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Sample records for clinical microbiology

  1. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future.

  2. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

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    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  3. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

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    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  4. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

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    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future.

  5. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by the use of next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. The application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow. PMID:22868263

  6. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

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    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  7. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories.

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    van Belkum, Alex; Welker, Martin; Erhard, Marcel; Chatellier, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Clinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been introduced, embraced, and broadly accepted by clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the world as an innovative tool for definitive bacterial species identification. Herein, we review the current state of the art with respect to this exciting new technology and discuss potential future applications. PMID:22357505

  8. Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology.

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    Kwong, J C; McCallum, N; Sintchenko, V; Howden, B P

    2015-04-01

    Genomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology.The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology.Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in public health laboratories, reference laboratories, and hospital infection control-affiliated laboratories.As WGS represents the pinnacle for strain characterisation and epidemiological analyses, it is likely to replace traditional typing methods, resistance gene detection and other sequence-based investigations (e.g., 16S rDNA PCR) in the near future.Although genomic technologies are rapidly evolving, widespread implementation in clinical and public health microbiology laboratories is limited by the need for effective semi-automated pipelines, standardised quality control and data interpretation, bioinformatics expertise, and infrastructure.

  9. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

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    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  10. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

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    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  11. [A historical view of the specialty of clinical microbiology].

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    Pérez, Evelio Perea; Álvarez, Rogelio Martín

    2010-10-01

    Clinical microbiology today is a well established specialty in Spain whose development has necessarily been linked to improvements in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Over time, clinical, teaching, and research structures have been organized around these diseases. In addition, a scientific society for specialists in infectious diseases (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica) has been set up, which in turn, publishes the journal ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS Y MICROBIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA, and organizes congresses, meetings, working groups and a quality control program, etc. Clinical microbiologists will continue to be needed to meet future challenges (identification of new pathogenic microorganisms, methodological changes, diagnostic quality and speed, nosocomial infections, the development of antimicrobial resistance, etc.), which constitute a well-defined area of knowledge specific to our specialty.

  12. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

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    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  13. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

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    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  14. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis

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    Lucia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, the clinical features, underlying diseases and clinical outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis were investigated. In addition, a molecular analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolated from these patients was performed. Methods A prospective study of 62 cases of patients with cryptococcal infection was conducted at the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiás Dr. Anuar Auad from 2009-2010. Cryptococcal meningitis cases were diagnosed by direct examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample culture. The profiling of these patients was assessed. The CSF samples were submitted to India ink preparation and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. neoformans was identified by the production of urease, a positive phenoloxidase test and assimilation of carbohydrates. C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates were distinguished by growth on L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium, and molecular analysis was conducted via PCR fingerprinting reactions using M13 and (GACA4 primers. Results From the 62 patients with cryptococcosis, 71 isolates of CSF were obtained; 67 (94.4% isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii/VNI, and 4 (5.6% were identified as C. gattii/VGII. Of these patients, 53 had an HIV diagnosis. The incidence of cryptococcosis was higher among patients 20-40 years of age, with 74.2% of the cases reported in males. Cryptococcus-related mortality was noted in 48.4% of the patients, and the symptoms were altered sensorium, headache, fever and stiff neck. Conclusions The high morbidity and mortality observed among patients with cryptococcosis demonstrate the importance of obtaining information regarding the epidemiological profile and clinical course of the disease in the State of Goiás, Brazil.

  15. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Olla Wasfi; Mary Power; Slavcev, Roderick A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the...

  16. Clinical and microbiologic features of dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis.

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    Wladis, Edward J; Shinder, Roman; LeFebvre, Daniel R; Sokol, Jason A; Boyce, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, and large case series of this clinical entity have been reported. This study was undertaken to identify a larger cohort of patients with this ailment, with the intent of defining its clinical and microbiologic features. Case logs from four institutions were reviewed to identify patients that suffered from dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis. A retrospective chart review was then performed to identify clinical features, management strategies, microbiologic features, and outcomes. A dedicated statistical software package was utilized to identify correlations between these variables. 13 patients (7 females, 6 males; mean age = 57.2 years, range = 7-89 years) were identified. One patient carried a diagnosis of immunosuppressive disease. All patients underwent emergent surgical drainage and received intravenous antibiotics. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction was found to be the underlying etiology in nine cases (69.2%), whereas four patients suffered from specific causes of their obstructions. An average of 1.07 organisms/patient (standard deviation = 0.49 organisms/patient) were recovered from microbiologic cultures, and Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of cultured organisms. All patients experienced either stable or improved vision upon discharge. The relationships between a specific etiology and the possibility of vision loss or the number of organisms cultured, between the number of organisms cultured and vision loss, and immunosuppression and vision loss or the number of organisms cultured were all not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis most commonly occurs in adult patients who do not carry immunosuppressive diagnoses and suffer from primary obstructions. Multiple microbiologic species may cause this problem, although Gram-positive organisms are most common. With appropriate management, stable or improved vision

  17. [External quality assessment for clinical microbiology and good laboratory management].

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    Kumasaka, K

    1998-02-01

    The Tokyo Metropolitan external quality assessment (EQA) program has revealed some serious problems in private independent microbiology laboratories in Tokyo since 1982. The poor performance in the EQA surveys closely related to poor laboratory managements, the type of training, experience of the medical technologists or technicians, and supervisory ability of the consultant physicians in independent laboratories. Social factors impede the reform of the quality assurance of clinical microbiology. Such factors include poor infrastructure of continuing education for small private laboratories, closure of the central clinical laboratories in the hospitals and outsourcing of laboratory tests due to restructuring in response to economic problems, and limited numbers of certified clinical pathologists of the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). Therefore, the Tokyo Metropolitan EQA Scheme is still confidential and its main role is educational. Good two way communication between participants and the organizers' clinical pathologists is essential, if the quality of laboratory tests is to be improved. The new JSCP edition of the postgraduate training requirement in clinical pathology includes "Laboratory Administration and Management". Good laboratory management(GLM) is an increasingly important component of good laboratory practice. The practice activities of clinical pathologists must include general management in addition to exercising there specialized knowledge in medicine and technology. Whereas leadership of a good clinical pathologist provides the direction of where a good laboratory is going, good management provides the steps of how to get there. And I believe quality system models from business and industry may provide us with strong guidance to build a quality system for the good laboratory that will endure into the next century. PMID:9528335

  18. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

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    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  19. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

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    Tauch, Andreas; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Soriano, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring) lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories. PMID:27155209

  20. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: A clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment

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    Amita Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

  1. [Authorized Qualifications of Staff Conducting Examinations in the Field of Clinical Microbiology].

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    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increase in healthcare-associated infections, appearance of highly resistant bacteria, and that of emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases, it is necessary for the skills of clinical microbiological technologists and the associated technology to be improved. Technologist in Microbiology (4,717 certified) and Specialist in Microbiology (58 certified) are authorized qualifications in the field of examination for clinical microbiology, with a history of 60 years, and Clinical Microbiological Technologist (670 certified) and Infection Control Microbiological Technologist (ICMT) (528 certified) are necessary qualifications to become a member of an infection control team. As problems to be resolved, clarifying the relationships among the authorized qualifications, reconsidering the fairness of evaluating written examinations, and further consideration of the administration method for an increasing number of examinees need to be tackled.

  2. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic considerations observed around dental implants

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    Fabiana Amaral Chiapinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periimplantitis is characterized by the inflammation of the soft tissues, bleeding, and suppuration, as well as rapid bone loss around dental implants that are in function. The lesion is associated with the presence of subgingival plaque, which contains a wide variety of Gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. Objective: This review aimed to expose some clinical, microbiological and radiographic characteristics found in periodontal tissues and around dental implants. Literature review: Despite the anatomical differences between the periodontium and the tissues around implants, several studies have indicated some similarities, such as the production of inflammatory mediators and active microbiota. Conclusion: Regular maintenance and daily plaque control may be important factors in the long-term maintenance of implant-supported prostheses.

