WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical workforce skill

  1. A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Geoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, our discussion led us to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the 'stock and flow' approach of much workforce planning activity. Methods Taking a dynamic systems approach, we were able to address the interactions, delays and feedbacks that influence the balance between the major components of health and health care. Results We linked clinical workforce requirements to clinical workforce workload, taking into account the requisite facilities, technologies, other material resources and their funding to support clinical care microsystems; gave recognition to productivity and quality issues; took cognisance of policies, governance and power concerns in the establishment and operation of the health care system; and, going back to the individual, gave due attention to personal behaviour and biology within the socio-political family environment. Conclusion We have produced the broad endogenous systems model of health and health care which will enable human resource planners to operate within real world variables. We are now considering the development of simple, computable national versions of this model.

  2. A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnick, Keith; McDonnell, Geoff

    2010-04-30

    In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, our discussion led us to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the 'stock and flow' approach of much workforce planning activity. Taking a dynamic systems approach, we were able to address the interactions, delays and feedbacks that influence the balance between the major components of health and health care. We linked clinical workforce requirements to clinical workforce workload, taking into account the requisite facilities, technologies, other material resources and their funding to support clinical care microsystems; gave recognition to productivity and quality issues; took cognisance of policies, governance and power concerns in the establishment and operation of the health care system; and, going back to the individual, gave due attention to personal behaviour and biology within the socio-political family environment. We have produced the broad endogenous systems model of health and health care which will enable human resource planners to operate within real world variables. We are now considering the development of simple, computable national versions of this model.

  3. Capacity-building in clinical skills of rehabilitation workforce in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fary Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the prevalence of disability in low-and middle-income countries, the clinical skills of the rehabilitation workforce are not well described. We report health professionals’ perspectives on clinical skills in austere settings and identify context-specific gaps in workforce capacity. Methods: A cross-sectional pilot survey (Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria, Malaysia of health professionals’ working in rehabilitation in hospital and community settings. A situational-analysis survey captured assessment of clinical skills required in various rehabilitation settings. Responses were coded in a line-by-line process, and linked to categories in domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Results: Respondents (n = 532 from Pakistan 248, Nigeria 159, Morocco 93 and Malaysia 32 included the following: physiotherapists (52.8%, nurses (8.8%, speech (5.3% and occupational therapists (8.5%, rehabilitation physicians (3.8%, other doctors (5.5% and prosthetist/orthotists (1.5%. The 10 commonly used clinical skills reported were prescription of: physical activity, medications, transfer-techniques, daily-living activities, patient/carer education, diagnosis/screening, behaviour/cognitive interventions, comprehensive patient-care, referrals, assessments and collaboration. There was significant overlap in skills listed irrespective of profession. Most responses linked with ICF categories in activities/participation and personal factors. Conclusion: The core skills identified reflect general rehabilitation practice and a task-shifting approach, to address shortages of health workers in low-and middle-income countries.

  4. Setting priorities for EU healthcare workforce IT skills competence improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Traver, Vicente; Car, Josip; Zary, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge for healthcare quality improvement is the lack of IT skills and knowledge of healthcare workforce, as well as their ambivalent attitudes toward IT. This article identifies and prioritizes actions needed to improve the IT skills of healthcare workforce across the EU. A total of 46 experts, representing different fields of expertise in healthcare and geolocations, systematically listed and scored actions that would improve IT skills among healthcare workforce. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was used for research priority-setting. The participants evaluated the actions using the following criteria: feasibility, effectiveness, deliverability, and maximum impact on IT skills improvement. The leading priority actions were related to appropriate training, integrating eHealth in curricula, involving healthcare workforce in the eHealth solution development, improving awareness of eHealth, and learning arrangement. As the different professionals' needs are prioritized, healthcare workforce should be actively and continuously included in the development of eHealth solutions.

  5. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L.; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.—Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. PMID:27075242

  6. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. © FASEB.

  7. Strategies for Developing a High-Skilled Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Denny, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the human performance improvement and human resource development task of providing an organization with a skilled workforce. We begin by describing the U.S. demographic trends and the changing job skill requirements that will lead to a shortage of skilled workers and that highlight the importance of considering the various…

  8. Systematic Review to Identify Skill Needs for Agrifood Nanotechnology Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    As nanotechnology continues to advance in food and agriculture, there is the need for pragmatic decisions as to how to prepare the workforce. A comprehensive systematic evidence review (SER) and analysis of the literature to identify skill needs for the emerging agrifood nanotechnology sector and to determine how agricultural education can…

  9. Employers’ View on Problems Related to Workforce Skills and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimplová Lenka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study is to reveal employers’ views on problems related to workforce human capital (skills and qualification. Where do employers themselves view the core of difficulties with ensuring adequately skilled workforce? Do they assign them to technological and organizational changes (a functional concept of job-specific human capital obsolescence, or do they see these problems as a result of other circumstances, such as macro-structural conditions or institutional settings? To answer these questions selected employers in mechanical engineering and information technology sectors in the Czech Republic were interviewed. The results show that the employers see the problems: 1 on the side of workforce – insufficient abilities and skills, exaggerated demands and low motivation; 2 as inadequate capacities and capabilities of the organization itself; 3 at macro-level as institutional shortcomings in the initial educational system and social benefits system. The problems related to workforce skills and qualification cannot be, thus, interpreted only in the functionalist view as job-specific human capital obsolescence, but the formulation of the problems is significantly affected by the institutional framework.

  10. Research Skills for the Future: Research Workforce Under the Spotlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dobozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and training needs of the future research workforce is under the spotlight. In this article, I take up Ulrich and Dash's (2013 somewhat provocative invitation to engage in discussion and debate about current and future research. In my three-tiered response, I first discuss Ulrich and Dash's article, followed by my own observations about the APEC/Deloitte (2010 research report: "Skills and Competencies Needed in the Research Field: Objectives 2020," and finally, I explore, in some detail, challenges of building a twentyfirst-century research workforce.

  11. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  12. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, James F.; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. Methods: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. Results: The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Conclusions: Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. PMID:27566740

  13. Rethinking workforce boundaries: roles, responsibilities and skill mix and readiness for change in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Annie; Nkosana Nyawata, Idah; Stephenson, John; Featherstone, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Title: Rethinking workforce boundaries: roles, responsibilities and skill mix and readiness for change in general practice \\ud The Problem \\ud The last 10 years has seen major changes in the way services are delivered in primary care. Skill mix, has offered many practices real opportunities for doing things differently. As the introduction of advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) and health care assistants (HCAs) into the primary care workforce demonstrate. While workforce redesign has its crit...

  14. Tracking the workforce: the American Society of Clinical Oncology workforce information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, M Kelsey; Kosty, Michael P; Bajorin, Dean F; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Goldstein, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In anticipation of oncologist workforce shortages projected as part of a 2007 study, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) worked with a contractor to create a workforce information system (WIS) to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence. ASCO plans to publish findings annually, reporting on new data and tracking trends over time. THE WIS REPORT IS COMPOSED OF THREE SECTIONS: supply, new entrants, and cancer incidence and prevalence. Tabulations of the number of oncologists in the United States are derived mainly from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Information on fellows and residents in the oncology workforce pipeline come from published sources such as Journal of the American Medical Association. Incidence and prevalence estimates are published by the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute. The WIS reports a total of 13,084 oncologists working in the United States in 2011. Oncologists are defined as those physicians who designate hematology, hematology/oncology, or medical oncology as their specialty. The WIS compares the characteristics of these oncologists with those of all physicians and tracks emerging trends in the physician training pipeline. Observing characteristics of the oncologist workforce over time allows ASCO to identify, prioritize, and evaluate its workforce initiatives. Accessible figures and reports generated by the WIS can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages.

  15. Tracking the Workforce: The American Society of Clinical Oncology Workforce Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, M. Kelsey; Kosty, Michael P.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In anticipation of oncologist workforce shortages projected as part of a 2007 study, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) worked with a contractor to create a workforce information system (WIS) to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence. ASCO plans to publish findings annually, reporting on new data and tracking trends over time. Methods: The WIS report is composed of three sections: supply, new entrants, and cancer incidence and prevalence. Tabulations of the number of oncologists in the United States are derived mainly from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Information on fellows and residents in the oncology workforce pipeline come from published sources such as Journal of the American Medical Association. Incidence and prevalence estimates are published by the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute. Results: The WIS reports a total of 13,084 oncologists working in the United States in 2011. Oncologists are defined as those physicians who designate hematology, hematology/oncology, or medical oncology as their specialty. The WIS compares the characteristics of these oncologists with those of all physicians and tracks emerging trends in the physician training pipeline. Conclusion: Observing characteristics of the oncologist workforce over time allows ASCO to identify, prioritize, and evaluate its workforce initiatives. Accessible figures and reports generated by the WIS can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages. PMID:23633965

  16. Adequacy of the Skilled Workforce in Australia in the Defence Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, P

    2001-01-01

    ...). This TOR is concerned with: "The adequacy of a skilled workforce in Australia particularly in new growth areas such as, though not limited to, financial services, information technology, E-business, education, pharmaceuticals...

  17. Health workforce skill mix and task shifting in low income countries: a review of recent evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auh Erica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workforce needs-based shortages and skill mix imbalances are significant health workforce challenges. Task shifting, defined as delegating tasks to existing or new cadres with either less training or narrowly tailored training, is a potential strategy to address these challenges. This study uses an economics perspective to review the skill mix literature to determine its strength of the evidence, identify gaps in the evidence, and to propose a research agenda. Methods Studies primarily from low-income countries published between 2006 and September 2010 were found using Google Scholar and PubMed. Keywords included terms such as skill mix, task shifting, assistant medical officer, assistant clinical officer, assistant nurse, assistant pharmacist, and community health worker. Thirty-one studies were selected to analyze, based on the strength of evidence. Results First, the studies provide substantial evidence that task shifting is an important policy option to help alleviate workforce shortages and skill mix imbalances. For example, in Mozambique, surgically trained assistant medical officers, who were the key providers in district hospitals, produced similar patient outcomes at a significantly lower cost as compared to physician obstetricians and gynaecologists. Second, although task shifting is promising, it can present its own challenges. For example, a study analyzing task shifting in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa noted quality and safety concerns, professional and institutional resistance, and the need to sustain motivation and performance. Third, most task shifting studies compare the results of the new cadre with the traditional cadre. Studies also need to compare the new cadre's results to the results from the care that would have been provided--if any care at all--had task shifting not occurred. Conclusions Task shifting is a promising policy option to increase the productive efficiency of the delivery of health

  18. A Branch-and-Price algorithm for stable workforce assignments with hierarchical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firat, M.; Briskorn, D.; Laugier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with assigning hierarchically skilled technicians to jobs by considering preferences. We investigate stability definitions in multi-skill workforce assignments stemming from the notion of blocking pairs as stated in the Marriage model of Gale–Shapley. We propose a Branch-and-Price

  19. Career planning for the non-clinical workforce - an opportunity to develop a sustainable workforce in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabie, Jacqueline A; Simms, Jacqueline M

    2017-03-01

    Many health and social care systems worldwide have been developing a variety of navigator and signposting roles to help patients negotiate care through increasingly complex systems and multiple provider agencies. This UK project aims to explore, through a combination of job description review and workshops of stakeholders, the common competencies and features of non-clinical roles. The information is collated to develop common job descriptions at four key levels. These form the basis for a career pathway supported by portfolio-based educational programmes, embracing Apprenticeship Training Programmes. The programmes have the potential to support recruitment and retention of an increasingly skilled workforce to move between traditional health and social care provider boundaries. This offers the opportunity to release clinicians from significant administrative workload and support patients in an integrated care system.

  20. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  1. Preparing the Future Dental Hygiene Workforce: Knowledge, Skills, and Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Jacquelyn L; Maxey, Hannah L; Battani, Kathryn; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Byrd, Tammi O; Brunick, Ann

    2017-09-01

    With the health care delivery system in transition, the way in which oral health care services are delivered in 2040 will inevitably change. To achieve the aims of reduced cost, improved access, and higher quality and to advance population wellness, oral health care will likely become a more integrated part of medical care. An integrated primary care system would better meet the needs of an increasingly diverse and aging U.S. population with uneven access to health care services. By 2040, trends suggest that a smaller proportion of dental hygienists will work in traditional solo dental offices; many more will practice with multidisciplinary health care teams in large-group dental and medical practices and in a variety of non-traditional community settings. This integration will require changes in how dental hygienists are educated. To shape the skill sets, clinical judgment, and knowledge of future practitioners, current dental hygiene curricula must be reexamined, redirected, and enhanced. This article examines some of the factors that are likely to shape the future of dental hygiene practice, considers the strengths and weaknesses of current curricula, and proposes educational changes to prepare dental hygienists for practice in 2040. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  2. Improving and Communicating Workforce Skills: A Regional Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Dee

    2011-01-01

    The demand for improved workplace skills in the U.S. is rapidly rising, and U.S. industries, employees, and educational systems are struggling to respond. This paper describes the Skills Advantage program, an effort led by employers and facilitated by Kirkwood Community College to address regional employment needs. This work-ready certificate…

  3. Developing Appropriate Workforce Skills for Australia's Emerging Digital Economy: Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor; Molla, Alemayehu; Snell, Darryn; Karanasios, Stan; Thomas, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This working paper is the first publication coming out of a project investigating the role of vocational education and training (VET) in developing digital skills in the Australian workforce, using two sectors as case studies--Transport and Logistics, and Public Safety and Correctional Services. The study employs a mixed method approach, combining…

  4. Building an engaged workforce at Cleveland Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrnchak JM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M PatrnchakCleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Employee engagement is widely recognized as a critical factor in organizational performance. This article examines an ongoing cultural development initiative at Cleveland Clinic designed to significantly increase employee engagement. Key components of this initiative include the introduction of serving leadership, new caregiver wellness and recognition programs, “Cleveland Clinic Experience” training focused on the institution’s core mission, and changes in the institutional vocabulary. Since 2008, the results include a dramatic improvement in engagement, as measured by the Gallup Q12 survey, with parallel improvements in patient satisfaction, as measured by the clinic's scores on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS survey. In addition to a discussion of the key components of the clinic’s engagement initiative, the article provides a partial review of the literature focused on employee engagement as well as a summary of “lessons learned” that may serve as a guide for others facing the challenge of increasing employee engagement in large, mature health care institutions.Keywords: health care, employee engagement, culture change, hospital performance, patient satisfaction

  5. A combinatorial approach to multi-skill workforce scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firat, M.; Hurkens, C.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with scheduling complex tasks with an inhomogeneous set of resources. The problem is to assign technicians to tasks with multi-level skill requirements. Here the requirements are merely the presence of a set of technicians that possess the necessary capabilities. An additional

  6. Minding the Gap: Investing in a Skilled Manufacturing Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing is growing and thriving in the United States. Companies are in great need of reliable employees who can communicate well, effectively make decisions, and are interested in long-term careers with opportunity for advancement. Employers have identified a need for a more robust talent pipeline to narrow America's skills gap--a…

  7. Fostering Minerals Workforce Skills of Tomorrow through Education and Training Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Gavin

    The Minerals Council of Australia (MCA), through its Minerals Tertiary Education Council (MTEC), builds capacity in higher education in the core disciplines of mining engineering, metallurgy and minerals geoscience. Over the past fourteen years, this all-of-industry approach in securing the long-term supply of these critical skills (which remain a chronic skills shortage for the Australian minerals industry) through nationally collaborative programs across sixteen Australian universities delivers spectacular and sustainable results for the industry. These unique, world-first programs are built on a healthy platform of dedicated industry funding and in-kind support and forms part of the MCA's broader uninterrupted, sustainable education and training pathway to increase workforce participation, workforce diversity and workforce skills, regardless of the business cycle in the industry. This paper will highlight the origins, iterations and current successful programs of MTEC, including its future vision, and presents a mechanism for industry and academia to collaborate to address future professional skills needs in the minerals industry globally.

  8. The Future Cybersecurity Workforce: Going Beyond Technical Skills for Successful Cyber Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dawson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in writing an article reviewing the current state of cyber education and workforce development is that there is a paucity of quantitative assessment regarding the cognitive aptitudes, work roles, or team organization required by cybersecurity professionals to be successful. In this review, we argue that the people who operate within the cyber domain need a combination of technical skills, domain specific knowledge, and social intelligence to be successful. They, like the networks they operate, must also be reliable, trustworthy, and resilient. Defining the knowledge, skills, attributes, and other characteristics is not as simple as defining a group of technical skills that people can be trained on; the complexity of the cyber domain makes this a unique challenge. There has been little research devoted to exactly what attributes individuals in the cyber domain need. What research does exist places an emphasis on technical and engineering skills while discounting the important social and organizational influences that dictate success or failure in everyday settings. This paper reviews the literature on cyber expertise and cyber workforce development to identify gaps and then argues for the important contribution of social fit in the highly complex and heterogenous cyber workforce. We then identify six assumptions for the future of cybersecurity workforce development, including the requirement for systemic thinkers, team players, a love for continued learning, strong communication ability, a sense of civic duty, and a blend of technical and social skill. Finally, we make recommendations for social and cognitive metrics which may be indicative of future performance in cyber work roles to provide a roadmap for future scholars.

  9. The Future Cybersecurity Workforce: Going Beyond Technical Skills for Successful Cyber Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jessica; Thomson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    One of the challenges in writing an article reviewing the current state of cyber education and workforce development is that there is a paucity of quantitative assessment regarding the cognitive aptitudes, work roles, or team organization required by cybersecurity professionals to be successful. In this review, we argue that the people who operate within the cyber domain need a combination of technical skills, domain specific knowledge, and social intelligence to be successful. They, like the networks they operate, must also be reliable, trustworthy, and resilient. Defining the knowledge, skills, attributes, and other characteristics is not as simple as defining a group of technical skills that people can be trained on; the complexity of the cyber domain makes this a unique challenge. There has been little research devoted to exactly what attributes individuals in the cyber domain need. What research does exist places an emphasis on technical and engineering skills while discounting the important social and organizational influences that dictate success or failure in everyday settings. This paper reviews the literature on cyber expertise and cyber workforce development to identify gaps and then argues for the important contribution of social fit in the highly complex and heterogenous cyber workforce. We then identify six assumptions for the future of cybersecurity workforce development, including the requirement for systemic thinkers, team players, a love for continued learning, strong communication ability, a sense of civic duty, and a blend of technical and social skill. Finally, we make recommendations for social and cognitive metrics which may be indicative of future performance in cyber work roles to provide a roadmap for future scholars.

  10. Growing an emerging energy workforce: forecasting labour demand and gaining access to emerging energy skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs of emerging energies sector in terms of growing an emerging energy workforce, forecasting labour demands and gaining access to emerging energy skills. It will require industrial renewal and innovation and not just selling our resources. It will also require educating ourselves to utilise our own finished products. Conservation is a key element in a sustainable energy future. finally, a market for renewable energy has been established in Canada

  11. Graduate Education for the Future: New Models and Methods for the Clinical and Translational Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. Michelle; Cicutto, Lisa; Gadlin, Howard; Moss, Marc; Tentler, John; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper is the third in a five‐part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline, and it focuses on strategies for enhancing graduate research education to improve skills for interdisciplinary team science. Although some of the most cutting edge science takes place at the borders between disciplines, it is widely perceived that advancements in clinical and translational science are hindered by the “siloed” efforts of researchers who are comfortable working in their separate domains, and reluctant to stray from their own discipline when conducting research. Without appropriate preparation for career success as members and leaders of interdisciplinary teams, talented scientists may choose to remain siloed or to leave careers in clinical and translational science all together, weakening the pipeline and depleting the future biomedical research workforce. To address this threat, it is critical to begin at what is perhaps the most formative moment for academics: graduate training. This paper focuses on designs for graduate education, and contrasts the methods and outcomes from traditional educational approaches with those skills perceived as essential for the workforce of the future, including the capacity for research collaboration that crosses disciplinary boundaries. PMID:26643714

  12. IT Workforce: Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    principles and steps associated with workforce planning that agencies can utilize in their efforts to assess and address IT skill gaps. See GAO-04-39...As another example, our prior review of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency’s Modernize and Innovate the Delivery of...IT WORKFORCE Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps

  13. Female and Male Interns and Their Mentors? Perception of Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cathy W.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Brush, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Participants in this study were student interns and mentors taking part in the 2012, 10- week Langley Aerospace Research Student Scholars (LARSS) summer internship program in Hampton, Virginia. The study examined mentors and student interns' ratings of their preparedness in basic knowledge and skills. The study focused on three primary areas: 1) overall evaluation of knowledge and skills by mentors and interns; 2) male and female interns' perceptions of their own skills in these key areas; and 3) mentors' perceptions of their student interns' knowledge and skills in the same areas by gender. Overall mentors were more positive about their interns' improvement in 12 of 17 areas assessed than were the student interns. There were no significant gender differences in how mentors rated their male and female interns' abilities in these workforce skills, but there were four key areas where female interns rated their own abilities lower than did their male peers: analytical thinking, computational skills, computer skills and technical skills. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Workforce Skills in High School Graduates: Self Report of High School Seniors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Hedrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of workforce competencies at the conclusion of high school graduation are discussed in this paper. Researchers sampled over 875 graduating seniors from 16 high schools within six counties throughout Northwestern Ohio. Results highlight future career and educational goals of these young people and a self-report of skills based on the SCANS competencies and basic foundation skills. When evaluating Foundation Skills of Personal Qualities, Basic Skills, and Thinking Skills, students indicated highest ratings in Personal Qualities and overall lowest ratings in Basic Skills. A series of five Workforce Competencies were also evaluated, including Using Resources, Using Information, Using Technology, Interpersonal Skills, and Working in Systems. Highest ratings for Competencies were reported in Interpersonal Skills and lowest in Using Resources.

  15. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  16. Characterizing the Business Skills of the Public Health Workforce: Practical Implications From the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Julie; Sznol, Joshua; Lee, David

    2015-01-01

    Public health financial competencies are often overlooked or underrepresented in public health training programs. These skills are important for public health workforce members who are involved in managing resources and strategic planning and have been defined as key competencies by several national entities. To characterize business skills among state health agency employees and examine self-reported skill levels and their association with job satisfaction, worksite training and development opportunities, and annual salary. A cross-sectional survey, the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), of state health agency central office employees was conducted in 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for job classification, supervisory status, years of public health practice, annual compensation, educational attainment, geographic region, and sociodemographic status, were used to assess the relationship between business skills and training environment and job satisfaction. Linear regression was used to correlate business skills and annual compensation. A total of 10,246 state health agency staff completed a Web-based survey. Self-reported proficiency in business skills, job satisfaction, opportunities for training, and annual salary. The workforce reported high levels of proficiency in applying quality improvement concepts and managing change (67.5% and 69.2%, respectively). Half of the respondents reported proficiency in budget skills (49.3%). Participants who were proficient in applying quality improvement concepts were significantly more likely to report job satisfaction (OR = 1.27). A supportive training environment was significantly associated with business competencies (range of OR = 1.08-1.11). Managing change (β = .15) and budget skill proficiency (β = .37) were significantly associated with increased yearly compensation. Public health workers who self-report proficiency with business skills report increased job

  17. Preparing clinical laboratory science students with teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Training clinical laboratory science (CLS) students in techniques of preparation and delivery of an instructional unit is an important component of all CLS education programs and required by the national accrediting agency. Participants of this study included students admitted to the CLS program at Northern Illinois University and enrolled in the teaching course offered once a year between the years of 1997 and 2009. Courses on the topic of "teaching" may be regarded by CLS students as unnecessary. However, entry level practitioners are being recruited to serve as clinical instructors soon after entering the workforce. Evaluation of the data collected indicates that students are better prepared to complete tasks related to instruction of a topic after having an opportunity to study and practice skills of teaching. Mentoring CLS students toward the career role of clinical instructor or professor is important to maintaining the workforce.

  18. Perception of Workforce Skills Needed Among Public Health Professionals in Local Health Departments: Staff Versus Top Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn; Robin, Nathalie; Newman, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To examine how top executives and staff from local health departments (LHDs) perceive the importance of various types of workforce skills, and to assess the differences in the perception of the importance of these workforce skills between these 2 groups and among LHDs serving different-sized jurisdictions. Data for this study were drawn from the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) and the 2015 Forces of Change survey. While PH WINS collected data from LHD staff, the Forces of Change survey was administered to LHD top executives. Ratings of perceived importance of workforce skills from LHD staff and top executives were compared. Overall, LHD workers at all levels believe that core competencies are important for their jobs. The perceived importance of these skills differed somewhat across supervisory level (nonsupervisory staff vs supervisory staff vs top executives). Communication was rated as one of the most important skills by all groups. For top executives, ensuring that programs are managed within budget constraints was the most important skill for their employees. However, this skill was rated much lower among staff. Policy development skills were rated to be of lowest importance by LHD leaders and staff. LHD leaders and staff agree on the relative importance of some competencies, although they also show some clear differences in the relative importance that they place on other competencies. It is essential to strengthen the communication between public health leaders and staff regarding the importance of workforce skills. More investigation is needed to assess whether and how gaps in staff competencies are addressed in the workforce development strategies.

  19. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  20. Developing clinical piano improvisation skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Teaching piano improvisation skills for use in clinical work relies on the development of a range of musical techniques and therapeutic methods that are combined and integrated. Simple musical styles of playing such as melody dialogues, two chord accompaniments, walking basses (tonal and atonal), 6...... skilful way of helping a client or group of clients move, or develop their musical expression (Wigram & Bonde 2002 pp 278-279). Frame-working is a method that offers a musical structure to the music of a client. This structure could have the goal of enhancing the music aesthetically, or guiding the client...

  1. Dementia skills for all: a core competency framework for the workforce in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaroucha, Anna; Benbow, Susan Mary; Kingston, Paul; Le Mesurier, Nick

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing health and social care in the United Kingdom is the projected increase in the number of older people who require dementia care. The National Dementia Strategy (Department of Health, 2009) emphasizes the critical need for a skilled workforce in all aspects of dementia care. In the West Midlands, the Strategic Health Authority commissioned a project to develop a set of generic core competencies that would guide a competency based curriculum to meet the demands for improved dementia training and education. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant frameworks to assist with this work. The core competency framework produced and the methods used for the development of the framework are presented and discussed.

  2. Workforce Skills and Innovation: An Overview of Major Themes in the Literature. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the main approaches, debates and evidence in the literature on the role of workforce skills in the innovation process in developed economies. It draws on multiple sources including the innovation studies discipline, neoclassical Human Capital theory, institutionalist labour market studies and the work organisation…

  3. Regional health workforce monitoring as governance innovation: a German model to coordinate sectoral demand, skill mix and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, E; Lauxen, O; Larsen, C

    2016-11-28

    As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance. The monitor applies an approach from the European Network on Regional Labour Market Monitoring to the health workforce. The novel aspect of this model is an integrated, procedural approach that promotes a 'learning system' of governance based on three interconnected pillars: mixed methods and bottom-up data collection, strong stakeholder involvement with complex communication tools and shared decision- and policy-making. Selected empirical examples illustrate the approach and the tools focusing on two aspects: the connection between sectoral, occupational and mobility data to analyse skill/qualification mixes and the supply-demand matches and the connection between monitoring and stakeholder-driven policy. Regional health workforce monitoring can promote effective governance in high-income countries like Germany with overall high density of health workers but maldistribution of staff and skills. The regional stakeholder networks are cost-effective and easily accessible and might therefore be appealing also to low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Multigenerational Challenges: Team-Building for Positive Clinical Workforce Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jill M; Everly, Marcee; Bauer, Renee

    2016-05-31

    Patient acuity in hospital settings continues to increase, and there is greater emphasis on patient outcomes. The current nursing workforce is comprised of four distinct generational cohorts that include veterans, baby boomers, millennials, and generation Xers. Each group has unique characteristics that add complexity to the workforce and this can add challenges to providing optimal patient care. Team building is one strategy to increase mutual understanding, communication, and respect, and thus potentially improve patient outcomes. In this article, we first briefly define generational cohorts by characteristics, and discuss differing expectations for work/life balance and potential negative outcomes. Our discussion offers team building strategies for positive outcomes, a case scenario, and concludes with resources for team building and organizational opportunities.

  5. A 2009 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W Howell

    2010-06-01

    A survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce was carried out in 2009 following on from a similar survey in 2006. 621 positions (equivalent to 575 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these 330 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 45 EFT were in radiology physics, 42 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 159 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 29 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 3 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  6. The Workforce Task Force report: clinical implications for neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, William D; Vatz, Kenneth A; Griggs, Robert C; Pedley, Timothy

    2013-07-30

    The American Academy of Neurology Workforce Task Force (WFTF) report predicts a future shortfall of neurologists in the United States. The WFTF data also suggest that for most states, the current demand for neurologist services already exceeds the supply, and by 2025 the demand for neurologists will be even higher. This future demand is fueled by the aging of the US population, the higher health care utilization rates of neurologic services, and by a greater number of patients gaining access to the health care system due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Uncertainties in health care delivery and patient access exist due to looming concerns about further Medicare reimbursement cuts. This uncertainty is set against a backdrop of Congressional volatility on a variety of issues, including the repeal of the sustainable growth rate for physician reimbursement. The impact of these US health care changes on the neurology workforce, future increasing demands, reimbursement, and alternative health care delivery models including accountable care organizations, nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and teleneurology for both stroke and general neurology are discussed. The data lead to the conclusion that neurologists will need to play an even larger role in caring for the aging US population by 2025. We propose solutions to increase the availability of neurologic services in the future and provide other ways of meeting the anticipated increased demand for neurologic care.

  7. Dialogue as skill: training a health professions workforce that can talk about race and racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-García, Jann L; Harrell, Steven; García, Jorge A; Gizzi, Elio; Simms-Mackey, Pamela

    2014-09-01

    Efforts in the field of multicultural education for the health professions have focused on increasing trainees' knowledge base and awareness of other cultures, and on teaching technical communication skills in cross-cultural encounters. Yet to be adequately addressed in training are profound issues of racial bias and the often awkward challenge of cross-racial dialogue, both of which likely play some part in well-documented racial disparities in health care encounters. We seek to establish the need for the skill of dialoguing explicitly with patients, colleagues, and others about race and racism and its implications for patient well-being, for clinical practice, and for the ongoing personal and professional development of health care professionals. We present evidence establishing the need to go beyond training in interview skills that efficiently "extract" relevant cultural and clinical information from patients. This evidence includes concepts from social psychology that include implicit bias, explicit bias, and aversive racism. Aiming to connect the dots of diverse literatures, we believe health professions educators and institutional leaders can play a pivotal role in reducing racial disparities in health care encounters by actively promoting, nurturing, and participating in this dialogue, modeling its value as an indispensable skill and institutional priority.

  8. An Engineering Technology Skills Framework that Reflects Workforce Needs on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagroves, S.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI) is an interdisciplinary effort to improve science/engineering education in the state of Hawai'i, and to train a diverse population of local students in the skills needed for a high-tech economy. In 2009, the AWI undertook a survey of industry partners on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i to develop an engineering technology skills framework that will guide curriculum development at the U. of Hawai'i - Maui (formerly Maui Community College). This engineering skills framework builds directly on past engineering-education developments within the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program, and draws on curriculum development frameworks and engineering skills standards from the literature. Coupling that previous work with reviews of past Akamai Internship projects and information from previous conversations with the local high-tech community led to a structured-interview format where engineers and managers could contribute meaningful commentary to this framework. By incorporating these local high-tech companies' needs for entry-level engineers and technicians, a skills framework emerges that is unique and illuminating. Two surprising features arise in this framework: (1) "technician-like" skills of making existing technology work are on similar footing with "engineer-like" skills of creating new technology; in fact, both engineers and technicians at these workplaces use both sets of skills; and (2) project management skills are emphasized by employers even for entry-level positions.

  9. Improving efficiency of clinical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Bjørck, Sebastian; Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation.......The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation....

  10. Improvement of Clinical Skills through Pharmaceutical Education and Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Professors and teaching staff in the field of pharmaceutical sciences should devote themselves to staying abreast of relevant education and research. Similarly those in clinical pharmacies should contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical research and the development of next generation pharmacists and pharmaceuticals. It is thought that those who work in clinical pharmacies should improve their own skills and expertise in problem-finding and -solving, i.e., "clinical skills". They should be keen to learn new standard treatments based on the latest drug information, and should try to be in a position where collecting clinical information is readily possible. In the case of pharmacists in hospitals and pharmacies, they are able to aim at improving their clinical skills simply through performing their pharmaceutical duties. On the other hand, when a pharmaceutical educator aims to improve clinical skills at a level comparable to those of clinical pharmacists, it is necessary to devote or set aside considerable time for pharmacist duties, in addition to teaching, which may result in a shortage of time for hands-on clinical practice and/or in a decline in the quality of education and research. This could be a nightmare for teaching staff in clinical pharmacy who aim to take part in such activities. Nonetheless, I believe that teaching staff in the clinical pharmacy area could improve his/her clinical skills through actively engaging in education and research. In this review, I would like to introduce topics on such possibilities from my own experiences.

  11. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  12. Enhancing clinical skills education: University of Virginia School of Medicine's Clerkship Clinical Skills Workshop Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Eugene C; Payne, Nancy J; Bradley, Elizabeth B; Maughan, Karen L; Heald, Evan B; Wang, Xin Qun

    2007-07-01

    In 1993, the University of Virginia School of Medicine began a clinical skills workshop program in an effort to improve the preparation of all clerkship students to participate in clinical care. This program involved the teaching of selected basic clinical skills by interested faculty to small groups of third-year medical students. Over the past 14 years, the number of workshops has increased from 11 to 31, and they now involve clerkship faculty from family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Workshops include a variety of common skills from the communication, physical examination, and clinical test and procedure domains such as pediatric phone triage, shoulder examination, ECG interpretation, and suturing. Workshop sessions allow students to practice skills on each other, with standardized patients, or with models, with the goal of improving competence and confidence in the performance of basic clinical skills. Students receive direct feedback from faculty on their skill performance. The style and content of these workshops are guided by an explicit set of educational criteria.A formal evaluation process ensures that faculty receive regular feedback from student evaluation comments so that adherence to workshop criteria is continuously reinforced. Student evaluations confirm that these workshops meet their skill-learning needs. Preliminary outcome measures suggest that workshop teaching can be linked to student assessment data and may improve students' skill performance. This program represents a work-in-progress toward the goal of providing a more comprehensive and developmental clinical skills curriculum in the school of medicine.

  13. Setting pass scores for clinical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Keh-Min

    2008-12-01

    In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  14. Setting Pass Scores for Clinical Skills Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  15. Improvisation skills for clinical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    Creativity and flexibility are the hallmarks of effective improvisational technique. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that providing musical structure can be significant in enabling clients with poor communication, reciprocity and resistance to engagement. This workshop will offer some...... practical experiences of music making that utilise techniques. Creating a musical frame using an idiom or style, developing the ability to improvise in the style of a song or existing piece, developing the ability to introduce brief or lengthier transitions (Wigram 2004), and building up an improvisation...... based on a short theme or ‘leit-motif’ will all be included in the workshop activities, using both piano, and other instruments. While interventions utilising improvisational music therapy should never be driven by clinical procedures, applying therapeutic method, and also recognising method...

  16. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Communication (SS1). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on communication is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  17. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Team Building (SS2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  18. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Problem Solving (SS3). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on problem solving is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  19. Clinical skill development for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, D J; Murphy, C M; Carter, B L

    1996-09-01

    The importance of establishing clinical pharmacy services in the community cannot be understated in light of current challenges to the traditional dispensing role as the primary service of the community pharmacist. Advancements in automated dispensing technology and declining prescription fee reimbursement are rapidly forcing pharmacists to seek alternative sources of revenue. Providing pharmaceutical care is a viable option to increase customer loyalty job satisfaction, and reimbursement. To support the development of clinical services, academic institutions are forming partnerships with individual community practitioners to overcome perceived educational and training barriers. The authors describe the design and development of two unique clinical skill development programs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. This paper also outlines the patient focused services that the participants have established upon completing the training. These programs successfully enhanced participants' therapeutic knowledge base and facilitated development of the clinical skills necessary for direct patient care.

  20. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  1. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886

  2. A survey of clinical nursing skills in intellectual disability nursing

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study the question asked is: what clinical nursing skills are predominantly used in intellectual disability nursing? A survey of the nursing needs of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability in both residential and community units was undertaken with a questionnaire.The measure was a Likert design scale ranging across: skills used more than once a day, skills used daily, skills used weekly, skills used monthly, skills very rarely used, and skills never used.The results o...

  3. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  4. Omani Graduates’ English-language Communication Skills in the Workforce: Employees’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al-Mahrooqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an exploratory investigation into the importance that employed Omani school and college graduates believe English-language communication skills have for their workplaces and the difficulties they face when using these skills in a work environment.  The study involved the administration of a 4-part questionnaire to 321 participants who had graduated from Omani schools and colleges and who were employed in organizations around the country.  Results indicate that participants identified almost all skills and skill areas featured in the questionnaire as either vital or essential for their jobs, even though they claimed that they largely lacked the English language skills, or linguistic competencies, necessary to successfully use these in work situations.  They also reported struggling with dealing with customers and colleagues from different sociocultural backgrounds in English.  Implications of these findings for education and employment in Oman are discussed.

  5. Tough Choices or Tough Times: The Report of the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. Revised and Expanded Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Tough Choices or Tough Times," the report of the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce, shows how the dynamics of the global economy will lead to a steady decline in the American standard of living if this country does not undertake the first thorough overhaul of its education system in a century. This new revised and expanded…

  6. Clinical Skills Assessment in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Clinical skills remain fundamental to the practice of medicine and form a core component of the professional identity of the physician. However, evidence exists to suggest that the practice of some clinical skills is declining, particularly in the United States. A decline in practice of any skill can lead to a decline in its teaching and assessment, with further decline in practice as a result. Consequently, assessment not only drives learning of clinical skills, but their practice. This article summarizes contemporary approaches to clinical skills assessment that, if more widely adopted, could support the maintenance and reinvigoration of bedside clinical skills. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of clinical communication skills between two groups of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a comprehensive clinical model and a “golden thread” for communication skills in the ... sity, South Africa, based on the primary ..... Planning: shared decision making ... Explanation and planning. Incorporate clinical reasoning skills. Develop.

  8. Omani Graduates’ English-language Communication Skills in the Workforce: Employees’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma Al-Mahrooqi; Christopher James Denman

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an exploratory investigation into the importance that employed Omani school and college graduates believe English-language communication skills have for their workplaces and the difficulties they face when using these skills in a work environment.  The study involved the administration of a 4-part questionnaire to 321 participants who had graduated from Omani schools and colleges and who were employed in organizations around the country.  Results indicate that participants ...

  9. Why Commodity Booms Have Not (Yet? Boosted Human Capital: Bolivia’s Struggle to Create a Skilled Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Brugger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Do windfalls from the extractive sector help developing countries invest in human capital? To date, empirical studies remain inconclusive. Using Bolivia as a case study, this chapter examines the specific political-economic dynamics that led the country to increase spending on education yet at the same time failed to build a skilled workforce. Overall, the study finds that while the mining sector continued to seek unskilled, cheap labour, the capital-intensive hydrocarbon sector, for its part, developed on-the-job training programmes. Meanwhile, education policies failed to anticipate evolving demand from the labour market. As a result, vocational training suffered, a situation further compounded by efforts of powerful groups in the education sector to protect their own, somewhat narrow interests, at the expense of educational achievements. It concludes that the rise of private education and popular skills-based training programmes cannot substitute for development of a functional vocational training system, capable of supporting the country’s ambition to develop a world-class lithium processing industry with linkages in strategic sectors.

  10. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  11. Perceived Workforce Challenges among Clinical Social Workers in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney Ferguson, Stacy; Randall, Jill; Dabney, Jane; Kalbacker, Marion E; Boyle, Nancy; Thao, Viengneesee; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Denzen, Ellen M

    2018-05-01

    Clinical social workers are psychosocial care experts who provide interventions that aim to address the emotional, relational, financial, and logistical challenges that arise throughout the hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) treatment and recovery process. Interventions that contribute to better patient outcomes can include cognitive behavioral therapy and counseling for adaptation to illness, family planning for 24/7 caregiver availability and strategies to support patient activities of daily living, instruction on guided imagery and relaxation techniques for symptom management and to decrease anxiety, psychoeducation on the treatment trajectory, and linkage with financial resources. A Social Work Workforce Group (SWG) was established through the System Capacity Initiative, led by the National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, to characterize the current social work workforce capacity and challenges. The SWG conducted a web-based survey of HCT clinical social workers in the United States. The response rate was 57% (n = 90), representing 76 transplant centers. Survey results indicated that the clinical social worker role and scope of practice varies significantly between centers; less than half of respondents reported that their clinical social work expertise was used to its fullest potential. With an estimated 3-fold increase in HCT patient volume by 2020, the need for specialized psychosocial health services will increase. The SWG makes recommendations to build capacity for the psychosocial care of HCT patients and to more fully integrate the social worker as a core member of the HCT team. The SWG created a Blood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) Clinical Social Worker role description that can be used by transplant centers to educate healthcare professionals, benchmark utilization of clinical social workers, and improve comprehensive psychosocial health programs. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by

  12. The Connection between Employee Basic Skills & Productivity. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Brief, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The experience of a number of specific local workplace programs indicates a definite connection between the provision of employee basic skills programs and increased worker productivity. One Tennessee company, for example, reports a 95 percent drop in costs resulting from worker mistakes and a doubling of worker productivity since the company…

  13. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  14. Patient attributes warranting consideration in clinical practice guidelines, health workforce planning and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal Leonie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs to meet their broad objective of enhancing the quality of care and supporting improved patient outcomes, they must address the needs of diverse patient populations. We set out to explore the patient attributes that are likely to demand a unique approach to the management of chronic disease, and which are crucial if evidence or services planning is to reflect clinic populations. These were incorporated into a new conceptual framework; using diabetes mellitus as an exemplar. Methods The patient attributes that informed the framework were identified from CPGs, the diabetes literature, an expert academic panel, and two cross-disciplinary panels; and agreed upon using a modified nominal group technique. Results Full consensus was reached on twenty-four attributes. These factors fell into one of three themes: (1 type/stage of disease, (2 morbid events, and (3 factors impacting on capacity to self-care. These three themes were incorporated in a convenient way in the workforce evidence-based (WEB model. Conclusions While biomedical factors are frequently recognised in published clinical practice guidelines, little attention is given to attributes influencing a person's capacity to self-care. Paying explicit attention to predictable threats to effective self-care in clinical practice guidelines, by drawing on the WEB model, may assist in refinements that would address observed disparities in health outcomes across socio-economic groups. The WEB model also provides a framework to inform clinical training, and health services and workforce planning and research; including the assessment of healthcare needs, and the allocation of healthcare resources.

  15. Building allied health workforce capacity: a strategic approach to workforce innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Lisa; Davis, Annette; Elliott, Andrea L; Terrill, Desiree; Austin, Nicole; Philip, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify areas where allied health assistants (AHAs) are not working to their full scope of practice in order to improve the effectiveness of the allied health workforce. Qualitative data collected via focus groups identified suitable AHA tasks and a quantitative survey with allied health professionals (AHPs) measured the magnitude of work the current AHP workforce spends undertaking these tasks. Quantification survey results indicate that Victoria's AHP workforce spends up to 17% of time undertaking tasks that could be delegated to an AHA who has relevant training and adequate supervision. Over half this time is spent on clinical tasks. The skills of AHAs are not being optimally utilised. Significant opportunity exists to reform the current allied health workforce. Such reform should result in increased capacity of the workforce to meet future demands.

