentration (as HTO or T2O) gives an accurate estimate of the tritium content in the plant. Analyzing free tritium in biological matrices usually requires using the freeze-drying method to extract the water from the sample, and then measure the water collected in a cold trap with a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). The 'freeze-drying' occurs because of the sublimation of the frozen water inside the plant, that takes place when the temperature is beneath the triple point and the vapour pressure is low. In the temperature range of -5° to -10° C the mechanism that plants use to avoid freezing is drawing of water from the cell protoplasm into the intercellular spaces. Changes in cell membrane permeability allow water to leave the cell and enter the spaces between the cells where it freezes instead of freezing within the

  2. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  3. [Native plant resources to optimize the performances of forest rehabilitation in Mediterranean and tropical environment: some examples of nursing plant species that improve the soil mycorrhizal potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Hafidi, Mohamed; Baohanta, Rondro; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Bâ, Amadou; Galiana, Antoine; Bally, René; Lebrun, Michel; Prin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The overexploitation of natural resources, resulting in an increased need for arable lands by local populations, causes a serious dysfunction in the soil's biological functioning (mineral deficiency, salt stress, etc.). This dysfunction, worsened by the climatic conditions (drought), requires the implementation of ecological engineering strategies allowing the rehabilitation of degraded areas through the restoration of essential ecological services. The first symptoms of weathering processes of soil quality in tropical and Mediterranean environments result in an alteration of the plant cover structure with, in particular, the pauperization of plant species diversity and abundance. This degradation is accompanied by a weakening of soils and an increase of the impact of erosion on the surface layer resulting in reduced fertility of soils in terms of their physicochemical characteristics as well as their biological ones (e.g., soil microbes). Among the microbial components particularly sensitive to erosion, symbiotic microorganisms (rhizobia, Frankia, mycorrhizal fungi) are known to be key components in the main terrestrial biogeochemical cycles (C, N and P). Many studies have shown the importance of the management of these symbiotic microorganisms in rehabilitation and revegetation strategies of degraded environments, but also in improving the productivity of agrosystems. In particular, the selection of symbionts and their inoculation into the soil were strongly encouraged in recent decades. These inoculants were selected not only for their impact on the plant, but also for their ability to persist in the soil at the expense of the residual native microflora. The performance of this technique was thus evaluated on the plant cover, but its impact on soil microbial characteristics was totally ignored. The role of microbial diversity on productivity and stability (resistance, resilience, etc.) of eco- and agrosystems has been identified relatively recently and has led

  4. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  5. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  6. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, K.; Soh, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2007-01-01

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  8. Trihalomethanes formation in marine environment in front of Nuweibaa desalination plant as a result of effluents loaded by chlorine residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes have been identified as the most important disinfection byproducts resulted from using chlorine in desalination plants. Nuweibaa desalination plant was chosen to study their effluents impacts on the marine environment in front of the plant in the coastal area of Gulf of Aqaba. Surface and bottom Water Samples were collected from nine locations in the outfall area of this desalination plant during spring and autumn 2014, and analyzed for water temperature, pH value, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Oxidizible organic matter, Total, fixed and volatile suspended matter, residual chlorine (free and combined and trihalomethanes. High total chlorine dosage discharged from the desalination plant achieved high levels of trihalomethanes in the receiving seawater of the outfall area. It has been estimated that about 14524.65671 kg of BOD, 74123.4 kg of OOM, 166896.4375 kg of total suspended solids, 623.634 kg of free chlorine, 469.21 kg of combined chlorine, 206.64 kg of chloroform and 76.48 kg of bromoform are discharged annually from this plant into the Gulf of Aqaba affecting the marine ecosystems. The results of THMs showed that the two main forms of THMs formed in the receiving seawater were chloroform and bromoform and ranged between (5.09–156.59, (2.82–566.06 μg/L respectively. High pH and High combined chlorine concentrations favored the formation of high concentrations of chloroform.

  9. Plant Survival in a Changing Environment: The Role of Nitric Oxide in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simontacchi, Marcela; Galatro, Andrea; Ramos-Artuso, Facundo; Santa-María, Guillermo E.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant’s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations. Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV) radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant’s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signaling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation. PMID:26617619

  10. NASA's Contributions to Controlled Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    It may come as a surprise, but NASA has been a long-standing sponsor of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) research. This is based on the potential for using plants (crops) for life support systems in space. Through photosynthesis, crops could produce food and oxygen for humans, while removing CO2. In addition, plant transpiration could help purify waste water. NASAs interest in bioregenerative life support dates back to the late 1950s. At that time, much of the testing focused on algae, but over the years moved toward higher plants as CEA techniques improved. Throughout the 1980s and 90s, extensive testing was carried out at different universities to gather horticultural data for a range of crops, including wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, sweet potato, cowpea, rice and more. These studies examined different electric light sources, mineral nutrition, re