  3. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

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    Özcan Deveci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to integrated approaches. This technology has great potential to provide medical diagnosis, monitor treatment and help in the development of new tools for infectious disease prevention and/or management. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current application of microarray platforms and nanomedicine in the study of experimental microbiology and the impact of this technology in clinical settings.

  4. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF OTOMYCOSIS : OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Venugopal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Otomycosis is fungal infection of external auditory canal, which is common throughout the world. Otomycosis may be refractory to treatment prescribed and hence challenges the clinician. AIM: To identify the organism causing otomycosis and to explore speci fic predisposing factors and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study of cases of otomycosis attending ENT outpatient department of Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram which were evaluated clinically and microbiologically for one year. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The commonest predisposing factor for otomycosis is trauma due to self - cleaning and water entering the ear. Common in females. Common presentation is itching of ear and ear ache. Commonest organism isolated is Aspergillus Nige r. Usually respond to treatment with topical antifungal agent especially clotrimazole. Most of the cases responded satisfactorily with topical clotrimazole.

  5. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

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    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and others can result in periodontal destruction and possibly correlate with disease severity. Data from controlled studies show high prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and Tr. denticola which represent the red complex (coexistence of these three species in patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Parallel investigation of probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL with the microbiological testing may give a confirmation of relation between subgingival pathogenic bacteria and severity of periodontitis.

  6. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Longitudinal clinical data and prospective clinical and microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Abbas, F; Arief, EM; Armand, S; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    2000-01-01

    Background, aims: In order to investigate the role of various putative clinical and microbiological risk markers, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived of regular dental care. In 1987 all inhabitants in the age range 15-25 years living in a village with approximately 2000

  7. Gram-negative osteomyelitis: clinical and microbiological profile

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    Vladimir Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing interest in the study of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB infections, very little information on osteomyelitis caused by GNB is available in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To assess clinical and microbiological features of 101 cases of osteomyelitis caused by GNB alone, between January 2007 and January 2009, in a reference center for the treatment of high complexity traumas in the city of São Paulo. RESULTS: Most patients were men (63%, with median age of 42 years, affected by chronic osteomyelitis (43% or acute osteomyelitis associated to open fractures (32%, the majority on the lower limbs (71%. The patients were treated with antibiotics as inpatients for 40 days (median and for 99 days (median in outpatient settings. After 6 months follow-up, the clinical remission rate was around 60%, relapse 19%, amputation 7%, and death 5%. Nine percent of cases were lost to follow-up. A total of 121 GNB was isolated from 101 clinical samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacter sp. (25%, Acinetobacter baumannii (21% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%. Susceptibility to carbapenems was about 100% for Enterobacter sp., 75% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 60% for Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: Osteomyelitis caused by GNB remains a serious therapeutic challenge, especially when associated to nonfermenting bacteria. We emphasize the need to consider these agents in diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis, so that an ideal antimicrobial treatment can be administered since the very beginning of the therapy.

  8. Current and past strategies for bacterial culture in clinical microbiology.

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    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome.

  9. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

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    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  10. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

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    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  11. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  12. Clinical and microbiological effects of commercially available dentifrice containing amine fluoride: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inability of the normal adult population to perform adequate tooth brushing has led to the search for chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve plaque control. This 6 month, single center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a dentifrice containing only amine fluoride (AF as the active ingredient on gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided in three groups: Group 1 - placebo toothpaste, Group 2 - AF containing toothpaste, and Group 3 - triclosan containing toothpaste with polymer and fluoride. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and the plaque index and microbiological counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by a questionnaire. Results: AF containing toothpaste showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to triclosan containing toothpaste. Conclusions: AF containing toothpaste may be a useful formulation for chemical plaque control agent and improvement in plaque and gingival status and add to the list of various therapeutic agents used for maintenance of gingival health.

  13. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious dise...

  14. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs. The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic partnership between clinical microbiologists and intensive care specialists, which is essential for this model of patient care have been emphasized. The article includes discussions on a variety of common clinical-microbiological problems faced in the ICUs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, blood stream infections, skin and soft tissue infection, UTI, infection control, besides antibiotic management.

  15. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Clinical and microbiological baseline data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Armand, S; Abbas, F; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    1998-01-01

    At present, several risk factors for the initiation and progression of periodontitis have been identified. In order to investigate the role of various potential clinical and microbiological risk factors and indicators, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived from regular de

  16. Surgical site infection and clinical microbiology in orthopaedics surgeries in a rural hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pradeep K. Singh; Sandeep Shrivastva; Rajesh Dulani; Abhishek Yadav

    2011-01-01

    @@ Infection and Clinical Microbiology in Orthopaedics Surgeries in Wound infections resulting from contamination during major orthopaedics surgery continues to be a vital issue.In this study, specimens of pus,draining fluids or suspected pus from the wounds of surgical patients who had been undergone major orthopaedics surgical procedure were cultured.

  17. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire show...

  18. Interactive tele-education applied to a distant clinical microbiology specialization university course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazzi, Denise B; Rossi, Flávia; Wen, Chao L

    2011-09-01

    The microbiology laboratory provides a strategic support for infectious disease diagnosis and also alerts the medical community about bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The microbiologists' training is a challenge in Brazil, a country with an extensive territory, a diverse population, and disparity of resource allocation. The aim of this study was to implement an interactive tele-educational course in clinical microbiology to reach distant laboratory workers and to improve their professional skills. The course scientific content was defined according to competences associated, distributed in 560 h, with laboratory practices (knowledge matrix-contextual education). The 11-module course structure comprised 70% distance learning, 22% on campus (integrated modules), and 8% monographs. The group included 7 physicians and 21 microbiologists from 20 different Brazilian cities. The time flexibility and location were the two main reasons for student participation, thus decreasing absences to the workplace, different from the traditional teaching methodologies. The group performance was measured by monthly evaluations, and 1 year postcourse, the researcher visited their workplace. There was significant improvement in microbiological practices performed before compared with after group participation. Therefore, 76.9% of laboratory practices were modified because of the knowledge acquired in the course. Students showed behavioral changes in relation to performance in infection control as well as on the dissemination of their knowledge. This specialization course using distance education did not compromise the quality. This educational methodology represents an alternative to teach clinical microbiology to laboratory workers from remote hospitals, as a nationwide continuing educational strategy.

  19. A Webinar Case Study by a Clinical Microbiologist to Microbiology and Physiology Students: An Integrative Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara D. Davis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a webinar format to connect to an off-site clinical microbiologist, we presented an interdisciplinary and interactive case study to undergraduate microbiology and anatomy and physiology students. After an introduction to pathophysiology and microbiology, the clinical microbiologist’s case study provided students with a unique look at real life problems. Our goal was to have students appreciate the interrelationship between microbiology and physiology, and to apply their knowledge of microbiology and physiology to solve the case study. The webinar format facilitated the delivery of the integrative learning experience to multiple classes and the off-site clinical microbiologist simultaneously. Students and faculty in both anatomy and physiology and microbiology undergraduate lectures and laboratory sessions can benefit from this approach.

  20. [Publication rates of Turkish medical specialty and doctorate theses on Medical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases disciplines in international journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2014-04-01

    Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer

  1. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  2. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties.

  3. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-09-09

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample.

  4. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  5. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  6. Pericoronitis: a reappraisal of its clinical and microbiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, D W; Tal, O; Sela, M N; Shteyer, A

    1985-07-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease of the operculum overlying an erupting or semi-impacted tooth. It manifests itself mainly in late adolescence and young adulthood and nearly always occurs around the lower third molar. The distinctive location, age, clinical picture, and link with predisposing factors warranted a reappraisal of pericoronitis and its etiology. Spirochetes and fusobacteria proved prevalent at all stages of the disease. The presence of these microbacteria may provide a clue as to the late appearance, particular location, and singular clinical picture of pericoronitis. The fact that spirochetes and fusobacteria are also found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and have been associated with alveolar osteitis, indicates a possible relationship between these disorders and pericoronitis.