  16. Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Sputum in a Gold Mining Workforce in South Africa: An Observational, Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L. van Halsema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, detected by liquid more than solid culture in sputum specimens from a South African mining workforce, is uncertain. We aimed to describe the current spectrum and relevance of NTM in this population. Methods. An observational study including individuals with sputum NTM isolates, recruited at workforce tuberculosis screening and routine clinics. Symptom questionnaires were administered at the time of sputum collection and clinical records and chest radiographs reviewed retrospectively. Results. Of 232 individuals included (228 (98% male, median age 44 years, M. gordonae (60 individuals, M. kansasii (50, and M. avium complex (MAC: 38 were the commonest species. Of 38 MAC isolates, only 2 (5.3% were from smear-positive sputum specimens and 30/38 grew in liquid but not solid culture. MAC was especially prevalent among symptomatic, HIV-positive individuals. HIV prevalence was high: 57/74 (77% among those tested. No differences were found in probability of death or medical separation by NTM species. Conclusions. M. gordonae, M. kansasii, and MAC were the commonest NTM among miners with suspected tuberculosis, with most MAC from smear-negative specimens in liquid culture only. HIV testing and identification of key pathogenic NTM in this setting are essential to ensure optimal treatment.

  17. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015: Report of the AAP/CNS Joint Taskforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter B; Bale, James F; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M; Gilbert, Donald L; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly

    2016-09-27

    More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Building leadership skills and promoting workforce development: evaluation data collected from public health professionals in the field of maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroelinger, Charlan D; Kasehagen, Laurin; Barradas, Danielle T; 'Ali, Zarinah

    2012-12-01

    Professional development, including training and leadership skill building, is important for maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiologists. Current workforce development and training opportunities vary, but lack an emphasis on linking leadership competencies with MCH epidemiology. This paper describes efforts at the annual MCH Epidemiology Conference (the "Conference") to promote leadership activities and workforce development, and recommendations to enhance professional development. An evaluation of attendee opinions on Conference workforce development activities was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 Conferences (70 and 66 % response rates, respectively). Frequencies and percentages were calculated overall and by attendee profession. Qualitative responses to questions regarding workforce and professional development were classified by theme in 2009, and a categorical question was developed for the 2010 evaluation. A combined 38 % of Conference attendees in 2009 and 2010 were MCH epidemiologists and 62 % were other MCH professionals. Attendees recommended more support and access to training, mentoring, and resources including job opportunities. Continuing education (41 %), special knowledge and skills-building training (51 %), and development of online resources for training (57 %) were highly recommended by attendees. Career (47 %) and leadership (49 %) mentoring by senior-level professionals in the field were also highly recommended. Promotion of leadership can be achieved by integrating the concept of leadership into the Conference itself; by publishing and disseminating MCH epidemiologic research in scientific, program, and policy settings; and by communicating the importance of epidemiologic findings to stakeholders and other non-scientific audiences.

  19. Formative assessment of GP trainees' clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Begg, Drummond

    2012-03-01

    Clinical skill assessment (CSA) has been an integral part of the Royal College of General Practitioners' membership examination (MRCGP) since 2008. It is an expensive, high-stakes examination with first time pass rates ranging from 76.4 to 81.3. In this paper we describe the South East Scotland Deanery, NHS Education Scotland, pilot of a formative clinical skills assessment (fCSA) using the principles of formative assessment and OSCE. The purpose of the study was to assess the acceptability of the fCSA and to examine whether trainees, identified during the fCSA as 'at risk of failing the MRCGP CSA exam', are more likely to fail the MRCGP CSA exam later on in the year. Trainees were assessed in four clinical skills stations under exam conditions. After each station they were given verbal feedback and subsequently both trainee and their trainer received written feedback. We assessed the value of the exercise through written feedback from trainees and trainers. Each trainee's performance in fCSA was triangulated with trainer assessment to identify 'flagged trainees'. We compared flagged and non-flagged trainees' performance in MRCGP CSA. Both trainees and trainers highly rated the fCSA. Overall 97% of non-flagged trainees have passed the RCGP CSA exam by May of that year in comparison to 80% of flagged trainees who have passed the RCGP CSA (P = 0.005). Trainers and trainees rated the fCSA as excellent and useful. We were able to demonstrate that the fCSA can be used to identify those trainees likely to fail the RCGP CSA. Contrary to reservations about the potential to demoralise trainees, the fCSA was viewed as a useful and a positive experience by both trainees and trainers. In addition, we suggest that feedback from fCSA was useful in triggering appropriate educational interventions. Early intervention with trainees who are predicted to fail the CSA has the potential to reduce deaneries overall fail rate. Preventing one trainee failure could save over £30 000.

  20. A Model for Evaluating Student Clinical Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Fiel, Nicholas J.

    1979-01-01

    A long-range plan to evaluate medical students' physical examination skills was undertaken at the Ingham Family Medical Clinic at Michigan State University. The development of the psychomotor skills evaluation model to evaluate the skill of blood pressure measurement, tests of the model's reliability, and the use of the model are described. (JMD)

  1. Undergraduate Information Literacy Instruction Is Not Enough to Prepare Junior Doctors for Evidence Based Practice. A Review of: Cullen, R., Clark, M., & Esson, R. (2011. Evidence-based information-seeking skills of junior doctors entering the workforce: An evaluation of the impact of information literacy training during pre-clinical years. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 28(2, 119-129. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2011.00933.x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Howe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if junior doctorsentering the workforce retain the informationliteracy skills they learned as undergraduates.Design – Structured interviews andobservations.Setting – Wellington Medical School of theUniversity of Otago in New Zealand. Medicinein New Zealand is an undergraduate program.Subjects – Thirty-eight University of Otagostudents who were starting their fourth year ofundergraduate medical training between 1994and 2004. At the time of this study, thestudents had graduated and were a number ofyears into advanced training for theirspeciality, i.e., junior doctors. The participantsrepresented five cohorts, each having receiveda different level of information literacyinstruction as undergraduates. Cohort 1, withthe most years in clinical practice at the time ofthe study, received no formal informationliteracy instruction as undergraduates. Cohorts2 to 5 received information literacy instructionin their fourth undergraduate year. The focusof instruction for cohorts 2 and 3 was ondeveloping an effective search strategy,whereas the instruction for cohorts 4 and 5focused more on the critical appraisal ofarticles. Methods – In 2008 and 2009, the authors contacted cohort graduates. Two medical librarians from the Wellington Medical Library interviewed and observed participants to establish their level of information literacy. The librarians asked an initial six questions to determine how much participants remembered of their undergraduate information literacy instruction, how they search for clinical information, what databases they use, how they evaluate information, and if they have had any formal or informal information literacy instruction since graduating. For question seven, participants described a recent situation in which they searched for clinical information relating to a given patient. For question eight, participants rated their own skill level as “no skills”, “some skills”, or “highly skilled

  2. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills through Clinical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varutharaju, Elengovan; Ratnavadivel, Nagendralingan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to explore, describe and analyse the design and implementation of clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool in bridging the deficiency of higher order thinking skills among para-medical students, and to make recommendations on incorporating clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool to enhance thinking skills and align the…

  3. Collaborative learning of clinical skills in health professions education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M.; Ringsted, Charlotte V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Why: Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature...... suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. When and for whom: The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined...... above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition...

  4. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2013-03-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based education has many significant advantages and will be further developed and applied.

  5. The UK Public Health Skills and Career Framework--could it help to make public health the business of every workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jenny; Rao, Mala; Walker, Karen

    2008-06-01

    There is growing recognition of the impact of the wider determinants of health and health inequalities, and an acknowledgement that addressing these root causes of ill health requires public health to be everyone's business and responsibility. Therefore, equipping the whole of the public health workforce and a wide range of other disciplines with the knowledge and skills to have a positive influence on health is a priority. The UK is implementing a competence-based skills framework that addresses this dual need. The aim of this paper is to describe how the UK Public Health Skills and Career Framework was developed, and to invite discussion on its potential usefulness as a tool for facilitating a shared approach to strengthening public health competence within and across countries.

  6. A 2012 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H

    2013-06-01

    A survey of the medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce in Australia and New Zealand was carried out in 2012 following on from similar surveys in 2009 and 2006. 761 positions (equivalent to 736 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these, 428 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 63 EFT were in radiology physics, 49 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 150 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 46 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 6 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  7. Dental student attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Carly T

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement.

  8. Utility of an Equine Clinical Skills Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce W; Danielson, Jared A

    Recent publications have revealed inadequacies in the veterinary training of future equine practitioners. To help address this problem, a 2-week Equine Clinical Skills course was designed and implemented to provide fourth-year veterinary students with opportunities to have hands-on experience with common equine clinical skills using live animals and cadavers. Alumni and employers of alumni were surveyed to determine whether or not students participating in the course were more competent performing clinical skills during their first year post-graduation than those who had not participated in the course. Students who participated in the course were also surveyed before and after completing the course to determine whether or not their self-assessed skills improved during the course. Alumni who had taken the course rated their ability to perform the clinical skills more highly than alumni who had not taken the course. Similarly, students participating in the course indicated that they were significantly more able to perform the clinical skills after the course than when it began. Employers did not indicate a difference between the clinical skills of those who had taken the course and those who had not. Because this study involved a limited number of respondents from one institution, further studies should be conducted to replicate these findings and determine their generalizability.

  9. Clinical Skills Verification, Formative Feedback, and Psychiatry Residency Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalack, Gregory W.; Jibson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the implementation of Clinical Skills Verification (CSV) in their program as an in-training assessment intended primarily to provide formative feedback to trainees, strengthen the supervisory experience, identify the need for remediation of interviewing skills, and secondarily to demonstrating resident competence…

  10. Perceptions of clinical safety climate of the multicultural nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; Gardner, Glenn; McCarthy, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the safety climate perceptions of the multicultural nursing workforce, and to investigate the influence of diversity of the multicultural nursing workforce on clinical safety in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. Working in a multicultural environment is challenging. Each culture has its own unique characteristics and dimensions that shape the language, lifestyle, beliefs, values, customs, traditions, and patterns of behaviour, which expatriate nurses must come to terms with. However, cultural diversity in the health care environment can potentially affect the quality of care and patient safety. A mixed-method case study (survey, interview and document analysis) was employed. A primary study phase entailed the administration of the Safety Climate Survey (SCS). A population sampling strategy was used and 319 nurses participated, yielding a 76.8% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test) were used to analyse survey data. The data revealed the nurses' perceptions of the clinical safety climate in this multicultural environment was unsafe, with a mean score of 3.9 out of 5. No significant difference was found between the age groups, years of nursing experience and their perceptions of the safety climate in this context. A significant difference was observed between the national background categories of nurses and perceptions of safety climate. Cultural diversity within the nursing workforce could have a significant influence on perceptions of clinical safety. These findings have the potential to inform policy and practice related to cultural diversity in Saudi Arabia.

  11. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  12. Knowledge and skills of cancer clinical trials nurses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen; White, Kate; Johnson, Catherine; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-05-01

      This paper is a report of the development and testing of a questionnaire measuring knowledge and skills of cancer clinical trials nurse in Australia.   The role of cancer clinical trials nurse, widely acknowledged as an integral member of the clinical research team, has evolved in recent years. Elements of the clinical trials nurse role in cancer have previously been described. To evaluate specific cancer clinical trials nurse educational and training needs, the development of a valid and reliable tool is required.   In 2009, a study was conducted in three stages. Stage I: questionnaire development and pilot testing; stage II: focus group; stage III: national survey. Internal consistency reliability testing and multi-trait analysis of item convergent/divergent validity were employed. Regression analysis was used to identify predictors of clinical trials nurse knowledge and skills.   The national survey was a 48-item questionnaire, measuring six clinical trial knowledge and seven skills sub-scales. Of 61 respondents, 90% were women, with mean age 43 years, 19 years as a Registered Nurse and 5 years as a cancer clinical trials nurse. Self-reported knowledge and skills were satisfactory to good. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha: knowledge = 0·98; skills = 0·90). Criteria for item convergent/divergent validity were met. Number of years as cancer clinical trials nurse was positively related to self-reported knowledge and skills.   Preliminary data suggest that the national survey is reliable and valid. Data have contributed to better understanding the knowledge and skills of cancer clinical trials nurse in Australia and development of a postgraduate course in clinical trials. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Exploration of an allied health workforce redesign model: quantifying the work of allied health assistants in a community workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Lisa; Davis, Annette; Milne, Sarah; Terrill, Desiree; Philip, Kathleen

    2017-07-25

    setting. It provides evidence that this workforce redesign model enables data to be collected to identify the opportunity for redesign in the allied health workforce in this clinical setting. What are the implications for practitioners? There are career pathways and opportunity for growth in the allied health assistant workforce in the community and ambulatory health care setting. These opportunities will need to be coupled with the development of supervision and delegation skills in the allied health professional workforce to ensure that an integrated workforce is built to provide optimal clinical care in the community and ambulatory setting.

  14. Nurse cannulation: introducing an advanced clinical skill.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hoctor, Bridget

    2012-01-31

    Many patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) require therapy delivered by cannula. Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Tipperary, used to run a system in which many patients had to endure two invasive procedures: on arrival their blood was taken by nurses and later they were cannulated by doctors. To reduce the number of procedures, ED nurses initiated a project to extend their skills to include cannulation. The new system of nurse cannulation at triage has also helped reduce waiting times.

  15. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  16. Building America's Job Skills with Effective Workforce Programs: A Training Strategy to Raise Wages and Increase Work Opportunities. Strategy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Michael; Looney, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of effective training and workforce development programs as part of a broader strategy to increase the competitiveness of American workers. Although rapid technological change and increasing global competition have delivered great economic benefits to the U.S. economy overall, the development of new and more…

  17. [Feedback in relation to training of practical clinical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.S.; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Feedback has been identified as an essential component of motor learning. However, feedback principles derived from motor learning theories cannot uncritically be applied to clinical skills training because this knowledge is based primarily on the study of very simple motor skills. Research...... into feedback in relation to clinical skills training is currently limited. Theories on motor learning can serve as the basis for designing research in this domain, especially the importance of including retention tests when measuring permanent learning outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/27...

  18. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education.

  19. Peer-assisted learning model enhances clinical clerk's procedural skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Chang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Yang, Ling-Yu; Chen, Chen-Huan; Yang, Ying-Ying; Chang, Ching-Chih; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lee, Wei-Shin; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2018-05-17

    Failure to transfer procedural skills learned in a laboratory to the bedside is commonly due to a lack of peer support/stimulation. A digital platform (Facebook) allows new clinical clerks to share experiences and tips that help augment their procedural skills in a peer-assisted learning/teaching method. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the innovation of using the digital platform to support the transfer of laboratory-trained procedural skills in the clinical units. Volunteer clinical clerks (n = 44) were enrolled into the peer-assisted learning (PAL) group, which was characterized by the peer-assisted learning of procedural skills during their final 3-month clinical clerkship block. Other clerks (n = 51) did not join the procedural skills-specific Facebook group and served as the self-directed learning regular group. The participants in both the PAL and regular groups completed pre- and post-intervention self-assessments for general self-assessed efficiency ratings (GSER) and skills specific self-assessed efficiency ratings (SSSER) for performing vein puncture, intravenous (IV) catheter and nasogastric (NG) tube insertion. Finally, all clerks received the post-intervention 3-station Objective Structured Clinical Skills Examination (OSCE) to test their proficiency for the abovementioned three procedural skills. Higher cumulative numbers of vein punctures, IV catheter insertions and NG tube insertions at the bedside were carried out by the PAL group than the regular group. A greater improvement in GSERs and SSSERs for medical procedures was found in the PAL group than in the regular group. The PAL group obtained higher procedural skills scores in the post-intervention OSCEs than the regular group. Our study suggested that the implementation of a procedural skill-specific digital platform effectively helps clerks to transfer laboratory-trained procedural skills into the clinical units. In comparison with the regular self-directed learning

  20. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, skills laboratories or “skills labs”, i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills.In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II an outline of the underlying idea and (III an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV the training method’s effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training.

  1. Clinical skills temporal degradation assessment in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph; Viscusi, Rebecca; Ratesic, Adam; Johnstone, Cameron; Kelley, Ross; Tegethoff, Angela M; Bates, Jessica; Situ-Lacasse, Elaine H; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Medical students' ability to learn clinical procedures and competently apply these skills is an essential component of medical education. Complex skills with limited opportunity for practice have been shown to degrade without continued refresher training. To our knowledge there is no evidence that objectively evaluates temporal degradation of clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal retention of clinical skills among third year medical students. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at four separate time intervals in the cadaver laboratory at a public medical school. Forty-five novice third year medical students were evaluated for retention of skills in the following three procedures: pigtail thoracostomy, femoral line placement, and endotracheal intubation. Prior to the start of third-year medical clerkships, medical students participated in a two-hour didactic session designed to teach clinically relevant materials including the procedures. Prior to the start of their respective surgery clerkships, students were asked to perform the same three procedures and were evaluated by trained emergency medicine and surgery faculty for retention rates, using three validated checklists. Students were then reassessed at six week intervals in four separate groups based on the start date of their respective surgical clerkships. We compared the evaluation results between students tested one week after training and those tested at three later dates for statistically significant differences in score distribution using a one-tailed Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric rank-sum analysis. Retention rates were shown to have a statistically significant decline between six and 12 weeks for all three procedural skills. In the instruction of medical students, skill degradation should be considered when teaching complex technical skills. Based on the statistically significant decline in procedural skills noted

  2. Clinical skills: cardiac rhythm recognition and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Joanna

    With technological advances, changes in provision of healthcare services and increasing pressure on critical care services, ward patients' severity of illness is ever increasing. As such, nurses need to develop their skills and knowledge to care for their client group. Competency in cardiac rhythm monitoring is beneficial to identify changes in cardiac status, assess response to treatment, diagnosis and post-surgical monitoring. This paper describes the basic anatomy and physiology of the heart and its conduction system, and explains a simple and easy to remember process of analysing cardiac rhythms (Resuscitation Council UK, 2000) that can be used in first-line assessment to assist healthcare practitioners in providing care to their patients.

  3. How does teaching clinical skills influence instructors' professional behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamani N

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: "Introduction to Clinical Medicine" in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is an initiative in which general practitioners work as instructors and have the opportunity to experience teaching in addition to clinical practice. Since teaching, affects both teacher and students, this study aims to assess the influence of teaching clinical skills on the instructors' psychological, social and professional behaviour. Methods: This was performed as a qualitative study. The research population consisted of instructors of “Introduction to Clinical Medicine” who were all general practitioners and acted as facilitator in small groups working on physical examination and case discussion. The data collecting tool was a semi-structured interview which was recorded on the tape. Then, the interviews were transcribed and confirmed by interviewees at the end. 10 instructors were interviewed. The data were analysed according to Colaizzi model. Results: After coding the data to 38 main subjects, they were classified into three main categories including professional, psychological and social effects. The influence of teaching on professional performance included performing a thorough and correct physical examination, taking a detailed and correct history, increasing decision making ability and increasing professional knowledge. Some of the psychological effects were increasing selfconfidence, job satisfaction and morale. The social effects of teaching were increasing social contacts, having a relationship with an academic environment and having a respectful job. Conclusion: Considering the positive effects of teaching on instructors, teaching clinical skills by general practitioners can increase general practitioners knowledge and clinical skills and improve their morale. It is recommended to train general practitioners both for teaching skills and clinical skills and consider this, as an opportunity for physicians’ continuing

  4. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The workforce composition of young firms and product innovation - complementarities in the skills of founders and their early employees

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bettina; Murmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which complementarities between technical and business skills of founders and employees matter for the generation of market novelties by new ventures. Using data about German start-ups, we find that there are no complementarities between technical and business skills within the group of founders, but that there are significant complementarities between technically trained founders and employees who have business skills. This suggests that the innovation potenti...

  6. Introducing Physician Assistants into the Irish Healthcare System. An Integrated Clinical Workforce Reconfiguration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Okereke, Emeka

    2011-01-01

    The Irish health system is facing a unique and unprecedented workforce challenge with acute shortage of Non-Consultant Hospital Doctors (NCHDs) threatening to undermine the overall health service delivery system. Ireland‟s requirement to comply with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) aimed at regulating the working hours of NCHDs, lack of sufficient funding due to economic recession, changes in immigration rules, absence of structured training programmes for most junior doctors and de...

  7. Attitudes of Portuguese medical residents' towards clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elizabete; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-08-01

    To explore the attitudes and perceptions of Portuguese residents towards Clinical Communication Skills (CCS) and the need for complementary training. 78 medical residents responded to an on-line questionnaire which comprised demographic data, open-ended questions and a Portuguese version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Residents gave significantly higher scores (Pcommunication skills in general, compared to CSAS2 (attitudes towards the teaching/learning process of CCS). Residents doing their residency training in other parts of the country, other than the north, reveal a higher perception of insufficient training (72.7% vs. 38.7%, P=0.036). Residents showed more positive attitudes towards communication skills than towards the teaching/learning process. They admit to need more training in CCS in their residency year and highlight that the clinical cycle of undergraduate education should integrate these topics. Content analysis indicates that residents' perceptions are context-influenced. Integration of CCS in the undergraduate education, enhanced during post-graduate training. Training of clinical faculty and supervisors/tutors and the role that stakeholders have to play in order to promote continuous training in CCS; encourage patient-centeredness and reflective practice, as to facilitate transfer of acquired skills to clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Workforce Development : Matching Education Systems to Workforce Needs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Equipping national workforces with job-relevant skills is a continuing challenge, and mismatches are a present concern. Many school graduates cannot find jobs commensurate with their education and training. Employers complain of difficulty in filling vacancies and bemoan the scarcity of soft skills for boosting productivity. More broadly, skills constraints make it difficult for companies ...

  9. Integration of Health Coaching Concepts and Skills into Clinical Practice Among VHA Providers: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David A; Thompson, Kirsten; Atwood, Katharine A; Abadi, Melissa H; Rychener, David L; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2018-01-01

    Although studies of health coaching for behavior change in chronic disease prevention and management are increasing, to date no studies have reported on what concepts and skills providers integrate into their clinical practice following participation in health coaching courses. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess Veterans Health Administration (VHA) providers' perceptions of the individual-level and system-level changes they observed after participating with colleagues in a 6-day Whole Health Coaching course held in 8 VHA medical centers nationwide. Data for this study were from the follow-up survey conducted with participants 2 to 3 months after completing the training. A total of 142 responses about individual-level changes and 99 responses about system-level changes were analyzed using content analysis. Eight primary themes emerged regarding individual changes, including increased emphasis on Veterans' values, increased use of listening and other specific health coaching skills in their clinical role, and adding health coaching to their clinical practice.Four primary themes emerged regarding system-level changes, including leadership support, increased staff awareness/support/learning and sharing, increased use of health coaching skills or tools within the facility, and organizational changes demonstrating a more engaged workforce, such as new work groups being formed or existing groups becoming more active. Findings suggest that VHA providers who participate in health coaching trainings do perceive positive changes within themselves and their organizations. Health coaching courses that emphasize patient-centered care and promote patient-provider partnerships likely have positive effects beyond the individual participants that can be used to promote desired organizational change.

  10. Providing specialist clinical skills in soft tissue and intra-articular injection through a postgraduate masters module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kay; Waterfield, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    Current philosophy and policy changes in the National Health Service are encouraging healthcare practitioners to extend their clinical skills to create a more patient-centred approach thus allowing patients to be seen in a timely and more appropriate manner. This often requires further development of the practitioners' skills and knowledge. One approach to achieve this is through collaboration between employers and educational providers to ensure that educational experience is not only evidence based but also responsive to the needs of the current and future workforce. A postgraduate module was developed to raise critical and evaluative skills, as well as the technical skills of practitioners using injections in the management of joint and soft tissue pathology, while developing a professional responsibility towards injection practice. The module emphasized learning though experience by contextualizing the theoretical aspects of the module and by its student centred assessments. Further strengths of this module are that it has utilized academic and clinical expertise and knowledge to enable clinicians to gain additional skills and the multidisciplinary approach engendered good working practice Overall the module was evaluated positively by both tutors and students and not only met its aims but also addressed the current professional and policy issues around continuing professional development. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Teaching perceptual skills in clinical diagnostics using digital media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Scheiter, K., & Jarodzka, H. (2011, May). Teaching perceptual skills in clinical diagnostics using digital media. Presentation at the 2nd International Conference “Research in Medical Education”: Shaping diamonds from bench to bedside, Universität Tübingen.

  12. Building consensus on clinical procedural skills for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The development of registrar training as part of the newly created speciality of family medicine in South Africa requires the development of a national consensus on the clinical procedural skills outcomes that should be expected of training programmes. Methods: This study utilized a Delphi technique to ...

  13. The Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience: building communication skills in the clinical reasoning context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopasek, Lyuba; Kelly, Kevin V; Bylund, Carma L; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Storey-Johnson, Carol

    2014-07-01

    Students are rarely taught communication skills in the context of clinical reasoning training. The purpose of this project was to combine the teaching of communication skills using SPs with clinical reasoning exercises in a Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience (GOSCE) to study feasibility of the approach, the effect on learners' self-efficacy and attitude toward learning communication skills, and the effect of providing multiple sources of immediate, collaborative feedback. GOSCE sessions were piloted in Pediatrics and Medicine clerkships with students assessing their own performance and receiving formative feedback on communication skills from peers, standardized patients (SPs), and faculty. The sessions were evaluated using a retrospective pre/post-training questionnaire rating changes in self-efficacy and attitudes, and the value of the feedback. Results indicate a positive impact on attitudes toward learning communication skills and self-efficacy regarding communication in the clinical setting. Also, learners considered feedback by peers, SPs, and faculty valuable in each GOSCE. The GOSCE is an efficient and learner-centered method to attend to multiple goals of teaching communication skills, clinical reasoning, self-assessment, and giving feedback in a formative setting. The GOSCE is a low-resource, feasible strategy for experiential learning in communication skills and clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  15. The impact of residency programs on new nurse graduates' clinical decision-making and leadership skills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Dossary, Reem; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2014-06-01

    Health care institutions have adapted residency programs to help new graduate nurses to become fully competent and transition from a student nurse to an independent practicing nurse and a bedside leader. The study's aim is to review the literature on the impact of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making and leadership skills. An electronic search was conducted between 1980 and 2013 using databases of the scientific literature in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane EPOC, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature database guide (CINAHL), and PsychInfo using a range of keywords. Information gathered was evaluated for relevance. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were used in this systematic review. In several studies considered in this review, residency programs were developed to improve new graduates skills and promote their transition into the nursing workforce. In fact, the transition programs reduced turnover in that first year of practice and promoted professional growth of the new graduate such as hand-on nursing skills, clinical decision-making and leadership skills, satisfaction, and retention. There is a need for effective residency programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent and effective patient care. © 2013.

  16. Feedback on students' clinical reasoning skills during fieldwork education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marianne; Mårtensson, Lena

    2015-08-01

    Feedback on clinical reasoning skills during fieldwork education is regarded as vital in occupational therapy students' professional development. The nature of supervisors' feedback however, could be confirmative and/or corrective and corrective feedback could be with or without suggestions on how to improve. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of supervisors' feedback on final-year occupational therapy students' clinical reasoning skills through comparing the nature of feedback with the students' subsequent clinical reasoning ability. A mixed-method approach with a convergent parallel design was used combining the collection and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. From focus groups and interviews with students, data were collected and analysed qualitatively to determine how the students experienced the feedback they received from their supervisors. By quantitatively comparing the final practical exam grades with the nature of the feedback, their fieldwork End-of-Term grades and average academic performance it became possible to merge the results for comparison and interpretation. Students' clinical reasoning skills seem to be improved through corrective feedback if accompanied by suggestions on how to improve, irrespective of their average academic performance. Supervisors were inclined to underrate high performing students and overrate lower performing students. Students who obtained higher grades in the final practical examinations received more corrective feedback with suggestions on how to improve from their supervisors. Confirmative feedback alone may not be sufficient for improving the clinical reasoning skills of students. © 2015 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Methods and Tools to Align Curriculum to the Skills and Competencies Needed by the Workforce - an Example from Geospatial Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial science and technology (GST) including geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems and mobile applications, are valuable tools for geoscientists and students learning to become geoscientists. GST allows the user to analyze data spatially and temporarily and then visualize the data and outcomes in multiple formats (digital, web and paper). GST has evolved rapidly and it has been difficult to create effective curriculum as few guidelines existed to help educators. In 2010, the US Department of Labor (DoL), in collaboration with the National Geospatial Center of Excellence (GeoTech Center), a National Science Foundation supported grant, approved the Geospatial Technology Competency Mode (GTCM). The GTCM was developed and vetted with industry experts and provided the structure and example competencies needed across the industry. While the GTCM was helpful, a more detailed list of skills and competencies needed to be identified in order to build appropriate curriculum. The GeoTech Center carried out multiple DACUM events to identify the skills and competencies needed by entry-level workers. DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) is a job analysis process whereby expert workers are convened to describe what they do for a specific occupation. The outcomes from multiple DACUMs were combined into a MetaDACUM and reviewed by hundreds of GST professionals. This provided a list of more than 320 skills and competencies needed by the workforce. The GeoTech Center then held multiple workshops across the U.S. where more than 100 educators knowledgeable in teaching GST parsed the list into Model Courses and a Model Certificate Program. During this process, tools were developed that helped educators define which competency should be included in a specific course and the depth of instruction for that competency. This presentation will provide details about the process, methodology and tools used to create the Models and suggest how they can be used

  18. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school stud...

  19. Gaps in the existing public health informatics training programs: a challenge to the development of a skilled global workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Perin, Douglas Marcel Puricelli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore public health informatics (PHI) training programs that currently exist to meet the growing demand for a trained global workforce. We used several search engines, scientific databases, and the websites of informatics organizations; sources included PubMed, Google, the American Medical Informatics Organization, and the International Medical Informatics Organization. The search was conducted from May to July 2011 and from January to February 2012 using key words such as informatics, public health informatics, or biomedical informatics along with academic programs, training, certificate, graduate programs, or postgraduate programs. Course titles and catalog descriptions were gathered from the program or institution websites. Variables included PHI program categories, location and mode of delivery, program credits, and costs. Each course was then categorized based on its title and description as available on the Internet. Finally, we matched course titles and descriptions with the competencies for PHIs determined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Descriptive analysis was performed to report means and frequency distributions for continuous and categorical variables. Stratified analysis was performed to explore average credits and cost per credit among both the public and private institutions. Fifteen PHI programs were identified across 13 different institutions, the majority of which were US-based. The average number of credits and the associated costs required to obtain PHI training were much higher in private as compared to public institutions. The study results suggest that a need for online contextual and cost-effective PHI training programs exists to address the growing needs of professionals worldwide who are using technology to improve public health in their respective countries.

  20. Structured assessment of microsurgery skills in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, WoanYi; Niranjan, Niri; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2010-08-01

    Microsurgery is an essential component in plastic surgery training. Competence has become an important issue in current surgical practice and training. The complexity of microsurgery requires detailed assessment and feedback on skills components. This article proposes a method of Structured Assessment of Microsurgery Skills (SAMS) in a clinical setting. Three types of assessment (i.e., modified Global Rating Score, errors list and summative rating) were incorporated to develop the SAMS method. Clinical anastomoses were recorded on videos using a digital microscope system and were rated by three consultants independently and in a blinded fashion. Fifteen clinical cases of microvascular anastomoses performed by trainees and a consultant microsurgeon were assessed using SAMS. The consultant had consistently the highest scores. Construct validity was also demonstrated by improvement of SAMS scores of microsurgery trainees. The overall inter-rater reliability was strong (alpha=0.78). The SAMS method provides both formative and summative assessment of microsurgery skills. It is demonstrated to be a valid, reliable and feasible assessment tool of operating room performance to provide systematic and comprehensive feedback as part of the learning cycle. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical supervisors' perceived needs for teaching communication skills in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, N Junod; Sommer, J; Hudelson, P; Demaurex, F; Luthy, C; Louis-Simonet, M; Nendaz, M; De Grave, W; Dolmans, D; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2009-07-01

    Lack of faculty training is often cited as the main obstacle to post-graduate teaching in communication skills. To explore clinical supervisors' needs and perceptions regarding their role as communication skills trainers. Four focus group discussions were conducted with clinical supervisors from two in-patient and one out-patient medical services from the Geneva University Hospitals. Focus groups were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in a thematic way using Maxqda software for qualitative data analysis. Clinical supervisors said that they frequently addressed communication issues with residents but tended to intervene as rescuers, clinicians or coaches rather than as formal instructors. They felt their own training did not prepare them to teach communication skills. Other barriers to teach communication skills include lack of time, competing demands, lack of interest and experience on the part of residents, and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. Respondents expressed a desire for experiential and reflective training in a work-based setting and emphasised the need for a non-judgmental learning atmosphere. Results suggest that organisational priorities, culture and climate strongly influence the degree to which clinical supervisors may feel comfortable to teach communication skills to residents. Attention must be given to these contextual factors in the development of an effective communication skills teaching program for clinical supervisors.

  2. Clinical history and physical examination skills - A requirement for radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly A.; Lancaster, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Radiographer's roles have evolved with their scope broadening over the last 20 years culminating in the development of advanced and consultant posts. Yet one development has not been embraced, despite being inherent in medicine and a common extension of nurse and other allied health professionals' roles, is that of clinical assessment. This article explores the evolving role of the radiographer and discusses whether this should include skills in clinical history taking and physical examination. Issues for education and development will be addressed together with examples of current and potential roles

  3. Instructional scaffolding to improve students' skills in evaluating clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Stefani; Dominguez, Karen D; Troutman, William G; Bond, Rucha; Cone, Catherine

    2011-05-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an activity to teach pharmacy students to critically evaluate clinical literature using instructional scaffolding and a Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric. The literature evaluation activity centered on a single clinical research article and involved individual, small group, and large group instruction, with carefully structured, evidence-based scaffolds and support materials centered around 3 educational themes: (1) the reader's awareness of text organization, (2) contextual/background information and vocabulary, and (3) questioning, prompting, and self-monitoring (metacognition). Students initially read the article, scored it using the rubric, and wrote an evaluation. Students then worked individually using a worksheet to identify and define 4 to 5 vocabulary/concept knowledge gaps. They then worked in small groups and as a class to further improve their skills. Finally, they assessed the same article using the rubric and writing a second evaluation. Students' rubric scores for the article decreased significantly from a mean pre-activity score of 76.7% to a post-activity score of 61.7%, indicating that their skills in identifying weaknesses in the article's study design had improved. Use of instructional scaffolding in the form of vocabulary supports and the Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric improved students' ability to critically evaluate a clinical study compared to lecture-based coursework alone.

  4. Effect of Objective Structured Clinical Examination on Nursing Students' Clinical Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Mousavizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the daily increasing changes in clinical training approaches, the necessity of using new evaluation methods in proportion with these approaches is also becoming more and more obvious for measuring all of the cognitive, emotional and psychomotor dimensions of students. The present study was designed and conducted for reviewing the effect of objective structured clinical examination method on the clinical skills of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental study, 48 nursing students have participated that were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group students were evaluated at the end of educational period of their clinical skills and principles course using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. The OSCE included five core skills in this course: assessing and fulfilling patients’ basic needs, dressing up, injectable drug therapy, noninjectable drug therapy, infection control. The control group students were evaluated using the routine method. Both groups of students were followed up in the next semester and were compared in terms of learning enhancement in these five skills. Evaluation of procedures was based on valid and reliable check-lists made by the researcher. Results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square, independent and paired T tests. The mean score of the final evaluation in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P= 0.000. Final evaluation scores of the intervention group students showed a better performance than their previous semester (P= 0.000, while the final evaluation scores of the control group students showed a lack of progress in their skills (P<0.05. It seems that this evaluation method also is a support for students' learning and resulted in improvement of clinical skills among them. Accordingly, it is recommended that nursing education centers apply this method to assess students

  5. Effects of basic clinical skills training on objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Jana; Schäfer, Sybille; Roth, Christiane; Schellberg, Dieter; Friedman Ben-David, Miriam; Nikendei, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The aim of curriculum reform in medical education is to improve students' clinical and communication skills. However, there are contradicting results regarding the effectiveness of such reforms. A study of internal medicine students was carried out using a static group design. The experimental group consisted of 77 students participating in 7 sessions of communication training, 7 sessions of skills-laboratory training and 7 sessions of bedside-teaching, each lasting 1.5 hours. The control group of 66 students from the traditional curriculum participated in equally as many sessions but was offered only bedside teaching. Students' cognitive and practical skills performance was assessed using Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) testing and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), delivered by examiners blind to group membership. The experimental group performed significantly better on the OSCE than did the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the groups did not differ on the MCQ test (P < 0.15). This indicates that specific training in communication and basic clinical skills enabled students to perform better in an OSCE, whereas its effects on knowledge did not differ from those of the traditional curriculum. Curriculum reform promoting communication and basic clinical skills are effective and lead to an improved performance in history taking and physical examination skills.

  6. Proceedings of an Infonex conference on finding, hiring and developing skilled staff in the energy, oil and gas industry : long-term solutions for building a strong and enduring workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Presentations focused on a range of issues dealing with the labour force profile and the projected supply and demand of current students and new graduates. The issue of First Nations, new immigrants and a foreign skill base was also addressed with reference to the challenges of tapping into this trained skilled resource. Lessons learned from the Canadian Electricity Association in 2004 were reviewed along with measures taken by the Alberta government in improving the supply of skilled workers for the energy industry in that province. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) and the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) were both highlighted as being proactive in developing collaborative targeted training and development programs that provide the energy industry with a skilled workforce. Options for recruiting and retaining skilled workers were also presented. The conference featured 12 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  7. Forensic psychiatric nursing: skills and competencies: II clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T; Coyle, D; Lovell, A

    2008-03-01

    This study reports on research undertaken to identify the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses working in secure psychiatric services in the UK. The rationale for this research is the lack of clarity in the role definition of nurses working in these environments and the specific content that may underscore the curriculum for training forensic nurses. Over 3300 questionnaires were distributed to forensic psychiatric nurses, non-forensic psychiatric nurses and other disciplines and information obtained on (1) the perceived clinical problems that give forensic nurses the most difficulty; (2) the skills best suited to overcome those problems; and (3) the priority aspects of clinical nursing care that needs to be developed. A 35% response rate was obtained with 1019 forensic psychiatric nurses, 110 non-forensic psychiatric nurses and 43 other disciplines. The results highlighted a 'top ten' list of main problems with possible solutions and main areas for development. The conclusions drawn include a focus on skills and competencies regarding the management of personality disorders and the management of violence and aggression.

  8. [Assessment of clinical observation skills of last year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, O; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Grateau, G; Ranque, B

    2015-05-01

    Clinical examination skills are poorly evaluated by theoretical tests. We observed the clinical examination of real patients by 6th year medical students. Four internists involved in teaching activities defined 11 clinical examination items, with two objective performance criteria each. The students were evaluated in two internal medicine departments during the rotation preceding or following their national graduation test. Scores by item and by criterion and an overall score were calculated and correlated with their rank at the national graduation test. Thirty-two students were evaluated in one department and 18 in the other; each evaluation lasted approximately 30 minutes. The results were similar in both departments. Only 2 items got a score over 75% in this students' sample (acute respiratory failure, peripheral pulses); 4 items were satisfied at less than 50% (lymph nodes, right heart failure, liver failure, and attention). The mean overall score was 6.5/11 (standard deviation 1.5). National rankings were good (median 1605/8001, interquartile 453-3036) but uncorrelated with the global score (Spearman coefficient -0.13; P=0.39). Bedside evaluation of the students reveals substantial deficiencies, a few months or weeks before taking their position as residents. Several elementary skills are mastered by a minority of them (search for an asterixis, distended jugular veins, deep tendon reflexes), even among those successful at the national graduation test. Bedside evaluation of clinical examination skills should be more systematically performed. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  10. Clinical program leadership: skill requirements for contemporary leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    With knowledge of these leadership requirements and a shrinking base of experienced managers, healthcare organizations and professional societies have little choice in their approach to prepare for the leadership development challenges of the future. Organizations will focus leadership development, training, and continuing management education on integrating business tools and skills into clinical program management. The management requirements for clinical programs will continue to grow in complexity and the number of qualified managers will continue to diminish, New approaches to solving this shortage will evolve. Professional, forprofit companies, healthcare provider organizations, and academic programs will develop clinical program management training tracks. Organizations that create solutions to this management imperative will maintain their competitive edge in the challenging times that will greet the industry in the future.

  11. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  12. Forum on Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    APPEL Mission: To support NASA's mission by promoting individual, team, and organizational excellence in program/project management and engineering through the application of learning strategies, methods, models, and tools. Goals: a) Provide a common frame of reference for NASA s technical workforce. b) Provide and enhance critical job skills. c) Support engineering, program and project teams. d) Promote organizational learning across the agency. e) Supplement formal educational programs.

  13. Changes in communication skills of clinical residents through psychiatric training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutani, Motoki; Takahashi, Megumi; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify whether the communication skills (CS) of clinical residents change before and after psychiatric training and, if so, what factors are related to the change. The 44 clinical residents who agreed to participate in this study were provided with an originally developed self-accomplished questionnaire survey on CS (communication skills questionnaire [CSQ]) and a generally used questionnaire on self-esteem, anxiety, and depressive mood considered to be related to CS at the start and end of a 2-month psychiatric training session. Statistical analysis was conducted for the 34 residents who completed both questionnaires. The CSQ score (t[32]: -2.17, P self-esteem and negatively with anxiety and depressive tendency. The amount of change in assertive CS score showed a weakly positive correlation with self-esteem. The results suggested that CS, including assertive CS and cooperative CS, were improved by the psychiatric training. Increasing self-esteem and reducing the tendency toward depression and anxiety are considered to be useful for further improving CS. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. YouTube as a source of clinical skills education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ian; Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Haigh, Carol

    2013-12-01

    YouTube may be viewed as a great 'time waster' but a significant amount of educative material can be found if the user is carefully selective. Interestingly, the growth of educational video on YouTube is closely associated to video viewership which increased from 22% to 38% between 2007 and 2009. This paper describes the findings of a study undertaken to assess the quality of clinical skills videos available on the video sharing site YouTube. This study evaluated 100 YouTube sites, approximately 1500 min or 25 h worth of content across 10 common clinical skill related topics. In consultation with novice practitioners, nurses in the first year of their university diploma programme, we identified ten common clinical skills that typically students would explore in more detail or would wish to revisit outside of the formal teaching environment. For each of these topics, we viewed each of the first 10 videos on the YouTube website. The videos were evaluated using a modification of the criteria outlined in Evaluation of Video Media Guideline. The topic with the biggest number of both postings and views was cardiopulmonary resuscitation and more specialist, nursing or health related topics such as managing a syringe driver or undertaking a pain assessment had less video content and lower numbers of viewers. Only one video out of the 100 analysed could be categorised as 'good' and that was the one in the Cannulation section. 60% of the CPR and venepuncture content was categorised as 'satisfactory'. There is a clear need for the quality of YouTube videos to be subjected to a rigorous evaluation. Lecturers should be more proactive in recommending suitable YouTube material as supplementary learning materials after appropriately checking for quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solving the Puzzle of Recruitment and Retention-Strategies for Building a Robust Clinical and Translational Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Should we use philosophy to teach clinical communication skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Gerber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.