  7. Problem-oriented clinical microbiology and infection. 2nd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Humphreys; William, L. Irving [Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    This medical textbook is problem-based, in line with current medical teaching, and covers 70 clinical cases. This second edition has been updated to include new material on AIDS/HIV, emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new viral pathogens such as SARS. Sections are headed; Skin and mucous membranes; Respiratory tract; Gastrointestinal system which includes a case study entitled: Bob, a 55-year-old retired coal miner with abdominal pain; Genito-urinary system; Central nervous system; Systemic infections; Pregnancy and the neonate; and Miscellaneous. 29 ills., 125 photos.

  8. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D Rhoads; Novak, Susan M.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utili...

  9. Clinical and Microbiological Profile of a Retrospective Cohort of Enteric Fever in 2 Spanish Tertiary Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; González-López, Juan José; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez, Irene; Planes, Anna M.; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enteric fever in high-income countries is diagnosed mainly in patients returning from endemic countries. We assess the clinical, microbiological, and prognosis aspects of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital and Ramón y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. We reviewed medical records of all patients who were diagnosed with enteric fever from January 2000 to January 2014 at these hospitals....

  10. Clinical and microbiological characterization of Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care hospital in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Danfeng; Peng Yibing; Zhang Lihua; Jiang Cen; Wang Xuefeng; Mao Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade,Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant nosocomial infection,yet little has been reported from China.This study aimed to characterize the clinical and microbiological features of CDI from a hospital in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CDI seen between December 2010 and March 2013 were included in this study,of which clinical data were retrospectively collected.The microbiological features of corresponding isolates were analyzed including genotype by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST),antimicrobial susceptibility,toxin production,sporulation capacity,biofilm formation,and motility.Results Ninety-four cases of CDI were included during this study period,12 of whom were severe cases.By reviewing the clinical data,all patients were treated empirically with proton pump inhibitor or antibiotics or both,and they were distributed widely across various wards,most frequently to the digestive ward (28/94,29.79%).Comparing the severe with mild cases,no significant differences were found in the basic epidemiological data or the microbiological features.Among the 94 isolates,31 were toxin A-negative toxin B-positive all genotyped as ST37.They generated fewer toxins and spores,as well as similar amounts of biofilm and motility percentages,but exhibited highest drug resistance to cephalosporins,quinolones,macrolide-lincosamide and streptogramin (MLSB),and tetracycline.Conclusions No specific clinical genotype or microbiological features were found in severe cases; antimicrobial resistance could be the primary reason for epidemic strains leading to the dissemination and persistence of CDI.

  11. Microbiological effects and clinical use of xylitol in preventing acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiainen, T. (Terhi)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the microbiological mechanism of action of xylitol and to assess its use in clinical practice for preventing acute otitis media (AOM). To test whether the effect of xylitol on S. pneumoniae is inhibited by fructose, a total of 20 strains of S. pneumoniae were exposed to xylitol in the presence of fructose and other carbon sources. Addition of 5% xylitol to the media resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally el...

  12. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jaclyn Arquiette; Michael P. Stevens; Rabb, Jean M.; Kakotan Sanogo; Patrick Mason; Bearman, Gonzalo M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE). We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four ba...

  13. Clinical and microbiological characterization of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Medell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize mechanical ventilation-associated pneumonia (MVAP. METHOD: This is an observational descriptive study to characterize MVAP in 61 ventilated patients admitted in the intensive care units of the Hermanos Ameijeiras hospital during 2011. This study also aimed to isolate the bacteria causing MVAP and characterize their resistance to antibiotics. RESULTS: 51 (83.60% patients presented pulmonary infiltrates and 35 (50.81% presented a clinical score > 6 according to the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated microorganisms from patients with MVAP. Both microorganisms showed a high resistance to antibiotics. Carbapenems were the most frequent used antimicrobial therapeutic agents; elective antibiotic combinations were directed against both bacterial wall structure and nucleic acid synthesis. CONCLUSION: Patients with MVAP identified during the studied period showed similar frequency to those reported in medical literature. Thus, this study corroborated that this is still a relevant medical problem in this hospital. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated microorganisms from patients with MVAP. Antimicrobial treatment, empirical or not, are still the main risk factors for the development of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria. The rate of resistance to antibiotics of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with MVAP was higher than those isolated from infected patients without MAVP. Tigecycline and colistin were the only antibiotics fully effective against Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in 2011 from patients with MVAP; against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, only colistin was fully effective.

  14. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  15. Clinical, Microbiological and Hematological Findings in Ovine Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its richness in nutrients, milk represents a complete and balanced food that can be prepared from many other important products in human nutrition. But milk is also a medium of culture for numerous microorganisms. Although milk possesses antimicrobial mechanisms, in many cases it can be contaminated by endogenous or exogenous sources. This microorganism contamination of sheep milk and finished products depreciate its qualitative and produce severe food poisoning to consumers. In this study aimed a bacteriological control of five samples of milk haphazardly collected from six particular herds of sheep in the western part of the country. In parallel was carried out a clinical examination of the animal, insisting on mammary gland and examination of blood samples collected from the same animals. In laboratory was performed a bacteriological examination of milk samples and leucogram on blood samples. The identified bacterial species in milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium. Although it started from the idea that the animals were healthy, it was still identified in more than half of the subjects examined subclinical mammary gland infections.

  16. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  17. Rapid enzyme analysis as a diagnostic tool for wound infection: Comparison between clinical judgment, microbiological analysis, and enzyme analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis-Arkes, Miriam H.E.; Haalboom, Marieke; Palen, van der Job; Heinzle, Andrea; Sigi, Eva; Guebitz, Georg; Beuk, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, diagnosis of wound infection is based on the classical clinical signs of infection. When infection is suspected, wounds are often swabbed for microbiological culturing. These methods are not accurate (clinical judgment in chronic wounds) or provide results after several days (w

  18. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Rhoads

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital plate reading (DPR is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated.

  19. Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates from Danish children: clinical significance and microbiological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Ethelberg, S; Olesen, B;

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical manifestations and microbiological characteristics of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates, i.e., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) belonging to the classical EPEC serotypes, non-EPEC attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) and verocytotoxin......-producing E. coli (VTEC), isolated in a case-control study of Danish children aged ... encoding the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA) and enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin (astA) were rare among all isolates, and seemed to be of limited pathogenic importance in this population. Virulence characterisation of A/EEC isolates did not reveal any significant differences between cases...

  20. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed. PMID:20084925

  1. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed.

  2. Clinical Relevance of the Advanced Microbiologic and Biochemical Investigations in Periodontal Diagnosis: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to periodontal diagnosis, including advanced microbiologic, biochemical, and genetic tests, have been shown to provide the clinician with the information not available by traditional means. The purpose of a diagnostic test is to confirm, exclude, classify, or monitor disease to guide treatment. Their clinical value depends on whether the information they provide leads to improved patient outcomes. This can be assessed by randomized trials, which compare patient outcomes from the new diagnostic test versus the old test strategy. Being nonmandatory for marketing approval, such trials are not always feasible because of large sample sizes requirements. So, many diagnostic tests enter the practice without being critically analysed for any additional benefits. Effective diagnosis is just as essential as the selection of effective treatments for the success of periodontal therapy. So, the current paper aims to focus on the practical utility of this rapidly emerging plethora of periodontal diagnostic tools, emphasizing the critical issues surrounding the clinical application of microbiologic and biochemical investigations, employed for periodontal diagnosis.

  3. Clinical and microbiological characterization of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in Brazil

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    Elisa Maria Beirão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 isolates of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KPN were detected for the first time at Hospital Heliópolis, São Paulo, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and microbiological outcomes of infections caused by KPC-KPN. A historical cohort of patients from whom KPC-KPN strains were isolated was performed. Isolates were identified as resistant to ertapenem by automated broth microdilution system and screened as carbapenemase producers by the modified Hodge test. The beta-lactamase resistance gene blaKPC was detected by PCR. The genetic relatedness of isolates was determined by PFGE. The study provides early clinical experience in treating KPC-KPN infections in a Brazilian tertiary center.

  4. Clinical and microbiological profile of persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteraemia in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, G; Fouzas, S; Giormezis, N; Giannakopoulos, I; Tzifas, S; Foka, A; Anastassiou, D E; Spiliopoulou, I; Mantagos, S

    2011-11-01

    An atypical pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) sepsis, characterized by persistence despite aggressive antibiotic therapy, has been described in neonates cared for in neonatal intensive-care units. Our aim was to analyse the clinical, microbiological and molecular determinants of this persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Neonates with late-onset CoNS bacteraemia were studied for a 2-year period. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, microbiological and molecular data were compared between neonates with persistent (≥3 consecutive positive blood cultures) and non-persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Twenty-nine infants with persistent and 43 with non-persistent bacteraemia were identified, with no significant differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. Of a total of 170 CoNS isolates, 80 showed biofilm production (54 persistent and 26 non-persistent; p 0.013), whereas 127 were positive for the icaA and icaD genes (74 persistent and 53 non-persistent; p 0.598). Sixty ica-positive isolates did not produce slime, whereas 13 ica-negative isolates showed biofilm production. Endotracheal intubation and the presence of central vascular catheters were significant risk factors for persistent bacteraemia, but, in a logistic regression model, only biofilm production was significantly related to the persistent form of the disease (p 0.005). In this study, persistent CoNS sepsis in neonates requiring intensive care was not related to most of the known clinical risk factors, and it was associated with severe thrombocytopenia. Isolates associated with persistent bacteraemia were more likely to produce biofilm, independently of the presence of the ica operon. PMID:21463392

  5. Microbiological profile and clinical outcome of severe foot ulcers of diabetic inpatients

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    Marivaldo Loyola Aragão(

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the microbiological profile and clinical outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers of inpatients of a tertiary university hospital, at Ceara, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical charts data of all diabetic inpatients of the Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Walter Cantídio University Hospital (Federal University of Ceará, admitted from January, 2006 to June, 2007 for severe foot ulcers (minimum of grade 2 of Wagner`s classification, which were refractory to ambulatory treatment. Clinical data from each patient were recorded (sex, age, diabetes duration, and comorbidities as well as microbiological characteristics of foot ulcers and surgical (amputations material. Results: We identified 17 diabetic patients, all type 2, aged 58.11 ± 10.8 years and 12.4 ± 8.4 years of disease, 58.8% male. Of ulcers, 41.1% were grade 2; 35.2% grade 3; 11.7% grade 4 and 11.7% grade 5 of Wagner; 64.7% with less than 3 months of evolution. Debridement was performed in 82.3% of patients and amputation in 47%; osteomyelitis was identified in 47% of cases. All patients started empiric antibiotic therapy, where ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was the most used scheme (76.5%. Cultures were negative in 12.5% of the patients. In the positive ones, the most prevalent bacterial pathogens detected in the culture materials were: S. aureus (57.1%; S. viridans (28.7%; P. aeruginosas (28.7%; M. morganii (28.7%. The majority (75% of isolated S. aureus were methicillin-resistant, but were sensitive to vacomicin. Conclusion: We observed the presence of polymicrobial flora with a large number of multiresistant pathogens and high prevalence of osteomyelitis and amputations in diabetic patients with severe ulcers, neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease.

  6. Removal of black stains from teeth by photodynamic therapy: clinical and microbiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio; Damante, Carla; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2015-01-01

    Black-pigmented bacteria (BPB) are Gram-negative anaerobic, non-motile, proteolytic rods strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although pigments are produced in vitro, black pigmentation is rarely found clinically. However, it may compromise aesthetics and contribute to gingival inflammation. The aim of this report is to describe a clinical case of a 10-year-old boy showing black pigmentation covering all teeth and to propose an alternative therapy for removal of black pigmentation, based on photodynamic therapy (PDT). In order to perform microbiological analysis, plaque samples were collected before and after PDT, and analysed by real-time-PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed a significant reduction in BPB levels after therapy, along with clinical evidence of absence of black pigmentation and reduction in gingival bleeding, although the plaque index remained unaltered. This case showed that PDT is effective for eliminating black pigmentation caused by BPB, without recurrence during a follow-up period of 7 months. PMID:26701991

  7. Revolutionizing clinical microbiology laboratory organization in hospitals with in situ point-of-care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphan Cohen-Bacrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical microbiology may direct decisions regarding hospitalization, isolation and anti-infective therapy, but it is not effective at the time of early care. Point-of-care (POC tests have been developed for this purpose. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One pilot POC-lab was located close to the core laboratory and emergency ward to test the proof of concept. A second POC-lab was located inside the emergency ward of a distant hospital without a microbiology laboratory. Twenty-three molecular and immuno-detection tests, which were technically undemanding, were progressively implemented, with results obtained in less than four hours. From 2008 to 2010, 51,179 tests yielded 6,244 diagnoses. The second POC-lab detected contagious pathogens in 982 patients who benefited from targeted isolation measures, including those undertaken during the influenza outbreak. POC tests prevented unnecessary treatment of patients with non-streptococcal tonsillitis (n = 1,844 and pregnant women negative for Streptococcus agalactiae carriage (n = 763. The cerebrospinal fluid culture remained sterile in 50% of the 49 patients with bacterial meningitis, therefore antibiotic treatment was guided by the molecular tests performed in the POC-labs. With regard to enterovirus meningitis, the mean length-of-stay of infected patients over 15 years old significantly decreased from 2008 to 2010 compared with 2005 when the POC was not in place (1.43±1.09 versus 2.91±2.31 days; p = 0.0009. Altogether, patients who received POC tests were immediately discharged nearly thrice as often as patients who underwent a conventional diagnostic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The on-site POC-lab met physicians' needs and influenced the management of 8% of the patients that presented to emergency wards. This strategy might represent a major evolution of decision-making regarding the management of infectious diseases and patient care.

  8. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  9. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and ...

  10. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

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    Jaclyn Arquiette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE. We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four bacterial classifications from each sample. Sixty-five surveys were completed. Forty-five (69% individuals used a filter. Fifteen respondents reported diarrhea in their home in the last 30 days; this incidence was higher in homes not using a filter. Thirty-three paired water samples and surveys were available. Twenty-eight samples (85% demonstrated bacterial growth. A control sample was obtained from the local river, the principal water source; number and bacterial colony types were innumerable within 24 hours. Access to clean water, the use of filters, and other treatment methods differed within a geographically proximal region. Although the majority of the water samples failed to achieve bacterial eradication, water filters may sufficiently reduce bacterial coliform counts to levels below infectious inoculation. Clay water filters may be sustainable water treatment measures in resource poor settings.

  11. [Microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum (a clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikova, E D; Titova, G P; Kartavenko, V I; Sokolov, V A; Shabanov, A K; Men'shikov, D D

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy of gram-stained impression smears is used for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms in the wound. The shin tissues of patient P. with suspected gas gangrene of lower extremity soft tissues were microscopically found to have gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that were morphologically similar to C. bifermentans that were identified as C. septicum on cultural diagnosis. The pathogenic C. septicum strain spores were likely to be formed in the macroorganism upon exposure of the pathogen to a patient's defense factors and to a package of therapeutic measures. Microbiological data should be used only in combination with clinical and instrumental findings and the results of other laboratory studies when the optimal technology is chosen to treat gas infection. By keeping in mind that there may be clostridial gangrene in the patients and the experience of clinicians and bacteriologists may be insufficient in diagnosing this pathology, it is necessary to strengthen the training of physicians in the diagnosis of this pathology.