  17. Should we use philosophy to teach clinical communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Berna

    2016-11-16

    Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession's (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor-patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient's psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.

  18. Should we use philosophy to teach clinical communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication. PMID:28155325

  19. Step Up-Not On-The Step 2 Clinical Skills Exam: Directors of Clinical Skills Courses (DOCS) Oppose Ending Step 2 CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, David J; Milan, Felise B; Cassese, Todd; Farnan, Jeanne M; Madigosky, Wendy S; Massie, F Stanford; Mendez, Paul; Obadia, Sharon; Ovitsh, Robin K; Silvestri, Ronald; Uchida, Toshiko; Daniel, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    Recently, a student-initiated movement to end the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills and the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation has gained momentum. These are the only national licensing examinations designed to assess clinical skills competence in the stepwise process through which physicians gain licensure and certification. Therefore, the movement to end these examinations and the ensuing debate merit careful consideration. The authors, elected representatives of the Directors of Clinical Skills Courses, an organization comprising clinical skills educators in the United States and beyond, believe abolishing the national clinical skills examinations would have a major negative impact on the clinical skills training of medical students, and that forfeiting a national clinical skills competency standard has the potential to diminish the quality of care provided to patients. In this Perspective, the authors offer important additional background information, outline key concerns regarding the consequences of ending these national clinical skills examinations, and provide recommendations for moving forward: reducing the costs for students, exploring alternatives, increasing the value and transparency of the current examinations, recognizing and enhancing the strengths of the current examinations, and engaging in a national dialogue about the issue.

  20. Using systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs to assess medical students’ skills in clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Bergus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available George R Bergus1–3, Jerold C Woodhead4, Clarence D Kreiter2,51Performance Based Assessment Program, Office of Student Affairs and Curriculum, 2Department of Family Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAIntroduction: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is widely used to assess the clinical performance of medical students. However, concerns related to cost, availability, and validity, have led educators to investigate alternatives to the OSCE. Some alternatives involve assessing students while they provide care to patients – the mini-CEX (mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise and the Long Case are examples. We investigated the psychometrics of systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs, in which physicians are supplemented by lay trained observers, as a means of assessing the clinical performances of medical students.Methods: During the pediatrics clerkship at the University of Iowa, trained lay observers assessed the communication skills of third-year medical students using a communication checklist while the students interviewed and examined pediatric patients. Students then verbally presented their findings to faculty, who assessed students’ clinical skills using a standardized form. The reliability of the combined communication and clinical skills scores was calculated using generalizability theory.Results: Fifty-one medical students completed 199 observed patient encounters. The mean combined clinical and communication skills score (out of a maximum 45 points was 40.8 (standard deviation 3.3. The calculated reliability of the SOCE scores, using generalizability theory, from 10 observed patient encounters was 0.81. Students reported receiving helpful feedback from faculty after 97% of their observed clinical encounters.Conclusion: The SOCE can

  1. Clinical Research Careers: Reports from a NHLBI Pediatric Heart Network Clinical Research Skills Development Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335

  2. Dissecting the workforce and workplace for clinical endocrinology, and the work of endocrinologists early in their careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Claude; Bach, Mark A; Cappola, Anne R; Seely, Ellen W; Ehrenberg, Ronald G

    2011-04-01

    The United States lacks timely reliable mechanisms for assessing the professional work of subspecialty physicians. The aim was to use early-career members of The Endocrine Society as a model to estimate subspecialty physician involvement in patient care, teaching, research, and administration among clinical, academic, federal, and pharmaceutical/biotech workplaces and to assess the workforce for research within individual workplaces. Physicians joining The Endocrine Society from 1991-2005 and residing in North America were invited to complete a Web-based survey. This report relies on 817 early-career endocrinologists or 29.6% of eligible respondents. Respondents from all types of workplaces engaged in patient care, teaching, research, and administration. The time committed to the four tasks, however, differed significantly among workplaces. Research (basic, translational, disease, patient, population, and prevention) was accomplished within all workplaces, but the scope and scale of investigative work was employer dependent. Recipients of National Institutes of Health K08/23 awards succeeded in receiving federal research project grants (P Women in academic settings earned less than men (P < 0.01) and were less likely to occupy tenure-eligible positions (P < 0.01). Web-based surveys offer a simple tool for estimating the work of subspecialty physicians and provide a framework for improving biomedical investigation. Several interventions should be considered for endocrinology: recruit physicians from underrepresented demographic groups, increase K08/23 awards, incentivize investigative careers, and improve the national infrastructure for biomedical research.

  3. Sustaining the Clinical and Translational Research Workforce: Training and Empowering the Next Generation of Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Helen L; Gabrilove, Janice; Jackson, Rebecca; Sweeney, Carol; Fair, Alecia M; Toto, Robert

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting concern that clinician-scientists are a vanishing species and that the pipeline for clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators is in jeopardy. For the majority of current junior CTR investigators, the career path involves first obtaining a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded K-type career development award, particularly K08 and K23, and subsequently an NIH R01. This transition, popularly referred to as K2R, is a major hurdle with a low success rate and gaps in funding. In this Perspective, the authors identify factors that facilitate K2R transition and important aspects of increasing and sustaining the pipeline of CTR investigators. They also highlight significant differences in success rates of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. Early career exposure to research methodology, protected time, multidisciplinary mentoring, and institutional "culture shift" are important for fostering and rewarding team science. Mentoring is the single most important contributor to K2R success, and emerging evidence suggests that formal mentor training and team mentoring are effective. Leadership training can empower junior investigators to thrive as independent CTR investigators. Future research should focus on delineating the difference between essential and supplemental factors to achieve this transition, and mentoring methods that foster success, including those that promote K2R transition of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards National Consortium is well positioned to test existing models aimed at shortening the time frame, increasing the rate of K2R transition, and identifying strategies that improve success.

  4. An economic evaluation of introducing a skills mix approach to CT head reporting in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computed Tomography (CT) head examinations are a common diagnostic examination in National Health Service (NHS) acute hospital trusts. Current NHS England and Royal College of Radiologist (RCR) reports estimate the year on year increase of examinations to be 10%, with the designated workforce of radiologists disproportionate to the increase in demand of imaging reporting. Objective: To determine an economic evaluation of cost, risk and feasibility of introducing skills mix CT head reporting by radiographers. Design: Applying a PICO framework study to evaluate the patient workflow demand from retrospective audit data of CT head examination attendance (n = 7266) at an acute NHS district general hospital (DGH) to model an example workflow demand over 12 months. Reviewing potential outcome risk data (diagnostic thresholds), and feasibility (workforce capacity) of both interventions. The economic evaluation calculated hourly unit costs for comparison estimation of consultant radiologists and reporting radiographers using Netten et al.'s Ready Reckoner. Report unit costs were calculated utilising the Gishen's Ready Reckoner to estimate the uninterrupted time of reporting a non-complex CT report using RCR, Centre for Workforce Intelligence (CfWI) and Department of Health (DoH) estimates for both interventions. Conclusions: The economic evaluation of introducing a skills mix reporting service model to the benefit of service delivery with the NHS has shown a potential £299,359–£124,514 per annum cost saving using a generic acute DGH workload model. Research into recorded discrepancy/error audit data for potential detrimental risk to patient outcomes identified a paucity of evidence, and recommends further research is needed. - Highlights: • There was 5.2 million CT scans from April 2013 to March 2014 in the UK. • In 2015 the RCR estimated there were up to 3693 unreported CT scans. • Comparison of workforce, reference standards, unit costs

  5. Use of online clinical videos for clinical skills training for medical students: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2014-03-21

    Multimedia learning has been shown effective in clinical skills training. Yet, use of technology presents both opportunities and challenges to learners. The present study investigated student use and perceptions of online clinical videos for learning clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination). This study aims to inform us how to make more effective us of these resources. A mixed-methods study was conducted for this study. A 30-items questionnaire was administered to investigate student use and perceptions of OSCE videos. Year 3 and 4 students from 34 Korean medical schools who had access to OSCE videos participated in the online survey. Additionally, a semi-structured interview of a group of Year 3 medical students was conducted for an in-depth understanding of student experience with OSCE videos. 411 students from 31 medical schools returned the questionnaires; a majority of them found OSCE videos effective for their learning of clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE. The number of OSCE videos that the students viewed was moderately associated with their self-efficacy and preparedness for OSCE (p mobile devices; they agreed more with the statement that it was convenient to access the video clips than their peers who accessed the videos using computers (p students reported lack of integration into the curriculum and lack of interaction as barriers to more effective use of OSCE videos. The present study confirms the overall positive impact of OSCE videos on student learning of clinical skills. Having faculty integrate these learning resources into their teaching, integrating interactive tools into this e-learning environment to foster interactions, and using mobile devices for convenient access are recommended to help students make more effective use of these resources.

  6. A descriptive survey investigating pre-registration student nurses' perceptions of clinical skill development in clinical placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayt, Louise C; Merriman, Clair

    2013-04-01

    Clinical skill development is essential to nurse education. Clinical skills are frequently taught in higher education institutions using clinical simulation. It is unclear if clinical skills are subsequently consolidated and developed in clinical placements. The aim of this survey was to evaluate pre-registration student nurses perceptions of the frequency of opportunities to practise, the level of supervision and assessment of, clinical skills in their clinical placements. This was a cross-sectional survey design using an online, self-report questionnaire including a Likert-type scale and open ended comments. Four hundred and twenty one students, from all year groups, from a university in the south of England on a wide variety of clinical placements participated. Participants evaluated the frequency of opportunity to practise, level of supervision and assessment of and feedback on performance of specific clinical skills. Clinical skills evaluated were measurement of vital signs, aseptic non-touch technique, assisting with eating and drinking, and assisting with comfort and hygiene. Data were analysed utilising Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 19. The frequency of opportunities to practise skills in clinical placement was variable with some participants reporting that they never had opportunity to practise essential skills. Similarly the level of supervision and assessment was also inconsistent suggesting that participants frequently practised clinical skills unsupervised without being assessed as competent. Inconsistencies in clinical skill development may lead to graduates who are not work ready and as a result, insufficient clinical competence potentially leads to unsafe practice and poor patient care. This calls for stronger partnerships between educators and clinical areas and the prioritisation of mentor preparation and education as well as organisational support in terms of mentor workload planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  8. Companion animal veterinarians' use of clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, M L; Fitzgerald, J R

    2013-09-01

    To describe the communication techniques used by clients and veterinarians during companion animal visits in Australia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 64 veterinary consultations were audiotaped and analysed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS); clients completed appointment level measures, including their satisfaction and perceptions of relational communication. Participants were 24 veterinarians and 64 clients. Statements intended to reassure clients were expressed frequently in the consultations, but in 59% of appointments empathy statements were not expressed towards either the client or the patient. In 10% of appointments, veterinarians did not used any open-ended questions. Overall client satisfaction was high and veterinarians' expressions of empathy directed to the client resulted in higher levels of client satisfaction. Clients' perceptions of relational communication were related to several veterinarian and client nonverbal scales. A focus on developing evidence-based clinical communication skills is expected to further enhance the veterinarian-client-patient relationship and associated clinical outcomes. Particular recommendations include the development of a broader emotion-handling repertoire, increased emphasis on the use of open-ended enquiry, including assessment of the client's perspective, as well as attention to aspects of nonverbal communication. The study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of verbal expressions of empathy during the companion animal consultation. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. The evolution of integration: innovations in clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern; Duke, Pauline S

    2012-01-01

    Critical self-reflection, medical ethics and clinical skills are each important components of medical education but are seldom linked in curriculum development. We developed a curriculum that builds on the existing integration of ethics education into the clinical skills course to more explicitly link these three skills. The curriculum builds on the existing integration of clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine. It refines the integration through scheduling changes; adds case studies that emphasise the social, economic and political context of our province's patient population; and introduces reflection on the "culture of medicine" as a way to have students articulate and understand their own values and moral decision making frameworks. This structured Clinical Skills course is a model for successfully integrating critical self-reflection, reflection on the political, economic and cultural contexts shaping health and healthcare, and moral decision making into clinical skills training.

  10. Central New York's New Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  11. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene S.; Scherpbier, Albert J J

    2010-01-01

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate...... in clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education....

  12. Pairing students in clinical assignments to develop collaboration and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, Mali

    2012-01-01

    Skillful collaboration and communication among healthcare team members are associated with favorable patient outcomes. Student nurses need opportunities for supervised development of these crucial and intertwined skills. The author describes the implementation of a practice-change project for simultaneously developing collaboration and communication skills by pairing prelicensure student nurses in clinical assignments. This easily adapted strategy increases options for faculty looking to stimulate student acquisition of these professional skills.

  13. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Results: Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. Conclusion: From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.

  14. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun

    2015-01-27

    The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.

  15. Prepared for Practice? Interns’ Experiences of Undergraduate Clinical Skills Training in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Many previous studies on internship have reported a lack of preparedness for the role. More recently in Ireland, medical schools have introduced formal clinical skills training programmes. This study sought to evaluate the impact, if any, of formal skills training in the medical training on intern's preparedness for practice. Methods The study utilized a survey approach followed by focus group discussions. The aim was to identify the skills that were taught and assessed in medical training and the skills that were actually required in their intern year. Results Most interns had received skills training in designated skills laboratories. No intern had received training in all skills advised in the European guidelines. Skills taught to all interns were intravenous cannulation, basic life support, and basic suture. Skills required from all interns were intravenous cannulation, phlebotomy, and arterial blood sampling. Removal of peripherally inserted central line (PICC lines, central lines, and chest drains were commonly requested but not taught. Senior staff underestimated skill abilities and expected failure. Conclusion These findings identify discordance between the skills taught and the skills required in the job. There is a need for standardization in the clinical skills training to ensure that all interns enter practice with equal competencies. Consideration should be given to experiential learning opportunities such as subintern programmes to consolidate learning and improve preparedness. Improvement in communications with senior clinicians is indicated to ensure that expectations are realistic and reflective of actual training.

  16. Producing Competent Doctors - The Art and Science of Teaching Clinical Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Upreet; Supe, Avinash; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2017-05-15

    For a doctor to provide medical care with competence, he must not only have knowledge but must also be able to translate that knowledge into action. It is his competence in clinical skills that will enable him to practice safely and effectively in the real world. To ensure acquisition of clinical skills, medical teachers must adopt teaching methods that prioritise observation, practice, feedback; and more practice. We try to elucidate the meaning of clinical skills, the challenges inherent in clinical skills training in India, training models that have shown success in practice and can be adopted in the Indian context, and various techniques to enhance skill-training, including the giving of feedback, which is a critically important component of skills development.

  17. Occupational Task Profiles: A Pan-Canadian Snapshot of the Canadian Literacy and Essential Skills Workforce--A Think Paper. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Because Literacy and Essential Skills are so important to economic development, it is vital to know the competencies needed by the educators who deliver Literacy and Essential Skills programming. Likewise, Literacy and Essential Skills are crucial for labour market attachment. Low-skilled work has been most affected by technological change. There…

  18. Objective Structured Clinical Examination as an Assessment Tool for Clinical Skills in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saceda-Corralo, D; Fonda-Pascual, P; Moreno-Arrones, Ó M; Alegre-Sánchez, A; Hermosa-Gelbard, Á; Jiménez-Gómez, N; Vañó-Galván, S; Jaén-Olasolo, P

    2017-04-01

    Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) is an excellent method to evaluate student's abilities, but there are no previous reports implementing it in dermatology. To determine the feasibility of implementation of a dermatology OSCE in the medical school. Five stations with standardized patients and image-based assessment were designed. A specific checklist was elaborated in each station with different items which evaluated one competency and were classified into five groups (medical history, physical examination, technical skills, case management and prevention). A total of 28 students were tested. Twenty-five of them (83.3%) passed the exam globally. Concerning each group of items tested: medical interrogation had a mean score of 71.0; physical examination had a mean score of 63.0; management had a mean score of 58.0; and prevention had a mean score of 58.0 points. The highest results were obtained in interpersonal skills items with 91.8 points. Testing a small sample of voluntary students may hinder generalization of our study. OSCE is an useful tool for assessing clinical skills in dermatology and it is possible to carry it out. Our experience enhances that medical school curriculum needs to establish OSCE as an assessment tool in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Raising Job Quality and Skills for American Workers: Creating More-Effective Education and Workforce Development Systems in the States. Discussion Paper 2011-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the employment rates and earnings of Americans workers, we need to create more-coherent and more-effective education and workforce development systems, focusing primarily (though not exclusively) on disadvantaged youth and adults, and with education and training more clearly targeted towards firms and sectors that provide good-paying…

  20. The BHEF National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative: A Model for Pathways to Baccalaureate Attainment and High-Skill Careers in Emerging Fields. BHEF Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brian K.; Barkanic, Steve; Cardenas-Navia, Isabel; Elzey, Karen; Hughes, Debbie; Kashiri, Erica; Troyan, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between higher education and business have long been an important part of the academic landscape, but often they are based on shorter-term transactional objectives rather than on longer-term strategic goals. BHEF's National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative brings together business and academia at the institutional,…

  1. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  2. Impact of Facilitated Asynchronous Distance Education on Clinical Skills Development of International Pharmacy Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi

    2006-01-01

    The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…

  3. Clinical skill center: a review of present situation and importance in medical education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Talaei

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical skill centers were designed in 1960, offers innovative, more effective clinical health care and treatment curriculum. Clinical skill center (CSC can provide a special facility for clinical and communication skills practice in a setting outside hospital wards in order to train students with enough confidence of confronting real patients. Learning clinical skills in these centers are not patient-dependent and by practicing on manikins and simulated models errors in real patients can be prevented. Moreover, possible feedback of this method can be used for evaluation and can improve quality and quantity of the education. This review intends to determine the purpose, undertaking, and structure of CSC. The study emphasizes the importance of integrating the clinical skill centers into the teaching curriculum of medical universities. Apparently, organizing clinical skill centers can play an important role for improving the quality and quantity of the educational system and consequently post-graduate performance. The authors recommend this program can be a solution for having both the knowledge and skill of diagnosis and treatment seasonal and rare diseases. Key words clinical skill center, medical education, curriculum

  4. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australia and New Zealand: report from the first summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J; Searle, J; Hanney, R; Chapman, A; Grigg, M; Choong, P; Mackay, A; Smithers, B M; Churchill, J A; Carney, S; Smith, J A; Wainer, Z; Talley, N J; Gladman, M A

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Aiming to Meet Workforce Needs: An Evaluation of the Economic and Workforce Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Su Jin; Adan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    California's dynamic economy depends on having a large and skilled workforce; consequently, the state must continually support and refine efforts to provide workers with employer-valued competencies. Given the wide range of regional and state needs across this vast state, ensuring that the workforce has the training to keep up with labor market…

  6. Pairing as an instructional strategy to promote soft skills amongst clinical dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Kasim, N H; Abu Kassim, N L; Razak, A A A; Abdullah, H; Bindal, P; Che' Abdul Aziz, Z A; Sulaiman, E; Farook, M S; Gonzalez, M A G; Thong, Y L; Ahmad, N A; Naimie, Z; Abdullah, M; Lui, J L; Abdul Aziz, A

    2014-02-01

    Training dentists today is challenging as they are expected to provide a wide range of dental care. In the provision of good dental care, soft skills are equally important as clinical skills. Therefore in dental education the development of soft skills are of prime concern. This study sought to identify the development of soft skills when dental students are paired in their clinical training. In this perception study, four open-ended items were used to elicit students' feedback on the appropriateness of using clinical pairing as an instructional strategy to promote soft skills. The most frequently cited soft skills were teamwork (70%) and communication (25%) skills. However, both negative and positive behaviours were reported. As for critical thinking and problem solving skills, more positive behaviours were reported for abilities such as to explain, analyze, find ideas and alternative solutions, and make decisions. Leadership among peers was not evident as leading without legitimate authority could be a hindrance to its development. If clinical pairing is to be used as an effective instructional strategy to promote soft skills amongst students, clear guidelines need to be developed to prepare students to work in a dental team and the use of appropriate assessment tools can facilitate the development of these soft skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Collaborative learning of clinical skills in health professions education: the why, how, when and for whom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte V

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature. Training efficiency may therefore be improved if the outcomes of collaborative learning of clinical skills are superior or equivalent to those attained through individual learning. According to a social interaction perspective, collaborative learning of clinical skills mediates its effects through social interaction, motivation, accountability and positive interdependence between learners. Motor skills learning theory suggests that positive effects rely on observational learning and action imitation, and negative effects may include decreased hands-on experience. Finally, a cognitive perspective suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition, scaffolding and cognitive co-construction are outweighed by reductions in hands-on experience and time on task. Collaborative learning of clinical skills has demonstrated promising results in the simulated setting. However, further research into how collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in clinical settings, as well as into the role of social dynamics between learners, is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Training Tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Training tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce Start with the children. That is the message Brian Molloy, a human resources expert in the IAEA's Nuclear Power Engineering Section, wants to convey to any country considering launching or expanding a nuclear power programme. Mathematics and science curricular and extra-curricular activities at secondary and even primary schools are of crucial importance to future recruiting efforts at nuclear power plants, he says:''You need to interest children in science and physics and engineering. The teaching needs to be robust enough to teach them, but it must also gain their interest.'' Recruiting high-calibre engineers needed for the operation of nuclear power plants is a growing challenge, even for existing nuclear power programmes, because of a wave of retirements combined with increasing global demand. But essential as engineers are, they are only a component of the staff at any nuclear power plant. In fact, most employees at nuclear power plants are not university graduates - they are skilled technicians, electricians, welders, fitters, riggers and people in similar trades. Molloy argues that this part of the workforce needs more focus. ''It's about getting a balance between focusing on the academic and the skilled vocational'', he says, adding that countries considering nuclear power programmes often initially place undue focus on nuclear engineers.

  9. OSCE vs. TEM: Different approaches to assess clinical skills of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasuna Jelly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are trained with specific clinical skills, and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE could be a better approach to assess clinical skills of nursing students. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted by observational checklist regarding antenatal care and opinionnaire on the usefulness of OSCE and tradition evaluation method (TEM was used to assess the clinical skills and to get opinion. Results: The mean score of OSCE was more than TEM and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The opinion of students regarding the usefulness of OSCE was higher than TEM. Conclusions: The study concluded that implementing OSCE will overweigh the advantages of the TEM.

  10. Student teachers can be as good as associate professors in teaching clinical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Gustafsson, Amandus; Rasmussen, Maria B

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to compare student teachers and clinical associate professors regarding the quality of procedural skills teaching in terms of participants' technical skills, knowledge and satisfaction with the teaching. METHODS: This is an experimental, randomized, controlled study....... CONCLUSION: Trained student teachers can be as good as associate professors in teaching clinical skills. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...... comparing the teaching of student teachers and associate professors regarding participants' learning outcome and satisfaction with the teaching. Two skills are chosen for the experiment, i.v.-access and bladder catheterization. Learning outcome is assessed by a pre- and post testing of the participants...

  11. Design and Effectiveness of a Required Pre-Clinical Simulation-based Curriculum for Fundamental Clinical Skills and Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl P. Lofaso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 20 years, medical literature has increasingly documented the need for students to learn, practice and demonstrate competence in basic clinical knowledge and skills. In 2001, the Louisiana State University Health Science Centers (LSUHSC School of Medicine – New Orleans replaced its traditional Introduction in to Clinical Medicine (ICM course with the Science and Practice of Medicine (SPM course. The main component within the SPM course is the Clinical Skills Lab (CSL. The CSL teaches 30 plus skills to all pre-clinical medical students (Years 1 and 2. Since 2002, an annual longitudinal evaluation questionnaire was distributed to all medical students targeting the skills taught in the CSL. Students were asked to rate their self- confidence (Dreyfus and Likert-type and estimate the number of times each clinical skill was performed (clinically/non-clinically. Of the 30 plus skills taught, 8 were selected for further evaluation. An analysis was performed on the eight skills selected to determine the effectiveness of the CSL. All students that participated in the CSL reported a significant improvement in self-confidence and in number performed in the clinically/non-clinically setting when compared to students that did not experience the CSL. For example, without CSL training, the percentage of students reported at the end of their second year self-perceived expertise as “novice” ranged from 21.4% (CPR to 84.7% (GU catheterization. Students who completed the two-years CSL, only 7.8% rated their self-perceived expertise at the end of the second year as “novice” and 18.8% for GU catheterization. The CSL design is not to replace real clinical patient experiences. It's to provide early exposure, medial knowledge, professionalism and opportunity to practice skills in a patient free environment.

  12. Health information technology knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S H; Gongora-Ferraez, M J; Joost, E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.

  13. Exploring the Role and Skill Set of Physiotherapy Clinical Educators in Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan; Connaughton, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators are under increasing pressures in the workplace to provide quality education of healthcare students within varying supervision frameworks. Along with facilitating the teaching of clinical skills, clinical educators play a support role for students and so require more than expert clinical abilities in their vital position linking…

  14. Mobile learning: a workforce development strategy for nurse supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.

  15. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Nurses' Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Yang, Jinqiu; Liu, Lingying; Ye, Benlan

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the influencing factors on nurses' clinical decision-making (CDM) skills. A cross-sectional nonexperimental research design was conducted in the medical, surgical, and emergency departments of two university hospitals, between May and June 2014. We used a quantile regression method to identify the influencing factors across different quantiles of the CDM skills distribution and compared the results with the corresponding ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. Our findings revealed that nurses were best at the skills of managing oneself. Educational level, experience, and the total structural empowerment had significant positive impacts on nurses' CDM skills, while the nurse-patient relationship, patient care and interaction, formal empowerment, and information empowerment were negatively correlated with nurses' CDM skills. These variables explained no more than 30% of the variance in nurses' CDM skills and mainly explained the lower quantiles of nurses' CDM skills distribution. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Revitalization of clinical skills training at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jeggels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most educational institutions that offer health related qualifications make use of clinical skills laboratories. These spaces are generally used for the demonstration and assessment of clinical skills. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences related to the revitalization of skills training by introducing the skills lab method at the School of Nursing (SoN, University of the Western Cape (UWC. To accommodate the contextual changes as a result of the restructuring of the higher education landscape in 2003, the clinical skills training programme at UWC had to be reviewed. With a dramatic increase in the student numbers and a reduction in hospital beds, the skills lab method provided students with an opportunity to develop clinical skills prior to their placement in real service settings. The design phase centred on adopting a skills training methodology that articulates with the case-based approach used by the SoN. Kolb’s, experiential learning cycle provided the theoretical underpinning for the methodology. The planning phase was spent on the development of resources. Eight staff members were trained by our international higher education collaborators who also facilitated the training of clinical supervisors and simulated patients. The physical space had to be redesigned to accommodate audio visual and information technology to support the phases of the skills lab method. The implementation of the skills lab method was phased in from the first-year level. An interactive seminar held after the first year of implementation provided feedback from all the role players and was mostly positive. The results of introducing the skills lab method include: a move by students towards self-directed clinical skills development, clinical supervisors adopting the role of facilitators of learning and experiential clinical learning being based on, amongst others, the students’ engagement with simulated patients. Finally, the recommendations relate

  17. Clerkship maturity: does the idea of training clinical skills work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosch, Christoph; Joachim, Alexander; Ascher, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    With the reformed curriculum "4C", the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne has started to systematically plan practical skills training, for which Clerkship Maturity is the first step. The key guidelines along which the curriculum was development were developed by experts. This approach has now been validated. Both students and teachers were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding preclinical practical skills training to confirm the concept of Clerkship Maturity. The Cologne training program Clerkship Maturity can be validated empirically overall through the activities of the students awaiting the clerkship framework and through the evaluation by the medical staff providing the training. The subjective ratings of the advantages of the training by the students leave room for improvement. Apart from minor improvements to the program, the most likely solution providing sustainable results will involve an over-regional strategy for establishing skills training planned as part of the curriculum.

  18. EQClinic: a platform for learning communication skills in clinical consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M; Lim, Renee L; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A

    2016-01-01

    Doctors' verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients' health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient-doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a short time period. Further evaluation of

  19. EQClinic: a platform for learning communication skills in clinical consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods: We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs, with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results: Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7, and reported that the structure (5.4/7 and information (5.8/7 were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion: It is not easy to improve non

  20. Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs in a Changing Oil and Gas Industry: the Role of Flexibility. As the Oil Industry continues to shed jobs due to the global downturn in oil prices, one of the most vulnerable sectors to job loss are the middle-skilled workers such as the technicians and drill operators. We present options and ideas to mitigate the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.

    2015-12-01

    Middle-skilled workers are those whose jobs require considerable skill but not an advanced degree. Nationwide, one-third of the projected job growth for 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers. The educational paths to these jobs include career and technical education (CTE), certificates and associate's degrees from community colleges, apprenticeship programs, and training provided by employers. In the oil industry, the demand is expected to about 150,000 jobs. In environmental restoration and monitoring, there will be a need for at least 15,000 middle-skilled workers. Examples of the types of jobs include geological and petroleum technicians, derrick and drill operators, and pump system and refinery operators for the oil and gas sector. For the environmental restoration and monitoring sector, the types of jobs include environmental science technicians, and forest (and coastal) conservation technicians and workers. However, all of these numbers will be influenced by the growth and contraction of the regional or national economy that is not uncommon in the private sector. Over the past year, for example, the oil and gas industry has shed approximately 75,000 jobs (out of a workforce of 600,000) here in the United States, due almost exclusively to the drop of oil prices globally. A disproportionate number of the lost jobs were among the middle-skilled workforce. Meanwhile, the recent settlements stemming from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are expected to create a surge of environmental restoration activity in the Gulf of Mexico region that has the potential to create thousands of new jobs over the next decade and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to develop education, training and apprenticeship programs that will help develop flexibility and complementary skill sets among middle-skilled workers that could help reduce the impacts of economic downturns and meet the needs of newly expanding sectors such as the environmental restoration field. This

  1. A Clinical Skills Instruction Program: The Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Douglas W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An effective evaluation of the acutely ill female implies a thorough examination that integrates skills representing three learning domains. This process should include: a thorough medical history, a physical examination, good patient-physician rapport, and development of an efficacious management plan. A University of Iowa simulation approach is…

  2. Assessing nursing clinical skills competence through objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for open distance learning students in Open University Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Ahmad, Che'an; Ahmad, Nora; Bakar, Rosnida Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective structured clinical skills examination (OSCE) has over the years emerged as a method of evaluating clinical skills in most medical and allied professions. Although its validity and objectivity has evoked so much debate in the literature, little has been written about its application in non-traditional education systems such as in distance learning. This study examined clinical skills competence among practising nursing students who were enrolled in a distance learning programme. The study examined the effect of work and years of nursing practice on nurses' clinical skills competence. This study used observational design whereby nursing students' clinical skills were observed and scored in five OSCE stations. Two instruments were used for the data collection - A self-administered questionnaire on the students' bio-demographic data, and a check list on the clinical skills which the examiners rated on a four point scale. The findings revealed that 14% of the nurses had level four competence, which indicated that they could perform the tasks correctly and complete. However, 12% failed the OSCE, even though they had more than 10 years experience in nursing and post basic qualifications. Inter-rater reliability was 0.92 for the five examiners. Factor analysis indicated that five participant factors accounted for 74.1% of the variations in clinical skills performance. An OSCE is a necessary assessment tool that should be continuously applied in nursing education, regardless of the mode of the education program, the student's years of experience or his/her clinical placement. This study validates the need for OSCE in both the design of tertiary nursing degree programs and the assessment of nurses' clinical competency level.

  3. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2018-03-01

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P skills. This has implications for nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185. Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs, procedural skills (PSs, and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development.

  5. Registered nurses' clinical reasoning skills and reasoning process: A think-aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Young Joo; Bae, JuYeon; Seo, Minjeong

    2016-11-01

    As complex chronic diseases are increasing, nurses' prompt and accurate clinical reasoning skills are essential. However, little is known about the reasoning skills of registered nurses. This study aimed to determine how registered nurses use their clinical reasoning skills and to identify how the reasoning process proceeds in the complex clinical situation of hospital setting. A qualitative exploratory design was used with a think-aloud method. A total of 13 registered nurses (mean years of experience=11.4) participated in the study, solving an ill-structured clinical problem based on complex chronic patients cases in a hospital setting. Data were analyzed using deductive content analysis. Findings showed that the registered nurses used a variety of clinical reasoning skills. The most commonly used skill was 'checking accuracy and reliability.' The reasoning process of registered nurses covered assessment, analysis, diagnosis, planning/implementation, and evaluation phase. It is critical that registered nurses apply appropriate clinical reasoning skills in complex clinical practice. The main focus of registered nurses' reasoning in this study was assessing a patient's health problem, and their reasoning process was cyclic, rather than linear. There is a need for educational strategy development to enhance registered nurses' competency in determining appropriate interventions in a timely and accurate fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting fundamental clinical skills: a competency-based college approach at the University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Erika A; Maclaren, Carol F; Smith, Sherilyn; Mengert, Terry J; Maestas, Ramoncita R; Foy, Hugh M; Wenrich, Marjorie D; Ramsey, Paul G

    2005-05-01

    The focus on fundamental clinical skills in undergraduate medical education has declined over the last several decades. Dramatic growth in the number of faculty involved in teaching and increasing clinical and research commitments have contributed to depersonalization and declining individual attention to students. In contrast to the close teaching and mentoring relationship between faculty and students 50 years ago, today's medical students may interact with hundreds of faculty members without the benefit of a focused program of teaching and evaluating clinical skills to form the core of their four-year curriculum. Bedside teaching has also declined, which may negatively affect clinical skills development. In response to these and other concerns, the University of Washington School of Medicine has created an integrated developmental curriculum that emphasizes bedside teaching and role modeling, focuses on enhancing fundamental clinical skills and professionalism, and implements these goals via a new administrative structure, the College system, which consists of a core of clinical teachers who spend substantial time teaching and mentoring medical students. Each medical student is assigned a faculty mentor within a College for the duration of his or her medical school career. Mentors continuously teach and reflect with students on clinical skills development and professionalism and, during the second year, work intensively with them at the bedside. They also provide an ongoing personal faculty contact. Competency domains and benchmarks define skill areas in which deepening, progressive attention is focused throughout medical school. This educational model places primary focus on the student.

  7. A digital peer-to-peer learning platform for clinical skills development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Paul Basnak

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Students found the practice OSCEs and digital platform effective for learning clinical skills. Thus, peer-to-peer learning and computer automation can be useful adjuncts to traditional medical curricula.

  8. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  9. Manufacturing Mississippi's Workforce: An Assessment of Employability Skills as Perceived by Faculty and Senior Students of Four Year Manufacturing Related Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mamie Yvette

    2012-01-01

    A worldwide concern exists that undergraduate programs are not producing graduates with the kind of lifelong learning and professional skills needed for workplace success. Numerous research studies indicate new employees lack needed employability skills such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication. Similarly, recent national and state…

  10. Development of a Curriculum to Teach the "Soft Skills" Necessary for the Future Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Laboratory Technician Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Annemarie D.; Pagano, Todd

    2009-01-01

    There is often a particular void in the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students who intend to become competent working laboratory technicians. Inasmuch as certain basic professional skills ("soft skills," in this case) are not generally taught in traditional science courses, a new curriculum has been developed in order to enforce…

  11. The challenge of racial difference: skills for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, E K; Davis, L E

    1994-05-01

    Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated.

  12. Clinical Leadership: can the skills be learned by trainee paediatricians?

    OpenAIRE

    Klaber, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explore whether paediatricians in training can develop leadership skills through participating in a specifically designed leadership development initiative. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to explore the healthcare leadership literature for empirical evidence of different approaches to leadership development. Informed by this review, and conceptualised by key leadership theories, a work-based leadership development initiative was established within a newly formed trainee co...

  13. Enhancing the American Society of Clinical Oncology workforce information system with geographic distribution of oncologists and comparison of data sources for the number of practicing oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, M Kelsey; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Goldstein, Michael A; Bajorin, Dean F; Kosty, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2007 workforce report projected US oncologist shortages by 2020. Intervening years have witnessed shifting trends in both supply and demand, demonstrating the need to capture data in a dynamic manner. The ASCO Workforce Information System (WIS) provides an infrastructure to update annually emerging characteristics of US oncologists (medical oncologists, hematologist/oncologists, and hematologists). Several possible data sources exist to capture the number of oncologists in the United States. The WIS primarily uses the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile database because it provides detailed demographics. This analysis also compares total counts of oncologists from American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification reports, the National Provider Identifier (NPI) database, and Medicare Physician Compare data. The analysis also examines geographic distribution of oncologists by age and US population data. For each of the data sources, we pulled 2013 data. The Masterfile identified 13,409 oncologists. ABIM reported 13,757 oncologists. NPI listed 11,664 oncologists. Physician Compare identified 11,343 oncologists. Mapping of these data identifies distinct areas (primarily in central United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) that seem to lack ready access to oncologists. Efforts to survey oncologists about practice patterns will help determine if productivity and service delivery will change significantly. ASCO is committed to tracking oncologist supply and demand, as well as to providing timely analysis of strategies that will help address any shortages that may occur in specific regions or practice settings.

  14. Self-confidence of medical students in performing clinical skills acquired during their surgical rotation. Assessing clinical skills education in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Jumanah A; Marwan, Yousef A; Dawas, Ahmed M; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-12-01

    To assess the self-confidence of clinical years` medical students in performing clinical skills/procedures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait. A questionnaire was used to collect data from students who had completed their surgical rotation of their first clinical year. The students reported their level of self-confidence in performing specific skills/procedures related to that rotation. Data were presented using frequencies and percentages. A total score of confidence was calculated for each student. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the association between the students` sociodemographic characteristics and confidence score. Of the 122 students invited to participate in the study, only 15 (12.3%) declined to comply. Most students reported high confidence level (more than 75%) in performing 7 of the 13 history taking/physical examination skills, and 2 of the 39 diagnostic/treatment procedure skills. The highest confidence level was in performing abdominal examination, while the lowest level was in care of Jackson-Pratt drain site and emptying the drain bulb. The total confidence score was significantly higher among males (p=0.021), and students with higher monthly income (p=0.002). Medical students appeared to have poor self-confidence in performing clinical skills/procedures. Curriculum planners should explore potential reasons, and methods for the improvement of confidence level among medical students in performing skills/procedures they were expected to learn during their surgical rotation.

  15. Developing advanced clinical practice skills in gastrointestinal consequences of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Caroline; Andreyev, Jervoise; Muls, Ann

    2018-03-08

    This article explores the transition from a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) towards developing advanced clinical practice skills within a gastrointestinal consequences of cancer clinic. It presents data on the first 50 patients assessed by the CNS from a prospective service evaluation, demonstrating how this informed the nurse's future learning. There is high demand for advanced clinical practice skills to address unmet health needs and improve the quality, efficiency, and sustainability of healthcare services. However, a literature review found no literature on developing advanced clinical practice skills in this setting. Emerging themes from the service evaluation focused on barriers and enablers, ongoing support, organisational commitment and working in a multidisciplinary team. Blended learning provided both structured and opportunistic learning, embedding both formal and tacit knowledge, as roles require increasing flexibility. Clinical supervision and reflective practice were key in maintaining professional and peer support.

  16. Source of learning basic clinical skills by medical interns Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective clinical teaching is a major objective in general practitioner’s education at medical schools. Purpose: To identify the sources of clinical skills learning that medical student experience Methods: In this cross sectional study, interns of Tehran medical university who spent at least 12 months of their internship answered a questionnaire on the sources of clinical skills training. Chi2 test was used to examine the association of source of learning and students,’ specification such as sex, score of pre –internship exam, and marital status. Results: All 250 interns who were eligible participated. Over all 46.60% interns learned their clinical skills from residents or clinical teachers, 29.61% observed others performing the procedures, 16.25 learned the skills from hospital staff or nurses, 7.54% practiced their knowledge when confronted to an emergency situation Conclusion: Our results warrant a more attentive approach to clinical skills (specially procedural skills training Key words: LEARNING RESOURCES

  17. Developing students' time management skills in clinical settings: practical considerations for busy nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan

    2011-06-01

    In clinical settings, nursing staff often find themselves responsible for students who have varying time management skills. Nurses need to respond sensitively and appropriately, and to teach nursing students how to prioritize and better allocate time. This is important not only for developing students' clinical skills but also for shaping their perceptions about the quality of the placement and their willingness to consider it as a potential work specialty. In this column, some simple, practical strategies that nurses can use to assist students with improving their time management skills are identified. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  19. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  20. The Dreyfus model of clinical problem-solving skills acquisition: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo

    2010-06-14

    The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the 'acquisition' of clinical skills. This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the 'acquisition' of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain 'acquisition' of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully.