  12. [Microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum (a clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikova, E D; Titova, G P; Kartavenko, V I; Sokolov, V A; Shabanov, A K; Men'shikov, D D

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy of gram-stained impression smears is used for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms in the wound. The shin tissues of patient P. with suspected gas gangrene of lower extremity soft tissues were microscopically found to have gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that were morphologically similar to C. bifermentans that were identified as C. septicum on cultural diagnosis. The pathogenic C. septicum strain spores were likely to be formed in the macroorganism upon exposure of the pathogen to a patient's defense factors and to a package of therapeutic measures. Microbiological data should be used only in combination with clinical and instrumental findings and the results of other laboratory studies when the optimal technology is chosen to treat gas infection. By keeping in mind that there may be clostridial gangrene in the patients and the experience of clinicians and bacteriologists may be insufficient in diagnosing this pathology, it is necessary to strengthen the training of physicians in the diagnosis of this pathology. PMID:20886724

  13. Enterococcus: review of its physiology, pathogenesis, diseases and the challenges it poses for clinical microbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John VU; John CARVALHO

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterococcus is composed of 38 species,the most important of which are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium-both human intestinal colonizers.Hospitals within the United States and around the world commonly isolate these bacteria because they are a cause of bacteremia,urinary tract infections (UTIs),endocarditis,wound infections,meningitis,intraabdominal and pelvic infections,and nosocomial and iatrogenic infections.Given the ubiquity of enterococci within the human population,it is important for laboratories to be able to distinguish these agents within hospitalized patients from other bacterial genera and also differentiate different species within the Enterococcus genus as well as different strains within each species.Unfortunately,the enterococci are emerging as serious pathogens in both the developed world,where surveillance needs to be improved and speciation procedures are inadequate or cumbersome,and in developing nations,which lack the trained hospital personnel or funding to sufficiently identify enterococci to the genus or species level.This review explores the Enterococcus genus and highlights some of the concerns for national and international clinical microbiology laboratories.

  14. Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Danikuu Francis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale, urban northern Ghana. Methods Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT- PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods. Results Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months. Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22% and wasting (19% were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P P = 0.02. Conclusion Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.

  15. "Salvage microbiology": detection of bacteria directly from clinical specimens following initiation of antimicrobial treatment.

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    John J Farrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS is a diagnostic approach that has demonstrated the capacity to detect pathogenic organisms from culture negative clinical samples after antibiotic treatment has been initiated. [1] We describe the application of PCR/ESI-MS for detection of bacteria in original patient specimens that were obtained after administration of antibiotic treatment in an open investigation analysis. METHODS: We prospectively identified cases of suspected bacterial infection in which cultures were not obtained until after the initiation of antimicrobial treatment. PCR/ESI-MS was performed on 76 clinical specimens that were submitted for conventional microbiology testing from 47 patients receiving antimicrobial treatment. FINDINGS: In our series, 72% (55/76 of cultures obtained following initiation of antimicrobial treatment were non-diagnostic (45 negative cultures; and 10 respiratory specimens with normal flora (5, yeast (4, or coagulase-negative staphylococcus (1. PCR/ESR-MS detected organisms in 83% (39/47 of cases and 76% (58/76 of the specimens. Bacterial pathogens were detected by PCR/ESI-MS in 60% (27/45 of the specimens in which cultures were negative. Notably, in two cases of relapse of prosthetic knee infections in patients on chronic suppressive antibiotics, the previous organism was not recovered in tissue cultures taken during extraction of the infected knee prostheses, but was detected by PCR/ESI-MS. CONCLUSION: Molecular methods that rely on nucleic acid amplification may offer a unique advantage in the detection of pathogens collected after initiation of antimicrobial treatment and may provide an opportunity to target antimicrobial therapy and "salvage" both individual treatment regimens as well as, in select cases, institutional antimicrobial stewardship efforts.

  16. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi F; Tarsia P; Mantero M; Morlacchi LC; Piffer F

    2013-01-01

    Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Metho...

  17. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the clinical microbiology laboratory: comparison of conventional and molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Pelt (Cindy); C.M. Verduin (Cees); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B. Tummler; C. Segonds; F. Reubsaet; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situat

  18. The Lebanese Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) guidelines for adult community-acquired pneumonia (Cap) in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnieh, Rima; Yared Sakr, Nadine; Kanj, Souha S; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Husni, Rula; Jradeh, Mona; Al-Awar, Ghassan; Matar, Madona; Jureij, Wafa; Antoine, Saad; Azar, Eid; Abi Hanna, Pierre; Minari, Afaf; Hammoud, Jamale; Kfoury, Joumana; Mahfouz, Tahsin; Abou Chakra, Diaa; Zaatari, Mohamad; Tabbarah, Zuhayr A

    2014-01-01

    Adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality which is managed by different disciplines in a heterogeneous fashion. Development of consensus guidelines to standardize these wide variations in care has become a prime objective. The Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) convened to set Lebanese national guidelines for the management of CAP since it is a major and a prevalent disease affecting the Lebanese population. These guidelines, besides being helpful in direct clinical practice, play a major role in establishing stewardship programs in hospitals in an effort to contain antimicrobial resistance on the national level. These guidelines are intended for primary care practitioners and emergency medicine physicians. They constitute an appropriate starting point for specialists' consultation being based on the available local epidemiological and resistance data. This document includes the following: 1/ Rationale and scope of the guidelines; 2/ Microbiology of CAP based on Lebanese data; 3/ Clinical presentation and diagnostic workup of CAP; 4/ Management and prevention strategies based on the IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines, 2007, and the ESCMID Guidelines, 2011, and tailored to the microbiological data in Lebanon; 5/ Comparison to regional guidelines. The recommendations made in this document were graded based on the strength of the evidence as in the 2007 IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines. Hopefully, these guidelines will be an important step towards standardization of CAP care in Lebanon and set the agenda for further research in this area. PMID:24684125

  19. Non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease: a clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.

  20. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  1. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients.

  2. Clinical application of a rapid microbiological test based on capillary zone electrophoresis to assess local skin infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeliga Jacek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic clinical problem associated with infection treatment is the fact that classic, commonly and routinely used isolation and identification methods are based on long-term processes of a phenotypic analysis of microorganisms. Consequently sometimes, especially in small centres, rapid implementation of antibacterial treatment becomes delayed. The work presents the initial results of rapid microbiological identification based on an original method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. The study involved the analysis of 78 biological samples from post-operative wounds and trophic ulcers. Results The attempt was made to identify individual bacterial species based on characteristic features of electropherograms achieved. Finally, G(+ cocci type bacteria and different G(- rods were identified with sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions Based on the clinical trials using an electrophoretic technique in the field of microbiological diagnostics of infected exudate from a post-operative wound it can be concluded that it is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for initial identification of infectious pathogens.

  3. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients. PMID:26895996

  4. Lack of effect of shorter turnaround time of microbiological procedures on clinical outcomes : a randomised controlled trial among hospitalised patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M; Oord, H; Bloembergen, P; Wolfhagen, M; Casparie, A; Degener, J; Ruijs, G

    2005-01-01

    Shortening the turnaround time of microbiological procedures was associated with an improved clinical outcome in two studies performed in the USA. To study the clinical impact of a shortened turnaround time in a northwest European setting in which an automated system was used for bacterial identific

  5. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, Ayman

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To identify the risk factors for, and to report the microbiological findings and clinical outcomes of, severe microbial keratitis (MK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all cases of presumed MK admitted to a tertiary referral center over a 2-year period (September 2001 to August 2003). Data recorded included demographic data, details relating to possible risk factors, results of microbiological studies, clinical findings at presentation, and clinical and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety patients were admitted with a diagnosis of presumed MK during the study period. The mean age of patients was 45 +\\/- 32 years, and the male to female ratio was 47:43 (52.2%:47.7%). Predisposing risk factors for MK included contact lens wear (37; 41.1%), anterior segment disease (19; 21.1%), ocular trauma (13; 14.4%), systemic disease (5; 5.6%), and previous ocular surgery (1; 1.1%). Cultured organisms included gram-negative bacteria (17; 51.5%), gram-positive bacteria (11, 33.3%), acanthamoeba (2; 6.1%), and fungi (1; 3%). Visual acuity improved significantly after treatment [mean best-corrected visual acuity (+\\/-standard deviation) at presentation: 0.76 (+\\/-0.11); mean best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up: 0.24 (+\\/-0.07); P < 0.001]. Secondary surgical procedures were required in 18 (20%) cases, and these included punctal cautery (1; 1.1%), tissue glue repair of corneal perforation (2; 2.2%), tarsorrhaphy (9; 9.9%), Botulinum toxin-induced ptosis (1; 1.1%), penetrating keratoplasty (3; 3.3%), and evisceration (2; 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contact lens wear remains a significant risk factor for severe MK. MK remains a threat to vision and to the eye, but the majority of cases respond to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  6. ASSOCIATION OF THE BONE LOSS WITH MAIN CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Dosseva-Panova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature data have reported that certain Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria from the subgingival environment are important etiological agents of chronic periodontal disease. Based on published criteria identifying periodontal pathogens, major evidences has been shown for: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia; moderate evidences for: Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus /Micromonas/ micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum, Campylobacter rectus, and spirochetes (Treponema denticola. Microbiological data has been suggested by several studies as a useful indicator of disease progression, selection of an adjunctive antimicrobial administration, healing assessment and disease recurrence. The results of this study demonstrate statistically significant correlation between periodontal attachment loss and the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Peptostreptococcus (Micromonas micros in deep periodontal pockets of severe chronic periodontitis patients.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  8. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  9. Clinical and microbiological features of dientamoebiasis in patients suspected of suffering from a parasitic gastrointestinal illness: A comparison of Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia lamblia infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Vandenberg; R. Peek; H. Souayah; A. Dediste; M. Buset; R. Scheen; P. Retore; G. Zissis; T. van Gool

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical and microbiological features of Dientomoeba fragilis and Giordia lamblia infected patients, and to analyze the genetic variation of D. fragilis strains. Methods: For a period of two years, all stool samples collected from patients suspected of having a parasitic

  10. Bacteria prevalence in a large Italian population sample: a clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, L; Gatto, M R; Checchi, V; Carinci, F

    2016-01-01

    The present study detects those bacterial species which are more strongly related to bleeding on probing, suppuration and smoking in periodontal-affected patients. Nine hundred and fifty-one patients with periodontal diseases were admitted to the Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Dental School of Bologna University where they underwent microbiological tests for six periodontal pathogens (Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia). Cluster analysis explored the variables that mostly influence both the presence and absolute\\relative bacterial load. Logistic regression and multivariate linear regression quantifies these relations. The probability of recovering bacteria belonging to the Red Complex is greater by 25-48% in presence of bleeding on probing. When probing depth is less than 3 mm the probability of presence of each bacterial species is inferior in comparison with depth >6 mm both for Red Complex (of 20-37%), the Orange complex (of 41-61%) and Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans (46%). Total bacterial cell count increases with pocket depth above all for the Red Complex. As Treponema Denticola and Tannerella Forsytia presence is associated with bleeding on probing and Prevotella intermedia presence with suppuration and smoking. The examination of these three as indicators of periodontitis evolution is suggested. PMID:27469569

  11. Infections on the rise: Raoultella spp., clinical and microbiological findings from a retrospective study, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, Matteo; Almeida, André; Cardoso, Catarina; Cruz, Cristiano Silva; Machado, Catarina; Vesza, Zsófia; Tosatto, Valentina; Maia, Dionísio; Cardoso, Sara; Pinto, Margarida; Moura, Rita Barata; Garcia, Teresa; Guerreiro, António Sousa

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory data over 5 years in a tertiary centre to assess clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Raoultella spp. infection. Raoultella spp. were deemed responsible for clinical infections in 57 patients (R. planticola, n = 32 and R. ornithinolytica, n = 25). The most prevalent diagnoses for R. planticola were cystitis (50%; n = 16) followed by bacteraemia and pneumonia (9.4%; n = 3); for R. ornithinolytica, cystitis (36%; n = 9) followed by pneumonia (24%; n = 6). Immunodeficiency was present in 18 patients (56.3%) with R. planticola and in 16 patients (64%) with R. ornithinolytica infection. Of these, 55.6% and 37.5% had diabetes and 27.8% and 18.% were solid organ transplant recipients, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Mortality of infections with R. planticola (n = 5; 15.6%) was higher than for R. ornithinolytica (n = 2; 8.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant.

  12. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  13. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  14. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  15. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads: an underestimated vehicle of bacteria and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia

    2013-09-16

    The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were also plated in different selective media with/without antibiotics before and after enrichment. The E. coli, other coliforms and Enterococcus recovered were characterized for antibiotic resistance profiles and clonality with phenotypic and genetic approaches. A high number of RTS presented poor microbiological quality (86%--aerobic mesophilic counts, 74%--coliforms, 4%--E. coli), despite the absence of screened pathogens. In addition, a high diversity of bacteria (species and clones) and antibiotic resistance backgrounds (phenotypes and genotypes) were observed, mostly with enrichment and antibiotic selective media. E. coli was detected in 13 samples (n=78; all types and 4 brands; phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D; none STEC) with resistance to tetracycline [72%; tet(A) and/or tet(B)], streptomycin (58%; aadA and/or strA-strB), sulfamethoxazole (50%; sul1 and/or sul2), trimethoprim (50%; dfrA1 or dfrA12), ampicillin (49%; blaTEM), nalidixic acid (36%), ciprofloxacin (5%) or chloramphenicol (3%; catA). E. coli clones, including the widespread group D/ST69, were detected in different samples from the same brand or different brands pointing out to a potential cross-contamination. Other clinically relevant resistance genes were detected in 2 Raoultella

  16. Clinical and microbiologic effects of chemical versus mechanical cleansing in professional supportive implant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strooker, H; Rohn, S; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cleansing properties of mechanical supportive care for dental implants with the use of an etching gel. Sixteen patients underwent a 5-month clinical trial with monthly recalls. These patients, wearing maxillary complete dentures and mandibular overdent

  17. Microbiologic characterization of isolates from a dalbavancin clinical trial for catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Beth P; Jones, Ronald N; Fritsche, Thomas R; Biedenbach, Douglas J

    2006-02-01

    Dalbavancin, a new-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide in phase 3 clinical development, has been documented to be more active than vancomycin or teicoplanin against Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains, by in vitro testing and in animal models. The human pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin predicts efficacy at weekly dosing intervals. In a phase 2 open-label clinical trial, dalbavancin exhibited superiority when compared with vancomycin against catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). The majority of pathogens identified in this study as in clinical practice were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), necessitating rigorous characterization of duplicate isolates to rule out contaminants and to validate cases for study evaluations. At follow-up for the intent-to-treat population, overall pathogen eradication was 92.3% for dalbavancin and 75.9% for vancomycin. We describe the details of organisms isolated, their epidemiologic/genetic characterization, susceptibility patterns against glycopeptides, and the eradication rates by organism group. In conclusion, dalbavancin was active against all isolated pathogens associated with CR-BSI (CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis; all MIC results, < or = 0.25 microg/mL) and achieved significant (P < 0.05) clinical success when compared with vancomycin. PMID:16458124