  1. Who Is the Preferred Tutor in Clinical Skills Training: Physicians, Nurses, or Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, Ece Şükriye; Turan, Sevgi; Odabaşı, Orhan; Elçin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors. This study was conducted with third-year students (467 students) in 2013-2014 academic year at Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine. Participation rate was 85 % (397 students). The students attended the suturing skill training in groups of 40 students. First, a faculty member from the Department of Medical Education delivered a video demonstration and conducted discussion. After the demonstration, the students were divided into groups of 5-6 students. A physician, nurse, or a peer tutor facilitated each group. The students were asked to complete the Coaching Skills Evaluation Form after the practicum session. It contained 13 criteria for assessing the coaching skills. Additionally, the form included a question for rating the student's satisfaction with the tutor. The performance of the tutors at each step was rated on a three-point scale. Kruskal Wallis analysis was used to compare students' scores for their tutors. The students' satisfaction with tutors was high for all of the tutors. However, there was no difference between students' scores in suturing skill, and between physician, nurse, and peer tutors' coaching skills. Insights: In this study, we revealed that physician, nurse, and peer tutors were equally effective on the students' performances. They were also regarded as effective in their teaching role by students. But the most important

  2. Medical students' clerkship experiences and self-perceived competence in clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katowa-Mukwato, P; Andrews, B; Maimbolwa, M; Lakhi, S; Michelo, C; Mulla, Y; Banda, S S

    2014-01-01

    In a traditional curriculum, medical students are expected to acquire clinical competence through the apprenticeship model using the Halstedian "see one, do one, and teach one, approach". The University of Zambia School of Medicine used a traditional curriculum model from 1966 until 2011 when a competence-based curriculum was implemented. To explore medical students' clerkships experiences and self-perceived competence in clinical skills. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 5th, 6 th , and 7 th year medical students of the University of Zambia, School of Medicine two months prior to final examinations. Students were asked to rate their clerkship experiences with respect to specific skills on a scale of 1 to 4 and their level of self-perceived competence on a scale of 1 to 3. Skills evaluated were in four main domains: history taking and communication, physical examination, procedural, and professionalism, team work and medical decision making. Using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS), correlations were performed between experiences and self-perceived competence on specific skills, within domains and overall. Out of 197 clinical students 138 (70%) participated in the survey. The results showed significant increase in the proportion of students performing different skills and reporting feeling very competent with each additional clinical year. Overall correlations between experience and self-perceived competence were moderate (0.55). On individual skills, the highest correlation between experience and self-perceived competence were observed on mainly medical and surgical related procedural skills with the highest at 0.82 for nasal gastric tube insertion and 0.76 for endotracheal intubation. Despite the general improvement in skills experiences and self-perceived competence, some deficiencies were noted as significant numbers of final year students had never attempted common important procedures especially those performed in emergency situations

  3. Effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop for drug-dosage calculation in a nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical and calculation skills are widely acknowledged as being key nursing competences if patients are to receive care that is both effective and safe. Indeed, weaknesses in mathematical competence may lead to the administration of miscalculated drug doses, which in turn may harm or endanger patients' lives. However, little attention has been given to identifying appropriate teaching and learning strategies that will effectively facilitate the development of these skills in nurses. One such approach may be simulation. To evaluate the effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop on drug administration that focused on improving the drug-dosage calculation skills of second-year nursing students, with a view to promoting safety in drugs administration. A descriptive pre-post test design. Educational. Simulation center. The sample population included 77 nursing students from a Northern Italian University who attended a 30-hour Clinical Skills Workshop over a period of two weeks. The workshop covered integrated teaching strategies and innovative drug-calculation methodologies which have been described to improve psychomotor skills and build cognitive abilities through a greater understanding of mathematics linked to clinical practice. Study results showed a significant improvement between the pre- and the post-test phases, after the intervention. Pre-test scores ranged between 0 and 25 out of a maximum of 30 points, with a mean score of 15.96 (SD 4.85), and a median score of 17. Post-test scores ranged between 15 and 30 out of 30, with a mean score of 25.2 (SD 3.63) and a median score of 26 (pstudy shows that Clinical Skills Workshops may be tailored to include teaching techniques that encourage the development of drug-dosage calculation skills, and that training strategies implemented during a Clinical skills Workshop can enhance students' comprehension of mathematical calculations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training across in- and outpatient clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Hudelson, Patricia; Demaurex, Florence; Luthy, Christophe; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu; De Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-05-01

    Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training are important to identify before designing context-specific training programmes, since learrners' perceived needs can influence the effectiveness of training. To explore residents' perceptions of their training needs and training experiences around communication skills, and whether these differ between residents training in inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. Four focus groups (FG) and a self-administered questionnaire were conducted with residents working in in- and outpatient medical service settings at a Swiss University Hospital. Focus groups explored residents' perceptions of their communication needs, their past training experiences and suggestions for future training programmes in communication skills. Transcripts were analysed in a thematic way using qualitative analytic approaches. All residents from both settings were asked to complete a questionnaire that queried their sociodemographics and amount of prior training in communication skills. In focus groups, outpatient residents felt that communication skills were especially useful in addressing chronic diseases and social issues. In contrast, inpatient residents emphasized the importance of good communication skills for dealing with family conflicts and end-of-life issues. Felt needs reflected residents' differing service priorities: outpatient residents saw the need for skills to structure the consultation and explore patients' perspectives in order to build therapeutic alliances, whereas inpatient residents wanted techniques to help them break bad news, provide information and increase their own well-being. The survey's overall response rate was 56%. Its data showed that outpatient residents received more training in communication skills and more of them than inpatient residents considered communication skills training to be useful (100% vs 74%). Outpatient residents' perceived needs in communication skills were more patient

  5. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Bente; Mortensen, Lene S; Scherpbier, Albert J J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2010-09-21

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate in clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education. The study was a trans-sectional correlation study. The educational climate was investigated by a survey among all doctors (specialists and trainees) in the departments. Leadership skills of the consultants responsible for education were measured by multi-source feedback scores from heads of departments, peer consultants, and trainees. Doctors from 42 clinical departments representing 21 specialties participated. The response rate of the educational climate investigation was moderate 52% (420/811), Response rate was high in the multisource-feedback process 84.3% (420/498). The educational climate was scored quite high mean 3.9 (SD 0.3) on a five-point Likert scale. Likewise the leadership skills of the clinical consultants responsible for education were considered good, mean 5.4 (SD 0.6) on a seven-point Likert scale. There was no significant correlation between the scores concerning the educational climate and the scores on leadership skills, r = 0.17 (p = 0.29). This study found no relation between the educational climate and the leadership skills of the clinical consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education in clinical departments with the instruments used. Our results indicate that consultants responsible for education are in a weak position to influence the educational climate in the clinical department. Further studies are needed to explore, how heads of departments and other factors related to the clinical organisation could influence the educational climate.

  6. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, pskill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  7. An interview study of how clinical teachers develop skills to attend to different level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.

  8. Effects of additional team-based learning on students' clinical reasoning skills: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Meike; Brüstle, Peter; Giesler, Marianne; Rijntjes, Michel; Brich, Jochen

    2017-07-14

    In the field of Neurology good clinical reasoning skills are essential for successful diagnosing and treatment. Team-based learning (TBL), an active learning and small group instructional strategy, is a promising method for fostering these skills. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a supplementary TBL-class on students' clinical decision-making skills. Fourth- and fifth-year medical students participated in this pilot study (static-group comparison design). The non-treatment group (n = 15) did not receive any additional training beyond regular teaching in the neurology course. The treatment group (n = 11) took part in a supplementary TBL-class optimized for teaching clinical reasoning in addition to the regular teaching in the neurology course. Clinical decision making skills were assessed using a key-feature problem examination. Factual and conceptual knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice question examination. The TBL-group performed significantly better than the non-TBL-group (p = 0.026) in the key-feature problem examination. No significant differences between the results of the multiple-choice question examination of both groups were found. In this pilot study participants of a supplementary TBL-class significantly improved clinical decision-making skills, indicating that TBL may be an appropriate method for teaching clinical decision making in neurology. Further research is needed for replication in larger groups and other clinical fields.

  9. Learning clinical communication skills: outcomes of a program for professional practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Almeida, Susana S; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Teles, Ana; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of a communication skills program on professional practitioners' performance and self-confidence in clinical interviewing. Twenty-five health professionals took 3 months of basic communication skills followed by 3 months of advanced communication skills. An additional quarter dealt with self-awareness and communication in special situations. Participants' performances were evaluated in clinical interviews with standardized patients before, during and after the program by external observers and standardized patients, using standardized instruments. Participants assessed their own confidence in their communication skills before and after the program. Data were analysed using GLM repeated-measures procedures in SPSS. Basic communication skills and self-confidence improved throughout the 6 months; competencies declined but self-confidence continued to increase 4 months later. Compared with taking no course, differences were statistically significant after the 6 months (external observers only) and 4 months later (external observers and participants). The program effectively improved communication skills, although significantly only when assessed by external observers. Four months later, effects were significant in communication skills (external observers), despite the decline and in self-confidence. While periodical enrollment in programs for the practice of communication skills may help maintain performance, more knowledge on communication and self-awareness may enhance self-confidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interprofessional teamwork skills as predictors of clinical outcomes in a simulated healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Sarah; Kern, Donna; Zoller, James; Blue, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Teaching interprofessional (IP) teamwork skills is a goal of interprofessional education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IP teamwork skills, attitudes and clinical outcomes in a simulated clinical setting. One hundred-twenty health professions students (medicine, pharmacy, physician assistant) worked in interprofessional teams to manage a "patient" in a health care simulation setting. Students completed the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) attitudinal survey instrument. Students' responses were averaged by team to create an IEPS attitudes score. Teamwork skills for each team were rated by trained observers using a checklist to calculate a teamwork score (TWS). Clinical outcome scores (COS) were determined by summation of completed clinical tasks performed by the team based on an expert developed checklist. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of IEPS and TWS with COS. IEPS score was not a significant predictor of COS (p=0.054), but TWS was a significant predictor (pstudents' interprofessional teamwork skills are significant predictors of positive clinical outcomes. Interprofessional curricular models that produce effective teamwork skills can improve student performance in clinical environments and likely improve teamwork practice to positively affect patient care outcomes.

  11. Using Facebook to enhance commencing student confidence in clinical skill development: A phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette; Cooke, Marie; Walker, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore commencing nursing students' experience of Facebook as an adjunct to on-campus course delivery to determine its impact as a learning strategy for improving confidence in clinical skill development. Approaches supporting nursing students in the development of clinical skills have relied on 'real-life' clinical placements and simulated on-campus clinical laboratories. However students continue to report a lack of confidence in their clinical skills for practice. Social networking sites including Facebook are being used as a learning strategy to stimulate active and collaborative learning approaches. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to provide an understanding of the experience of confidence in clinical skills development for nursing students. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with commencing students about their experience as learners using Facebook and their perceptions of the impact on their clinical skill development. Ten first-year student nurses at one university in south-east Queensland, Australia. Four themes emerged from the data including: 'We're all in this together'; 'I can do this'; 'This is about my future goals and success'; and, 'Real time is not fast enough!'. These themes provide new meaningful insights demonstrating students' sense of confidence in clinical skills was increased through engagement with a dedicated Facebook page. The findings of this study have relevance to academics in the design of learning strategies for clinical courses to further support student confidence and engagement through peer collaboration and active learning processes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transfer of communication skills training from workshop to workplace: the impact of clinical supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Cathy; Clegg, Jenny; Maguire, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have recognised that the communication skills learned in the training environment are not always transferred back into the clinical setting. This paper reports a study which investigated the potential of clinical supervision in enhancing the transfer process. A randomised controlled trial was conducted involving 61 clinical nurse specialists. All attended a 3-day communication skills training workshop. Twenty-nine were then randomised to 4 weeks of clinical supervision, aimed at facilitating transfer of newly acquired skills into practice. Assessments, using real and simulated patients, were carried out before the course, immediately after the supervision period and 3 months later. Interviews were rated objectively using the Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale (MIARS) to assess nurses' ability to use key skills, respond to patient cues and identify patient concerns. Assessments with simulated patients showed that the training programme was extremely effective in changing competence in all three key areas. However, only those who experienced supervision showed any evidence of transfer. Improvements were found in the supervised groups' use of open questions, negotiation and psychological exploration. Whilst neither group facilitated more disclosure of cues or concerns, those in the experimental group responded more effectively to the cues disclosed, reduced their distancing behaviour and increasing their exploration of cues. The study has shown that whilst training enhances skills, without intervention, it may have little effect on clinical practice. The potential role of clinical supervision as one way of enhancing the clinical effectiveness of communication skills training programmes has been demonstrated. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: This study raises questions about the effectiveness of training programmes which do not incorporate a transfer element, and provides evidence to support the need for clinical supervision for clinical nurse specialist.

  13. Workforce Planning in Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) civilian acquisition workforces. The greater need for workforce planning is expected to arise from an unusually heavy workforce turnover, itself due to a large number of expected retirements among older employees in a workforce...

  14. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  15. An Innovative Clinical Skills “Boot Camp” for Dental Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Castillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During a 1-year hospital-based residency, dental residents are required to rotate through many departments including surgery, medicine, and emergency medicine. It became apparent that there was a gap between clinical skills knowledge taught in dental school curriculum and skills required for hospital-based patient care. In response, a simulation-based intensive clinical skill “boot camp” was created. The boot camp provided an intensive, interactive 3-day session for the dental residents. During the 3 days, residents were introduced to medical knowledge and skills that were necessary for their inpatient hospital rotations but were lacking in traditional dental school curriculum. Effectiveness of the boot camp was assessed in terms of knowledge base and comfort through presession and postsession surveys. According to resident feedback, this intensive introduction for the dental residents improved their readiness for their inpatient hospital-based residency.

  16. Preparing for the data revolution: identifying minimum health information competencies among the health workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Maxine; Hodge, Nicola; Mares, Renata E; Rodney, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Health information is required for a variety of purposes at all levels of a health system, and a workforce skilled in collecting, analysing, presenting, and disseminating such information is essential to fulfil these demands. While it is established that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are facing shortages in human resources for health (HRH), there has been little systematic attention focussed on non-clinical competencies. In response, we developed a framework that defines...

  17. Factors shaping how clinical educators use their educational knowledge and skills in the clinical workplace: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Koshila; Greenhill, Jennene

    2016-02-18

    In order to consolidate their educational knowledge and skills and develop their educational role, many clinicians undertake professional development in clinical education and supervision. It is well established that these educationally-focussed professional development activities have a positive impact. However, it is less clear what factors within the clinical workplace can shape how health professionals may use and apply their educational knowledge and skills and undertake their educational role. Looking through the lens of workplace affordances, this paper draws attention to the contextual, personal and interactional factors that impact on how clinical educators integrate their educational knowledge and skills into the practice setting, and undertake their educational role. Data were gathered via a survey of 387 clinical educators and semi-structured interviews with 12 clinical educators and 6 workplace managers. In this paper, we focus on analysing and reporting the qualitative data gathered in this study. This qualitative data were subject to a thematic analysis and guided by theoretical constructs related to workplace affordances. Three key themes were identified including contextual, personal and interactional factors. Contextual elements referred to organisational structures and systems that impact on participants' educational role, how participants' clinical education role was articulated and configured within the organisation, and how the organisation shaped the educational opportunities available to clinicians. Personal factors encompassed clinicians' personal motivations and goals to teach and be involved in education, develop their own educational skills and function as a role model for students. Interactional factors referred to the professional interactions and networks through which clinicians shared their educational knowledge and skills and further consolidated their profile as educational advocates in their workplace. There are a number of

  18. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...... demonstrated remarkable advantages to peer-learning in skills-lab. Thus, peer-learning activities could be essential to providing high-quality medical training in the face of limited clinical teacher resources in future undergraduate medical education.......This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate....... The Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator framework was used to reflect this change and construct validity was explored for RIME-based evaluations of single-patient encounters. In the third study the effects of training in pairs--also known as dyad practice--examined. This study showed that the students...

  19. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  20. Residency Programs and Clinical Leadership Skills Among New Saudi Graduate Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2016-01-01

    Nurse residency programs have been adopted by health care organizations to assist new graduate nurses with daily challenges such as intense working environments, increasing patient acuity, and complex technologies. Overall, nurse residency programs are proven beneficial in helping nurses transition from the student role to independent practitioners and bedside leaders. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of residency programs on leadership skills of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. The study design was cross-sectional involving a convenience sample (n = 98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The Clinical Leadership Survey was used to measure the new graduate nurses' clinical leadership skills based on whether they completed a residency program or not. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine leadership skills in this sample of new Saudi graduate nurses. A significant difference was found between residents and nonresidents in their leadership skills (t = 10.48, P = .000). Specifically, residents were significantly more likely to show higher levels of leadership skills compared to their counterparts. Attending a residency program was associated with a significant increase in clinical leadership skills. The findings of this study indicate that there is a need to implement more residency programs in hospitals of Saudi Arabia. It is imperative that nurse managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' leadership skills, which will in turn improve patient care. Further research should examine how residency programs influence new graduate nurses' transition from student to practitioner with regard to clinical leadership skills in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical training in medical students during preclinical years in the skill lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayay N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Upadhayay Department of Physiology, Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center, Kaski, Nepal Background: In Nepal, medical education is a high-stakes and stressful course. To enhance learning and minimize students’ stress, the conventional method has been replaced by integrated, student-centered learning. As an approach to train effectively, colleges have started establishing skill labs.Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of clinical skill training on exam performance as compared with the conventional teaching practice. Further, to assess the perceptions of students of the importance of skill lab training in college.Method: Twenty students were randomly selected to participate in this cross-sectional study. On the internal examination, students showed skills on manikins, and examiners evaluated them. A sample question in the exam was “To perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR on half body human manikin.” On completion of the exam, opinions were collected from the students via a predesigned self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions regarding skill lab use and its benefits to them in developing their skills, with a few questions related to the exam pattern. The responses were expressed in frequencies.Results: We found that all (20/20 students performed CPR with confidence and without hesitation on the manikin. The practical examination performance (marks was categorized as excellent (7/20, good (8/20, average (3/20, and poor (2/20. The pass percentage after skill training was increased by 25% as compared with conventional teaching practice. The majority of the students (17/20 mentioned that skill is better learned by doing than by observing others’ performance or watching videos. A few students (6/20 said skills are better learned by observing the real disease state. They mentioned that skill lab is the better choice for learning major skills such as catheterization, opening

  2. Faculty Development for Fostering Clinical Reasoning Skills in Early Medical Students Using a Modified Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie Marcella; Hafler, Janet; Galerneau, France

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a necessary skill for medical students to acquire in the course of their education, and there is evidence that they can start this process at the undergraduate level. However, physician educators who are experts in their given fields may have difficulty conveying their complex thought processes to students. Providing faculty development that equips educators with tools to teach clinical reasoning may support skill development in early medical students. We provided faculty development on a modified Bayesian method of teaching clinical reasoning to clinician educators who facilitated small-group, case-based workshops with 2nd-year medical students. We interviewed them before and after the module regarding their perceptions on teaching clinical reasoning. We solicited feedback from the students about the effectiveness of the method in developing their clinical reasoning skills. We carried out this project during an institutional curriculum rebuild where clinical reasoning was a defined goal. At the time of the intervention, there was also increased involvement of the Teaching and Learning Center in elevating the status of teaching and learning. There was high overall satisfaction with the faculty development program. Both the faculty and the students described the modified Bayesian approach as effective in fostering the development of clinical reasoning skills. Through this work, we learned how to form a beneficial partnership between a clinician educator and Teaching and Learning Center to promote faculty development on a clinical reasoning teaching method for early medical students. We uncovered challenges faced by both faculty and early learners in this study. We observed that our faculty chose to utilize the method of teaching clinical reasoning in a variety of manners in the classroom. Despite obstacles and differing approaches utilized, we believe that this model can be emulated at other institutions to foster the development of clinical

  3. The outcomes and acceptability of near-peer teaching among medical students in clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Carole; Raw, Lynne

    2016-06-12

    To determine the outcomes and acceptability of final-year students tutoring in Clinical Skills to Years 1-2 students in a 4-week Medical Education elective. A paper-based survey with 14 questions requiring responses on a Likert-like scale and 2 questions with free-text responses was used to investigate Year 6 student-tutor (n=45) and Years 1-2 tutee (n=348) perceptions of near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills. The independent t-test compared mean responses from student-tutors and tutees, and thematic analysis of free-text responses was conducted. Tutee perceptions were significantly higher than student-tutor self-perceptions in small-group teaching and facilitation skills (p=0.000), teaching history-taking skills (p=0.046) and teaching physical examination skills (p=0.000). Perceptions in aspects of 'Confidence in tutoring' were not significantly different for student-tutors and tutees, with both having lowest perceptions for identifying and providing remediation for underperforming tutees. Student-tutors rated all areas of personal and professional development highly. Main themes emerging from analysis of student comments were the benefits to student-tutors, benefits to tutees and areas needing improvement, with outcomes of this near-peer teaching relating well to cognitive and social theories in the literature. Both student tutors and their tutees perceived near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills to be acceptable and beneficial with particular implications for Medical Education.

  4. Clinical assessment of transthoracic echocardiography skills: a generalizability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; O'Neill, Lotte; Jensen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Context: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a widely used cardiac imaging technique that all cardiologists should be able to perform competently. Traditionally, TTE competence has been assessed by unstructured observation or in test situations separated from daily clinical practice. An objec......Context: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a widely used cardiac imaging technique that all cardiologists should be able to perform competently. Traditionally, TTE competence has been assessed by unstructured observation or in test situations separated from daily clinical practice....... An objective assessment instrument for TTE technical proficiency including a global rating score and a checklist score has previously been shown reliability and validity in a standardised setting. Objectives: As clinical test situations typically have several sources of error giving rise to variance in scores......, a more thorough examination of the generalizability of the test scores is needed. Methods Nine physicians performed a TTE scan on the same three patients. Then, two raters rated all 27 TTE scans using the TTE technical assessment in a fully crossed generalizability study. Estimated variance components...

  5. Technology-based strategies for promoting clinical reasoning skills in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Teresa; Robb, Meigan

    2015-01-01

    Faculty face the demand of preparing nursing students for the constantly changing health care environment. Effective use of online, classroom, and clinical conferencing opportunities helps to enhance nursing students' clinical reasoning capabilities needed for practice. The growth of technology creates an avenue for faculty to develop engaging learning opportunities. This article presents technology-based strategies such as electronic concept mapping, electronic case histories, and digital storytelling that can be used to facilitate clinical reasoning skills.

  6. Information and Communication Technology Workforce Employability in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Mohammed Adam; Hasan, Muhammad; Hussin, Husnayati; Shah, Asadullah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are to understand ICT workforce employability in Malaysia, to identify the causes that influence the growth of skill gaps in the ICT workforce, and to determine ways to reduce these gaps. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the study comprised project reports and a literature review. Findings: The…

  7. Definitions and Design Options: Workforce Initiatives Discussion Paper #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Workforce initiatives are about giving people the skills to do their jobs well, about strengthening the institutional infrastructure that provides job services, about positioning labor markets to lead growth and increased investment, and about creating sustainable employment and improved working conditions. Workforce initiatives aim to fill a…

  8. Using computer assisted learning for clinical skills education in nursing: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline G; While, Alison E; Roberts, Julia D

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review of research investigating computer assisted learning for clinical skills education in nursing, the ways in which it has been studied and the general findings. Clinical skills are an essential aspect of nursing practice and there is international debate about the most effective ways in which these can be taught. Computer assisted learning has been used as an alternative to conventional teaching methods, and robust research to evaluate its effectiveness is essential. The CINAHL, Medline, BNI, PsycInfo and ERIC electronic databases were searched for the period 1997-2006 for research-based papers published in English. Electronic citation tracking and hand searching of reference lists and relevant journals was also undertaken. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. An integrative review was conducted and each paper was explored in relation to: design, aims, sample, outcome measures and findings. Many of the study samples were small and there were weaknesses in designs. There is limited empirical evidence addressing the use of computer assisted learning for clinical skills education in nursing. Computer assisted learning has been used to teach a limited range of clinical skills in a variety of settings. The paucity of evaluative studies indicates the need for more rigorous research to investigate the effect of computer assisted learning for this purpose. Areas that need to be addressed in future studies include: sample size, range of skills, longitudinal follow-up and control of confounding variables.

  9. Instructor and Dental Student Perceptions of Clinical Communication Skills via Structured Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Carly T

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use structured assessments to assess dental students' clinical communication skills exhibited during patient appointments. Fourth-year dental students (n=55) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham evaluated their own interpersonal skills in a clinical setting utilizing the Four Habits Coding Scheme. An instructor also assessed student-patient clinical communication. These assessments were used to identify perceived strengths and weaknesses in students' clinical communication. Both instructor assessments and student self-assessments pinpointed the following clinical communication skills as effective the most often: patient greeting, avoidance of jargon, and non-verbal behavior. There was also relative agreement between instructor assessments and student self-assessments regarding clinical communication skills that were rated as not effective most frequently: ensuring patient comprehension, identification of patient feelings, and exploration of barriers to treatment. These resulted pointed to strengths and weaknesses in the portion of the curriculum designed to prepare students for effective provider-patient communication. These results may suggest a need for the school's current behavioral science curriculum to better address discussion of potential treatment barriers and patient feelings as well as techniques to ensure patient comprehension.

  10. Development of a tool to support holistic generic assessment of clinical procedure skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Robert K; Strand, Janice; Gray, Tracey; Schuwirth, Lambert; Alun-Jones, Tom; Miller, Helen

    2008-06-01

    The challenges of maintaining comprehensive banks of valid checklists make context-specific checklists for assessment of clinical procedural skills problematic. This paper reports the development of a tool which supports generic holistic assessment of clinical procedural skills. We carried out a literature review, focus groups and non-participant observation of assessments with interview of participants, participant evaluation of a pilot objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a national modified Delphi study with prior definitions of consensus and an OSCE. Participants were volunteers from a large acute teaching trust, a teaching primary care trust and a national sample of National Health Service staff. Results In total, 86 students, trainees and staff took part in the focus groups, observation of assessments and pilot OSCE, 252 in the Delphi study and 46 candidates and 50 assessors in the final OSCE. We developed a prototype tool with 5 broad categories amongst which were distributed 38 component competencies. There was > 70% agreement (our prior definition of consensus) at the first round of the Delphi study for inclusion of all categories and themes and no consensus for inclusion of additional categories or themes. Generalisability was 0.76. An OSCE based on the instrument has a predicted reliability of 0.79 with 12 stations and 1 assessor per station or 10 stations and 2 assessors per station. This clinical procedural skills assessment tool enables reliable assessment and has content and face validity for the assessment of clinical procedural skills. We have designated it the Leicester Clinical Procedure Assessment Tool (LCAT).

  11. BOOK REVIEW - DOC, PATIENTS' OUTCOME IS IN YOUR HAND. IMPROVE YOUR CLINICAL SKILL WITH DERMATOLOGY CLINICAL SKILL TEST KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHNA RIDZWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has condensed her almost 30 years of working experience to present dermatology in a uniqueand interesting manner in this book. Unlike a textbook, the reader is guided on common as well as commonly misdiagnosed skin conditions including adverse drug reactions and occupational dermatoses by a series of quizzes which are different from the usual multiple choice type of questions. Responses are scored accordingto their implications on the respondent; for example, the answer will denote that the respondent is either a safe doctor, wasteful of resources or may cause harm to the patient.It will be advantageous for the reader to know basic dermatology but the author has considered readers who may be unfamiliar with the terms by first testing the reader on his knowledge of common dermatological terminologies. The correct answers are given. Useful tips are also provided to differentiate and recognise the skin lesions. With more than 300 coloured images of a wide range of skin conditions collected from local patients, the reader will be able to actively challenge himself in privacy and at his own pace. This book is simple and fun as a learning tool and will be very useful for housemen, postgraduate medical trainees and primary healthcare providers who want to assess their skills in dermatology.

  12. Perceived versus actual condom skills among clients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Cabral, R J

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether individual self-reports of perceived ability to use a condom correctly correlated with the actual ability to do so. Participants in the study were 3,059 clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The findings revealed that the participants' perceived self-efficacy with regard to using a condom effectively was a poor indicator of their clinically demonstrated skills using a penile model as scored on the 6-point Condom Skills Index...

  13. Effects of an intensive clinical skills course on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence: A quasi-experimental post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyun

    2018-02-01

    To foster nursing professionals, nursing education requires the integration of knowledge and practice. Nursing students in their senior year experience considerable stress in performing the core nursing skills because, typically, they have limited opportunities to practice these skills in their clinical practicum. Therefore, nurse educators should revise the nursing curricula to focus on core nursing skills. To identify the effect of an intensive clinical skills course for senior nursing students on their self-confidence and clinical competence. A quasi-experimental post-test study. A university in South Korea during the 2015-2016 academic year. A convenience sample of 162 senior nursing students. The experimental group (n=79) underwent the intensive clinical skills course, whereas the control group (n=83) did not. During the course, students repeatedly practiced the 20 items that make up the core basic nursing skills using clinical scenarios. Participants' self-confidence in the core clinical nursing skills was measured using a 10-point scale, while their clinical competence with these skills was measured using the core clinical nursing skills checklist. Independent t-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The mean scores in self-confidence and clinical competence were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. This intensive clinical skills courses had a positive effect on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence for the core clinical nursing skills. This study emphasizes the importance of reeducation using a clinical skills course during the transition from student to nursing professional. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha

    The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward sister's role. It recommends that sisters should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward sisters are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward sisters spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role.

  15. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle C; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-07-01

    This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  16. Evidence-informed primary health care workforce policy: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, Jim; Brooks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Australia is facing a primary health care workforce shortage. To inform primary health care (PHC) workforce policy reforms, reflection is required on ways to strengthen the evidence base and its uptake into policy making. In 2008 the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute funded the Australian Health Workforce Institute to host Professor James Buchan, Queen Margaret University, UK, an expert in health services policy research and health workforce planning. Professor Buchan's visit enabled over forty Australian PHC workforce mid-career and senior researchers and policy stakeholders to be involved in roundtable policy dialogue on issues influencing PHC workforce policy making. Six key thematic questions emerged. (1) What makes PHC workforce planning different? (2) Why does the PHC workforce need to be viewed in a global context? (3) What is the capacity of PHC workforce research? (4) What policy levers exist for PHC workforce planning? (5) What principles can guide PHC workforce planning? (6) What incentives exist to optimise the use of evidence in policy making? The emerging themes need to be discussed within the context of current PHC workforce policy reforms, which are focussed on increasing workforce supply (via education/training programs), changing the skill mix and extending the roles of health workers to meet patient needs. With the Australian government seeking to reform and strengthen the PHC workforce, key questions remain about ways to strengthen the PHC workforce evidence base and its uptake into PHC workforce policy making.

  17. Training oncology and palliative care clinical nurse specialists in psychological skills: evaluation of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jane E; Aitken, Susan; Watson, Nina; McVey, Joanne; Helbert, Jan; Wraith, Anita; Taylor, Vanessa; Catesby, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    National guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend training Clinical Nurse Specialists in psychological skills to improve the assessment and intervention with psychological problems experienced by people with a cancer diagnosis (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2004). This pilot study evaluated a three-day training program combined with supervision sessions from Clinical Psychologists that focused on developing skills in psychological assessment and intervention for common problems experienced by people with cancer. Questionnaires were developed to measure participants' levels of confidence in 15 competencies of psychological skills. Participants completed these prior to the program and on completion of the program. Summative evaluation was undertaken and results were compared. In addition, a focus group interview provided qualitative data of participants' experiences of the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Following the program, participants rated their confidence in psychological assessment and skills associated with providing psychological support as having increased in all areas. This included improved knowledge of psychological theories, skills in assessment and intervention and accessing and using supervision appropriately. The largest increase was in providing psycho-education to support the coping strategies of patients and carers. Thematic analysis of interview data identified two main themes including learning experiences and program enhancements. The significance of the clinical supervision sessions as key learning opportunities, achieved through the development of a community of practice, emerged. Although this pilot study has limitations, the results suggest that a combined teaching and supervision program is effective in improving Clinical Nurse Specialists' confidence level in specific psychological skills. Participants' experiences highlighted suggestions for refinement and development of the program

  18. Midwifery students' experiences of learning clinical skills in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Golnoosh; Shahriari, Mohsen; Keyvanara, Mahmood; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2018-03-09

    A qualitative study was used. Midwifery students from three universities in Iran participated. The study used a convenience sample of eighteen students. Data for this study was collected using semi-structured interviews (N=12) and focus groups (N=6). Data were recorded on a digital audio recorder and then transcribed. The qualitative data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Six broad themes emerged from the analysis: Limited opportunities to experience skills, difficulties with course plan gaps, need for creating a supportive clinical environment, learning drives, confusion between different methods, and stress in the clinical setting. Short verbatim quotations from the participants were presented to provide evidence for the interpretation of data. The findings of this study have provided a clear picture of the factors and mechanisms involved in learning clinical skills by midwifery students. This study showed that students had some difficulties and concerns during learning of clinical midwifery skills. The findings of this study suggest that midwifery educators conduct further studies to tackle these issues in clinical skills learning. The findings of this study are subject to some limitations which are discussed.

  19. Analyzing communication skills of Pediatric Postgraduate Residents in Clinical Encounter by using video recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Attia; Khan, Rehan Ahmed; Jabeen, Uzma; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2017-01-01

    To analyze communication skills of pediatric postgraduate residents in clinical encounter by using video recordings. This qualitative exploratory research was conducted through video recording at The Children's Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Residents who had attended the mandatory communication skills workshop offered by CPSP were included. The video recording of clinical encounter was done by a trained audiovisual person while the resident was interacting with the patient in the clinical encounter. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Initially on open coding 36 codes emerged and then through axial and selective coding these were condensed to 17 subthemes. Out of these four main themes emerged: (1) Courteous and polite attitude, (2) Marginal nonverbal communication skills, (3) Power game/Ignoring child participation and (4) Patient as medical object/Instrumental behaviour. All residents treated the patient as a medical object to reach a right diagnosis and ignored them as a human being. There was dominant role of doctors and marginal nonverbal communication skills were displayed by the residents in the form of lack of social touch, and appropriate eye contact due to documenting notes. A brief non-medical interaction for rapport building at the beginning of interaction was missing and there was lack of child involvement. Paediatric postgraduate residents were polite while communicating with parents and child but lacking in good nonverbal communication skills. Communication pattern in our study was mostly one-way showing doctor's instrumental behaviour and ignoring the child participation.

  20. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace during clinical rounds: impact of a program for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Bragard, Isabelle; Delvaux, Nicole; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Serge; Meunier, Julie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius

    2010-08-26

    Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm). Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92) compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88) (p=.046). Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR)=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI)=1.02-1.34; p=.023). Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018) and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042) (respectively 1.15 (RR), 1.08-1.23 (95%CI), ptransfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills training in order to ensure a more important training effect size on transfer.

  1. Learning outcomes using video in supervision and peer feedback during clinical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita

    supervision of clinical skills (formative assessment). Demonstrations of these principles will be presented as video podcasts during the session. The learning outcomes of video supervision and peer-feedback were assessed in an online questionnaire survey. Results Results of the supervision showed large self......Objective New technology and learning principles were introduced in a clinical skills training laboratory (iLab). The intension was to move from apprenticeship to active learning principles including peer feedback and supervision using video. The objective of this study was to evaluate student...... learning outcomes in a manual skills training subject using video during feedback and supervision. Methods The iLab classroom was designed to fit four principles of teaching using video. Two of these principles were (a) group work using peer-feedback on videos produced by the students and, (b) video...

  2. Growing Our Workforce through Business and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Douglas R.; Davidchik, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, Central Community College (CCC) established the Mechatronics Education Center (MEC), a regional center of excellence, to help the state address the shortage of skilled technicians in the area of industrial automation. The MEC addresses the needs of the current and future workforce through the implementation of its three main components:…

  3. Workforce Development : Middle East and North Africa Regional Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Thacker, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The workforce development (WfD) systems of the seven MENA countries studied in this exercise—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories, Tunisia, and Yemen—were evaluated using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) workforce development diagnostic tool and scored similarly in many aspects. Broadly, the seven MENA countries’ WfD systems remain very much in need of policy and institutional reform in order to better match skills demand with skills supply. Wi...

  4. Qualified nurses' rate new nursing graduates as lacking skills in key clinical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses on the abilities of newly registered nursing graduates to perform a variety of clinical skills. Evidence from the literature suggests that undergraduate nursing programmes do not adequately prepare nursing students to be practice-ready on completion of their nursing courses. A descriptive quantitative design was used. Participants were recruited through the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Victorian branch. A brief explanation of the study and a link to the survey were promoted in their monthly e-newsletter. A total of 245 qualified nurses in the state of Victoria, Australia participated in this study. A survey tool of 51 clinical skills and open-ended questions was used, whereby participants were asked to rate new nursing graduates' abilities using a 5-point Likert scale. Overall participants rated new nursing graduates' abilities for undertaking clinical skills as good or very good in 35·3% of skills, 33·3% were rated as adequate and 31·4% rated as being performed poorly or very poorly. Of concern, essential clinical skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, working independently and assessment procedures, were found to be poorly executed and affecting new registered nurses graduates' competence. The findings from this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education providers to enhance nursing curricula and work collaboratively with healthcare settings in preparing nurses to be competent, safe practitioners on completion of their studies. Identifying key areas in which new nursing graduates are not yet competent means that educational providers and educators from healthcare settings can focus on these skills in better preparing our nurses to be work ready. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caroline San; Rogan, Fran; Kilstoff, Kathleen; Brown, Di

    2006-09-01

    This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative oral communication skills program for first year students in a Bachelor of Nursing degree at an Australian university. This program was introduced in 2004 to meet the needs of first year undergraduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds who had experienced difficulties with spoken English while on clinical placement. The program consisted of early identification of students in need of communication development, a series of classes incorporated into the degree program to address students' needs, followed by a clinical placement block. This paper describes the structure of the program, discusses some of the major problems encountered by students in the clinical setting and presents some of the teaching strategies used to address these problems. Evaluations of the program suggest that students' communication skills and confidence improved, resulting in a more positive clinical experience for the majority of students.

  6. Alternating skills training and clerkships to ease the transition from preclinical to clinical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hell, E.A.; Kuks, J.B.; Borleffs, J.C.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The transition from preclinical to clinical training is perceived as stressful with a high workload being the main difficulty. To ease this transition, we implemented a dual learning year, where just-in-time skills training and clerkships alternated. Aims: To examine the effect of the

  7. Getting fit for practice: an innovative paediatric clinical placement provided physiotherapy students opportunities for skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Bruder, Andrea; Taylor, Nicholas F; Angelo, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Negative attitudes to disability among physiotherapy students in paediatric placements might be addressed by providing clinical placement opportunities for students early in their course. The aim of this qualitative research study was to explore what physiotherapy students reported learning from an innovative paediatric placement option. Qualitative research with in-depth interviews. Seventeen first and second year physiotherapy students (15 women, 2 men; mean age 19.9 (SD 1.4) years) who took part in the clinical education experience. The experience comprised a student-led progressive resistance training programme performed twice a week for 10 weeks at a community gymnasium with an adolescent with Down syndrome. In-depth interviews were completed after the 10-week programme and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged from the data, one about being a student mentor and the second about skill development and application. The physiotherapy students indicated the programme was a challenging yet rewarding experience, and that they gained an increased appreciation of disability. They reported developing and applying a range of communication, professional and physiotherapy specific skills. The results suggest that the clinical experience provided physiotherapy students with opportunities to learn clinical skills, generic professional skills, and better understand disability in young people. Many of the learning outcomes identified by the participating students align with desired graduate capabilities and required professional competencies. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Promoting Assessment Efficacy through an Integrated System for Online Clinical Assessment of Practical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter J.; Engstrom, Craig; Green, Anita; Friis, Peter; Dickens, Sue; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation outcomes from an externally funded research project involving the online clinical assessment of practical skills (eCAPS) using web-based video technologies within a university medical programme. eCAPS was implemented to trial this web-based approach for promoting the efficacy of "practical" skills…

  9. The Integration of Psychomotor Skills in a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum: The Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne N.; MacNeil, M. A. J.; Harrison, Rosamund L.; Clark, D. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the restructuring of clinical clerkships at the University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school as part of a new, hybrid, problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, focusing on strategies for integrating development of psychomotor skills. Methods of achieving both horizontal and vertical integration of competencies through grouping…

  10. Assessing the Clinical Skills of Dental Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carly L.; Grey, Nick; Satterthwaite, Julian D.

    2013-01-01

    Education, from a student perspective, is largely driven by assessment. An effective assessment tool should be both valid and reliable, yet this is often not achieved. The aim of this literature review is to identify and appraise the evidence base for assessment tools used primarily in evaluating clinical skills of dental students. Methods:…

  11. Identifying Culturally Competent Clinical Skills in Speech-Language Pathologists in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify specific clinical skills in speech-language pathologists (SLPs) that may constitute cultural competency, a term which currently lacks operational definition. Through qualitative interview methods, the following research questions were addressed: (1) What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLPs'…

  12. Skills in clinical communication: Are we correctly assessing them at undergraduate level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zamora Cervantes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.

  13. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  14. Utilizing visual art to enhance the clinical observation skills of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Sona K; Saks, Norma S

    2013-07-01

    Clinical observation is fundamental in practicing medicine, but these skills are rarely taught. Currently no evidence-based exercises/courses exist for medical student training in observation skills. The goal was to develop and teach a visual arts-based exercise for medical students, and to evaluate its usefulness in enhancing observation skills in clinical diagnosis. A pre- and posttest and evaluation survey were developed for a three-hour exercise presented to medical students just before starting clerkships. Students were provided with questions to guide discussion of both representational and non-representational works of art. Quantitative analysis revealed that the mean number of observations between pre- and posttests was not significantly different (n=70: 8.63 vs. 9.13, p=0.22). Qualitative analysis of written responses identified four themes: (1) use of subjective terminology, (2) scope of interpretations, (3) speculative thinking, and (4) use of visual analogies. Evaluative comments indicated that students felt the exercise enhanced both mindfulness and skills. Using visual art images with guided questions can train medical students in observation skills. This exercise can be replicated without specially trained personnel or art museum partnerships.

  15. Use of simulated patients to assess the clinical and communication skills of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie C; Booth, Anneka; Jones, Bethan; Ramjeet, Sarah; Wong, Eva

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the quality and appropriateness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) supply from community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in the southwest of England during 2007. Two simulated patient ('mystery shopper') scenarios to each participating pharmacy, one where the supply of EHC would be appropriate (scenario 1) and one where there was a drug interaction between EHC and St John's Wort, and the supply inappropriate (scenario 2). Pharmacy consultations were rated using criteria developed from two focus groups: one with pharmacist academics and one with female university students. Feedback to pharmacists to inform their continuing professional development was provided. Scores on rating scales encompassing the clinical and communication skills of the participating community pharmacists completed immediately after each mystery shopper visit. 40 pharmacist visits were completed: 21 for scenario 1 and 19 for scenario 2. Eighteen pharmacists were visited twice. Five pharmacists visited for scenario 2 supplied EHC against professional guidance, although other reference sources conflicted with this advice. Pharmacies which were part of the local PGD scheme scored higher overall in scenario 1 (P = 0.005) than those not part of the scheme. Overall the communication skills of pharmacists were rated highly although some pharmacists used jargon when explaining the interaction for scenario 2. Formatively assessing communication skills in an integrative manner alongside clinical skills has been identified as an important part of the medical consultation skills training and can be incorporated into the routine assessment and feedback of pharmacy over-the-counter medicines advice.

  16. Identifying emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilgün; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Emotional intelligence is "the ability of a person to comprehend self-emotions, to show empathy towards the feelings of others, and to control self-emotions in a way that enriches life." Nurses with a higher emotional intelligence level offer more efficient and professional care, and they accomplish more in their social and professional lives. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. The Introductory Information Form and the Bar-On emotional intelligence Inventory were used to collect data between 20th June and 20th August 2012. The study was conducted with 312 nurses from 37 hospitals located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in Ankara. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence scores of the nurses according to demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, having children. Thus, sociodemographic factors did not appear to be key factors, but some professional variables did. Higher total emotional intelligence scores were observed in those who had 10 years or longer experience, who found oneself successful in professional life, who stated that emotional intelligence is an improvable skill and who previously received self-improvement training. Interpersonal skills were higher in those with a graduate degree and in nurses working in polyclinics and paediatric units. These findings indicate which groups require improvement in emotional intelligence skills and which skills need improvement. Additionally, these results provide knowledge and create awareness about emotional intelligence skills of nurses and the distribution of these skills according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Implementation of emotional intelligence improvement programmes targeting the determined clinical nursing groups by nursing administrations can help the increase in

  17. The impacts of observing flawed and flawless demonstrations on clinical skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domuracki, Kurt; Wong, Arthur; Olivieri, Lori; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2015-02-01

    Clinical skills expertise can be advanced through accessible and cost-effective video-based observational practice activities. Previous findings suggest that the observation of performances of skills that include flaws can be beneficial to trainees. Observing the scope of variability within a skilled movement allows learners to develop strategies to manage the potential for and consequences associated with errors. This study tests this observational learning approach on the development of the skills of central line insertion (CLI). Medical trainees with no CLI experience (n = 39) were randomised to three observational practice groups: a group which viewed and assessed videos of an expert performing a CLI without any errors (F); a group which viewed and assessed videos that contained a mix of flawless and errorful performances (E), and a group which viewed the same videos as the E group but were also given information concerning the correctness of their assessments (FA). All participants interacted with their observational videos each day for 4 days. Following this period, participants returned to the laboratory and performed a simulation-based insertion, which was assessed using a standard checklist and a global rating scale for the skill. These ratings served as the dependent measures for analysis. The checklist analysis revealed no differences between observational learning groups (grand mean ± standard error: [20.3 ± 0.7]/25). However, the global rating analysis revealed a main effect of group (d.f.2,36 = 4.51, p = 0.018), which describes better CLI performance in the FA group, compared with the F and E groups. Observational practice that includes errors improves the global performance aspects of clinical skill learning as long as learners are given confirmation that what they are observing is errorful. These findings provide a refined perspective on the optimal organisation of skill education programmes that combine physical and observational practice

  18. Using simulation pedagogy to teach clinical education skills: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Delany, Clare M

    2016-05-01

    Supervision of students is a key role of senior physiotherapy clinicians in teaching hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the effect of simulated learning environments (SLE) on educators' self-efficacy in student supervision skills. A pilot prospective randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation was conducted. Clinical educators were randomized to intervention (SLE) or control groups. SLE participants completed two 3-hour workshops, which included simulated clinical teaching scenarios, and facilitated debrief. Standard Education (StEd) participants completed two online learning modules. Change in educator clinical supervision self-efficacy (SE) and student perceptions of supervisor skill were calculated. Between-group comparisons of SE change scores were analyzed with independent t-tests to account for potential baseline differences in education experience. Eighteen educators (n = 18) were recruited (SLE [n = 10], StEd [n = 8]). Significant improvements in SE change scores were seen in SLE participants compared to control participants in three domains of self-efficacy: (1) talking to students about supervision and learning styles (p = 0.01); (2) adapting teaching styles for students' individual needs (p = 0.02); and (3) identifying strategies for future practice while supervising students (p = 0.02). This is the first study investigating SLE for teaching skills of clinical education. SLE improved educators' self-efficacy in three domains of clinical education. Sample size limited the interpretation of student ratings of educator supervision skills. Future studies using SLE would benefit from future large multicenter trials evaluating its effect on educators' teaching skills, student learning outcomes, and subsequent effects on patient care and health outcomes.