  18. Nationwide study of haemolytic uraemic syndrome : clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, EJ; Robins-Browne, RM; O'Loughlin, EV; Bennett-Wood, [No Value; Bourke, J; Henning, P; Hogg, GG; Knight, J; Powell, H; Redmond, D

    2001-01-01

    Aims-To establish the incidence and aetiology of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in Australia and compare clinical and microbial characteristics of sporadic and outbreak cases. Methods-National active surveillance through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit with monthly case notification f

  19. Nontuberculous mycobacterial ocular infections--comparing the clinical and microbiological characteristics between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Sang Chu

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM ocular infections and the species-specific in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility.In 2000 to 2011 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, multilocus sequencing of rpoB, hsp65 and secA was used to identify NTM isolates from ocular infections. The clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were retrospectively compared between species. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin (AMK, clarithromycin (CLA, ciprofloxacin (CPF, levofloxacin (LVF, moxifloxacin (MXF and gatifloxacin (GAF against all strains. The activities of antimicrobial combinations were assessed by the checkerboard titration method.A total of 24 NTM strains (13 Mycobacterium abscessus and 11 Mycobacterium massiliense were isolated from 13 keratitis, 10 buckle infections, and 1 canaliculitis cases. Clinically, manifestations and outcomes caused by these two species were similar and surgical intervention was necessary for medically unresponsive NTM infection. Microbiologically, 100% of M. abscessus and 90.9% of M. massiliense ocular isolates were susceptible to amikacin but all were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Inducible clarithromycin resistance existed in 69.3% of M. abscessus but not in M. massiliense isolates. None of the AMK-CLA, AMK-MXF, AMK-GAF, CLA-MXF and CLA-GAF combinations showed synergistic or antagonistic effect against both species in vitro.M. abscessus and M. massiliense are the most commonly identified species for NTM ocular infections in Taiwan. Both species were resistant to fluoroquinolones, susceptible to amikacin, and differ in clarithromycin resistance. Combined antimicrobial treatments showed no interaction in vitro but could be considered in combination with surgical interventions for eradication of this devastating ocular infection.

  20. Econazole-polycarbophil, a new delivery system for topical therapy: microbiological and clinical results on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneri, P M; Corsello, S; Masellis, G; Salvatori, M; Cammarata, E; Roccasalva, L S; Mangiafico, A; Tempera, G

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the addition of a bioadhesive polymer to econazole, which increases the duration of the active drug at the site of infection, leads to a greater frequency of negative culture after treatment and probably reduces the recurrence rate of vaginal candidiasis.180 women with vaginal candidiasis were treated with 150 mg vaginal ovules econazole nitrate with (group A) or without (group B) polycarbophil. After 3 days of treatment the negative culture of Candida albicans reached 98.6% in group A and 84.8% in B group, while the overall persistence (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis) was 5.6% and 30%, respectively. During a 60-day follow-up, only one case out of 85 (1.2%) in group A reported recurrence while in group B there were 6 out of 63 (9.5%) recurrences. We conclude that, since the women were treated with the same amount of econazole, the better clinical and microbiological results can be attributed to polycarbophil, as confirmed by a significant reduction of recurrences.

  1. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarda, Hitesh; Gurav, Abhijit; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant; Shete, Abhijeet; Gaikwad, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU) with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination. PMID:25346838

  2. Clinical and microbiological impact of human bocavirus on children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Levent Bekir; Hotomi, Muneki; Ogami, Masashi; Yamauchi, Kazuma; Shimada, Jun; Billal, Dewan Sakhawat; Ishiguro, Nobuhisa; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2009-11-01

    Human Bocavirus (HBoV) as a newly discovered parvovirus has been commonly detected in respiratory tract infections. However, its role in acute otitis media (AOM) has not been well studied. We examined HBoV in Japanese children with AOM and evaluated the virus prevalence together with clinical manifestations and bacterial findings. Overall, 222 nasopharyngeal swabs and 176 middle ear fluids (MEF) samples were collected from 222 children with AOM (median age, 19 months) between May 2006 and April 2007. HBoV detection was performed by PCR and bacterial isolation by standard culture methods. HBoV was found in the nasopharyngeal aspirates of 14 children (6.3%) and in the MEF of six children (2.7%). When HBoV detection results were evaluated with clinical characteristics of children, resolution time of AOM was significantly longer (p=0.04), and rate of fever symptom was also higher in HBoV-positive group (p=0.04). Furthermore, we found positive correlation between detection of HBoV and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the MEF (p=0.004). Nevertheless, nasopharyngeal proportion of S. pneumoniae was similar between virus positive and negative groups. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae was detected as a single pathogen in all MEF of HBoV-positive cases but one, while it presents mixed with other pathogenic bacteria in nasopharynx. In conclusion, HBoV may worsen the clinical symptoms and prolong the clinical outcome of AOM in pediatric population. Finally, HBoV may prime the secondary bacterial infection in the middle ear in favor of S. pneumoniae.

  3. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of tcdA-negative variant clostridium difficile infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jieun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tcdA-negative variant (A-B+ of Clostridium difficile is prevalent in East Asian countries. However, the risk factors and clinical characteristics of A-B+C. difficile infections (CDI are not clearly documented. The objective of this study was to investigate these characteristics. Methods From September 2008 through January 2010, the clinical characteristics, medication history and treatment outcomes of CDI patients were recorded prospectively. Toxin characterization and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on stool isolates of C. difficile. Results During the study period, we identified 22 cases of CDI caused by tcdA-negative tcdB-positive (A-B+ strains and 105 cases caused by tcdA-positive tcdB-positive (A+B+ strains. There was no significant difference in disease severity or clinical characteristics between the two groups. Previous use of clindamycin and young age were identified as significant risk factors for the acquisition of A-B+ CDI (OR = 4.738, 95% CI 1.48–15.157, p = 0.009 and OR = 0.966, 95% CI 0.935–0.998, p = 0.038, respectively in logistic regression. Rates of resistance to clindamycin were 100% and 69.6% in the A-B+ and A+B+ isolates, respectively (p = 0.006, and the ermB gene was identified in 17 of 21 A-B+ isolates (81%. Resistance to moxifloxacin was also more frequent in the A-B+ than in the A+B+ isolates (95.2% vs. 63.7%, p = 0.004. Conclusions The clinical course of A-B+ CDI is not different from that of A+B+ CDI. Clindamycin use is a significant risk factor for the acquisition of tcdA-negative variant strains.

  4. [The clinical picture and specific microbiological features of acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A I; Kunel'skaya, N L; Gurov, A B; Elchueva, Z G; Sokolov, S S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the spectrum of bacterial pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute otitis media under present conditions and to elucidate the relationship between the pathogen species and the clinical course of the inflammatory process in the middle ear. A total of 60 patients of either sex at the age varying from 18 to 64 patients were available for the examination. All of them complained of ear pain, purulent discharge from the ears, hearing impairment, and general weakness. The following methods were employed: the analysis of the patients' complaints and their medical histories, visualexamination of the ENT organs, tonal threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and the analysis of secretion from the tympanic cavity using the real-time PCR technique. The study has demonstrated some regular patterns of the clinical manifestations of the disease depending on its causative agent. Specifically, it turned out that acute otitis media associated with the infection by Streptоcoccus pneumoniae is characterized by the more reactive clinical symptoms and the greater amount of complications compared with acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae that is largely a subclinical pathology. However, the latter condition more frequently leads to chronization of the pathological process.