  19. Management issues regarding the contingent workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Smed, S. [Bowen Workforce Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Fifty per cent of corporate leaders in Calgary today will be eligible for retirement over the next 5 years. In addition, 53 per cent of the entire Calgary workforce is 45 years or older. This paper suggests that only companies that seek aggressive programs to engage immigrants and contractors will weather the skills shortages anticipated in the future. It was noted that contractors care about aligning values to organizations, regardless of the project length, and that professional development is a key consideration when it comes to selecting their next project. Contingent workforce issues include: effectiveness; classification; risk; and cost. It was stated that effectiveness of the contingent workforce is an employer's responsibility. Factors that would strengthen the relationship between corporations and contractors include: proper orientation to manage expectations; training to improve productivity; tracking to enhance the quality of the workforce; and a management process to ensure adherence to protocol. It was concluded that the contingent workforce is an essential component to human capital management strategy, but that key issues must be managed to avoid unnecessary costs. In addition, effectiveness improves when processes are implemented. It was also suggested that technology is an essential component of the solution. Outsourcing is an effective approach to managing the contingent workforce. tabs., figs.

  20. Promoting the self-regulation of clinical reasoning skills in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, R; Pesut, D; Kautz, D

    2009-10-02

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the research surrounding the theories and models the authors united to describe the essential components of clinical reasoning in nursing practice education. The research was conducted with nursing students in health care settings through the application of teaching and learning strategies with the Self-Regulated Learning Model (SRL) and the Outcome-Present-State-Test (OPT) Model of Reflective Clinical Reasoning. Standardized nursing languages provided the content and clinical vocabulary for the clinical reasoning task. This descriptive study described the application of the OPT model of clinical reasoning, use of nursing language content, and reflective journals based on the SRL model with 66 undergraduate nursing students over an 8 month period of time. The study tested the idea that self-regulation of clinical reasoning skills can be developed using self-regulation theory and the OPT model. This research supports a framework for effective teaching and learning methods to promote and document learner progress in mastering clinical reasoning skills. Self-regulated Learning strategies coupled with the OPT model suggest benefits of self-observation and self-monitoring during clinical reasoning activities, and pinpoints where guidance is needed for the development of cognitive and metacognitive awareness. Thinking and reasoning about the complexities of patient care needs requires attention to the content, processes and outcomes that make a nursing care difference. These principles and concepts are valuable to clinical decision making for nurses globally as they deal with local, regional, national and international health care issues.

  1. Medical Students’ Clinical Skills Do Not Match Their Teachers’ Expectations: Survey at Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sičaja, Mario; Romić, Dominik; Prka, Željko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To evaluate self-assessed level of clinical skills of graduating medical students at Zagreb University School of Medicine and compare them with clinical skill levels expected by their teachers and those defined by a criterion standard. Method The study included all medical students (n = 252) graduating from the Zagreb University School of Medicine in the 2004-2005 academic year and faculty members (n = 129) teaching clinical skills. The participants completed anonymous questionnaire listing 99 clinical skills divided into nine groups. Students were asked to assess their clinical skills on a 0-5 scale, and faculty members were asked to assess the minimum necessary level of clinical skills expected from graduating medical students, using the same 0-5 scale. We compared the assessment scores of faculty members with students’ self-assessment scores. Participants were grouped according to their descriptive characteristics for further comparison. Results The response rate was 91% for students and 70% for faculty members. Students’ self-assessment scores in all nine groups of clinical skills ranged from 2.2 ± 0.8 to 3.8 ± 0.5 and were lower than those defined by the criterion standard (3.0-4.0) and those expected by teachers (from 3.1 ± 1.0 to 4.4 ± 0.5) (P<0.001 for all). Students who had additional clinical skills training had higher scores in all groups of skills, ranging from 2.6 ± 0.9 to 4.0 ± 0.5 (P<0.001 for all). Male students had higher scores than female students in emergency (P<0.001), neurology (P = 0.017), ear, nose, and throat (P = 0.002), urology (P = 0.003), and surgery skills (P = 0.002). Teachers’ expectations did not vary according to their sex, academic position, or specialty. Conclusion Students’ self-assessed level of clinical skills was lower than that expected by their teachers. Education during clinical rotations is not focused on acquiring clinical skills, and additional clinical

  2. An evidence-based health workforce model for primary and community care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of best practice care can markedly improve clinical outcomes in patients with chronic disease. While the provision of a skilled, multidisciplinary team is pivotal to the delivery of best practice care, the occupational or skill mix required to deliver this care is unclear; it is also uncertain whether such a team would have the capacity to adequately address the complex needs of the clinic population. This is the role of needs-based health workforce planning. The objective of this article is to describe the development of an evidence-informed, needs-based health workforce model to support the delivery of best-practice interdisciplinary chronic disease management in the primary and community care setting using diabetes as a case exemplar. Discussion Development of the workforce model was informed by a strategic review of the literature, critical appraisal of clinical practice guidelines, and a consensus elicitation technique using expert multidisciplinary clinical panels. Twenty-four distinct patient attributes that require unique clinical competencies for the management of diabetes in the primary care setting were identified. Patient attributes were grouped into four major themes and developed into a conceptual model: the Workforce Evidence-Based (WEB planning model. The four levels of the WEB model are (1 promotion, prevention, and screening of the general or high-risk population; (2 type or stage of disease; (3 complications; and (4 threats to self-care capacity. Given the number of potential combinations of attributes, the model can account for literally millions of individual patient types, each with a distinct clinical team need, which can be used to estimate the total health workforce requirement. Summary The WEB model was developed in a way that is not only reflective of the diversity in the community and clinic populations but also parsimonious and clear to present and operationalize. A key feature of the

  3. A Simulated Clinical Skills Scenario to Teach Interprofessional Teamwork to Health Profession Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Adel Herge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Pennsylvania Delaware Geriatric Education Center developed an Interprofessional Clinical Skills Scenario (CSS to facilitate development of teamwork skills, specifically decision making, communication and collaboration, in health professions students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, occupational and physical therapy programs. The case scenario provides students with the opportunity to practice communication and collaboration with a team and standardized patient and caregiver in a simulated clinical setting. The CSS was integrated into an existing occupational therapy course in 2011. Students were recruited by faculty from various schools (health professions, pharmacy, nursing, medicine throughout the university to participate in the CSS. The program evaluation included demographic assessment, process, and outcome measures. 166 students have participated in the CSS. Pre- and post-tests measured students' attitude toward healthcare teams. A Team Observation Tool was used by faculty and standardized patients/caregivers to evaluate student teams on communication, information sharing, and team interaction. A satisfaction survey was completed by the learners at the end of the CSS. This simulated Clinical Skills Scenario is a practical, interactive exercise that allows teams of interprofessional students to practice teamwork skills and patient-centered care with standardized patients and caregivers. Following a review of the learning activity and evaluation tools, the authors reflect on the effectiveness of the evaluation process for this CSS.

  4. A model for educational feedback based on clinical communication skills strategies: beyond the "feedback sandwich".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Felise B; Parish, Sharon J; Reichgott, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Feedback is an essential tool in medical education, and the process is often difficult for both faculty and learner. There are strong analogies between the provision of educational feedback and doctor-patient communication during the clinical encounter. Relationship-building skills used in the clinical setting-Partnership, Empathy, Apology, Respect, Legitimation, Support (PEARLS)-can establish trust with the learner to better manage difficult feedback situations involving personal issues, unprofessional behavior, or a defensive learner. Using the stage of readiness to change (transtheoretical) model, the educator can "diagnose" the learner's stage of readiness and employ focused interventions to encourage desired changes. This approach has been positively received by medical educators in faculty development workshops. A model for provision of educational feedback based on communication skills used in the clinical encounter can be useful in the medical education setting. More robust evaluation of the construct validity is required in actual training program situations.

  5. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  6. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  7. Exploring cultural and linguistic influences on clinical communication skills: a qualitative study of International Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are known to perform less well in many postgraduate medical examinations when compared to their UK trained counterparts. This "differential attainment" is observed in both knowledge-based and clinical skills assessments. This study explored the influence of culture and language on IMGs clinical communication skills, in particular, their ability to seek, detect and acknowledge patients' concerns in a high stakes postgraduate clinical skills examination. Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework was used to look at the impact of culture on examination performance. This was a qualitative, interpretative study using thematic content analysis of video-recorded doctor-simulated patient consultations of candidates sitting the MRCP(UK) PACES examination, at a single examination centre in November 2012. The research utilised Hofstede's cultural dimension theory, a framework for comparing cultural factors amongst different nations, to help understand the reasons for failure. Five key themes accounted for the majority of communication failures in station 2, "history taking" and station 4, "communication skills and ethics" of the MRCP(UK) PACES examination. Two themes, the ability to detect clues and the ability to address concerns, related directly to the overall construct managing patients' concerns. Three other themes were found to impact the whole consultation. These were building relationships, providing structure and explanation and planning. Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help to contextualise some of these observations. In some cultures doctor and patient roles are relatively inflexible: the doctor may convey less information to the patient (higher power distance societies) and give less attention to building rapport (high uncertainty avoidance societies.) This may explain why cues and concerns presented by patients were overlooked in this setting. Understanding cultural differences through Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory

  8. [Clinical skills and outcomes of chair-side computer aided design and computer aided manufacture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q

    2018-04-09

    Computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology is a kind of oral digital system which is applied to clinical diagnosis and treatment. It overturns the traditional pattern, and provides a solution to restore defect tooth quickly and efficiently. In this paper we mainly discuss the clinical skills of chair-side CAD/CAM system, including tooth preparation, digital impression, the three-dimensional design of prosthesis, numerical control machining, clinical bonding and so on, and review the outcomes of several common kinds of materials at the same time.

  9. How evidence-based workforce planning in Australia is informing policy development in the retention and distribution of the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crettenden, Ian F; McCarty, Maureen V; Fenech, Bethany J; Heywood, Troy; Taitz, Michelle C; Tudman, Sam

    2014-02-03

    Australia's health workforce is facing significant challenges now and into the future. Health Workforce Australia (HWA) was established by the Council of Australian Governments as the national agency to progress health workforce reform to address the challenges of providing a skilled, innovative and flexible health workforce in Australia. HWA developed Australia's first major, long-term national workforce projections for doctors, nurses and midwives over a planning horizon to 2025 (called Health Workforce 2025; HW 2025), which provided a national platform for developing policies to help ensure Australia's health workforce meets the community's needs. A review of existing workforce planning methodologies, in concert with the project brief and an examination of data availability, identified that the best fit-for-purpose workforce planning methodology was the stock and flow model for estimating workforce supply and the utilisation method for estimating workforce demand. Scenario modelling was conducted to explore the implications of possible alternative futures, and to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to various input parameters. Extensive consultation was conducted to test the methodology, data and assumptions used, and also influenced the scenarios selected for modelling. Additionally, a number of other key principles were adopted in developing HW 2025 to ensure the workforce projections were robust and able to be applied nationally. The findings from HW 2025 highlighted that a 'business as usual' approach to Australia's health workforce is not sustainable over the next 10 years, with a need for co-ordinated, long-term reforms by government, professions and the higher education and training sector for a sustainable and affordable health workforce. The main policy levers identified to achieve change were innovation and reform, immigration, training capacity and efficiency and workforce distribution. While HW 2025 has provided a national platform for health

  10. IAEA Support for Building-Up a Highly Skilled Workforce Necessary for an Effective State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.; Cisar, V.; Crete, J.-M.; Stevens, R.

    2015-01-01

    The need for highly qualified and well trained experts in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation has been emphasized at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' meetings. To meet this need, the IAEA has developed a training programme dedicated to assisting Member States in building-up knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the sustainable establishment and maintenance of an effective State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. The IAEA training programme in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation is designed for experts in governmental organizations, regulatory bodies, utilities and relevant industries and is provided on a regular basis at the regional and international level and, upon request, at the national level. It is based on training needs assessed, inter alia, during relevant IAEA advisory services and is updated periodically by applying the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT). In the framework of this human resources assistance programme, the IAEA also facilitates fellowship programmes for young professionals, regularly hosts the IAEA safeguards traineeship programme and supports safeguards related outreach activities organized by donor countries, universities or other institutions. This paper provides an overview of the IAEA's efforts in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation training and education, including assistance to Member States' initiatives and nuclear education networks, focusing on the development and delivery of nuclear safeguards training and academic courses. Further, it discusses the important role of IAEA advisory missions and other mechanisms that significantly contribute to the continuous improvement of the IAEA Member States training in the area of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Finally, it outlines the forthcoming eLearning module on Safeguards that will complement the existing training

  11. Clinical reasoning skills in final-year dental students: A qualitative cross-curricula comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafea, E T; Dennick, R

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of undergraduate dental students regarding clinical reasoning skills and also discover the influences of different curriculum designs on the acquisition of these skills by students. Eighteen final-year students from three different dental schools with varied curricula and cultures participated in the current research. The research used qualitative methodology. The study took place in 2013-2014. Interviews captured the participants' own understanding of clinical reasoning and its acquisition plus they "talked through" a clinical problem using a "think-aloud" technique. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcripts of the recorded interviews. Results obtained were related to curriculum structure. Unfamiliarity with the term clinical reasoning was common in students. Students from different schools used different strategies to reason when discussing clinical vignettes. Clinical reasoning process was dominated by pattern recognition. Students' behaviours seemed to be influenced by cultural factors. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how students learn, understand and apply dental clinical reasoning which will improve educational practices in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A digital peer-to-peer learning platform for clinical skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnak, Jesse; Ortynski, Jennifer; Chow, Meghan; Nzekwu, Emeka

    2017-02-01

    Due to constraints in time and resources, medical curricula may not provide adequate opportunities for pre-clerkship students to practice clinical skills. To address this, medical students at the University of Alberta developed a digital peer-to-peer learning initiative. The initiative assessed if students can learn clinical skills from their peers in co-curricular practice objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs). A total of 144 first-year medical students participated. Students wrote case scenarios that were reviewed by physicians. Students enacted the cases in practice OSCEs, acting as the patient, physician, and evaluator. Verbal and electronic evaluations were completed. A digital platform was used to automate the process. Surveys were disseminated to assess student perceptions of their experience. Seventy-five percent of participants said they needed opportunities to practice patient histories and physical exams in addition to those provided in the medical school curriculum. All participants agreed that the co-curricular practice OSCEs met this need. The majority of participants also agreed that the digital platform was efficient and easy to use. Students found the practice OSCEs and digital platform effective for learning clinical skills. Thus, peer-to-peer learning and computer automation can be useful adjuncts to traditional medical curricula.

  13. Exploring the use of mobile technologies for the acquisition of clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Collette A

    2011-08-01

    Mobile learning has the potential to supplement information communication technology (ICT), online learning and the traditional teaching and learning methods to educate practitioners in the clinical practice area. Following the development of several Post Graduate modules of learning for the theory and clinical skills required to undertake the Newborn Infant Physical Examination (NIPE), a small research study was undertaken to combine mobile learning and NIPE. The research study explored the hypothesis that mobile devices could be used in pedagogically effective ways to support and enhance the learning and acquisition of clinical skills in the clinical arena. Participants in the study each received a handheld mobile device (iPod) that had been loaded with several Reusable Learning Objects (RLO) outlining each aspect of the physical examination to be performed. At the end of the module (12 weeks in duration), each participant completed an evaluation questionnaire. Participants confirmed that mobile learning afforded flexibility in time and place of learning and captured their interest in the learning material. This study reports that the use of mobile technology for skill acquisition is creative and innovative, placing learning firmly in the hands of the learner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of blended learning video resources to teach health students clinical skills: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Elisabeth; Rands, Hazel; Frommolt, Valda; Kain, Victoria; Plugge, Melanie; Mitchell, Marion

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this review is to inform future educational strategies by synthesising research related to blended learning resources using simulation videos to teach clinical skills for health students. An integrative review methodology was used to allow for the combination of diverse research methods to better understand the research topic. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of the following databases was conducted in consultation with a librarian using the following databases: SCOPUS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PsycINFO databases. Keywords and MeSH terms: clinical skills, nursing, health, student, blended learning, video, simulation and teaching. Data extracted from the studies included author, year, aims, design, sample, skill taught, outcome measures and findings. After screening the articles, extracting project data and completing summary tables, critical appraisal of the projects was completed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The MMAT scores varied from 50% to 100%. Thematic analysis was undertaken and we identified the following three themes: linking theory to practice, autonomy of learning and challenges of developing a blended learning model. Blended learning allowed for different student learning styles, repeated viewing, and enabled links between theory and practice. The video presentation needed to be realistic and culturally appropriate and this required both time and resources to create. A blended learning model, which incorporates video-assisted online resources, may be a useful tool to teach clinical skills to students of health including nursing. Blended learning not only increases students' knowledge and skills, but is often preferred by students due to its flexibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  16. Health Workforce Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  17. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  18. Designing a clinical skills training laboratory with focus on video for better learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita

    resources of varying quality on the internet if this is not made available during teaching. The objective of this project was to design a new clinical skills laboratory with IT and video facilities to support learning processes. Methods Teaching principles were described before decisions on the design......Objective The principles of apprenticeship in clinical skills training are increasingly being challenged. First, most students are proficient in learning from visual multimedia and will expect this to be part of a modern university education. Second, students will often find visual teaching...... on a priori described teaching and learning designs related to active learning principles. This was a complex process involving teachers, IT-experts, e-learning specialists and a variety of university employees....

  19. The effect of short-term workshop on improving clinical reasoning skill of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Jafari, Farshad; Kahbazi, Manijeh; Rafiei, Mohammad; Pakniyat, AbdolGhader

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning process leads clinician to get purposeful steps from signs and symptoms toward diagnosis and treatment. This research intends to investigate the effect of teaching clinical reasoning on problem-solving skills of medical students. This research is a semi-experimental study. Nineteen Medical student of the pediatric ward as case group participated in a two-day workshop for training clinical reasoning. Before the workshop, they filled out Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) questionnaires. Fifteen days after the workshop the DTI questionnaire completed and "key feature" (KF) test and "clinical reasoning problem" (CRP) test was held. 23 Medical student as the control group, without passing the clinical reasoning workshop DTI questionnaire completed, and KF test and CRP test was held. The average score of the DTI questionnaire in the control group was 162.04 and in the case group before the workshop was 153.26 and after the workshop was 181.68. Compare the average score of the DTI questionnaire before and after the workshop there is a significant difference. The difference between average KF test scores in the control and the case group was not significant but between average CRP test scores was significant. Clinical reasoning workshop is effectiveness in promoting problem-solving skills of students.

  20. An assessment of student satisfaction with peer teaching of clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jonathan K A; Dalleywater, William J; Tischler, Victoria

    2014-10-13

    Peer teaching is now used in medical education with its value increasingly being recognised. It is not yet established whether students differ in their satisfaction with teaching by peer-teachers compared to those taught by academic or clinical staff. This study aimed to establish satisfaction with communication skills teaching between these three teaching groups. Students participated in a role-play practical facilitated either by clinicians, peer-teachers or non-clinical staff. A questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students after participating in a communication skills role-play session asking students to evaluate their satisfaction with the session. Data were analysed in SPSS 20. One hundred and ninety eight students out of 239 (83%) responded. Students were highly satisfied with the teaching session with no difference in satisfaction scores found between those sessions taught by peers, clinical and non-clinical staff members. 158 (80%) considered the session useful and 139 (69%) strongly agreed tutors facilitated their development. There was no significant difference in satisfaction scores based on tutor background. Satisfaction is as high when tutored by peer-teachers compared to clinicians or non-clinical staff. Constructive feedback is welcomed from a range of personnel. Final-year students could play an increasing role in the teaching of pre-clinical medical students.

  1. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace during clinical rounds: impact of a program for residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Liénard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds.Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm. Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models.Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92 compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88 (p=.046. Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI=1.02-1.34; p=.023. Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018 and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042 (respectively 1.15 (RR, 1.08-1.23 (95%CI, p<.001 for empathy and 0.95 (RR, 0.92-0.99 (95%CI, p=.012 for reassurance was proportional to the number of hours of training attendance.The training program improved patients' satisfaction and allowed the transfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills

  2. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  3. A Serious Game for Teaching Nursing Students Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hege Mari; Fossum, Mariann; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Fruhling, Ann; Slettebø, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and pilot-test a serious game for teaching nursing students clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in caring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A video-based serious game prototype was developed. A purposeful sample of six participants tested and evaluated the prototype. Usability issues were identified regarding functionality and user-computer interface. However, overall the serious game was perceived to be useful, usable and likable to use.

  4. The Flipped Classroom for pre-clinical dental skills teaching - a reflective commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, A J; Bagg, J; McKerlie, R

    2017-05-12

    A Flipped Classroom method for teaching of adult practical pre-clinical dental skills was introduced to the BDS curriculum in Glasgow during the 2015/2016 academic session. This report provides a commentary of the first year of employing this method - from the identification of the need to optimise teaching resources, through the planning, implementation and development of the method, with an early indication of performance.

  5. Can the 'Assessment Drives Learning' effect be detected in clinical skills training? - Implications for curriculum design and resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Beate; Krautter, Markus; Möltner, Andreas; Weyrich, Peter; Werner, Anne; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The acquisition of clinical-technical skills is of particular importance for the doctors of tomorrow. Procedural skills are often trained for the first time in skills laboratories, which provide a sheltered learning environment. However, costs to implement and maintain skills laboratories are considerably high. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate students’ patterns of attendance of voluntary skills-lab training sessions and thereby answer the following question: Is it possible to measure an effect of the theoretical construct related to motivational psychology described in the literature – ‘Assessment drives learning’ – reflected in patterns of attendance at voluntary skills-lab training sessions? By answering this question, design recommendations for curriculum planning and resource management should be derived. Method: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of student skills-lab attendance related to voluntary basic and voluntary advanced skills-lab sessions was conducted. The attendance patterns of a total of 340 third-year medical students in different successive year groups from the Medical Faculty at the University of Heidelberg were assessed. Results: Students showed a preference for voluntary basic skills-lab training sessions, which were relevant to clinical skills assessment, especially at the beginning and at the end of the term. Voluntary advanced skills-lab training sessions without reference to clinical skills assessment were used especially at the beginning of the term, but declined towards the end of term. Conclusion: The results show a clear influence of assessments on students’ attendance at skills-lab training sessions. First recommendations for curriculum design and resource management will be described. Nevertheless, further prospective research studies will be necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors impacting students’ utilisation of voluntary skills

  6. Effectiveness of a structured training program in psychotherapeutic skills used in clinical interviews for psychiatry and clinical psychology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Rodriguez-Vega, Beatriz; Ortiz-Sanchez, Deborah; Baldor Tubet, Isabel; Gonzalez-Juarez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated a training program based on a structured manual of psychotherapeutic skills, using a randomized controlled design. The experimental group consisted of 135 residents from 12 teaching units in Spain. To control the improvement in therapeutic skills that could be attributed to the training received during the residency, the authors compared the experimental group with a control group of 35 residents from three teaching units. Two types of assessment instruments were used: a paper-and-pencil questionnaire based on clinical cases and a videotape of a role-playing interview. Both were given before and after the experimental group attended the training program. The experimental group shows a statistically significant improvement compared with the control group in both measurements.

  7. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. [Skills lab training in veterinary medicine. Effective preparation for clinical work at the small animal clinic of the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc

    2017-09-20

    During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.

  9. Rapid application design of an electronic clinical skills portfolio for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Tim; Lee, Catherine; Stopford, Adam; Hosie, Liam; Maredia, Neil; Rector, Alan

    2005-04-01

    The aim was to find how to use information and communication technology to present the clinical skills content of an undergraduate medical curriculum. Rapid application design was used to develop the product, and technical action research was used to evaluate the development process. A clinician-educator, two medical students, two computing science masters students, two other project workers, and a hospital education informatics lead, formed a design team. A sample of stakeholders took part in requirements planning workshops and continued to advise the team throughout the project. A university hospital had many features that favoured fast, inexpensive, and successful system development: a clearly defined and readily accessible user group; location of the development process close to end-users; fast, informal communication; leadership by highly motivated and senior end-users; devolved authority and lack of any rigidly imposed management structure; cooperation of clinicians because the project drew on their clinical expertise to achieve scholastic goals; a culture of learning and involvement of highly motivated students. A detailed specification was developed through storyboarding, use case diagramming, and evolutionary prototyping. A very usable working product was developed within weeks. "SkillsBase" is a database web application using Microsoft Active Server Pages, served from a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating system running Internet Information Server 5.0. Graphing functionality is provided by the KavaChart applet. It presents the skills curriculum, provides a password-protected portfolio function, and offers training materials. The curriculum can be presented in several different ways to help students reflect on their objectives and progress towards achieving them. The reflective portfolio function is entirely private to each student user and allows them to document their progress in attaining skills, as judged by self, peer and tutor assessment, and

  10. Exploring Clinical Rotation Competence Improvements after Interpersonal Skills Development in At-Risk Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Linuwih Menaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPrior to admission, medical students were subject to psychological tests to measure their logical thinking skills and personality, hence predicting their ability to complete their studies. The results showed 56,45% of medical students obtained recommendation category 4 (doubtful and 5 (not recommended, two categories which are considered to be at-risk group with a very small probability of completing their studies. These results predicted that students in the mentioned groups will have difficulties in achieving the clinical competence level required by the Indonesian Doctors’ Competency Standard (IDCS. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical competency achievement by at-risk medical students in the third year, after following interpersonal skills development training program on July 2011. This research used qualitative study design through psychological examination, written self-reflection and in-depth interview after the training. Interpersonal skills development training for at-risk medical students gave positive effects to theircharacter development for the helping profession. It was concluded that interpersonal skills training could help improve medical student’s achievement of clinical competence especially for at-risk group in their clinical rotations stage.Keywords: medical students, at-risk group, interpersonal skills, clinical competence AbstrakPada mahasiswa kedokteran yang baru masuk dilakukan pemeriksaan psikologis untuk memperoleh gambaran penalaran dan kepribadian untuk memprediksi kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyelesaikan pendidikan. Berdasarkan pemeriksaan tersebut diperoleh 56,45% mahasiswa dengan hasil uji psikometrik kategori rekomendasi 4 (diragukan dan 5 (tidak disarankan yang disebut sebagai kelompok at-risk. Kelompok at risk memiliki peluang keberhasilan rendah untuk menyelesaikan pendidikan dan akan mengalami kesulitan mencapai kompetensi klinik sesuai Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia. Tujuan

  11. Effectiveness of Standardized Patient Simulations in Teaching Clinical Communication Skills to Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Carly T; Tilashalski, Ken R; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; White, Marjorie Lee

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' long-term retention of clinical communication skills learned in a second-year standardized patient simulation at one U.S. dental school. Retention was measured by students' performance with an actual patient during their fourth year. The high-fidelity simulation exercise focused on clinical communication skills took place during the spring term of the students' second year. The effect of the simulation was measured by comparing the fourth-year clinical performance of two groups: those who had participated in the simulation (intervention group; Class of 2016) and those who had not (no intervention/control group; Class of 2015). In the no intervention group, all 47 students participated; in the intervention group, 58 of 59 students participated. Both instructor assessments and students' self-assessments were used to evaluate the effectiveness of key patient interaction principles as well as comprehensive presentation of multiple treatment options. The results showed that students in the intervention group more frequently included cost during their treatment option presentation than did students in the no intervention group. The instructor ratings showed that the intervention group included all key treatment option components except duration more frequently than did the no intervention group. However, the simulation experience did not result in significantly more effective student-patient clinical communication on any of the items measured. This study presents limited evidence of the effectiveness of a standardized patient simulation to improve dental students' long-term clinical communication skills with respect to thorough presentation of treatment options to a patient.

  12. The Chameleon Workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    , cultural, professional, etc.). This PhD dissertation studies this phenomenon, ‘a diverse workforce’, in a large Scandinavian pharmaceutical company. The dissertation follows the Diverse and Global Workforce (DGW) project, a ‘headquarter centric’ and strategic corporate initiative to address the rapid......Due to advancements in technology and the expansion of companies onto a global level, organizations have become increasingly aware of the need to understand and manage diverse workforces; that is, the need to understand and manage differences among employees across borders (such as geographical...... global expansion of the company workforce....

  13. Reaching national consensus on the core clinical skill outcomes for family medicine postgraduate training programmes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoojee, Yusuf; Mash, Robert

    2017-05-26

    Family physicians play a significant role in the district health system and need to be equipped with a broad range of clinical skills in order to meet the needs and expectations of the communities they serve. A previous study in 2007 reached national consensus on the clinical skills that should be taught in postgraduate family medicine training prior to the introduction of the new speciality. Since then, family physicians have been trained, employed and have gained experience of working in the district health services. The national Education and Training Committee of the South African Academy of Family Physicians, therefore, requested a review of the national consensus on clinical skills for family medicine training. A Delphi technique was used to reach national consensus in a panel of 17 experts: family physicians responsible for training, experienced family physicians in practice and managers responsible for employing family physicians. Consensus was reached on 242 skills from which the panel decided on 211 core skills, 28 elective skills and 3 skills to be deleted from the previous list. The panel was unable to reach consensus on 11 skills. The findings will guide training programmes on the skills to be addressed and ensure consistency across training programmes nationally. The consensus will also guide formative assessment as documented in the national portfolio of learning and summative assessment in the national exit examination. The consensus will be of interest to other countries in the region where training programmes in family medicine are developing.

  14. Medical students' communication skills in clinical education: Results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Cadja; Roschlaub, Silke; Harendza, Sigrid; Keim, Rebecca; Scherer, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To assess students' communication skills during clinical medical education and at graduation. We conducted an observational cohort study from 2007 to 2011 with 26 voluntary undergraduate medical students at Hamburg University based on video-taped consultations in year four and at graduation. 176 consultations were analyzed quantitatively with validated and non-validated context-independent communication observation instruments (interrater reliability ≥0.8). Based on observational protocols each consultation was also documented in free-text comments, salient topics were extracted afterwards. 26 students, seven males, were enrolled in the survey. On average, graduates scored higher in differential-diagnostic questioning and time management but showed deficiencies in taking systematic and complete symptom-oriented histories, in communication techniques, in structuring consultations and in gathering the patients' perspectives. Patient-centeredness and empathy were rather low at graduation. Individual deficiencies could barely be eliminated. Medical students were able to enhance their clinical reasoning skills and their time management. Still, various communication deficiencies in final year students became evident regarding appropriate history taking, communication skills, empathy and patient-centeredness. The necessity of developing a longitudinal communication curriculum with enhanced communication trainings and assessments became evident. A curriculum should ensure that students' communication competencies are firmly achieved at graduation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  16. The laboratory workforce shortage: a managerial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Ramirez, Bernardo; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical laboratories in the nation report severe difficulties in recruitment and retention of most types of personnel. Other important factors impacting this problem include work complexities, increased automation, and a graying workforce. As a further challenge, institutional needs for clinical laboratory personnel are expected to grow significantly in the next decade. This article examines the current situation of the clinical laboratory workforce. It analyzes the different types of personnel; the managerial, supervision, and line positions that are key for different types of laboratories; the job outlook and recent projections for different types of staff; and the current issues, trends, and challenges of the laboratory workforce. Laboratory managers need to take action with strategies suggested for overcoming these challenges. Most importantly, they need to become transformational leaders by developing effective staffing models, fostering healthy and productive work environments, and creating value with a strategic management culture and implementation of knowledge management.

  17. Decoding Skills Acquired by Low Readers Taught in Regular Classrooms Using Clinical Techniques. Research Report No. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Elizabeth; Fischer, Phyllis

    This study evaluated the decoding skills acquired by low readers in an experimental project that taught low readers in regular class through the use of clinical procedures based on a synthetic phonic, multisensory approach. An evaluation instrument which permitted the tabulation of specific decoding skills was administered as a pretest and…

  18. Exploring the use of high-fidelity simulation training to enhance clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Kirkham, Lucy

    2018-02-07

    The use of interprofessional simulation training to enhance nursing students' performance of technical and non-technical clinical skills is becoming increasingly common. Simulation training can involve the use of role play, virtual reality or patient simulator manikins to replicate clinical scenarios and assess the nursing student's ability to, for example, undertake clinical observations or work as part of a team. Simulation training enables nursing students to practise clinical skills in a safe environment. Effective simulation training requires extensive preparation, and debriefing is necessary following a simulated training session to review any positive or negative aspects of the learning experience. This article discusses a high-fidelity simulated training session that was used to assess a group of third-year nursing students and foundation level 1 medical students. This involved the use of a patient simulator manikin in a scenario that required the collaborative management of a deteriorating patient. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  19. Using Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Intern Orthopaedic Physical Examination Skills: A Multimodal Didactic Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donna; Pean, Christian A; Allen, Kathleen; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth

    Patient care is 1 of the 6 core competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The physical examination (PE) is a fundamental skill to evaluate patients and make an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate 3 different methods to teach PE skills and to assess the ability to do a complete PE in a simulated patient encounter. Prospective, uncontrolled, observational. Northeastern academic medical center. A total of 32 orthopedic surgery residents participated and were divided into 3 didactic groups: Group 1 (n = 12) live interactive lectures, demonstration on standardized patients, and textbook reading; Group 2 (n = 11) video recordings of the lectures given to Group 1 and textbook reading alone; Group 3 (n = 9): 90-minute modules taught by residents to interns in near-peer format and textbook reading. The overall score for objective structured clinical examinations from the combined groups was 66%. There was a trend toward more complete PEs in Group 1 taught via live lectures and demonstrations compared to Group 2 that relied on video recording. Near-peer taught residents from Group 3 significantly outperformed Group 2 residents overall (p = 0.02), and trended toward significantly outperforming Group 1 residents as well, with significantly higher scores in the ankle (p = 0.02) and shoulder (p = 0.02) PE cases. This study found that orthopedic interns taught musculoskeletal PE skills by near-peers outperformed other groups overall. An overall score of 66% for the combined didactic groups suggests a baseline deficit in first-year resident musculoskeletal PE skills. The PE should continue to be taught and objectively assessed throughout residency to confirm that budding surgeons have mastered these fundamental skills before going into practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of a structured clinical training course on interns' self-reported confidence with core clinical urology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C; Norton, S; Nolan, J M; Whelan, C; Sullivan, J F; Quinlan, M; Sheikh, M; Mc Dermott, T E D; Lynch, T H; Manecksha, R P

    2018-02-01

    Undergraduate training in core urology skills is lacking in many Irish training programmes. Our aim was to assess newly qualified doctors' experience and confidence with core urological competencies. A questionnaire survey covering exposure to urology and confidence with core clinical skills was circulated to all candidates. The group then attended a skills course covering male/female catheterisation, insertion of three-way catheters, bladder irrigation and management of long-term suprapubic catheters. The groups were re-surveyed following the course. Forty-five interns completed the pre-course questionnaire (group 1) and 27 interns completed the post-course questionnaire (group 2). 24/45 (53%) had no experience of catheter insertion on a patient during their undergraduate training. 26/45 (58%) were unsupervised during their first catheter insertion. 12/45 (27%) had inserted a female catheter. 18/45 (40%) had inserted a three-way catheter. 12/45 (27%) had changed a suprapubic catheter. 40/45 (89%) in group 1 reported 'good' or 'excellent' confidence with male urinary catheterisation, compared to 25/27 (92.5%) in group 2. 18/45 (40%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence with female catheterisation, compared to 7/27 (26%) in group 2. 22/45 (49%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence with insertion of three-way catheters, compared to 2/27 (7%) in group 2. 32/45 (71%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence in changing long-term suprapubic catheters, falling to 3/27 (11%) in group 2. This study raises concerns about newly qualified doctors' practical experience in urology. We suggest that this course improves knowledge and confidence with practical urology skills and should be incorporated into intern induction.

  1. Intelligent tutoring system for clinical reasoning skill acquisition in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2009-10-01

    Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the ... and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  3. [Implementation of bedside training and advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial to learn and confirm about pharmacy clinical skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Sato, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Bedside training for fourth-year students, as well as seminars in hospital pharmacy (vital sign seminars) for fifth-year students at the Department of Pharmacy of Kyushu University of Health and Welfare have been implemented using patient training models and various patient simulators. The introduction of simulation-based pharmaceutical education, where no patients are present, promotes visually, aurally, and tactilely simulated learning regarding the evaluation of vital signs and implementation of physical assessment when disease symptoms are present or adverse effects occur. A patient simulator also promotes the creation of training programs for emergency and critical care, with which basic as well as advanced life support can be practiced. In addition, an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial has been implemented to evaluate skills regarding vital signs and physical assessments. Pharmacists are required to examine vital signs and conduct physical assessment from a pharmaceutical point of view. The introduction of these pharmacy clinical skills will improve the efficacy of drugs, work for the prevention or early detection of adverse effects, and promote the appropriate use of drugs. It is considered that simulation-based pharmaceutical education is essential to understand physical assessment, and such education will ideally be applied and developed according to on-site practices.

  4. Contextualized Workforce Skills and ESL Learner Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafai, Maliheh Mansuripur

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical case study centering on adult ESL learners' motivational patterns for learning English and its relevance to their career goals. It looks at past patterns of immigrant insertion within the socioeconomic context of the US and explores current trends in adult ESL curriculum development focused on the task of…

  5. Using video podcasting to enhance the learning of clinical skills: A qualitative study of physiotherapy students' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kay M

    2016-10-01

    Video podcasts, or vodcasts are increasingly used by a range of healthcare professions in the mastery of new skills. Little is known about the experiences of using vodcasts in physiotherapy education. Traditional pedagogic strategies have been employed in order to master those skills required for physiotherapy practice. There have been advances in the use of technology in medical education in the nursing, dentistry and medical fields. Vodcasts offer great versatility and potential when used as a pedagogical tool, embedded within a physiotherapy curriculum. To explore students' experiences of using technology enhanced learning, namely vodcasts, in the Physiotherapy curriculum to develop the learning of clinical skills. A series of focus groups were carried out with undergraduate and pre-registration physiotherapy students (n=31). Students valued the versatility and audio-visual nature of vodcasts; helpful in revising for practical examinations and practising their skills prior to, during and after taught skills classes. Watching and practising simultaneously allowed students to practice repeatedly and formulate a process for each skill. When learning a new skill, a combination of teaching and learning approaches was favoured, marrying traditional approaches with those that utilise technology. This study's findings add to the existing body of evidence in skills based teaching and support a multi-media, blended approach in those disciplines involved in the learning and teaching of clinical skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skills and attributes required by clinical nurse specialists to promote evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T Diane; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this article were to describe the challenges that clinical nurse specialists (CNS) face in their role and to examine how CNSs describe the skills and attributes that are needed to promote the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in their workplaces. This article is based on findings from a dissertation regarding how CNSs promote EBP in a western Canadian province. A sequential explanatory participant selection mixed-methods design was used for this study. The study took place in a western Canadian province that has a population of 1 million people, with 42.7% of the population residing in the 2 largest cities. The sample was drawn from a provincial registered nurse database. The sample for the survey was 23, and for the interviews, there were 11 participants. The telephone survey contained 113 questions grouped into several subcategories. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the survey data. The semistructured interviews were conducted face to face, transcribed, and reviewed for recurrent themes. Interpretive description was used to analyze the themes. The major challenges faced by CNSs are role strain, lack of support and resources, and role ambiguity. The skills and attributes required to be a CNS are graduate preparation, clinical expertise, and people/communication skills. Clinical nurse specialists can improve patient outcomes by promoting EBP; to do so, they need to work in supportive contexts that give those in the CNS role a set of clear role expectations. There are challenges faced by CNSs in Canada, and there is a need to strengthen the CNS's role by standardizing the regulatory requirements at a national level.

  7. A Survey of Established Veterinary Clinical Skills Laboratories from Europe and North America: Present Practices and Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K; Baillie, Sarah

    Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care, but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone. For the present study, we designed a survey to gather information from established veterinary clinical skills laboratories with the aim of assisting others considering opening or expanding their own facility. Data were collated from 16 veterinary colleges in North America and Europe about the uses of their laboratory, the building and associated facilities, and the staffing, budgets, equipment, and supporting learning resources. The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. However, respondents widely recognized the increasing demands placed on the facility to provide more space, equipment, and staff. There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.

  8. Developing evidence-based dentistry skills: how to interpret randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakou, Juliana; Pandis, Nikolaos; Madianos, Phoebus; Polychronopoulou, Argy

    2014-10-30

    Decision-making based on reliable evidence is more likely to lead to effective and efficient treatments. Evidence-based dentistry was developed, similarly to evidence-based medicine, to help clinicians apply current and valid research findings into their own clinical practice. Interpreting and appraising the literature is fundamental and involves the development of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) skills. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to be evidence of the highest level in evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. Furthermore, the assessment of the report of a RCT, as well as a SR, can lead to an estimation of how the study was designed and conducted.

  9. The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…

  10. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of clinical skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvivier Robbert J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of deliberate practice in medical students' development from novice to expert was examined for preclinical skill training. Methods Students in years 1-3 completed 34 Likert type items, adapted from a questionnaire about the use of deliberate practice in cognitive learning. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to validate the questionnaire. Analysis of variance examined differences between years and regression analysis the relationship between deliberate practice and skill test results. Results 875 students participated (90%. Factor analysis yielded four factors: planning, concentration/dedication, repetition/revision, study style/self reflection. Student scores on 'Planning' increased over time, score on sub-scale 'repetition/revision' decreased. Student results on the clinical skill test correlated positively with scores on subscales 'planning' and 'concentration/dedication' in years 1 and 3, and with scores on subscale 'repetition/revision' in year 1. Conclusions The positive effects on test results suggest that the role of deliberate practice in medical education merits further study. The cross-sectional design is a limitation, the large representative sample a strength of the study. The vanishing effect of repetition/revision may be attributable to inadequate feedback. Deliberate practice advocates sustained practice to address weaknesses, identified by (self-assessment and stimulated by feedback. Further studies should use a longitudinal prospective design and extend the scope to expertise development during residency and beyond.

  11. Faculty Development on Clinical Teaching Skills: An Effective Model for the Busy Clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Damp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The authors developed and evaluated a faculty development program on clinical teaching skills to address barriers to participation and to impact teaching behaviors. Methods Four one-hour workshops were implemented over five months. Evaluation included participant satisfaction and pre/post self-assessment. Pre/post faculty teaching ratings by trainees were compared. Results A total of 82% of faculty ( N = 41 attended. Participants rated workshops highly (mean, 4.43/5.00. Self-assessment of skills and comfort with teaching activities improved. A total of 59% of residents and 40% of fellows felt that teaching received from participating faculty was highly effective. The majority observed targeted teaching behaviors by the faculty. Teaching ratings improved after the workshops ( P = 0.042. Conclusion Our series of short workshops during a standing conference time was associated with increased self-assessed skill and comfort and an increase in faculty ratings on teaching evaluations. Effective faculty development programs can be implemented in flexible formats and overcome common barriers to participation.

  12. Faculty Development on Clinical Teaching Skills: An Effective Model for the Busy Clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damp, Julie B.; Dewey, Charlene M.; Wells, Quinn; Horn, Leora; Kroop, Susan F.; Mendes, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The authors developed and evaluated a faculty development program on clinical teaching skills to address barriers to participation and to impact teaching behaviors. Methods Four one-hour workshops were implemented over five months. Evaluation included participant satisfaction and pre/post self-assessment. Pre/post faculty teaching ratings by trainees were compared. Results A total of 82% of faculty (N = 41) attended. Participants rated workshops highly (mean, 4.43/5.00). Self-assessment of skills and comfort with teaching activities improved. A total of 59% of residents and 40% of fellows felt that teaching received from participating faculty was highly effective. The majority observed targeted teaching behaviors by the faculty. Teaching ratings improved after the workshops (P = 0.042). Conclusion Our series of short workshops during a standing conference time was associated with increased self-assessed skill and comfort and an increase in faculty ratings on teaching evaluations. Effective faculty development programs can be implemented in flexible formats and overcome common barriers to participation. PMID:29349327

  13. A proposal for teaching basic clinical skills for mastery: the case against vertical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2007-01-01

    The authors argue that medical school faculty should (1) make a distinction among competencies that they feel need to be taught for mastery (i.e., at a level of proficiency expected from a practicing physician) and those that should be taught at lower levels of proficiency, and (2) impart the former competencies in single teaching units. The authors propose that the skills that students should be expected to master include patient interviewing, physical examination, patient counseling on health promotion and disease prevention (HP/DP), and self-directed learning. The concepts of a hypothetical teaching unit that aims to impart these skills are described. By the end of this unit, the students would be expected to (1) examine simulated and real patients to detect risk indicators and physical findings for the diseases that are the most common causes of death in the patient's gender and age group, and to look for risk indicators and physical findings for diseases where early diagnosis and treatment have been shown to reduce mortality for such patients, and (2) provide counseling for lifestyle changes and future clinical examinations. The authors believe that the objective of acquiring an ability to counsel a patient on HP/DP at the level of competence of a practicing physician will motivate students to acquire the skills of patient interviewing, physical examination, and self-directed learning more effectively than would a succession of reinforcements of these subjects throughout the curriculum.

  14. Radiology as part of an objective structured clinical examination on clinical skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, I.A.H. van den, E-mail: i.a.h.van_den_berk@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Postbus 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Ridder, J.M.M. van de, E-mail: J.M.M.vandeRidder@umcutrecht.nl [School of Medical Sciences, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, J.P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100 E01-132, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessess clinical competence in a standardised and context related manner. Compared with written tests, OSCE's are more susceptible to reliability errors because of the use of multiple cases and multiple examiners. In the pre-clinical phase of the medical curriculum of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, an OSCE is organised as a medical consult. We evaluated the radiology station. Method: Four questions were formulated: {center_dot}What is the internal consistency of the items of the radiology station? {center_dot}How do the scores on the radiology station compare with the scores on the test excluding radiology? {center_dot}How do different cases differ in scores? {center_dot}What are the differences in score between the examiners? We analysed the OSCE results of second year medical students in 2004. Results: Two hundred and sixty-five students were examined in the OSCE in 2004. Ninty-three Students were examined in the radiology station. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the radiology station was 0.92. The average score for the radiology station was 3.8 (0.87). The average score for the test without radiology was 3.9 (0.32). The range of the average scores for the six different cases was 0.5 (3.6-4.1). The range of the average scores for the five examiners was 1.0 (3.3-4.3). Conclusion: The internal consistency of the items in the radiology station is good. The average score for the radiology station is similar to that of the other stations. The range of the scores between the different cases was relatively small. The range of the scores between the different examiners was clearly larger.

  15. Radiology as part of an objective structured clinical examination on clinical skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, I.A.H. van den; Ridder, J.M.M. van de; Schaik, J.P.J. van

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessess clinical competence in a standardised and context related manner. Compared with written tests, OSCE's are more susceptible to reliability errors because of the use of multiple cases and multiple examiners. In the pre-clinical phase of the medical curriculum of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, an OSCE is organised as a medical consult. We evaluated the radiology station. Method: Four questions were formulated: ·What is the internal consistency of the items of the radiology station? ·How do the scores on the radiology station compare with the scores on the test excluding radiology? ·How do different cases differ in scores? ·What are the differences in score between the examiners? We analysed the OSCE results of second year medical students in 2004. Results: Two hundred and sixty-five students were examined in the OSCE in 2004. Ninty-three Students were examined in the radiology station. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the radiology station was 0.92. The average score for the radiology station was 3.8 (0.87). The average score for the test without radiology was 3.9 (0.32). The range of the average scores for the six different cases was 0.5 (3.6-4.1). The range of the average scores for the five examiners was 1.0 (3.3-4.3). Conclusion: The internal consistency of the items in the radiology station is good. The average score for the radiology station is similar to that of the other stations. The range of the scores between the different cases was relatively small. The range of the scores between the different examiners was clearly larger.

  16. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, psychiatry and the Clinical assessment of Skills and Competencies (CASCSame Evidence, Different Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwaha Steven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE, originally developed in the 1970's, has been hailed as the "gold standard" of clinical assessments for medical students and is used within medical schools throughout the world. The Clinical assessment of Skills and Competencies (CASC is an OSCE used as a clinical examination gateway, granting access to becoming a senior Psychiatrist in the UK. Discussion Van der Vleuten's utility model is used to examine the CASC from the viewpoint of a senior psychiatrist. Reliability may be equivalent to more traditional examinations. Whilst the CASC is likely to have content validity, other forms of validity are untested and authenticity is poor. Educational impact has the potential to change facets of psychiatric professionalism and influence future patient care. There are doubts about acceptability from candidates and more senior psychiatrists. Summary Whilst OSCEs may be the best choice for medical student examinations, their use in post graduate psychiatric examination in the UK is subject to challenge on the grounds of validity, authenticity and educational impact.

  17. Evaluation of clinical skills for first-year surgical residents using orientation programme and objective structured clinical evaluation as a tool of assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postgraduate specialities require a combination of knowledge and clinical skills. The internship year is less structured. Clinical and practical skills that are picked up during training are not well regulated and the impact is not assessed. In this study, we assessed knowledge and skills using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. Aim: To evaluate the clinical skills of new first-year surgical residents using orientation programme and OSCE as a tool for assessment. Settings and Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty new first-year surgical residents (10 each in 2008 and 2009 participated in a detailed structured orientation programme conducted over a period of 7 days. Clinically important topics and skills expected at this level (e.g., suturing, wound care etc. were covered. The programme was preceded by an OSCE to test pre-programme knowledge (the "pre-test". The questions were validated by senior department staff. A post-programme OSCE (the "post-test" helped to evaluate the change in clinical skill level brought about by the orientation programme. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxson matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Results: Passing performance was achieved by all participants in both pre- and post-tests. Following the orientation programme, significant improvement was seen in tasks testing the psychomotor and cognitive domains. (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0401, respectively. Overall reliability of the OSCE was found to be 0.7026 (Cronbach′s coefficient alpha. Conclusions: This study highlighted the lacunae in current internship training, especially for skill-based tasks. There is a need for universal inclusion of structured orientation programmes in the training of first-year residents. OSCE is a reliable, valid and effective method for the assessment of clinical skills.

  18. Building capacity in the rural physiotherapy workforce: a paediatric training partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E N; McMeeken, J M

    2014-01-01

    Building capacity in the rural physiotherapy workforce: a paediatric training partnership' provided 6 months postgraduate paediatric clinical and academic training for two physiotherapists in rural Australia. It is described as a model for improving services and workforce retention. The need for 'an appropriate, skilled and well-supported health workforce' is the third goal in Australia's National Strategic Framework for Rural and Remote Health 2011. The World Health Organization recently published its first global policy for improving the retention of rural and remote health workers. Education is its first recommendation and aims to 'design continuing education and professional development programmes that meet the needs of rural health workers and that are accessible from where they live and work, so as to support their retention …'. Additionally, '… to be successful, continuing education needs to be linked to career paths, as well as with other education interventions'. The problem is a lack of paediatric physiotherapy expertise in rural areas due to an absence of postgraduate clinical training opportunities in the rural workforce. The result is fragmented local services for families who are forced to travel to metropolitan services, costly in terms of both time and money. The aims were to improve local paediatric physiotherapy clinical services, provide physiotherapists additional access to professional development and subsequently provide a career path to retain these health professionals. Evaluation of the project used purpose-built questionnaires as there are no specific indicators to monitor the performance of systems and services that are available to children and families in Australia. The paediatric physiotherapy training program was enabled through initial funding for a 12-month pilot project. Further government funding built on that success for this reported 6-month project. Funding to employ the postgraduate physiotherapists was essential to the

  19. Using newly deceased patients in teaching clinical skills: its ethical and educational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Mahboobeh; Enjoo, Seyed Ali; Mahboudi, Ali; Tabei, Seyed Ziaadin

    2018-04-01

    The newly deceased patients have long been used in medical schools to teach clinical skills without any challenges as it helps to train skilled doctors. Nowadays, the use of moulages and simulators are common in teaching clinical skills since these tools provide the opportunity for frequent practice without any pain and injury. There are specific procedures which still require the use of cadavers. However, the increased significance of patient rights has generally challenged the practicality of using the deceased bodies for this purpose. This study was designed with the aim of determining to what extent clinical skill training is dependent on the recently deceased patients. This was a cross-sectional mixed-method triangulation design conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data of the medical students and residents. The data were used to assess the frequency of experience. In the second stage, semi-structured interviews were conducted with faculty members and fellows in order to evaluate the educational impact of this type of procedure and the influential factors. The quantitative data were analyzed using statistical software, and the qualitative codes were extracted following a content analysis. Finally, a comparative analysis was performed. Twenty five residents (26%) and seven medical students (14%) had the experience of performing procedures on the recently deceased patients for training purposes. About half of the residents and 33% of the medical students had observed their colleagues practicing procedures on cadavers. In the qualitative phase, the main categories included professional ethics, law and educational requirements. A relatively low number of medical students and residents had experienced procedures on the newly deceased patients. In this regard, ethical, religious and legal concerns might have played a part despite the desire to learn. It would be effective to direct these

  20. Perception versus reality: a comparative study of the clinical judgment skills of nurses during a simulated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Cynthia L; Harris, Margaret A; Aebersold, Michelle L; Hartman, Laurie S

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine how closely nurses' perceptions of their clinical judgment abilities matched their demonstrated clinical judgment skills during a simulation. Seventy-four registered nurses participated in a simulation using a video format. After the simulation, the nurses self-assessed their performance using the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric. This rubric was then used to rate the nurses' actual performance in the simulation activity. The study results showed a significant discrepancy between nurses' perceptions of their own clinical judgment abilities and their demonstrated clinical judgment skills. Age and length of nursing experience enhanced the difference between the findings of self-assessment and actual performance. Younger nurses and those with 1 year or less of nursing experience were significantly more likely to have self-assessed their abilities at a much higher level compared with their actual skills. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Impact of the site specialty of a continuity practice on students' clinical skills: performance with standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Carol A; Palley, Jane E; Harrington, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of clinical competence and the impact of training in ambulatory settings are two issues of importance in the evaluation of medical student performance. This study compares the clinical skills performance of students placed in three types of community preceptors' offices (pediatrics, medicine, family medicine) on yearly clinical skills assessments with standardized patients. Our goal was to see if the site specialty impacted on clinical performance. The students in the study were completing a 3-year continuity preceptorship at a site representing one of the disciplines. Their performance on the four clinical skills assessments was compared. There was no significant difference in history taking, physical exam, communication, or clinical reasoning in any year (ANOVA p< or = .05) There was a small but significant difference in performance on a measure of interpersonal and interviewing skills during Years 1 and 2. The site specialty of an early clinical experience does not have a significant impact on performance of most of the skills measured by the assessments.

  2. Simulation-guided cardiac auscultation improves medical students' clinical skills: the Pavia pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlini, Stefano; Salinaro, Francesco; Santalucia, Paola; Musca, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical evaluation is the cornerstone of any cardiac diagnosis, although excessive over-specialisation often leads students to disregard the value of clinical skills, and to overemphasize the approach to instrumental cardiac diagnosis. Time restraints, low availability of "typical" cardiac patients on whom to perform effective bedside teaching, patients' respect and the underscoring of the value of clinical skills all lead to a progressive decay in teaching. Simulation-guided cardiac auscultation may improve clinical training in medical students and residents. Harvey(©) is a mannequin encompassing more than 50 cardiac diagnoses that was designed and developed at the University of Miami (Florida, USA). One of the advantages of Harvey(©) simulation resides in the possibility of listening, comparing and discussing "real" murmurs. To objectively assess its teaching performance, the capability to identify five different cardiac diagnoses (atrial septal defect, normal young subject, mitral stenosis with tricuspid regurgitation, chronic mitral regurgitation, and pericarditis) out of more than 50 diagnostic possibilities was assessed in 523 III-year medical students (i.e. at the very beginning of their clinical experience), in 92 VI-year students, and in 42 residents before and after a formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©). None of them had previously experienced simulation-based cardiac auscultation in addition to formal lecturing (all three groups) and bedside teaching (VI-year students and residents). In order to assess the "persistence" of the acquired knowledge over time, the test was repeated after 3 years in 85 students, who did not repeat the formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©) after the III year. As expected, the overall response was poor in the "beginners" who correctly identified 11.0 % of the administered cardiac murmurs. After simulation-guided training, the ability to recognise the correct cardiac diagnoses was much better (72.0 %; p

  3. The effect of student self-video of performance on clinical skill competency: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the impact of student self-video on the attainment of clinical skills. A total of 60 Physiotherapy students (100%) consented to participate in the randomised controlled trial. One group (50%) was taught a complex clinical skill with regular practical tutoring, whilst the other group (50%) supplemented the tutoring with a self-video task aimed at promoting reflection on performance. Student skill performance was measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students also completed an anonymous questionnaire, which explored their perception of their learning experiences. Students received significantly higher scores in the OSCE when the examined clinical skill had been supplemented with a self-video of performance task (P = 0.048). Descriptive analysis of the questionnaires relating to student perceptions on the teaching methods identified that the self-video of performance task utilised contributed to improvement in their clinical performance and their confidence for future clinical practice. Students identified a number of aspects of the submission process that contributed to this perception of educational value. The novel results of this study demonstrate that greater clinical skill competency is achieved when traditional tutoring methods are supplemented with student self-video of performance tasks. Additional benefits included the ability of staff and students to monitor longitudinal performance, and an increase in feedback opportunities.

  4. Curriculum content and assessment of pre-clinical dental skills: A survey of undergraduate dental education in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J; Stone, S; Orsini, C; Hussain, A; Vital, S; Crothers, A; Walmsley, D

    2018-05-01

    Since 1981, the qualifications for various healthcare professionals across the European Union have enjoyed mutual recognition in accordance with the EU Directive 81/1057/EEC. Whilst the directive includes dental practitioners, it is recognised that significant variation exists in curriculum structure, content and scope of practice across institutions. This article aimed to explore pan-European practice in relation to curriculum content, teaching and learning strategies and assessment of pre-clinical dental skills. A request to complete an online questionnaire, in English, was sent electronically to skills leads at all Association of Dental Education in Europe member schools. The questionnaire collected information in relation to institution and country, regulatory requirements to demonstrate safety, details of specific pre-clinical skills courses, learning materials and teaching staff. Forty-eight institutions, from 25 European countries responded. Seven countries (n=7, 28%) reported no requirement to demonstrate student operative safety prior to patient treatment. Several core and operative clinical skills are common to the majority of institutions. The most commonly taught core skills related directly to the clinical environment such as cross-infection control and hand washing. The least common were skills that indirectly related to patient care, such as communication skills and working as a team. There are clear differences within European pre-clinical dental education, and greater efforts are needed to demonstrate that all European students are fit to practice before they start treating patients. Learning outcomes, teaching activities and assessment activities of pre-clinical skills should be shared collaboratively to further standardise curricula. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Therapist facilitative interpersonal skills and training status: A randomized clinical trial on alliance and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; Crowley, Mary Ellen J; Himawan, Lina; Holmberg, Jennifer K; Uhlin, Brian D

    2016-09-01

    Therapist effects, independent of the treatment provided, have emerged as a contributor to psychotherapy outcomes. However, past research largely has not identified which therapist factors might be contributing to these effects, though research on psychotherapy implicates relational characteristics. The present Randomized Clinical Trial tested the efficacy of therapists who were selected by their facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS) and training status. Sixty-five clients were selected from 2713 undergraduates using a screening and clinical interview procedure. Twenty-three therapists met with 2 clients for 7 sessions and 20 participants served in a no-treatment control group. Outcome and alliance differences for Training Status were negligible. High FIS therapists had greater pre-post client outcome, and higher rates of change across sessions, than low FIS therapists. All clients treated by therapists improved more than the silent control, but effects were greater with high FIS than low FIS therapists. From the first session, high FIS therapists also had higher alliances than low FIS therapists as well as significant improvements on client-rated alliance. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that therapists' common relational skills are independent contributors to therapeutic alliance and outcome.

  6. Outcome measures and psychomotor skills related to shoulder conditions for clinical orthopedic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Surreya; Al-Obaidi, Saud; Al-Zoabi, Baker

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the ability of physical therapy (PT) students to utilize selected outcome measures such as range of motion (ROM), pain and a number of psychomotor skills and to determine the efficacy of treatment they carried out during orthopedic clinical training. The clinical education booklets in orthopedics of all PT students over a 6-year period were reviewed. Students' application of psychomotor skills such as peripheral joint mobilizations (PJM), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques, therapeutic exercise techniques as well as utilization of basic outcome measures such as ROM and pain were analyzed with descriptive statistics and paired t test. A majority of students used PJM techniques (78.6%) and PNF techniques (58.6%). The paired t test indicated that treatment interventions used by the students were associated with improved shoulder joint ROM and decreased pain levels (p < 0.001). At the same time, therapeutic exercises were employed by the students after PJM and PNF. The most common 'comparable joint sign' was limitation in shoulder abduction ROM, which occurred in 44% of patients seen by the students. PT students' application of PJM, PNF, and therapeutic exercise improved ROM and decreased pain in patients with shoulder pathologies. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  8. Developing critical thinking skills from clinical assignments: a pilot study on nursing students' self-reported perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchigiano, Gail; Eduljee, Nina; Harvey, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Clinical assignments in nursing education provide opportunities for students to develop thinking skills vital to the effective delivery of patient care. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' perceived levels of confidence for using thinking skills when completing two types of clinical assignments. Clinical educators and managers are challenged to develop teaching and learning strategies that help students think critically and reflectively and transfer these skills into sound nursing practice. This study is based on the theoretical framework of critical thinking within the nursing process framework. Undergraduate nursing students (n=51) completed surveys indicating their confidence in using seven thinking skills for nursing care. Students indicated significantly more confidence when implementing the journal format as compared with the care plan format when analysing information, determining relevance, making connections, selecting appropriate information, applying relevant knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The findings of the present study propose a new approach for enhancing students' thinking skills. Journaling is an effective strategy for enhancing students' thinking skills. Nursing managers are in key organisational positions for supporting and promoting the use of the journal format and building supportive and collaborative learning environments for students to develop thinking skills for managing patient care. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  10. Effects of participation in a cross year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills on volunteer tutors' skills and attitudes towards teachers and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part

  11. The impact of case specificity and generalisable skills on clinical performance: a correlated traits-correlated methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F; Fung, Cha-Chi

    2008-06-01

    The finding of case or content specificity in medical problem solving moved the focus of research away from generalisable skills towards the importance of content knowledge. However, controversy about the content dependency of clinical performance and the generalisability of skills remains. This study aimed to explore the relative impact of both perspectives (case specificity and generalisable skills) on different components (history taking, physical examination, communication) of clinical performance within and across cases. Data from a clinical performance examination (CPX) taken by 350 Year 3 students were used in a correlated traits-correlated methods (CTCM) approach using confirmatory factor analysis, whereby 'traits' refers to generalisable skills and 'methods' to individual cases. The baseline CTCM model was analysed and compared with four nested models using structural equation modelling techniques. The CPX consisted of three skills components and five cases. Comparison of the four different models with the least-restricted baseline CTCM model revealed that a model with uncorrelated generalisable skills factors and correlated case-specific knowledge factors represented the data best. The generalisable processes found in history taking, physical examination and communication were responsible for half the explained variance, in comparison with the variance related to case specificity. Conclusions Pure knowledge-based and pure skill-based perspectives on clinical performance both seem too one-dimensional and new evidence supports the idea that a substantial amount of variance contributes to both aspects of performance. It could be concluded that generalisable skills and specialised knowledge go hand in hand: both are essential aspects of clinical performance.

  12. Leadership, Communication, and Negotiation Across a Diverse Workforce*: An AOA Critical Issues Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, Denis R; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lipman, Joanne

    2017-06-21

    The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers. Important skills include leadership, effective communication, and negotiation within an ever-changing employee milieu. Understanding generalizable differences between age-based generations can increase the effectiveness of one's strategies to execute change and increase organizational performance. One of the greatest impediments to effective communication and negotiations that all leaders face is unconscious bias. For leaders, even the tiniest unconscious biases have an outsized impact. Common domains that harbor unconscious bias include sex, race, and ethnicity. Addressing unconscious bias begins with developing awareness and then deploying various tactics that might include equity in compensation, promotion, and "being heard." Effective negotiation skills also are essential to lead a diverse workforce and develop a successful organization. The most basic goal in any negotiation should be to establish a relationship (or deepen an existing relationship) while seeking an agreement that provides win-win opportunities for all parties. To effectively achieve a win-win scenario, leaders must recognize and address their tendency to interpret others' behaviors, values, and beliefs through the lens of their own beliefs and experiences. Finally, and fortunately, there is a set of leader attributes that transcends the generational differences and diversity that is encountered in the workplace. These attributes

  13. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hamsika; Gesundheit, Neil; Nevins, Andrew B; Pompei, Peter; Bruce, Janine; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei

    2018-01-01

    development of clinical reasoning skills.

  14. To effectively adapt and renew workforce competences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzani, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Most of French operating nuclear plants were constructed within a small time window. Few new plants have come on line within the last decade. As a result, most operating plants today have an ageing workforce that is going to retire in large numbers. In the next ten years, 40% of EDF nuclear workforce is going to retire, in average 600 people per year. At the same time, potential restructurings are opportunities to provide internal personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. The first generation of nuclear industry workers was hired during nuclear plant starting and testing. That was an opportunity to for training in the field without nuclear hazard. In addition, the NPP requirements increased dramatically through the last twenty years. This situation led to start a project to effectively adapt and renew workforce competences in the 19 EDF NPP in France. This Paper describes three steps to successfully ensure this transition to the new generation of nuclear industry workers. Acting in the field from their initial training, recruits are earlier ready to perform: 1. A Nuclear Job Academy in each French region based on Team Building and Sister Plants association, new training techniques and field training regarding behaviour and craft. All the new comers in Nuclear Power Station are led by an experienced technical mentor and trained by managers and experienced staff. 2. Flow loop maintenance simulator in each plant.On line training and test for periodic training.Step by Step qualification process. Internal workforce moving and rotation become a consistent, safe and successful opportunity to renew competences: EDF Group promotes the mobility of human resources by improving skills management (training programs, encouraging profession mobility, and reorientation towards priority jobs). To ensure that each nuclear new comer from internal workforce meets the nuclear requirements (as hired people), we build strong process witch guaranty internal people recruitment with

  15. Western Australia facing critical losses in its midwifery workforce: a survey of midwives' intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E; Martin, Tracy L; Rai, Tapan

    2013-05-01

    the ongoing attrition of the midwifery workforce frustrates future workforce planning and the provision of maternity services in Western Australia. This project determined factors contributing to the intention of the midwives to move jobs and/or leave the profession. a cross-sectional survey approach was taken for this descriptive research utilising a self-administered questionnaire developed by the Nursing and Midwifery Office, Department of Health, Western Australia. public and private health sectors in Western Australia, April-May 2010. 1,600 midwives employed in the public and private health sectors throughout Western Australia were invited to participate: 712 responded (44.5%), one-fifth of the state's registered midwives. most midwives worked part-time in a clinical role in public hospitals. Almost half intended moving jobs within 5 years and/or leaving midwifery. Excluding midwives of retirement age, the most common reasons for intending to move jobs were family commitments, working conditions and role dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave midwifery cited work-life balance, career change and family commitments. Midwives thought addressing the following issues would improve midwifery retention: flexible work arrangements, remuneration, staffing and caseload, workplace culture, professional development and models of care. retaining the midwifery workforce requires attention to workforce practices particularly flexible work arrangements and workloads; models of care to strengthen midwives' relationships with clients and colleagues; and accessible professional development. a review of workplace practices at unit and institution levels is urgently required in Western Australia so that midwives can achieve work-life balance and practice to the full extent of their professional role. These changes are necessary to forestall premature retirement of skilled and experienced midwives from the profession and workforce churn. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  16. A Clinic-Based Assessment for Evaluating Job-Related Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; White, Bridgette; Grob, Carolyn; Laudont, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties obtaining and maintaining employment, yet little research has evaluated methods for assessing and improving critical vocational skills. In this study, we evaluated an assessment of job-related social skills for individuals with ASD by arranging conditions that simulated on-the-job experiences in a clinic setting. The experimenter contrived situations to assess a variety of social skills, including asking for help, asking for more materials, and responding to corrective feedback. A total of eight individuals, aged 16 to 32 years, participated. Results suggested that the assessment was useful for identifying specific social skills that could be targeted for intervention to increase success in the work environment. These findings add to the current literature by demonstrating an objective method for assessing a variety of job-related social skills under controlled, naturalistic conditions.

  17. Emergency nurses' knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills about pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucuzal, Meral; Doğan, Runida

    2015-04-01

    Pain is the most common reason that patients come to the emergency department. Emergency nurses have an indispensable role in the management of this pain. The aim of this study was to examine emergency nurses' knowledge, attitude and clinical decision-making skills about pain. This descriptive study was conducted in a state and a university hospital between September and October 2012 in Malatya, Turkey. Of 98 nurses working in the emergency departments of these two hospitals, 57 returned the questionnaires. The response rate was 58%. Data were collected using the Demographic Information Questionnaire, Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire about Pain and Clinical Decision Making Survey. Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to evaluate data. 75.4% of participant nurses knew that patients' own statement about their pain was the most reliable indicator during pain assessment. Almost half of the nurses believed that patients should be encouraged to endure the pain as much as possible before resorting to a pain relief method. The results also indicate that most of nurses think that a sleeping patient does not have any pain and pain relief should be postponed as it can influence the diagnosis negatively. It is determined that the pain scale was not used frequently. Only 35.1% of nurses reported keeping records of pain. Despite all the recommendations of substantial past research the results of this study indicate that emergency nurses continue to demonstrate inadequate knowledge, clinical decision-making skills and negative attitudes about pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Feedback Control Method to Workforce Management in a Service Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Young M. Lee; Lianjun An; Daniel Connors

    2009-01-01

    Success of services businesses depend on how well the workforce is managed. Having the right size of workforce and the right skill set of the workforce at the right time under dynamic demand environments are challenges that many service businesses face. Demand disturbances in services businesses are typically managed by adjusting the resource levels such as acquiring additional resources from larger pool (borrowing resources from the corporate levels for departmental level needs), and releasi...

  19. Anaesthesia medical workforce in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Y

    2006-04-01

    This survey was conducted in all 28 New Zealand District Health Boards with a response rate of 100%. The Clinical Directors of Departments of Anaesthesia were asked to quantify their current anaesthesia service delivery and to assess their workforce level. Over half of the District Health Boards reported understaffing, fifty percent occurring in hospitals of provincial cities or towns with an inability to attract specialist anaesthesia staff. Financial constraint was the other main reason for understaffing. With the information from the survey, an attempt was made to predict future New Zealand anaesthesia workforce requirements. A model for Australasia established by Baker in 1997 was used. In comparing this survey to previous studies, there is evidence that the nature and expectations of the anaesthesia workforce are changing as well as the work environment. Currently, there is no indication that anaesthesia specialist training numbers should be reduced. Close, ongoing monitoring and planning are essential to ensure future demands for anaesthesia services can be met.

  20. Clinical experience and skills of physicians in hospital cardiac arrest teams in Denmark: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauridsen KG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kasper G Lauridsen,1–3 Anders S Schmidt,1–3 Philip Caap,3,4 Rasmus Aagaard,2,3,5 Bo Løfgren1,3,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Clinical Research Unit, Regional Hospital of Randers, Randers, 3Research Center for Emergency Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 4Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark Background: The quality of in-hospital resuscitation is poor and may be affected by the clinical experience and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training. This study aimed to investigate the clinical experience, self-perceived skills, CPR training and knowledge of the guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation among physicians of cardiac arrest teams. Methods: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Denmark. Telephone interviews were conducted with physicians in the cardiac arrest teams in public somatic hospitals using a structured questionnaire. Results: In total, 93 physicians (53% male from 45 hospitals participated in the study. Median age was 34 (interquartile range: 30–39 years. Respondents were medical students working as locum physicians (5%, physicians in training (79% and consultants (16%, and the median postgraduate clinical experience was 48 (19–87 months. Most respondents (92% felt confident in treating a cardiac arrest, while fewer respondents felt confident in performing intubation (41% and focused cardiac ultrasound (39% during cardiac arrest. Median time since last CPR training was 4 (2–10 months, and 48% had attended a European Resuscitation Council (ERC Advanced Life Support course. The majority (84% felt confident in terminating resuscitation; however, only 9% were able to state the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation. Conclusion: Physicians of Danish cardiac arrest teams are often inexperienced and do not feel competent performing important clinical skills during resuscitation. Less than half have

  1. Online video in clinical skills education of oral medication administration for undergraduate student nurses: a mixed methods, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Agi; Smith, Fiona; McCrossan, Gill; Adamson, Elizabeth; Watt, Susan; Penny, Kay

    2013-06-01

    Improvements in the safety of the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines are identified as a priority across international healthcare systems. It is therefore essential that higher education institutions play their part in helping to meet this patient safety objective. New developments in clinical skills education which are aligned to emerging educational theory are available, but evaluations and supportive evidence are limited. To evaluate the use of an online best practice exemplar as an adjunct to the clinical skills teaching of oral medication administration to undergraduate student nurses. Mixed-methods prospective cohort design. Two intakes of undergraduate nursing students (n=168, n=154) undertaking a first year clinical skills based module at a British university. The Control group received standard teaching using lectures and skills classes facilitated by experienced clinical skills lecturers. The Intervention group received the standard teaching and unlimited access to an online video clip of medication administration. Performance and satisfaction were measured using module assessment results and a satisfaction questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered using focus groups (n=16, n=20). The Intervention group was significantly (p=0.021) more likely to pass the assessment and rate their satisfaction with the teaching significantly higher (pTeaching and Time and when Classroom Learning was positive, the Transfer to Practice of the clinical skill was enhanced. An online video of a best practice exemplar as an adjunct to taught clinical skills sessions improves student assessment results and satisfaction ratings. The video was also reported to positively influence all themes identified in Classroom Learning and was perceived to promote the Transfer to Practice of teaching input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of an experiential learning program on the clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills of occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Patty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.

  3. Curricular Innovation in the Surgery Clerkship: Can Assessment Methods Influence Development of Critical Thinking and Clinical Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic, James A; Snyder, Clifford L; Brown, Kimberly M

    2018-03-12

    Although key clinical skills have been defined in the Core Entrustable Professional Activities, there is a need to improve medical school curricula with standardized training opportunities and assessments of these skills. Thus, we aimed to develop an innovative curriculum that emphasized critical thinking and clinical skills. We hypothesized that we would be able to observe measurable improvement on assessments of students' critical thinking and clinical skills after the implementation of the new curriculum. Prospective, Quasi-Experimental study with the use of historical controls. This study took place through the third-year surgical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch at the Galveston, Houston, and Austin, Texas, locations. A total of 214 students taking the third-year surgical clerkship for the first time during the periods of interest were included. Although the students with traditional curriculum improved 9.5% on a short answer exam from preclerkship to postclerkship completion, the students with new curriculum improved by 40%. Students under the new curriculum performed significantly better on the Objective Structured Clinical Exam; however, their shelf scores were lower. Under this new curriculum and grading system, we demonstrated that students can be incentivized to improve critical thinking and clinical skills, but this needs to be balanced with knowledge-based incentives. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Dunn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  5. Mobile-Based Video Learning Outcomes in Clinical Nursing Skill Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Chae, Sun-Mi; Kim, Haejin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Min, Hyojin Jennifer; Park, Da-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices are a regular part of daily life among the younger generations. Thus, now is the time to apply mobile device use to nursing education. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a mobile-based video clip on learning motivation, competence, and class satisfaction in nursing students using a randomized controlled trial with a pretest and posttest design. A total of 71 nursing students participated in this study: 36 in the intervention group and 35 in the control group. A video clip of how to perform a urinary catheterization was developed, and the intervention group was able to download it to their own mobile devices for unlimited viewing throughout 1 week. All of the students participated in a practice laboratory to learn urinary catheterization and were blindly tested for their performance skills after participation in the laboratory. The intervention group showed significantly higher levels of learning motivation and class satisfaction than did the control. Of the fundamental nursing competencies, the intervention group was more confident in practicing catheterization than their counterparts. Our findings suggest that video clips using mobile devices are useful tools that educate student nurses on relevant clinical skills and improve learning outcomes.

  6. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mutingi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce management problem in a typical NPD project consisting of design, prototyping, and production phases. We assume that workforce demand is a function of project work remaining and the current available skill pool. System dynamics simulation concepts are used to capture the causality relationships and feedback loops in the workforce system from a systems thinking. The evaluation of system dynamics simulation reveals the dynamic behaviour in NPD workforce management systems and shows how adaptive dynamic recruitment and training decisions can effectively balance the workforce system during the NPD process.

  7. Nursing students' perceptions of factors influencing their learning environment in a clinical skills laboratory: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldseid, Cecilie; Friberg, Febe; Aase, Karina

    2015-09-01

    The mastery of clinical skills learning is required to become a trained nurse. Due to limited opportunities for clinical skills training in clinical practice, undergraduate training at clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) is an essential part of nursing education. In a sociocultural learning perspective learning is situated in an environment. Growing student cohorts, rapid introduction of technology-based teaching methods and a shift from a teaching- to a learning-centered education all influence the environment of the students. These changes also affect CSLs and therefore compel nursing faculties to adapt to the changing learning environment. This study aimed to explore students' perceptions of their learning environment in a clinical skills laboratory, and to increase the knowledge base for improving CSL learning conditions identifying the most important environmental factors according to the students. An exploratory qualitative methodology was used. Nineteen second-year students enrolled in an undergraduate nursing program in Norway participated in the study. They took the same clinical skills course. Eight were part-time students (group A) and 11 were full-time students (group B). Focus group interviews and content analysis were conducted to capture the students' perception of the CSL learning environment. The study documents students' experience of the physical (facilities, material equipment, learning tools, standard procedures), psychosocial (expectations, feedback, relations) and organizational (faculty resources, course structure) factors that affect the CSL learning environment. Creating an authentic environment, facilitating motivation, and providing resources for multiple methods and repetitions within clinical skills training are all important for improving CSL learning environments from the student perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing an Evaluation Tool for Assessing Clinical Ethics Consultation Skills in Simulation Based Education: The ACES Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described.

  9. New graduate nurse transition programs and clinical leadership skills in novice RNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Kathy B; Richards, Kathy C; Barnett, Scott D

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine predictors of clinical leadership skill (CLS) for RNs with 24 months of clinical experience or less. New graduate nurse transition programs (NGNTPs) have been proposed as a strategy to increase CLS. CLS is associated with positive patient outcomes. Method used was hierarchical regression modeling to evaluate predictors of CLS among individual characteristics of RNs and characteristics of NGNTPs. Perceived overall quality of an NGNTP was the strongest predictor of CLS (R = 0.041, P < .01). Clinical experience and NGNTP characteristics accounted for 6.9% of the variance in CLS and 12.6% of the variance among RNs with assigned mentors (P < .01). RNs participating in NGNTPs for more than 24 weeks were 21 times more likely to remain employed within the organization when compared with NGNTPs of 12 weeks or less, a significant cost-benefit to the organization. Although perceived overall quality of a NGNTP was the strongest predictor of CLS, much of the variance in CLS remains unexplained.

  10. Facilitating Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Health Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M

    2018-01-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.

  11. The Ayurveda Education in India: How Well Are the Graduates Exposed to Basic Clinical Skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ayurveda” is an ancient system of healthcare that is native to India. At present, in India, there are more than 240 colleges that offer a graduate-level degree (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery—BAMS in Ayurveda. Even though the Central Council of Indian Medicine, the governing body that monitors the matters related to Ayurveda education, has imposed various educational norms and regulations, the standard of education has been a cause of concern in recent years. The mushrooming of substandard Ayurvedic colleges is the most important factor that is being held responsible for this kind of erosion in the standards. The present study is a mailed survey, which was carried out to evaluate the “Extent of exposure to basic clinical skills during BAMS course” as perceived by the sample groups of students and teachers drawn from 32 Ayurvedic educational institutions spread all over India. A methodically validated questionnaire was used as the tool in the study, to which 1022 participants responded. The study indicates that there are some serious flaws in the existing system of the graduate-level Ayurveda education. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcare delivery system of the country, governing bodies are required to take necessary steps to ensure the adequate exposure of the students to basic clinical skills. Along with the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process of recognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also be required to tackle the situation.

  12. The Ayurveda Education in India: How Well Are the Graduates Exposed to Basic Clinical Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H. C. S.

    2011-01-01

    “Ayurveda” is an ancient system of healthcare that is native to India. At present, in India, there are more than 240 colleges that offer a graduate-level degree (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery—BAMS) in Ayurveda. Even though the Central Council of Indian Medicine, the governing body that monitors the matters related to Ayurveda education, has imposed various educational norms and regulations, the standard of education has been a cause of concern in recent years. The mushrooming of substandard Ayurvedic colleges is the most important factor that is being held responsible for this kind of erosion in the standards. The present study is a mailed survey, which was carried out to evaluate the “Extent of exposure to basic clinical skills during BAMS course” as perceived by the sample groups of students and teachers drawn from 32 Ayurvedic educational institutions spread all over India. A methodically validated questionnaire was used as the tool in the study, to which 1022 participants responded. The study indicates that there are some serious flaws in the existing system of the graduate-level Ayurveda education. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcare delivery system of the country, governing bodies are required to take necessary steps to ensure the adequate exposure of the students to basic clinical skills. Along with the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process of recognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also be required to tackle the situation. PMID:19687194

  13. A description of the roles, activities, and skills of clinical nurse specialists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R A

    1999-07-01

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) frequently adapt to meet the challenging and changing needs of patients, families, nurses, physicians, and institutions, thus creating an advance practice role that is problematic in definition and description. The two dilemmas associated with CNSs have been role confusion and ambiguity, and the inability to explicate CNSs' value in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to describe the roles, activities, skills, and the cost-saving and revenue-generating activities of Master's-prepared nurses who function in traditional CNS roles in the United States. A descriptive research design was employed, using Role Theory as a framework to guide the study. The tool used to measure CNS practice included a 68-item instrument. It was pretested and used in two pilot studies. Content validity was supported by three experienced CNSs who were, at the time, in a doctoral nursing program. Instrument reliability was 0.89. Surveys were mailed to all individuals who subscribed (n = 2379) to the Clinical Nurse Specialist Journal. From the convenience sample, 724 CNSs participated, providing a margin of error of +/- 4 percentage points with a 99% confidence level. Regarding the five role components, CNSs reported (listed from most frequently to least frequently) spending time in the role of expert practitioner, educator, consultant, administrator, and researcher. Most of the activities listed in each of the roles were typical of CNS practice. Of the advanced practice roles, the two with the most surprising results were the expert practitioner and administrator roles. The results indicated a trend toward performing advanced skills that have been in the past considered solely medical practice and toward increasing administrative responsibilities. A small number of CNSs were able to identify cost-saving and revenue-generating activities, including the monetary value of the activity.

  14. Cultural competency and communication skills of dental students: clinical supervisors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, R; Ghanim, A; Morgan, M; Barrow, S

    2017-11-01

    This study explored clinical supervisor's (CS) views and experiences of dental students' cultural competence (CC) at the Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Additionally, this study explored CS insights into how CC could be taught. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were organised with consenting CS. Interview topics included the following: the importance of CC, communication and rapport, the role of culture in oral health and the need for curriculum enhancement. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify key areas using NVivo software. A total of 12 CS participated in this study. CS acknowledged the importance of CC and felt that it was important for good patient management. CS's definition of CC focused primarily on language and communication skills. CS felt that dental students were generally able to manage culturally diverse patients. However, CS indicated that additional training in this area would be beneficial. Concerns were raised about the students' ability to establish good rapport and communication, with CS highlighting areas such as misuse of interpreters and use of jargon. CS felt that clinical experience, confidence and a positive attitude are effective tools for overcoming cultural barriers. Furthermore, some CS also felt that cultural competency was a skill that is learnt through experience. For most CS, cultural competence was an important part of the clinician-patient exchange which would benefit from enhanced curriculum. They also highlighted areas where transcultural education could be improved. The majority of CS believed dental students managed culturally diverse patients well. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quality of the ECEC Workforce in Romania: Empirical Evidence from Parents' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Aniela; Ghenta, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the early childhood workforce is central to service provision in this area, being a major factor in determining children's development over the course of their lives. Specific skills and competencies are expected from early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce. Well-trained staff from ECEC settings are an extremely…

  16. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  17. Transformational leadership can improve workforce competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Juliana

    2012-03-01

    Staffing problems can arise because of poor delegation skills or a failure by leaders to respond appropriately to economic factors and patient demographics. Training dilemmas, meanwhile, can arise because of managers' confusion about what constitutes 'training' and what constitutes 'education', and where responsibility of provision lies, with the consequence that they neglect these activities. This article uses Kouzes and Posner's (2009) transformational leadership model to show how managers can respond. Leaders who challenge budgets, consider new ways of working and engage effectively with the workforce can improve productivity and care, while those who invest in appropriate learning will have a highly trained workforce. The author explains how integration of leadership roles and management functions can lead to innovative problem solving.

  18. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  19. Role of SimMan in teaching clinical skills to preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation training has potential in developing clinical skills in pre-clinical medical students, but there is little evidence on its effectiveness. Methods Twenty four first year graduate entry preclinical medical students participated in this crossover study. They were divided into two groups, one performed chest examination on each other and the other used SimMan. The groups then crossed over. A pretest, midtest and post-test was conducted in which the students answered the same questionnaire with ten questions on knowledge, and confidence levels rated using a 5 point Likert scale. They were assessed formatively using the OSCE marking scheme. At the end of the session, 23 students completed a feedback questionnaire. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results When the two groups were compared, there was no significant difference in the pretest and the post-test scores on knowledge questions whereas the midtest scores increased significantly (P Mean confidence ratings increased from the pretest to midtest and then further in the post-test for both groups. Their confidence ratings increased significantly in differentiating between normal and abnormal signs [Group starting with SimMan, between pretest and midtest (P= 0.01 and group starting with peer examination, between midtest and post-test (P=0.02]. When the students’ ability to perform examination on each other for both groups was compared, there was a significant increase in the scores of the group starting with SimMan (P=0.007. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated a significant improvement in the students’ knowledge and competence to perform chest examination after simulation with an increase in the student’s perceived levels of confidence. Feedback from the students was extremely positive. SimMan acts as a useful adjunct to teach clinical skills to preclinical medical students by providing a simulated safe environment and thus aids

  20. Video-recorded simulated patient interactions: can they help develop clinical and communication skills in today's learning environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Gretchen A; Brown, Debora

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to provide real-world learning experiences for students to master clinical and communication skills. The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel instructional method using self- and peer-assessment, reflection, and technology to help students develop effective interpersonal and clinical skills. The teaching method is described by the constructivist learning theory and incorporates the use of educational technology. The learning activities were incorporated into the pre-clinical didactic curriculum. The students participated in two video-recording assignments and performed self-assessments on each and had a peer-assessment on the second video-recording. The learning activity was evaluated through the self- and peer-assessments and an instructor-designed survey. This evaluation identified several themes related to the assignment, student performance, clinical behaviors and establishing rapport. Overall the students perceived that the learning activities assisted in the development of clinical and communication skills prior to direct patient care. The use of video recordings of a simulated history and examination is a unique learning activity for preclinical PT students in the development of clinical and communication skills.

  1. Tensions in learning professional identities - nursing students' narratives and participation in practical skills during their clinical practice: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta; Allvin, Renée; Blomberg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical practice is a pivotal part of nursing education. It provides students with the opportunity to put the knowledge and skills they have acquired from lectures into practice with real patients, under the guidance of registered nurses. Clinical experience is also essential for shaping the nursing students' identity as future professional nurses. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the ways in which students learn practical skills and apply knowledge within and across different contexts, i.e. how they apply clinical skills, learnt in the laboratory in university settings, in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how nursing students describe, and use, their prior experiences related to practical skills during their clinical practice. An ethnographic case study design was used. Fieldwork included participant observations (82 h), informal conversations, and interviews ( n  = 7) that were conducted during nursing students' ( n  = 17) clinical practice at an emergency department at a university hospital in Sweden. The overarching theme identified was "Learning about professional identities with respect to situated power". This encompasses tensions in students' learning when they are socialized into practical skills in the nursing profession. This overarching theme consists of three sub-themes: "Embodied knowledge", "Divergent ways of assessing and evaluating knowledge" and "Balancing approaches". Nursing students do not automatically possess the ability to transfer knowledge from one setting to another; rather, their development is shaped by their experiences and interactions with others when they meet real patients. The study revealed different ways in which students navigated tensions related to power differentials. Reflecting on actions is a prerequisite for developing and learning practical skills and professional identities. This highlights the importance of both educators' and the preceptors' roles for

  2. The Relationship of Critical-Thinking Skills and the Clinical-Judgment Skills of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Nursing graduates (n=65) completed a critical thinking instrument and clinical decision-making scale. The critical thinking subscales of inference and inductive reasoning were positively correlated to clinical judgment. A significant relationship was found between critical thinking score and grade point average in nursing. (SK)

  3. Is surgical workforce diversity increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Schechtman, Kenneth B

    2007-03-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which recent increases in levels of gender and racial diversity in the overall resident-physician workforce were evident among core-surgical specialty resident workforces. Chi-square tests for trend assessed the importance of changes from 1996 to 2004 in proportions of women and African Americans in the surgery-resident workforce. Surgery-resident trends were compared with overall resident workforce trends using two-tailed t-tests to compare regression slopes that quantified rates of change over time. Chi-square tests assessed differences between proportions of women and African Americans in the current overall board-certified workforce and their proportions in the surgery board-certified workforce. From 1996 to 2004, proportions of women increased in all seven surgical specialties studied. Compared with the overall trend toward increasing proportions of women in the resident workforce, the trend in one surgical specialty was larger (obstetrics/gynecology, p 0.05), and two were smaller (each p 0.05). Proportions of African Americans decreased in three specialties (each p workforce, except obstetrics/gynecology, remained lower than in the overall board-certified workforce (each p workforces have persisted since 1996 and will likely perpetuate ongoing surgery board-certified workforce disparities.

  4. Self- and rater-assessed effectiveness of "thinking-aloud" and "regular" morning report to intensify young physicians' clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chi; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tsao, Yen-Po; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huang, Chia-Chang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Ho, Shung-Tai

    2015-09-01

    This study compared the effects of the "thinking aloud" (TA) morning report (MR), which is characterized by sequential and interactive case discussion by all participants, with "regular" MR for clinical skill training of young physicians. Between February 2011 and February 2014, young physicians [including postgraduate year-1 (PGY1) residents, interns, and clerks) from our hospital were sequentially enrolled and followed for 3 months. The self- and rater-assessed educational values of two MR models for building up clinical skills of young physicians were compared. The junior (intern and clerk) attendees had higher self-assessed educational values scores and reported post-training application frequency of skills trained by TA MR compared with the senior (PGY1 resident) attendees. Higher average and percentage of increased overall rater-assessed OSCE scores were noted among the regular MR senior attendees and TA MR junior attendees than in their corresponding control groups (regular MR junior attendees and TA MR senior attendees). Interestingly, regular MRs provided additional beneficial effects for establishing the "professionalism, consulting skills and organization efficiency" aspects of clinical skills of senior/junior attendees. Moreover, senior and junior attendees benefited the most by participating in seven sessions of regular MR and TA MR each month, respectively. TA MR effectively trains junior attendees in basic clinical skills, whereas regular MR enhances senior attendees' "work reports, professionalism, organizational efficiency, skills in dealing with controversial and professional issues." Undoubtedly, all elements of the two MR models should be integrated together to ensure patient safety and good discipline among young physicians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. Front-line ordering clinicians: matching workforce to workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaoutis, Lisa B; Hicks, Patricia J; Kolb, Susan; Sladek, Erin; Geiger, Debra; Agosto, Paula M; Boswinkel, Jan P; Bell, Louis M

    2014-07-01

    Matching workforce to workload is particularly important in healthcare delivery, where an excess of workload for the available workforce may negatively impact processes and outcomes of patient care and resident learning. Hospitals currently lack a means to measure and match dynamic workload and workforce factors. This article describes our work to develop and obtain consensus for use of an objective tool to dynamically match the front-line ordering clinician (FLOC) workforce to clinical workload in a variety of inpatient settings. We undertook development of a tool to represent hospital workload and workforce based on literature reviews, discussions with clinical leadership, and repeated validation sessions. We met with physicians and nurses from every clinical care area of our large, urban children's hospital at least twice. We successfully created a tool in a matrix format that is objective and flexible and can be applied to a variety of settings. We presented the tool in 14 hospital divisions and received widespread acceptance among physician, nursing, and administrative leadership. The hospital uses the tool to identify gaps in FLOC coverage and guide staffing decisions. Hospitals can better match workload to workforce if they can define and measure these elements. The Care Model Matrix is a flexible, objective tool that quantifies the multidimensional aspects of workload and workforce. The tool, which uses multiple variables that are easily modifiable, can be adapted to a variety of settings. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  6. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar H

    2018-04-01

    and peer learning, as well as increased ownership over case content and understanding of clinical reasoning nuances. However, students also reported decreases in student–faculty interaction and the use of visual aids (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of our feasibility study suggest that student-generated cases can be a valuable adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning instruction by increasing content ownership, encouraging student-directed learning, and providing opportunities to explore clinical nuances. However, these gains may reduce student–faculty interaction. Future studies may be able to identify an improved model of faculty participation, the ideal timing for incorporation of this method in a medical curriculum, and a more rigorous assessment of the impact of student case creation on the development of clinical reasoning skills. Keywords: case-based learning, undergraduate medical education, student case creation

  7. Teaching clinically experienced physicians communication skills: a review of evaluation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, R.L.; Ros, W.J.G.; Winnubst, J.A.M.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies even more

  8. The Crossroads between Workforce and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn; Lower, Christi L; Rudman, William J

    2016-01-01

    Concern is growing among industry leaders that students may not be obtaining the necessary skills for entry into the labor market. To gain an understanding of the perceived disconnect in the skill set of graduates entering the health information workforce, a survey was developed to examine the opinions of educators and employers related to graduate preparedness. The concern related to graduate preparedness is supported by findings in this research study, in which those working in industry and those in academia noted a disconnect between academic training and preparedness to enter the labor market. A statistically significant difference was found between labor leaders and academics in their assessment of graduates' preparation in the areas of technical, communication, and leadership skills. Educators noted higher levels of preparedness of students with regard to professional and technical skills and leadership skills, while both educators and industry respondents noted a need for improved employability skills (e.g., communication skills and workplace etiquette). No difference was found between the two groups with regard to the need to increase apprenticeships and professional practice experience to cover this gap in formal training. Finally, when asked how the federal government might assist with preparing students, more than half of the respondents noted the importance of apprenticeships and funding for these opportunities.

  9. Communication skills: an essential component of medical curricula. Part I: Assessment of clinical communication: AMEE Guide No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Hart, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This AMEE Guide in Medical Education is Part 1 of a two part Guide covering the issues of Communication. This Guide has been written to provide guidance for those involved in planning the assessment of clinical communication and provides guidance and information relating to the assessment of various aspects of clinical communication; its underlying theory; its practical ability to show that an individual is competent and its relationship to students' daily performance. The advantages and disadvantages of assessing specific aspects of communication are also discussed. The Guide draws attention to the complexity of assessing the ability to communicate with patients and healthcare professionals, with issues of reliability and validity being highlighted for each aspect. Current debates within the area of clinical communication teaching are raised: when should the assessment of clinical communication occur in undergraduate medical education?; should clinical communication assessment be integrated with clinical skills assessment, or should the two be separate?; how important should the assessment of clinical communication be, and the question of possible failure of students if they are judged not competent in communication skills? It is the aim of the authors not only to provide a useful reference for those starting to develop their assessment processes, but also provide an opportunity for review and debate amongst those who already assess clinical communication within their curricula, and a resource for those who have a general interest in medical education who wish to learn more about communication skills assessment.

  10. Implementation of an Electronic Objective Structured Clinical Exam for Assessing Practical Skills in Pre-Professional Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs: Examiner and Course Coordinator Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J.; Ashby, Samantha E.; Rivett, Darren A.; Russell, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of practical clinical skills is essential in the health fields. Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs), where examiners assess students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors), are central to the evaluation of practical skills. However, traditional OSCEs require considerable time-investment to administer, and…

  11. Do Simulation-Based Skill Exercises and Post-Encounter Notes Add Additional Value to a Standardized Patient-Based Clinical Skills Examination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Prislin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Standardized patient (SP clinical assessments have limited utility in assessing higher-level clinical competencies. This study explores the value of including simulation exercises and postencounter notes in an SP clinical skills examination. Methods. Two exercises involving cardiac auscultation and ophthalmic funduscopy simulations along with written post encounter notes were added to an SP-based performance examination. Descriptive analyses of students' performance and correlations with SP-based performance measures were obtained. Results. Students' abilities to detect abnormalities on physical exam were highly variable. There were no correlations between SP-based and simulation-derived measures of physical examination competency. Limited correlations were found between students' abilities to perform and document physical examinations and their formulation of appropriate differential diagnoses. Conclusions. Clinical simulation exercises add depth to SP-based assessments of performance. Evaluating the content of post encounter notes offers some insight into students' integrative abilities, and this appears to be improved by the addition of simulation-based post encounter skill exercises. However, further refinement of this methodology is needed.

  12. Cyber Workforce Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    analysts, who most closely coincide with members of the 1B4 occupation skill set . However, adjusting for the local labor markets where approximately 80–85...fewer than 10 years. 2. Cyber Airmen, in particular 1B4s, have the skill sets needed in the labor market : their skills are extremely portable and...professionals collides with a world labor market already experi- encing a dramatic deficit in individuals with these skills . At the same time, the United

  13. Effects of a service learning experience on confidence and clinical skills in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Jennifer; Hertsenberg, Lindsey; McQuillan, Malissa; O'Connell, Ashley; Shoe, Kimberly; Calamaro, Christina J

    2018-02-01

    Camp programs yield positive and lasting benefits for children. Integrating a summer camp into a nurse course with a service learning design fosters learning beyond the classroom and enhances community engagement. The purpose of this study is to describe the nursing students' experience and perceived confidence after completing a service learning nursing course. This is a descriptive, qualitative research study that used reflection and a perceived confidence questionnaire. The study was conducted in a school of nursing and surrounding university campus facilities during the diabetes camp. The participants (n=23) were nursing students who enrolled in the nursing course. As part of the course requirements, students completed an eight item question confidence survey before and after the diabetes camp related to diabetes and camp management, and interpersonal abilities with patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Within 48-72h after diabetes camp, the students completed the reflection paper. The pre and post Confidence Surveys were analyzed using a t-test and thematic analysis was used to analyze the reflection paper. Overall, perceived confidence levels increased after completing the service learning course (t=-9.91, p=0.001). Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: pre-camp assumptions and fears, growth in confidence, understanding diabetes management in the community, and appreciation for learning beyond the classroom and hospital setting. This service learning course provided nursing students the ability to not only develop diabetes clinical skills and perceived confidence, but also life skills including teamwork, leadership, and conflict resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 'Care Under Pressure': a realist review of interventions to tackle doctors' mental ill-health and its impacts on the clinical workforce and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Daniele; Briscoe, Simon; Jackson, Mark; Mattick, Karen; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Pearson, Mark; Wong, Geoffrey

    2018-02-02

    Mental ill-health is prevalent across all groups of health professionals and this is of great concern in many countries. In the UK, the mental health of the National Health Service (NHS) workforce is a major healthcare issue, leading to presenteeism, absenteeism and loss of staff from the workforce. Most interventions targeting doctors aim to increase their 'productivity' and 'resilience', placing responsibility for good mental health with doctors themselves and neglecting the organisational and structural contexts that may have a detrimental effect on doctors' well-being. There is a need for approaches that are sensitive to the contextual complexities of mental ill-health in doctors, and that do not treat doctors as a uniform body, but allow distinctions to account for particular characteristics, such as specialty, career stage and different working environments. Our project aims to understand how, why and in what contexts support interventions can be designed to minimise the incidence of doctors' mental ill-health. We will conduct a realist review-a form of theory-driven interpretative systematic review-of interventions, drawing on diverse literature sources. The review will iteratively progress through five steps: (1) locate existing theories; (2) search for evidence; (3) select articles; (4) extract and organise data and (5) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions. The analysis will summarise how, why and in what circumstances doctors' mental ill-health is likely to develop and what can remediate the situation. Throughout the project, we will also engage iteratively with diverse stakeholders in order to produce actionable theory. Ethical approval is not required for our review. Our dissemination strategy will be participatory. Tailored outputs will be targeted to: policy makers; NHS employers and healthcare leaders; team leaders; support organisations; doctors experiencing mental ill-health, their families and colleagues. CRD42017069870. © Article author

  15. ‘Care Under Pressure’: a realist review of interventions to tackle doctors’ mental ill-health and its impacts on the clinical workforce and patient care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Simon; Jackson, Mark; Mattick, Karen; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Pearson, Mark; Wong, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health is prevalent across all groups of health professionals and this is of great concern in many countries. In the UK, the mental health of the National Health Service (NHS) workforce is a major healthcare issue, leading to presenteeism, absenteeism and loss of staff from the workforce. Most interventions targeting doctors aim to increase their ‘productivity’ and ‘resilience’, placing responsibility for good mental health with doctors themselves and neglecting the organisational and structural contexts that may have a detrimental effect on doctors’ well-being. There is a need for approaches that are sensitive to the contextual complexities of mental ill-health in doctors, and that do not treat doctors as a uniform body, but allow distinctions to account for particular characteristics, such as specialty, career stage and different working environments. Methods and analysis Our project aims to understand how, why and in what contexts support interventions can be designed to minimise the incidence of doctors’ mental ill-health. We will conduct a realist review—a form of theory-driven interpretative systematic review—of interventions, drawing on diverse literature sources. The review will iteratively progress through five steps: (1) locate existing theories; (2) search for evidence; (3) select articles; (4) extract and organise data and (5) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions. The analysis will summarise how, why and in what circumstances doctors’ mental ill-health is likely to develop and what can remediate the situation. Throughout the project, we will also engage iteratively with diverse stakeholders in order to produce actionable theory. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for our review. Our dissemination strategy will be participatory. Tailored outputs will be targeted to: policy makers; NHS employers and healthcare leaders; team leaders; support organisations; doctors experiencing mental ill

  16. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  17. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  18. Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovu Joseph KB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E and continuous quality improvement (CQI in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84% from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80% were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and

  19. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Workforce Study: Supply and Demand Projections of Adult Rheumatology Workforce, 2015-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battafarano, Daniel F; Ditmyer, Marcia; Bolster, Marcy B; Fitzgerald, John D; Deal, Chad; Bass, Ann R; Molina, Rodolfo; Erickson, Alan R; Hausmann, Jonathan S; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Imundo, Lisa F; Smith, Benjamin J; Jones, Karla; Greene, Kamilah; Monrad, Seetha U

    2018-04-01

    To describe the character and composition of the 2015 US adult rheumatology workforce, evaluate workforce trends, and project supply and demand for clinical rheumatology care for 2015-2030. The 2015 Workforce Study of Rheumatology Specialists in the US used primary and secondary data sources to estimate the baseline adult rheumatology workforce and determine demographic and geographic factors relevant to workforce modeling. Supply and demand was projected through 2030, utilizing data-driven estimations regarding the proportion and clinical full-time equivalent (FTE) of academic versus nonacademic practitioners. The 2015 adult workforce (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) was estimated to be 6,013 providers (5,415 clinical FTE). At baseline, the estimated demand exceeded the supply of clinical FTE by 700 (12.9%). By 2030, the supply of rheumatology clinical providers is projected to fall to 4,882 providers, or 4,051 clinical FTE (a 25.2% decrease in supply from 2015 baseline levels). Demand in 2030 is projected to exceed supply by 4,133 clinical FTE (102%). The adult rheumatology workforce projections reflect a major demographic and geographic shift that will significantly impact the supply of the future workforce by 2030. These shifts include baby-boomer retirements, a millennial predominance, and an increase of female and part-time providers, in parallel with an increased demand for adult rheumatology care due to the growing and aging US population. Regional and innovative strategies will be necessary to manage access to care and reduce barriers to care for rheumatology patients. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  1. Educational and Financial Impact of Technology on Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Paul J.; Carruth, Ann K.

    2013-01-01

    In the current evolving economic environment, developing and implementing an effective workforce to improve the skills and capability of employees are seen as central to improving individual and organizational performance and competitiveness. The availability of online education in universities as well as the work place has significantly increased…

  2. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and underemployed…

  3. Workforce and Economic Development Annual Report, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The California Community Colleges Workforce and Economic Development program (WED program) helps students, incumbent workers, business partners and industries develop skilled competencies in critical industry sectors. As a source for developing and implementing training and curriculum, the WED program is instrumental in helping the community…

  4. Economic and Workforce Development Program Annual Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The California Community Colleges, through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD), continue to propel the California economy forward by providing students with skills to earn well-paying jobs. At the same time, EWD helps provide California companies with the talent they need to compete on a global scale. This annual report for…

  5. Economic and Workforce Development Program Annual Report, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    California's community colleges continue to play a crucial role in the state's economy by providing students with the skills and knowledge to succeed and by advancing the economic growth and global competitiveness of California and its regional economies through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD). The EWD program invests in the…

  6. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2014 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund was established in 2003 as part of the Grow Iowa Values Fund and is currently funded through the Iowa Skilled Worker and Job Creation Fund. This fund has become an important source of financing for community college new program innovation, development, and capacity building, particularly…

  7. Health workforce acquisition, retention and turnover in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skill mix of health professionals, staff acquisition and turnover rate are among the major challenges for the delivery of quality health care. This study assessed the health workforce acquisition, retention, turnover rate and their intention to leave. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with quantitative and qualitative ...

  8. Formulating a Long-Term Employment Strategy for Construction Workforce in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh Norazlin Mat; Mat Isa Siti Siti Sarah; Syed Jamalulil Syarifah Nur Nazihah; Ibrahim Irma Hanie; Hussein Edelin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary idea about the research outline to be conducted by the researcher. Overall idea starts with the unremitting issues regarding skilled construction workforce in Malaysia. Unfortunately, unemployment in Malaysia is becoming increasingly serious. Lack of employment factors there is also a source of unemployment. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the existing strategy to encourage the involvement of local skilled construction workforce (LSCW) ons...

  9. An alternative path to improving university Earth science teaching and developing the geoscience workforce: Postdoctoral research faculty involvement in clinical teacher preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Sessa, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Ebel, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    preparation in that postdoctoral research scientists are directly involved in the clinical preparation of the teacher candidates7. In this program, professional educators and senior scientists guide and work closely with the postdoctoral scientists in developing lessons and field experiences for the teacher candidates. This exposes the postdoctoral scientists to pedagogical techniques. Furthermore, postdoctoral scientists make regular visits to partner schools and share their research interests with high school science students8. Regular assessments about the quality of the postdoctoral scientist's teaching, in the form of course evaluations and informal discussions with the teacher candidates and professional educators, further augments the postdoctoral scientists teaching skills. These experiences can ultimately improve university level science teaching, should the postdoctoral scientists find positions within a university setting. Here, five postdoctoral researchers present self-studies of changing instructional practice born of their involvement in clinical teacher preparation in the AMNH-MAT program.

  10. Direct Observation of Clinical Skills Feedback Scale: Development and Validity Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halman, Samantha; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; McAleer, Sean; Humphrey-Murto, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Construct: This article describes the development and validity evidence behind a new rating scale to assess feedback quality in the clinical workplace. Competency-based medical education has mandated a shift to learner-centeredness, authentic observation, and frequent formative assessments with a focus on the delivery of effective feedback. Because feedback has been shown to be of variable quality and effectiveness, an assessment of feedback quality in the workplace is important to ensure we are providing trainees with optimal learning opportunities. The purposes of this project were to develop a rating scale for the quality of verbal feedback in the workplace (the Direct Observation of Clinical Skills Feedback Scale [DOCS-FBS]) and to gather validity evidence for its use. Two panels of experts (local and national) took part in a nominal group technique to identify features of high-quality feedback. Through multiple iterations and review, 9 features were developed into the DOCS-FBS. Four rater types (residents n = 21, medical students n = 8, faculty n = 12, and educators n = 12) used the DOCS-FBS to rate videotaped feedback encounters of variable quality. The psychometric properties of the scale were determined using a generalizability analysis. Participants also completed a survey to gather data on a 5-point Likert scale to inform the ease of use, clarity, knowledge acquisition, and acceptability of the scale. Mean video ratings ranged from 1.38 to 2.96 out of 3 and followed the intended pattern suggesting that the tool allowed raters to distinguish between examples of higher and lower quality feedback. There were no significant differences between rater type (range = 2.36-2.49), suggesting that all groups of raters used the tool in the same way. The generalizability coefficients for the scale ranged from 0.97 to 0.99. Item-total correlations were all above 0.80, suggesting some redundancy in items. Participants found the scale easy to use (M = 4.31/5) and clear

  11. The National Clinical Skills Competition Promotes the Construction of a Comprehensive Training Program for Chinese Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Huang, Si-min; Lu, Chun-ting; Feng, Lie

    2018-01-01

    To explore an efficient training program based on an analysis in organizing seven sessions for the National Clinical Skills Competition in China. Each year, 6-12 excellent medical students of our university are selected as an observation team. Comparisons of the teaching characteristics were performed in this study. An optimal curriculum…

  12. Survey on workforce retention and attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is conducting a survey to gather information on why technical professionals change jobs or quit working. The survey, prompted by concern about the retention of skilled workers, aims to provide information to employers that can assist them in addressing practices that can lead to significant workforce attrition. To participate in the survey, which is open to everyone (including those who are not SPE members), go to http://research.spe.org/se.ashx?s=705E3F1335720258 through 15 May 2013. For more information, contact speresearch@spe.org.

  13. Workplace-based communication skills training in clinical departments: Examining the role of collegial relations through positioning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jane Ege; Malling, Bente Vigh

    2018-04-27

    Studies suggest that the workplace is a key to understanding how clinical communication skills learning takes place and that medical communication skills need to be reinforced over time in order not to deteriorate. This study explored the perceptions of doctors in four hospital departments who participated in a workplace-based communication training project. Its specific focus was the relationship between collegial relations and learning communication skills. The study applied a qualitative design using an ethnographic methodology, i.e. interviews and observations. Positioning theory was used as the theoretical framework. Training communication skills with colleagues in the actual workplace setting was valued by the participants who experienced more sharing of communication challenges, previously understood as something private one would not share with colleagues. However, collegial relations were also barriers for providing critical feedback, especially from junior doctors to their seniors. The position as "colleague" both reinforced the communication skills training and hindered it. The communication skills educational model had a flat, non-hierarchical structure which disturbed the hierarchical structure of the workplace, and its related positions.

  14. Teaching communication skills in clinical settings: comparing two applications of a comprehensive program with standardized and real patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers’ communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. Methods A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants’ confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Results Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients’ assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. Conclusions The program’s positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients. PMID:24886341

  15. Teaching communication skills in clinical settings: comparing two applications of a comprehensive program with standardized and real patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Silva, Filipa R; Martins, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Pedrosa, Raquel; Almeida, Susana S; Correia, Luís; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Teles, Ana; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2014-05-09

    Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers' communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants' confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients' assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. The program's positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients.

  16. Transferring clinical communication skills from the classroom to the clinical environment: perceptions of a group of medical students in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jo

    2010-06-01

    To better understand the transfer of classroom-learned clinical communication skills (CCS) to the clinical environment of the hospital ward, where they are practiced and refined by students. The author first briefly presents the literature on clinical communication, provides an overview of the debates around the notion of transfer, and presents a sociocultural model of developmental transfer applied to CCS learning. Second, she describes a focus group and nine individual interviews carried out with 17 fourth-year medical students at one medical school in the United Kingdom in 2008. The goal was to elicit their views of CCS teaching, learning, and transfer of CCS to the clinical workplace. The findings are presented under the four main themes of transition, where students experienced the transition from the medical school to the hospital ward as a mixture of positive and negative impacts on transferring their CCS skills; the clinical culture, where senior doctors had the greatest impact on student learning and emergent clinical practice; clinical communication as a vehicle for professionalism and being a "good" doctor; and, finally, transfer mechanisms, where simulated practice with actors and the clinical history template were powerful learning tools. Findings indicate that more needs to be done to support, develop, and embed CCS into the professional practice of medical students in the clinical workplace. This may be achieved by greater collaboration of educators in the academic and clinical environments. Using the developmental transfer model applied to CCS learning may help foster this relationship.

  17. Student self-reported communication skills, knowledge and confidence across standardised patient, virtual and traditional clinical learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Michelle; Brundage, Shelley B; Spitalnick, Josh; Allen, Peter J; Beilby, Janet

    2016-02-27

    Advanced communication skills are vital for allied health professionals, yet students often have limited opportunities in which to develop them. The option of increasing clinical placement hours is unsustainable in a climate of constrained budgets, limited placement availability and increasing student numbers. Consequently, many educators are considering the potentials of alternative training methods, such as simulation. Simulations provide safe, repeatable and standardised learning environments in which students can practice a variety of clinical skills. This study investigated students' self-rated communication skill, knowledge, confidence and empathy across simulated and traditional learning environments. Undergraduate speech pathology students were randomly allocated to one of three communication partners with whom they engaged conversationally for up to 30 min: a patient in a nursing home (n = 21); an elderly trained patient actor (n = 22); or a virtual patient (n = 19). One week prior to, and again following the conversational interaction, participants completed measures of self-reported communication skill, knowledge and confidence (developed by the authors based on the Four Habit Coding Scheme), as well as the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Professionals (student version). All three groups reported significantly higher communication knowledge, skills and confidence post-placement (Median d = .58), while the degree of change did not vary as a function of group membership (Median η (2)  communication skill, knowledge and confidence, though not empathy, following a brief placement in a virtual, standardised or traditional learning environment. The self-reported increases were consistent across the three placement types. It is proposed that the findings from this study provide support for the integration of more sustainable, standardised, virtual patient-based placement models into allied health training programs for the training of

  18. Tracing the evolution of chiropractic students' confidence in clinical and patient communication skills during a clinical internship: a multi-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovich, Mark; Volet, Simone

    2012-06-19

    Anecdotal evidence points to variations in individual students' evolving confidence in clinical and patient communication skills during a clinical internship. A better understanding of the specific aspects of internships that contribute to increasing or decreasing confidence is needed to best support students during the clinical component of their study. A multi-method approach, combining two large-scale surveys with 269 students and three in-depth individual interviews with a sub-sample of 29 students, was used to investigate the evolution of change in student confidence during a 10-month long internship. Change in levels of confidence in patient communication and clinical skills was measured and relationship to demographic factors were explored. The interviews elicited students' accounts and reflections on what affected the evolution of their confidence during the internship. At the start of their internship, students were more confident in their patient communication skills than their clinical skills but prior experience was significantly related to confidence in both. Initial confidence in patient communication skills was also related to age and prior qualification but not gender whilst confidence in clinical skills was related to gender but not age or prior qualification. These influences were maintained over time. Overall, students' levels of confidence in patient communication and clinical skills confidence increased significantly over the duration of the internship with evidence that change over time in these two aspects were inter-related. To explore how specific aspects of the internship contributed to changing levels of confidence, two extreme sub-groups of interviewees were identified, those with the least increase and those with the highest increase in professional confidence over time. A number of key factors affecting the development of confidence were identified, including among others, interactions with clinicians and patients, personal agency and

  19. Tracing the evolution of chiropractic students’ confidence in clinical and patient communication skills during a clinical internship: a multi-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence points to variations in individual students’ evolving confidence in clinical and patient communication skills during a clinical internship. A better understanding of the specific aspects of internships that contribute to increasing or decreasing confidence is needed to best support students during the clinical component of their study. Methods A multi-method approach, combining two large-scale surveys with 269 students and three in-depth individual interviews with a sub-sample of 29 students, was used to investigate the evolution of change in student confidence during a 10-month long internship. Change in levels of confidence in patient communication and clinical skills was measured and relationship to demographic factors were explored. The interviews elicited students’ accounts and reflections on what affected the evolution of their confidence during the internship. Results At the start of their internship, students were more confident in their patient communication skills than their clinical skills but prior experience was significantly related to confidence in both. Initial confidence in patient communication skills was also related to age and prior qualification but not gender whilst confidence in clinical skills was related to gender but not age or prior qualification. These influences were maintained over time. Overall, students’ levels of confidence in patient communication and clinical skills confidence increased significantly over the duration of the internship with evidence that change over time in these two aspects were inter-related. To explore how specific aspects of the internship contributed to changing levels of confidence, two extreme sub-groups of interviewees were identified, those with the least increase and those with the highest increase in professional confidence over time. A number of key factors affecting the development of confidence were identified, including among others, interactions with clinicians

  20. Diverse and educated workforce –requirement in the recovery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Ilinca DRĂGOIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a highly skilled workforce is a key factor to the new challenges of globalization, population growth, aging, development of new information technologies and the need for appropriate and rational use of resources. Investing in training in terms of ensuring equal opportunities is a requisite for ensuring a healthy, creative and innovative workforce, with appropriate professional skills and knowledge to produce tangible and intangible goods and services that can meet the challenges of economic recovery, being the main driver of innovation and progress. Also, a diverse workforce with varied characteristics, perspectives and ideas, is more effective in today's society where creativity and innovation are essential.

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... supports the entire surgical team with quality, comprehensive education. The ... A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying ...

  2. Assessment of first-year veterinary students' communication skills using an objective structured clinical examination: the importance of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.

  3. A strategic approach to workforce development for local public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Beverley; Ward, Megan

    2017-11-09

    In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1.4 million people. An organization-wide strategic workforce development program was instituted. It is theory-based, evidence-informed and data-driven. A first step was a conceptual framework, followed by interventions in workforce planning, human resources management, and capacity development. The program was built on evidence reviews, theory, and public health core competencies. Interventions spread across the employee work-life span. Capacity development based on the public health core competencies is a main focus, particularly analytical capacity to support decision-making. Employees gain skill and knowledge in comprehensive population health. Leadership evolves as work shifts to the analysis of health status and development of interventions. Effective human resource processes ensure appropriate job design, recruitment and orientation. Analysis of the workforce leads to vigorous employee development to ensure a strong pool of potential leadership successors. Theory, research evidence, and data provide a robust foundation for workforce development. Competencies are important inputs to job descriptions, recruitment, training, and human resource processes. A comprehensive workforce development strategy enables the development of a skilled workforce capable of responding to the needs of the population it serves.

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Stop Overregulating My OR ... Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Regulatory Issues Stop Overregulating My OR ... American Urological Association (AUA), Certified Enterostomal Therapy Nurses (CETN), and the United Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). Program Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying ...

  6. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  7. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  8. People matter: tomorrow's workforce for tomorrow's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easmon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The focus of any health service, now and into the future, should be people delivering safe, quality care to people; care that covers not just diagnosis and treatment, but the whole experience that patients and their carers have of the service. Workforce development, the process by which the current and future workforce is planned and trained, must be related to current and future patterns of service delivery and take account of financial reality. It cannot exist in isolation. Despite employing 1.3 million people, upon whom up to 70% of its budget is spent, the NHS has been curiously relaxed about the workforce development of both its staff in training and of those trained staff who, with the impact of demographic change and the increasing speed of technological progress, will need to adapt to new ways of working and learn new skills. Given that the NHS has been repeatedly criticised by the Health Select Committee for its failure to link workforce planning and development with service and financial planning, and that inadequate staffing has been a feature of a number of recent organizational failures, how is this to be achieved? Some NHS organisations have been shown to be poor employers with a culture of bullying and fear and the use of suspensions and financial settlements bound to gagging clauses to remove whistleblowers. Gender and ethnic discrimination is an issue not yet fully resolved. Furthermore with the demographic changes around the increasing needs of an elderly population, the introduction of new technology and the increasing interdependency of health and social care, there is a need for a clear vision as to how the future NHS will be structured and developed. Fewer large specialist centres are likely, combined with local, community oriented integrated services with appropriate specialist support. Decisions need to be taken about this in time to give workforce development processes time to plan the best skill mix combinations and to develop clinicians

  9. Innovative approach using interprofessional simulation to educate surgical residents in technical and nontechnical skills in high-risk clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksa, Grace A; Anderson, Cristan; Fidler, Richard; Stewart, Lygia

    2015-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies stress nontechnical skills that can be difficult to evaluate and teach to surgical residents. During emergencies, surgeons work in interprofessional teams and are required to perform certain procedures. To obtain proficiency in these skills, residents must be trained. To educate surgical residents in leadership, teamwork, effective communication, and infrequently performed emergency surgical procedures with the use of interprofessional simulations. SimMan 3GS was used to simulate high-risk clinical scenarios (15-20 minutes), followed by debriefings with real-time feedback (30 minutes). A modified Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale (score range, 1-4) was used to assess surgical resident performance during the first half of the academic year (July-December 2012) and the second half of the academic year (January-June 2013). Anonymous online surveys were used to solicit participant feedback. Simulations were conducted in the operating room, intensive care unit, emergency department, ward, and simulation center. A total of 43 surgical residents (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1 and 2) participated in interdisciplinary clinical scenarios, with other health care professionals (nursing, anesthesia, critical care, medicine, respiratory therapy, and pharmacy; mean number of nonsurgical participants/session: 4, range 0-9). Thirty seven surgical residents responded to the survey. Simulation of high-risk clinical scenarios: postoperative pulmonary embolus, pneumothorax, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis with a difficult airway, and pulseless electrical activity arrest. Evaluation of resident skills: communication, leadership, teamwork, problem solving, situation awareness, and confidence in performing emergency procedures (eg, cricothyroidotomy). A total of 31 of 35 (89%) of the residents responding found the sessions useful. Additionally, 28 of 33 (85%) reported improved confidence

  10. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  11. A qualitative study of advanced nurse practitioners' use of physical assessment skills in the community: shifting skills across professional boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, Mary; Allan, Helen

    2017-07-01

    To explore multiple perspectives on the use of physical assessment skills by advanced nurse practitioners in the UK. Physical assessment skills practices are embedded in advanced nursing practice roles in the UK. There is little evidence on how these skills are used by advanced nurse practitioners in the community. Case study. A qualitative interpretative single-embedded case study of 22 participants from South of England. A framework method analysed interview data collected by the researcher between March-August 2013. Participants included nurses, doctors, nurse educators and managers. Physical assessment skills education at universities is part of a policy shift to develop a flexible workforce in the UK. Shared physical assessment practices are less to do with role substitution and more about preparing practitioners with skills that are fit for purpose. Competence, capability and performance with physical assessment skills are an expectation of advanced nursing practice. These skills are used successfully by community advanced nurse practitioners to deliver a wide range of services in response to changing patient need. The introduction of physical assessment skills education to undergraduate professional preparation would create a firm foundation to develop these skills in postgraduate education. Physical assessment education prepares nurses with the clinical competencies to carry out healthcare reforms in the UK. Shared sets of clinical assessment competencies between disciplines have better outcomes for patients. Levels of assessment competence can depend on the professional attributes of individual practitioners. Unsupportive learning cultures can hinder professional development of advanced nursing practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents: combining evidence with clinical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Marleen Elisabeth; Verschuren, Olaf; de Groot, Laura; de Groot, Janke Frederike

    2017-02-13

    Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several wheelchair mobility outcome measures have been developed for adults, but none of these have been validated in children. Therefore the objective of this study is to develop a WMS outcome measure for children using the current knowledge from literature in combination with the clinical expertise of health care professionals, children and their parents. Mixed methods approach. Phase 1: Item identification of WMS items through a systematic review using the 'COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments' (COSMIN) recommendations. Phase 2: Item selection and validation of relevant WMS items for children, using a focus group and interviews with children using a manual wheelchair, their parents and health care professionals. Phase 3: Feasibility of the newly developed Utrecht Pediatric Wheelchair Mobility Skills Test (UP-WMST) through pilot testing. Phase 1: Data analysis and synthesis of nine WMS related outcome measures showed there is no widely used outcome measure with levels of evidence across all measurement properties. However, four outcome measures showed some levels of evidence on reliability and validity for adults. Twenty-two WMS items with the best clinimetric properties were selected for further analysis in phase 2. Phase 2: Fifteen items were deemed as relevant for children, one item needed adaptation and six items were considered not relevant for assessing WMS in children. Phase 3: Two health care professionals administered the UP-WMST in eight children. The instructions of the UP-WMST were clear, but the scoring method of the height difference items needed adaptation. The outdoor items for rolling over soft surface and the side slope item were

  13. Effectiveness of basic clinical skills training programmes : a cross-sectional comparison of four medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmen, R; Scherpbier, A; van der Vleuten, C; Denekens, J; Derese, A; van Rossum, Herman; Hoogenboom, R; Kramer, A; Van Royen, P; Bossaert, L

    Objective Training in physical diagnostic skills is an important part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to study the outcome of skills training at four medical schools. Context At the time of the study, three schools had a traditional lecture-based curriculum and

  14. Motor-skill learning in Alzheimer's disease : A review with an eye to the clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halteren-van Tilborg, Ilse A. D. A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hulstijn, Wouter

    Since elderly people suffering from dementia want to go on living independently for as long as possible, they need to be able to maintain familiar and learn new practical skills. Although explicit or declarative learning methods are mostly used to train new skills, it is hypothesized that implicit

  15. Otolaryngology workforce analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charles Anthony; McMenamin, Patrick; Mehta, Vikas; Pillsbury, Harold; Kennedy, David

    2016-12-01

    The number of trained otolaryngologists available is insufficient to supply current and projected US health care needs. The goal of this study was to assess available databases and present accurate data on the current otolaryngology workforce, examine methods for prediction of future health care needs, and explore potential issues with forecasting methods and policy implementation based on these predictions. Retrospective analysis of research databases, public use files, and claims data. The total number of otolaryngologists and current practices in the United States was tabulated using the databases of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Medical Association, American Board of Otolaryngology, American College of Surgeons, Association of American Medical Colleges, National Center for Health Statistics, and Department of Health and Human Services. Otolaryngologists were identified as surgeons and classified into surgical groups using a combination of AMA primary and secondary self-reported specialties and American Board of Medical Specialties certifications. Data gathered were cross-referenced to rule out duplications to assess total practicing otolaryngologists. Data analyzed included type of practice: 1) academic versus private and 2) general versus specialty; and demographics: 1) urban versus rural, 2) patient age, 3) reason for visit (referral, new, established, surgical follow-up), 4) reason for visit (diagnosis), and 5) payer type. Analysis from the above resources estimates the total number of otolaryngologists practicing in the United States in 2011 to be 12,609, with approximately 10,522 fully trained practicing physicians (9,232-10,654) and 2,087 in training (1,318 residents and 769 fellows/others). Based on 2011 data, workforce projections would place the fully trained and practicing otolaryngology workforce at 11,088 in 2015 and 12,084 in 2025 unless changes in training occur. The AAO-HNS Physicians Resource Committee

  16. A Short Take on: Teaching Strategies for Workplace Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Raj

    2006-01-01

    The American workplace needs a workforce competent in a trade area and proficient in communication skills, group interaction skills, computer skills, and critical thinking skills. Many may argue that it is not possible to teach a technician all these skills in just two years--hence the need for new teaching strategies. Thus, in this article, the…

  17. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  18. [Standardizing the manipulation procedure of acupuncture-moxibustion, reinforcing the training of' clinical skill: learning experience of Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training: Chapter of Commonly Used Needling and Moxibustion Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongfang; Yang, Chao; Tang, Jie; Qin, Qiuguo; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhao, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    The book Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training is one of "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" in novative teaching materials, which is published by People's Medical Publishing House. Through learning the first half of the book commonly used needling and moxibustion techniques, it is realized that the selection of book content is reasonable and much attention is paid to needling and moxibustion techniques; the chapter arrangement is well-organized, and the form is novel, which is concise and intuitive; for every technique, great attention is paid to standardize the manipulation procedure and clarify the technique key, simultaneously the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion is also emphasized. The characteristics of the book, including innovativeness, practicability, are highlighted, and it greatly helps to improve students' clinical skills and examination ability.

  19. Training the Workforce: Description of a Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Education and Mentoring Program in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stacie; O'Mahony, Sean; Baron, Aliza; Ansari, Aziz; Deamant, Catherine; Frader, Joel; Leyva, Ileana; Marschke, Michael; Preodor, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for palliative care (PC) services has led to concerns regarding workforce shortages and threats to the resiliency of PC teams. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a regional interdisciplinary training program in PC. Thirty nurse and physician fellows representing 22 health systems across the Chicago region participated in a two-year PC training program. The curriculum was delivered through multiple conferences, self-directed e-learning, and individualized mentoring by expert local faculty (mentors). Fellows shadowed mentors' clinical practices and received guidance on designing, implementing, and evaluating a practice improvement project to address gaps in PC at their institutions. Enduring, interdisciplinary relationships were built at all levels across health care organizations. Fellows made significant increases in knowledge and self-reported confidence in adult and pediatric PC and program development skills and frequency performing these skills. Fellows and mentors reported high satisfaction with the educational program. This interdisciplinary PC training model addressed local workforce issues by increasing the number of clinicians capable of providing PC. Unique features include individualized longitudinal mentoring, interdisciplinary education, on-site project implementation, and local network building. Future research will address the impact of the addition of social work and chaplain trainees to the program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for schizophrenia: improvement in functioning and experiential negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C; McQuaid, John R

    2014-12-01

    Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem-solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey [ILSS]), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms, and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms.

  1. Determining the efficacy of social skills training in treatment of drug addiction in patients refering to Tehran Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Ramezani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of group social skill training on drug abuse treatment prognosis.Materials & Methods :To achieve this goal, 20 available subjects residing at Tehran Clinic were selected. These subjects were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in ten 2-hour sessions and were trained social skills ,and the control group was in the waiting list. Measurement tools consisted of ACIS Questionnaire and laboratory test; Both experimental and control groups were subjected to pre and post tests. Data were analyzed using paired t test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney u test. Results: Results indicated that, the communication and interaction skills in experimental group had improved significantly in comparison with control group, also in the control group of a person suffering from lapse , but none of those two groups relapsed after 1- month follow up.Conclusion: According to our results it can be concluded that social skills training can be used as a suitable tool to increase communication and interaction skills.

  2. Factors Associated With Nursing Students' Resilience: Communication Skills Course, Use of Social Media and Satisfaction With Clinical Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalit, Warshawski; Sivia, Barnoy; Michal, Itzhaki

    The purpose of this study was to explore the (a) associations between students' personal and group resilience to their utilization of social networking platforms and formally taught communication skills, (b) students' personal and clinical characteristics that are related to personal and group resilience and the perceived helpfulness of communication course, and (c) factors that contribute to students' satisfaction with their clinical placement. Data were collected from 149 second year nursing students learning in a major university in the country of Israel with the use of a self-administered structured questionnaire. Students' satisfaction from their clinical placement was measured using 1 open-ended question, analyzed through qualitative methods. Results demonstrated positive correlations between students' use of social networking to their personal and group resilience (Pmedia use, religion, and clinical placement characteristics were related to resilience and to the perceived helpfulness of the communication course (P<.01). Students' satisfaction with their clinical placement was based primarily on the clinical instructors' personal and professional skills. In conclusion, social networking can and should be used as a learning tool to promote resilience among nursing students. Faculty and nurse managers should be aware of the central role of the clinical instructor and initiate collaborative and supporting initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Success of Pediatric Dentistry Department at Mashhad Dental School (Iran in Clinical Skills Education from Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nematollahi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodic evaluation of educational programs provides insight into the course and teaching effectiveness. Effective evaluation provides valuable information, which contributes to both student’s and course success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of pediatric dentistry department at Mashhad dental school in clinical education from students’ perspectives.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 fifth and sixth grade undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Mashhad dental school. A questionnaire including 21 multiple choice questions about 7 parts of clinical skills in pediatric dentistry was given to each student. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney in SPSS software. Results: According to the study results, among 7 different clinical skills in pediatric dentistry including: examination, behavior management, prevention, injection, restoration, pulp treatment and space management, the highest success rate of pediatric dentistry department was in prevention and injection and the lowest success rate in space management and behavior control. Furthermore, from the students’ perspective, male students compared to female students mentioned a higher rate of success in choosing the type of restoration material for pediatric dentistry department (P=0. 041. Conclusion: This study showed that the students’ self-reported clinical skills in different parts of pediatric dentistry has been adequate. Students reported a lack of confidence in “behavior management” and “space management” which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.

  4. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  5. Kenya's health workforce information system: a model of impact on strategic human resources policy, planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Willy, Rankesh M; Kiriinya, Rose N; Waudo, Agnes N; Oluoch, Tom; Kimani, Francis M; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-09-01

    Countries worldwide are challenged by health worker shortages, skill mix imbalances, and maldistribution. Human resources information systems (HRIS) are used to monitor and address these health workforce issues, but global understanding of such systems is minimal and baseline information regarding their scope and capability is practically non-existent. The Kenya Health Workforce Information System (KHWIS) has been identified as a promising example of a functioning HRIS. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of KHWIS data on human resources policy, planning and management. Sources for this study included semi-structured interviews with senior officials at Kenya's Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), the Department of Nursing within MOMS, the Nursing Council of Kenya, Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board, Kenya's Clinical Officers Council, and Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board. Additionally, quantitative data were extracted from KHWIS databases to supplement the interviews. Health sector policy documents were retrieved from MOMS and MOPHS websites, and reviewed to assess whether they documented any changes to policy and practice as having been impacted by KHWIS data. Interviews with Kenyan government and regulatory officials cited health workforce data provided by KHWIS influenced policy, regulation, and management. Policy changes include extension of Kenya's age of mandatory civil service retirement from 55 to 60 years. Data retrieved from KHWIS document increased relicensing of professional nurses, midwives, medical practitioners and dentists, and interviewees reported this improved compliance raised professional regulatory body revenues. The review of Government records revealed few references to KHWIS; however, documentation specifically cited the KHWIS as having improved the availability of human resources for health information regarding workforce planning

  6. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  7. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  8. Opening Doors of Opportunity to Develop the Future Nuclear Workforce - 13325

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    The United States' long-term demand for highly skilled nuclear industry workers is well-documented by the Nuclear Energy Institute. In addition, a study commissioned by the SRS Community Reuse Organization concludes that 10,000 new nuclear workers are needed in the two-state region of Georgia and South Carolina alone. Young adults interested in preparing for these nuclear careers must develop specialized skills and knowledge, including a clear understanding of the nuclear workforce culture. Successful students are able to enter well-paying career fields. However, the national focus on nuclear career opportunities and associated training and education programs has been minimal in recent decades. Developing the future nuclear workforce is a challenge, particularly in the midst of competition for similar workers from various industries. In response to regional nuclear workforce development needs, the SRS Community Reuse Organization established the Nuclear Workforce Initiative (NWI R ) to promote and expand nuclear workforce development capabilities by facilitating integrated partnerships. NWI R achievements include a unique program concept called NWI R Academies developed to link students with nuclear career options through firsthand experiences. The academies are developed and conducted at Aiken Technical College and Augusta Technical College with support from workforce development organizations and nuclear employers. Programs successfully engage citizens in nuclear workforce development and can be adapted to other communities focused on building the future nuclear workforce. (authors)

  9. Opening Doors of Opportunity to Develop the Future Nuclear Workforce - 13325

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Mindy [Nuclear Workforce Initiative Program, SRS Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States' long-term demand for highly skilled nuclear industry workers is well-documented by the Nuclear Energy Institute. In addition, a study commissioned by the SRS Community Reuse Organization concludes that 10,000 new nuclear workers are needed in the two-state region of Georgia and South Carolina alone. Young adults interested in preparing for these nuclear careers must develop specialized skills and knowledge, including a clear understanding of the nuclear workforce culture. Successful students are able to enter well-paying career fields. However, the national focus on nuclear career opportunities and associated training and education programs has been minimal in recent decades. Developing the future nuclear workforce is a challenge, particularly in the midst of competition for similar workers from various industries. In response to regional nuclear workforce development needs, the SRS Community Reuse Organization established the Nuclear Workforce Initiative (NWI{sup R}) to promote and expand nuclear workforce development capabilities by facilitating integrated partnerships. NWI{sup R} achievements include a unique program concept called NWI{sup R} Academies developed to link students with nuclear career options through firsthand experiences. The academies are developed and conducted at Aiken Technical College and Augusta Technical College with support from workforce development organizations and nuclear employers. Programs successfully engage citizens in nuclear workforce development and can be adapted to other communities focused on building the future nuclear workforce. (authors)

  10. Evaluating Neonatal Resuscitation Skills of Nursing and Midwifery Students Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malekzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The students’ skills in neonatal resuscitation were lower than expected. As competence in this area is of high significance for the improvement of neonatal outcomes, holding training workshops through applying novel training methods is recommended.

  11. Development and validation of an instrument to assess and improve clinical consultation skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lefroy, JE; Gay, SP; Gibson, S; Williams, S; McKinley, RK

    2011-01-01

    Context: Development of medical students’ consultation skills with patients is at the core of the UK General Medical Council’s 'Tomorrow’s Doctors' guide (2009). Teaching and assessment of these skills must therefore be a core component of the medical undergraduate curriculum. The Calgary Cambridge guide to the medical interview and the Leicester Assessment Package (LAP) provide a foundation for teaching and assessment, but both have different strengths. Objective: To develop and validate a c...

  12. Collaborative and Bidirectional Feedback Between Students and Clinical Preceptors: Promoting Effective Communication Skills on Health Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kara; Chou, Calvin L

    2016-11-01

    Current literature on feedback suggests that clinical preceptors lead feedback conversations that are primarily unidirectional, from preceptor to student. While this approach may promote clinical competency, it does not actively develop students' competency in facilitating feedback discussions and providing feedback across power differentials (ie, from student to preceptor). This latter competency warrants particular attention given its fundamental role in effective health care team communication and its related influence on patient safety. Reframing the feedback process as collaborative and bidirectional, where both preceptors and students provide and receive feedback, maximizes opportunities for role modeling and skills practice in the context of a supportive relationship, thereby enhancing team preparedness. We describe an initiative to introduce these fundamental skills of collaborative, bidirectional feedback in the nurse-midwifery education program at the University of California, San Francisco. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Overcoming Hurdles Implementing Multi-skilling Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    skilled workforce? Chapter II will communicate important concepts found in the literature on skill proficiency topics. These topics include skill...training methods that might improve learning and retention during the acquisition phase. 10 The active interlock modeling (AIM) protocol is a dyadic ...retention, as found in 43 Chapter 2. These techniques include dyadic training methods, overlearning, feedback, peer support, and managerial support

  14. Patient-based not problem-based learning: An Oslerian approach to clinical skills, looking back to move forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn-Miller A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : There have been significant changes in the past decade in both the curriculum and its delivery, in undergraduate medical education. Many of these changes have been made simultaneously, preventing clear assessment of outcome measures. The move away from a pre-clinical science grounding, to an integrated ′problem-based learning (PBL approach′ has been widespread in many countries across the world. Purpose : One effect of these changes has been the way in which clinical skills, in particular history and examination are taught. By integrating clinical scenarios earlier in the undergraduate course, clinical skills are increasingly taught in tutorials. This approach, when used in the pre-clinical setting may have shortcomings in the development of the ability to construct a differential diagnosis. There has been little evidence that PBL improves problem-solving ability and this is critical to the differential diagnostic process. The concurrent decline in anatomical teaching and understanding contributes to this difficulty. Discussion : The authors outline a model which clinicians can re-emphasize to students and juniors based on the fundamentals of clinical practice. The apprenticeship is more important than ever in the days of small group learning. The relinquishing of the traditional model of undergraduate medicine is of concern. The effects of educational reform should be examined by further research into the competencies of graduates entering higher professional training, before it is accepted that this change has been for the better.

  15. Pediatric dermatology workforce shortage: perspectives from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiglow, Brittany G; Resneck, Jack S; Lucky, Anne W; Sidbury, Robert; Yan, Albert C; Resnick, Steven D; Antaya, Richard J

    2008-12-01

    The pediatric dermatology workforce has not been systematically evaluated since recent changes in board certification requirements. To quantify and characterize the workforce of academic pediatric dermatologists and examine issues related to training, hiring, and retention. Dermatology chairpersons and residency directors in the United States and Canada completed a 30-question survey. Eighty of 132 programs (61%) responded to the survey. More than two thirds of programs (56/80) employed a pediatric dermatologist, and 34 programs were recruiting a pediatric dermatologist. The number of residents that pursue careers in pediatric dermatology is significantly associated with the number of pediatric dermatologists on faculty at their institution. Self-reported data, which may have been reflected by recall bias, and 61% response rate. At a majority of academic centers, the current pool of pediatric dermatology faculty is neither adequate to meet academic nor clinical demands. Methods to increase exposure to pediatric dermatology among medical students and residents must be sought.

  16. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  17. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  18. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanchao Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Methods: Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. Results: The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%, updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%, strengthened faculty development (84.0%, improved educational resources (82.1%, and benefited all students (53.4%. Conclusions: The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  19. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guanchao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qiming; Chi, Baorong; He, Qingnan; Xiao, Haipeng; Zhou, Qinghuan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China) participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%), updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%), strengthened faculty development (84.0%), improved educational resources (82.1%), and benefited all students (53.4%). The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  20. The role of peer assisted learning to improve the effectivity of clinical skill laboratory learning in dental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ardinansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the clinical skill learning in dental education has begun in pre-clinic, known as Clinical Skill Laboratory (CSL which needs human resources, many and expensive tools and manikins, and enough times for practise. One of the method used in CSL in dental education is PeerAssisted Learning (PAL defined as “the development of knowledge and skill through active help and support among status equals or match companions”. This paper aims is to explain the role of PAL method to improve the effectivity of CSL learning in dental education in preclinical stage. Reviewing on the relevant literatures regarding peer assisted learning on the implementation of the clinical skill laboratory in dental education. The effectivity of CSL learning needs close supervision and individual feedback, so enough tutors is important through the process. This PAL method considered to be helpfull with the increasing numbers of dental students and the limitation of staff faculty. This method is found feasible, well accepted by peer-tutors and students, and can be as effective as conventional learning method. This is also useful for peer-teacher because they more intrinsically motivated, have higher conceptual learning scores, and perceive themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than students who learn in order to be tested.  However, there are several limitation of this method. The contact time between students and medical doctors may decrease significantlyand it does not seem to be generally qualified to transfer such complex procedures.It also needs peer-teachers training and a detailed manual. Questions concerning the cost-effectiveness and profitability of student tutor-guided technical skills training may thus arise. But one institution that implemented this method states that the majority of their tutors decided to continue their teaching activity in the skills lab and that these experienced tutors, in addition to established faculty staff

  1. A simple framework for assessing technical skills in a resident observed structured clinical examination (OSCE): vaginal laceration repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Abigail Ford; Lerner, Veronica; Zabar, Sondra R; Szyld, Demian

    2013-01-01

    Educators of trainees in procedure-based specialties need focused assessment tools that are valid, objective, and assess technical skills in a realistic context. A framework for hybrid assessment using standardized patient scenarios and bench skills testing might facilitate evaluation of competency. Seven PGY-1 obstetrics and gynecology residents participated in a hybrid assessment that used observed structured clinical examination (OSCE) by a standardized patient who had sustained a vaginal laceration during vaginal delivery. The residents elicited a history and counseled the patient, and then completed a laceration repair on a pelvic model. The residents were rated on their performance in the scenario, which included issues of cultural competency, rapport-building, patient counseling. The technical skills were videotaped and rated using a modified global assessment form by 2 faculty members on a 3-point scale from "not done" to "partly done" to "well-done." Residents also completed a subjective assessment of the station. Mean technical performance of the residents on the technical skills was 55% "well-done," with a range of 20%-90%. The assessment identified 3 residents as below the mean, and 1 resident with areas of deficiency. Subjective assessment by the residents was that juggling the technical, cognitive, and affective components of the examination was challenging. Technical skills can be included in a case-based assessment using scenarios that address a range of cognitive and affective skills required of physicians. Results may help training programs assess individuals' abilities as well as identify program needs for curricular improvement. This framework might be useful in setting standards for competency and identifying poor performers. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparison of Assessment Tools: Is Direct Observation an Improvement Over Objective Structured Clinical Examinations for Communications Skills Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goch, Abraham M; Karia, Raj; Taormina, David; Kalet, Adina; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Evaluation of resident physicians' communications skills is a challenging task and is increasingly accomplished with standardized examinations. There exists a need to identify the effective, efficient methods for assessment of communications skills. We compared objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and direct observation as approaches for assessing resident communications skills. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of orthopaedic surgery resident physicians at a single tertiary care academic institution, using the Institute for Healthcare Communication "4 Es" model for effective communication. Data were collected between 2011 and 2015. A total of 28 residents, each with OSCE and complete direct observation assessment checklists, were included in the analysis. Residents were included if they had 1 OSCE assessment and 2 or more complete direct observation assessments. There were 28 of a possible 59 residents (47%) included. A total of 89% (25 of 28) of residents passed the communications skills OSCE; only 54% (15 of 28) of residents passed the direct observation communications assessment. There was a positive, moderate correlation between OSCE and direct observation scores overall ( r  = 0.415, P  = .028). There was no agreement between OSCE and direct observation in categorizing residents into passing and failing scores (κ = 0.205, P  = .16), after adjusting for chance agreement. Our results suggest that OSCE and direct observation tools provide different insights into resident communications skills (simulation of rare and challenging situations versus real-life daily encounters), and may provide useful perspectives on resident communications skills in different contexts.

  3. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178

  4. More care out of hospital? A qualitative exploration of the factors influencing the development of the district nursing workforce in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many countries seek to improve care for people with chronic conditions and increase delivery of care outside of hospitals, including in the home. Despite these policy objectives in the United Kingdom, the home visiting nursing service workforce, known as district nursing, is declining. This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the development of district nursing workforces in a metropolitan area of England. Methods A qualitative study in a metropolitan area of three million residents in diverse socio-economic communities using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of senior nurses in provider and commissioning organizations. Thematic analysis was framed by theories of workforce development. All participants reported that the context for the district nursing service was one of major reorganizations in the face of wider National Health Service changes and financial pressures. The analysis identified five themes that can be seen to impact the ways in which the district nursing workforce was developed. These were: the challenge of recruitment and retention, a changing case-mix of patients and the requirement for different clinical skills, the growth of specialist home visiting nursing services and its impact on generalist nursing, the capacity of the district nursing service to meet growing demand, and the influence of the short-term service commissioning process on the need for long-term workforce development. Conclusion There is an apparent paradox between health policies which promote more care within and closer to home and the reported decline in district nursing services. Using the lens of workforce development theory, an explanatory framework was offered with factors such as the nature of the nursing labour market, human resource practices, career advancement opportunities as well as the contractual context and the economic environment.

  5. Online learning versus blended learning of clinical supervisee skills with pre-registration nursing students: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Karen; O'Halloran, Peter; Lohan, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The World Health Organisation amongst others recognises the need for the introduction of clinical supervision education in health professional education as a central strategy for improving patient safety and patient care. Online and blended learning methods are growing exponentially in use in higher education and the systematic evaluation of these methods will aid understanding of how best to teach clinical supervision. The purpose of this study was to test whether undergraduate nursing students who received clinical supervisee skills training via a blended learning approach would score higher in terms of motivation and attitudes towards clinical supervision, knowledge of clinical supervision and satisfaction of learning method, when compared to those students who received an online only teaching approach. A post-test-only randomised controlled trial. Participants were a total of 122 pre-registration nurses enrolled at one United Kingdom university, randomly assigned to the online learning control group (n = 60) or the blended learning intervention group (n = 62). The blended learning intervention group participated in a face-to-face tutorial and the online clinical supervisee skills training app. The online learning control group participated in an online discussion forum and the same online clinical supervisee skills training app. The outcome measures were motivation and attitudes using the modified Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale, knowledge using a 10 point Multiple Choice Questionnaire and satisfaction using a university training evaluation tool. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-tests to compare the differences between the means of the control group and the intervention group. Thematic analysis was used to analyse responses to open-ended questions. All three of our study hypotheses were confirmed. Participants who received clinical supervisee skills training via a blended learning approach scored higher in terms of motivation

  6. Staff and students' perceptions and experiences of teaching and assessment in Clinical Skills Laboratories: interview findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine E; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    The Clinical Skills Laboratory has become an essential structure in nurse education and several benefits of its use have been identified. However, the literature identifies the need to examine the transferability of skills learned there into the reality of practice. This research explored the role of the Clinical Skills Laboratory in preparing nursing students for the real world of practice. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of the teaching and assessment strategies employed there. Qualitative multiple case study design. Five case study sites. Interviewees (n=58) included academic staff, clinical staff and nursing students. Semi-structured interviews. The Clinical Skills Laboratory can provide a pathway to practice and its authenticity is significant. Teaching strategies need to incorporate communication as well as psychomotor skills. Including audio-visual recording into assessment strategies is beneficial. Effective relationships between education institutions and clinical settings are needed to enhance the transferability of the skills learned. The Clinical Skills Laboratory should provide an authentic learning environment, with the appropriate use of teaching strategies. It is crucial that effective links between educators and clinical staff are established and maintained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A predeployment trauma team training course creates confidence in teamwork and clinical skills: a post-Afghanistan deployment validation study of Canadian Forces healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Hennecke, Peter; Garraway, Naisan Robert; Evans, David C; Hameed, Morad; Simons, Richard K; Doucet, Jay; Hansen, Daniel; Annand, Siobhan; Bell, Nathaniel; Brown, D Ross

    2011-11-01

    The 10-day Intensive Trauma Team Training Course (ITTTC) was developed by the Canadian Forces (CFs) to teach teamwork and clinical trauma skills to military healthcare personnel before deploying to Afghanistan. This article attempts to validate the impact of the ITTTC by surveying participants postdeployment. A survey consisting of Likert-type multiple-choice questions was created and sent to all previous ITTTC participants. The survey asked respondents to rate their confidence in applying teamwork skills and clinical skills learned in the ITTTC. It explored the relevancy of objectives and participants' prior familiarity with the objectives. The impact of different training modalities was also surveyed. The survey showed that on average 84.29% of participants were "confident" or "very confident" in applying teamwork skills to their subsequent clinical experience and 52.10% were "confident" or "very confident" in applying clinical knowledge and skills. On average 43.74% of participants were "familiar" or "very familiar" with the clinical topics before the course, indicating the importance of training these skills. Participants found that clinical shadowing was significantly less valuable in training clinical skills than either animal laboratory experience or experience in human patient simulators; 68.57% respondents thought that ITTTC was "important" or "very important" in their training. The ITTTC created lasting self-reported confidence in CFs healthcare personnel surveyed upon return from Afghanistan. This validates the importance of the course for the training of CFs healthcare personnel and supports the value of team training in other areas of trauma and medicine.

  8. Monitoring progression of clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using the case method - a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Kristina; Ekelin, Maria; Edgren, Gudrun; Sandgren, Olof; Hovbrandt, Pia; Persson, Eva K

    2017-09-11

    Outcome- or competency-based education is well established in medical and health sciences education. Curricula are based on courses where students develop their competences and assessment is also usually course-based. Clinical reasoning is an important competence, and the aim of this study was to monitor and describe students' progression in professional clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using observations of group discussions following the case method. In this qualitative study students from three different health education programmes were observed while discussing clinical cases in a modified Harvard case method session. A rubric with four dimensions - problem-solving process, disciplinary knowledge, character of discussion and communication - was used as an observational tool to identify clinical reasoning. A deductive content analysis was performed. The results revealed the students' transition over time from reasoning based strictly on theoretical knowledge to reasoning ability characterized by clinical considerations and experiences. Students who were approaching the end of their education immediately identified the most important problem and then focused on this in their discussion. Practice knowledge increased over time, which was seen as progression in the use of professional language, concepts, terms and the use of prior clinical experience. The character of the discussion evolved from theoretical considerations early in the education to clinical reasoning in later years. Communication within the groups was supportive and conducted with a professional tone. Our observations revealed progression in several aspects of students' clinical reasoning skills on a group level in their discussions of clinical cases. We suggest that the case method can be a useful tool in assessing quality in health sciences education.

  9. Workforce planning and development in times of delivery system transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Patricia; Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2016-09-23

    As implementation of the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) advances, many domestic health systems are considering major changes in how the healthcare workforce is organized. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamic processes and interactions by which workforce planning and development (WFPD) is evolving in this new environment. Informed by the theory of loosely coupled systems (LCS), we use a case study design to examine how workforce changes are being managed in Kaiser Permanente and Montefiore Health System. We conducted site visits with in-depth interviews with 8 to 10 stakeholders in each organization. Both systems demonstrate a concern for the impact of change on their workforce and have made commitments to avoid outsourcing and layoffs. Central workforce planning mechanisms have been replaced with strategies to integrate various stakeholders and units in alignment with strategic growth plans. Features of this new approach include early and continuous engagement of labor in innovation; the development of intermediary sense-making structures to garner resources, facilitate plans, and build consensus; and a whole system perspective, rather than a focus on single professions. We also identify seven principles underlying the WFPD processes in these two cases that can aid in development of a new and more adaptive workforce strategy in healthcare. Since passage of the ACA, healthcare systems are becoming larger and more complex. Insights from these case studies suggest that while organizational history and structure determined different areas of emphasis, our results indicate that large-scale system transformations in healthcare can be managed in ways that enhance the skills and capacities of the workforce. Our findings merit attention, not just by healthcare administrators and union leaders, but by policymakers and scholars interested in making WFPD policies at a state and national level more responsive.

  10. The Transition into the Workforce by Early-Career Geoscientists, a Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Student Exit Survey asks recent graduates about their immediate plans after graduation. Though some respondents indicate their employment or continuing education intention, many of the respondents are still in the process of looking for a job in the geosciences. Recent discussions about geoscience workforce development have focused on the critical technical and professional skills that graduates need to be successful in the workforce, but there is little data about employment success and skills development as early-career geoscientists. AGI developed a short preliminary survey to follow up with past participants in AGI's Exit Survey investigating their career path, their skills development after entering the workforce, and their opinions on skills and knowledge they wished they had prior to entering the workforce. The results from this survey will begin to indicate the occupation availability for early-career geoscientists, the continuing education completed by these recent graduates, and the possible attrition away from the geoscience workforce. This presentation presents the results from this short survey and the implications for further research in this area of workforce development and preparation.

  11. Title V Workforce Development in the Era of Health Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lewis; Mullenix, Amy; Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Fehrenbach, Lacy M; Cilenti, Dorothy

    2017-11-01

    Purpose The National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center at UNC Chapel Hill (the Center), funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, provides Title V state/jurisdiction leaders and staff and partners from other sectors with opportunities to develop skills in quality improvement, systems mapping and analysis, change management, and strategies to enhance access to care to leverage and implement health transformation opportunities to improve the health of women and children. Description Since 2013, the Center has utilized a variety of learning platforms to reach state and jurisdiction Title V leaders. In the intensive training program, new skills and knowledge are applied to a state-driven health transformation project and include distance-based learning opportunities, multi-day, in-person training and/or onsite consultation, as well as individualized coaching to develop workforce skills. Assessment The first intensive cohort of eight states reported enhanced skills in the core areas of quality improvement, systems mapping and analysis, change management, and strategies to enhance access to care which guided changes at state system and policy levels. In addition, teams reported new and/or enhanced partnerships with many sectors, thereby leveraging Title V resources to increase its impact. Conclusion The Center's provision of core workforce skills and application to state-defined goals has enabled states to undertake projects and challenges that not only have a positive impact on population health, but also encourage collaborative, productive partnerships that were once found to be challenging-creating a workforce capable of advancing the health and wellbeing of women and children.

  12. [The development of clinical reasoning skills and leadership: personal factors and organizational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Goudreau, Johanne; Dumont, Katia

    2013-03-01

    Continuing education of newly graduated nurses (NGN) depends on several factors related to the characteristics of skills to be developed, the target population and the organizational context. Few studies describe both how nurses develop their skills and how institutions promote this development. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) describe the behaviors that the NGN use to develop their reasoning skills and leadership and (2) document the organizational elements that facilitate this development. Method. Individual interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 34) using a grid of semistructured interviews and two group interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 7) and managers (n = 19) in two teaching hospitals in eastern Canada. The results show that nurses develop mainly by reflecting on their professional practice in their workplace. However, the lack of time for reflection in the workspace is a considerable obstacle while managerial leadership is an important asset.

  13. Communication skills training in surgical residency: a needs assessment and metacognition analysis of a difficult conversation objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by

  14. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  15. Uses of virtual reality in clinical training: developing the spatial skills of children with mobility impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, D; Foreman, N; Wilson, P N

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter we review some of the ways in which the skills learned in virtual environments (VEs) transfer to real situations, and in particular how information about the spatial layouts of virtual buildings acquired from the exploration of three-dimensional computer-simulations transfers to their real equivalents. Four experiments are briefly described which examined VR use by disabled children. We conclude that spatial information of the kind required for navigation transfers effectively from virtual to real situations. Spatial skills in disabled children showed progressive improvement with repeated exploration of virtual environments. The results are discussed in relation to the potential future benefits of VR in special needs education and training.

  16. A mentor development program for clinical translational science faculty leads to sustained, improved confidence in mentoring skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D; Steinauer, Jody E; Khalili, Mandana; Huang, Laurence; Kahn, James S; Lee, Kathryn A; Creasman, Jennifer; Brown, Jeanette S

    2012-08-01

    Mentorship is crucial for academic productivity and advancement for clinical and translational (CT) science faculty. However, little is known about the long-term effects of mentor training programs. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Clinical and Translational Science Institute launched a Mentor Development Program (MDP) in 2007 for CT faculty. We report on an evaluation of the first three cohorts of graduates from the MDP. In 2010, all Mentors in Training (MITs) who completed the MDP from 2007 to 2009 (n= 38) were asked to complete an evaluation of their mentoring skills and knowledge; all MITs (100%) completed the evaluation. Two-thirds of MDP graduates reported that they often apply knowledge, attitudes, or skills obtained in the MDP to their mentoring. Nearly all graduates (97%) considered being a mentor important to their career satisfaction. Graduates were also asked about the MDP's impact on specific mentoring skills; 95% agreed that the MDP helped them to become a better mentor and to focus their mentoring goals. We also describe a number of new initiatives to support mentoring at UCSF that have evolved from the MDP. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the long-term impact of a mentor training program for CT researchers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluating a Skills Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largier, A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to anticipate the large number of people due to retire in the next few years, and to optimize the workforce contribution, IRSN (Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety) is setting up skill management. This poster presents the IRSN's skill management system. The skill management system is based on a 4 step approach: -) identifying and listing the necessary skills, -) assessing the skills available, -) defining and setting up solutions: training, recruitment, out-sourcing), and -) feedback about the efficiency of the system. It appears that it is important to take into account the way the organization considers individual ability in order to favour collective proficiency

  18. A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Emily J; Lambert, Tim; Carter, John N; Learoyd, Diana L; Twigg, Stephen; Clarke, Stephen

    2013-10-03

    Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007). Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when

  19. Effective teaching of manual skills to physiotherapy students: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossettini, Giacomo; Rondoni, Angie; Palese, Alvisa; Cecchetto, Simone; Vicentini, Marco; Bettale, Fernanda; Furri, Laura; Testa, Marco

    2017-08-01

    To date, despite the relevance of manual skills laboratories in physiotherapy education, evidence on the effectiveness of different teaching methods is limited. Peyton's four-step and the 'See one, do one' approaches were compared for their effectiveness in teaching manual skills. A cluster randomised controlled trial was performed among final-year, right-handed physiotherapy students, without prior experience in manual therapy or skills laboratories. The manual technique of C1-C2 passive right rotation was taught by different experienced physiotherapist using Peyton's four-step approach (intervention group) and the 'See one, do one' approach (control group). Participants, teachers and assessors were blinded to the aims of the study. Primary outcomes were quality of performance at the end of the skills laboratories, and after 1 week and 1 month. Secondary outcomes were time required to teach, time required to perform the procedure and student satisfaction. A total of 39 students were included in the study (21 in the intervention group and 18 in the control group). Their main characteristics were homogeneous at baseline. The intervention group showed better quality of performance in the short, medium and long terms (F 1,111  = 35.91, p physiotherapy student competence in C1-C2 passive mobilisation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  20. Communication skills of tutors and family medicine physician residents in Primary Care clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Valverde Bolívar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Physicians excel in terms of creating a friendly environment, possessing good listening skills, and providing the patient with information. However the ability to empathise, exploring the psychosocial sphere, carrying out shared decision-making, and asking open questions must be improved. Being a tutor, devoting more time to consultations, and being younger, results in a significant improvement in communication with the patient.

  1. Progressive Tinnitus Management Level 3 Skills Education: A 5-Year Clinical Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Catherine M; Ribbe, Cheri; Thielman, Emily J; Henry, James A

    2017-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive tinnitus management Level 3 skills education workshops conducted at the Bay Pines and Boston Veterans Affairs hospitals result in consistent use of the presented tinnitus management strategies by patients 1-5 years after completing the workshops. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, the tinnitus workshop follow-up form was mailed to all veterans who completed the Level 3 workshops between FY 2010 and FY 2014. Data were compiled to determine which, if any, of the skills taught in the workshops were being used 1-5 years after completion of the workshops and the impact on quality-of-life indicators. All self-management skills were being utilized up to 5 years postcompletion; therapeutic sound was utilized the most. The majority of patients reported an improved ability to manage reactions to tinnitus and improved quality-of-life indicators. Over 90% of patients from both sites recommended the program to others with tinnitus. The self-management skills taught in the progressive tinnitus management Level 3 workshops are sustained over time even when limited resources prevent the full complement of workshops or the involvement of mental health services. The workshops can also be successfully implemented through remote delivery via videoconferencing (telehealth). https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5370883.

  2. Life Skills Training Effectiveness on Non- Metastatic Breast Cancer Mental Health: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shabani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with breast cancer are predisposed to some psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders as a result of their diagnosis or lifestyle. These problems cause patients to have daily stress, feelings of guilt, anxiety, a dysphoric mood, and impaired social relations. Such problems will lead to serious mental disorders.Therefore, life skills training may enable patients to cope better with these problems and improve their mental health.Methods: In an experimental study 50 breast cancer patients were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group attended life skills training classes continuously for ten weeks. The duration of each class was two hours. Participants in both groups completed a General Health Questionnaire-28 form before the commencement of classes, after two weeks of training, and again at two months after course completion. The statistical method used in this study was the t-test.Results: In the life skills training group, patients' depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatization disorders, sleep disorders, and disorders of social functioning significantly decreased (P<0.0001. There was no change in the control group.Conclusion: The results show that life skills training can be considered a supportive method for symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep, and somatic disorders in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents: combining evidence with clinical expertise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, M.E.; Vershuren, O.; Groot, L. de; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several

  4. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents : combining evidence with clinical expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Marleen Elisabeth; Verschuren, Olaf; de Groot, Laura; de Groot, Janke Frederike

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several

  5. Self- and rater-assessed effectiveness of “thinking-aloud” and “regular” morning report to intensify young physicians' clinical skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chi Hsu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: TA MR effectively trains junior attendees in basic clinical skills, whereas regular MR enhances senior attendees' “work reports, professionalism, organizational efficiency, skills in dealing with controversial and professional issues.” Undoubtedly, all elements of the two MR models should be integrated together to ensure patient safety and good discipline among young physicians.

  6. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Background: Continuing professional education may be

  7. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. BACKGROUND: Continuing professional education may be

  8. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  9. Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Factors Leading to Poor Clinical Skill Development in Medical Education: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our study was taken up to explore the possible factors influencing poor performance of undergraduate students in clinical skill demonstration. Aims. Identification of factors leading to poor clinical skill development in undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design. This is an observational study. Methods and Material. The study population comprised the undergraduate students and teachers of the Department of Medicine. All were provided with structured questionnaires who responded anonymously which were then interpreted with the help of software statistical calculator. Results. Of the 145 students, only 57 (39.3% actually attended medicine ward. The major factors that the students reported were large groups of students around a patient (94.74%  ± 4.67, inadequacy of information in books of clinical medicine (78.9%  ± 8.53, overcrowded unclean wards (73.7%  ± 9.2, lack of practice of clinical methods at home (50.8%  ± 10.4, and timing of classes (42.1%  ± 10.3. Teachers cited poor attendance of students to wards (76.2%  ± 17.1, poor condition of wards and lack of separate enclosures to teach (100%, and large groups around a single patient (66.67%  ± 17.9. Conclusions. Absenteeism of students, overcrowding of wards, and lack of uniformity of study materials were prime factors.

  10. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  11. Enhancing the Clinical Reasoning Skills of Postgraduate Students in Internal Medicine Through Medical Nonfiction and Nonmedical Fiction Extracurricular Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, H S; Chacko, Thomas V; Murthy, K A Sudharshana; Gowdappa, H Basavana

    2016-12-01

    To improve the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine through 2 kinds of extracurricular books: medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction. Clinical reasoning is difficult to define, understand, observe, teach, and measure. This is an educational innovation under an experimental framework based on a cognitive intervention grounded in constructivist and cognitivist theories. This study was conducted from June 1, 2014, through May 31, 2015. It was a pre-post, randomized, controlled, prospective, mixed-methods, small-group study. The intervention was through medical nonfiction and nonmedical fiction books. The process was structured to ensure that the students would read the material in phases and reflect on them. Clinical reasoning (pretests and posttests) was quantitatively assessed using the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) and clinical reasoning exercises (CREs) and their assessment using a rubric. A qualitative design was used, and face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted. Posttest total scores (DTI=188.92; CREs=53.92) were higher for the study group after the intervention compared with its own pretest scores (DTI=165.25; CREs=41.17) and with the pretest (DTI=159.27; CRE=40.73) and posttest (DTI=166.91; CREs=41.18) scores of the control group. Interviews with the study group confirmed that the intervention was acceptable and useful in daily practice. We introduced, evaluated, and proved an approach to teaching-learning clinical reasoning based on the assumption that the clinical reasoning skills of postgraduate students in internal medicine can be enhanced through 2 kinds of extracurricular books and that fun as well as interest will enhance learning. This study is not only about teaching-learning clinical reasoning but also about the humanities in medical education. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  13. Diversity in the dermatology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jorge A; Pandya, Amit G

    2016-12-01

    The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, and minorities are projected to represent the majority of our population in the near future. Unfortunately, health disparities still exist for these groups, and inequalities have also become evident in the field of dermatology. There is currently a lack of diversity within the dermatology workforce. Potential solutions to these health care disparities include increasing cultural competence for all physicians and improving diversity in the dermatology workforce. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  14. The effects of laryngeal mask airway passage simulation training on the acquisition of undergraduate clinical skills: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA requires learning proper insertion technique in normal patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. However, there is a move towards simulation training for learning practical clinical skills, such as LMA placement. The evidence linking different amounts of mannequin simulation training to the undergraduate clinical skill of LMA placement in real patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness in vivo of two LMA placement simulation courses of different durations. Methods Medical students (n = 126 enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. Seventy-eight of these students completed the trial. The control group (n = 38 received brief mannequin training while the intervention group (n = 40 received additional more intensive mannequin training as part of which they repeated LMA insertion until they were proficient. The anaesthetists supervising LMA placements in real patients rated the participants' performance on assessment forms. Participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Additional mannequin training was not associated with improved performance (37% of intervention participants received an overall placement rating of > 3/5 on their first patient compared to 48% of the control group, X2 = 0.81, p = 0.37. The agreement between the participants and their instructors in terms of LMA placement success rates was poor to fair. Participants reported that mannequins were poor at mimicking reality. Conclusions The results suggest that the value of extended mannequin simulation training in the case of LMA placement is limited. Educators considering simulation for the training of practical skills should reflect on the extent to which the in vitro simulation mimics the skill required and the degree of difficulty of the procedure.

  15. A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Karen; Lohan, Maria; Traynor, Marian; Martin, Daphne

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the use of an online or blended learning paradigm has the potential to enhance the teaching of clinical skills in undergraduate nursing. The need to adequately support and develop students in clinical skills is now arguably more important than previously considered due to reductions in practice opportunities. Online and blended teaching methods are being developed to try and meet this requirement, but knowledge about their effectiveness in teaching clinical skills is limited. Mixed methods systematic review, which follows the Joanna Briggs Institute User guide version 5. Computerized searches of five databases were undertaken for the period 1995-August 2013. Critical appraisal and data extraction were undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute tools for experimental/observational studies and interpretative and critical research. A narrative synthesis was used to report results. Nineteen published papers were identified. Seventeen papers reported on online approaches and only two papers reported on a blended approach. The synthesis of findings focused on the following four areas: performance/clinical skill, knowledge, self-efficacy/clinical confidence and user experience/satisfaction. The e-learning interventions used varied throughout all the studies. The available evidence suggests that online learning for teaching clinical skills is no less effective than traditional means. Highlighted by this review is the lack of available evidence on the implementation of a blended learning approach to teaching clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Further research is required to assess the effectiveness of this teaching methodology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Engaging the Workforce - 12347

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaden, Michael D. [Transuranic Waste Processing Center, Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); Wastren Advantage Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Likert, Covey, and a number of others studying and researching highly effective organizations have found that performing functions such as problem-solving, decision-making, safety analysis, planning, and continuous improvement as close to the working floor level as possible results in greater buy-in, feelings of ownership by the workers, and more effective use of resources. Empowering the workforce does several things: 1) people put more effort and thought into work for which they feel ownership, 2) the information they use for planning, analysis, problem-solving,and decision-making is more accurate, 3) these functions are performed in a more timely manner, and 4) the results of these functions have more credibility with those who must implement them. This act of delegation and empowerment also allows management more time to perform functions they are uniquely trained and qualified to perform, such as strategic planning, staff development, succession planning, and organizational improvement. To achieve this state in an organization, however, requires a very open, transparent culture in which accurate, timely, relevant, candid, and inoffensive communication flourishes, a situation that does not currently exist in a majority of organizations. (authors)

  17. Strategies for Managing a Multigenerational Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Ronald

    The multigenerational workforce presents a critical challenge for business managers, and each generation has different expectations. A human resource management study of organizations with more than 500 employees reported 58% of the managers experiencing conflict between younger and older workers. The purpose of this single case study was to explore the multigenerational strategies used by 3 managers from a Franklin County, Ohio manufacturing facility with a population size of 6 participants. The conceptual framework for this study was built upon generational theory and cohort group theory. The data were collected through face-to-face semistructured interviews, company documents, and a reflexive journal. Member checking was completed to strengthen the credibility and trustworthiness of the interpretation of participants' responses. A modified van Kaam method enabled separation of themes following the coding of data. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) required multigenerational managerial skills, (b) generational cohort differences, (c) most effective multigenerational management strategies, and (d) least effective multigenerational management strategies. Findings from this study may contribute to social change through better understanding, acceptance, and appreciation of the primary generations in the workforce, and, in turn, improve community relationships.

  18. The Workforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promot