  5. Microbiological Profile of Adenoid Hypertrophy Correlates to Clinical Diagnosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Szalmás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adenoid hypertrophy is a common condition in childhood, which may be associated with recurring acute otitis media (RAOM, otitis media with effusion (OME, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. These different clinical characteristics have some clinical overlap; however, they might be explained by distinct immunologic and infectious profiles and result in various histopathologic findings of adenoid specimens. Methods. A total of 59 children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy were studied. Three series of identical adenoid specimens were processed to hematoxylin-eosin (H.E. and Gram staining and to respiratory virus specific real-time PCR, respectively. Results. According to the clinical characteristics, patients were recruited into three groups: RAOM (. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 21 cases, while at least one of the studied respiratory viruses was detected in 52 specimens. RAOM cases were significantly associated with biofilm existence (. In contrast, OME group was characterized by the absence of bacterial biofilm and by normal mucosa. Showing a statistically significant correlation, all OME cases were positive for human bocavirus (HBoV, . Conclusions. Bacterial biofilms might contribute to the damage of respiratory epithelium and recurring acute infections resulting in RAOM. In OME cases persisting respiratory viruses, mainly HBoV, can cause subsequent lymphoid hyperplasia leading to ventilation disorders and impaired immunoreactivity of the middle ear cleft.

  6. Clinical, microbiological and pathological findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three Australian Possum species.

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    Carolyn R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998-2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus, a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases, and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals

  7. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  8. Secrets from the microbiome: molecular biology meets microbiology meets histopathology...meets clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Caroline; Quirke, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The microbiome is the collective term used to describe the bacteria, viruses, fungi and archaea that reside on and in the human body. The majority of these organisms are found within the large bowel. Mounting evidence suggests that changes in the microbiome may be associated with the development of colorectal cancer, a disease which affects 1.3 million people a year worldwide. Using colorectal cancer as an example, this article presents the inter-specialty collaborative approach to microbiome research and discusses the key role that clinical biochemistry is likely to play.

  9. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Freitas Tenório

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We observed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of several stages of bloodstream infections (BSI, as well as the mortality attributed to it in a tertiary hospital in the northeast of Brazil (in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. A prospective cohort of 143 patients who had at least one positive blood culture was enrolled in the study. Their clinical evolution was followed up for 30 days from October 2005 to December 2006. The relation among the qualitative variables was verified through Chi-square test. The significance level was 5%. The statistical package adopted was SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Up to the thirtieth day, 30.1% of the patients presented bacteremia and 69.9% developed sepsis.Among these, 20.3% developed severe sepsis and 10.5% septic shock. The mortality attributed to it was 37.8%. In bacteremia, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock conditions, mortality rates were 9.3%, 50%, 65.5%, and 84.6%, respectively. Respiratory (32.2% and urinary (14% sources and the ones related to central venous catheter (14% were prevalent. In the wards 55.12% of the cases developed sepsis, whereas in the intensive care units, the rate was 87.69% (p < 0.05. Chronic renal failure, diabetes melitus, and neuropathy were present in 21.7%, 26.6%, and 29.4% of the cases, respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.9%, Staphylococcus aureus (21%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14% were the most present microorganism in the sample. The high morbidity and mortality rates in this study are attributed to the lack of knowledge on BSI characteristics and on instituted protocols for detection and treatment in early stages.

  10. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Musbah Alasil; Rahmat Omar; Salmah Ismail; Mohd Yasim Yusof; Ghulam N. Dhabaan; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of...

  11. A clinical and microbiologic analysis of risk factors for puerperal endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Prihoda, T J; Gibbs, R S

    1990-03-01

    Predictors of postpartum endometritis were identified in 607 asymptomatic, laboring women. One hundred (16.5%) developed postpartum endometritis. Multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression identified cesarean delivery (relative risk 12.8; P less than .0001) as the dominant overall predictor. In patients with cesarean delivery (N = 124), prophylactic antibiotics (relative risk 0.54; P less than .0002) and high-virulence bacteria or Mycoplasma hominis (relative risk 1.4; P less than .01) predicted the incidence of endometritis, and in patients with vaginal delivery (N = 483), "bacterial vaginosis organisms" (relative risk 14.2; P less than .001) and aerobic gram-negative rods (relative risk 4.2; P less than .01) predicted endometritis. Despite significant associations found on univariate analysis, clinical variables such as duration of labor, rupture of membranes, and internal monitoring were not predictive of endometritis in the multivariate analysis. Our findings show that cesarean delivery and certain organisms, such as bacterial vaginosis or high-virulence organisms, predict endometritis, and that clinical variables may be facilitators rather than predictors of endometritis. PMID:2406660

  12. PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS IN CORONARY ATHEROMA AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE – A CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Col S K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that hea rt disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of gram negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. AIMS : The present study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of P.ging ivalis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study was designed with 07 patients who had underwent coronary endarterectomy for CVD and 28 controls . The periodontal examination for cases was performed one day before vascular surgery and t he controls we re clinically examined. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the Intraoral plaque samples were subjected to PCR for identification of P.gingivalis. The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and subgingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Means and proportions for personal characters, major risk factors and c linical parameters were calculated for both the groups. The significance of any difference in means was tested by using “Students t test”, and the significance of any difference in proportions was tested by using Dunn - Sidak Adjusted p Value. RESULTS : D uring the microbial analysis of plaque samples by PCR in group A it was seen that Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100 % of the samples . Microbial analysis of endarterectomy samples by PCR in group A shows that Porphyromonas

  13. Effectiveness of sub gingival irrigation of an indigenous 1% curcumin solution on clinical and microbiological parameters in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthima N. V. S. Gottumukkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 1% curcumin (CU solution and compare it with conventional irrigant i.e., 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate and a positive control (saline as an adjunct to thorough scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with non-adjacent probing pocket depths (PPDs ≥5mm were randomly assigned to CHX, CU and positive control irrigation groups and subjected to randomized single blinded clinical control trial. The clinical parameters bleeding on probing, redness, plaque index, PPD and microbiological parameter N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA test were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months interval. Results: At 1 month evaluation, CU group showed better results compared with the other groups. However, by the end of the study period CHX group showed the best results with as light recurrence in the CU group. The results of BANA test showed similar results for both CU and CHX group throughout the study period. Conclusion: The results of this study show a mild to moderate beneficiary effect of CU irrigation when used as an adjunct to Scaling and root planing. Further studies may be required using varied concentrations of the drug to improve the substantivity of the drug and also to prevent early re-colonization of periodontal pathogens.

  14. Microbiological and biochemical studies on certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from certain clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection is a dynamic process involving invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and reactions of the tissues to microorganisms and their toxins. Pathogenic microorganisms isolated from clinical samples are of great threat to human health.The outcome of an infection depends on the virulence of the pathogen and the relative degree of resistance or susceptibility to antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antimicrobial agents interfere with specific processes that are essential for growth and division.Development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a problem of great concern. The high prevalence of resistant bacteria seems to be related to uncontrolled usage of antibiotics. B-lactamases are the most common cause of bacterial resistance to B-lactam antimicrobial agents, and it is one of the most important reason for increasing the resistance in pathogenic bacteria against some antibiotics especially those acting on inhibition of cell wall synthesis. One hundred and seven clinical samples and specimens were collected from public, private hospitals and National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Cairo, Egypt. Out of them 72 cases positive for microbial infection. Twelve cases were showed mixed infection. Eighty four isolates of pathogenic bacteria and yeast were collected from single and mixed culture. Susceptibilities of the isolates to 20 different antimicrobial agents were determined according to Kirby-Bauer method. Nine multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial strains were identified by (Micro Scan WalkAway 96 SI System). Six of them urine isolates, 2 wound (pus) isolates and one sputum isolate. The identified strains were exposed to in-vitro gamma irradiation at dose level of 24.4 Gy, which is biologically equivalent to the fractionated multiple therapeutic dose used in the protocol of cancer treatment of some patients. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the nine multi-drug resistant strains were carried out by disk diffusion method before and after irradiation

  15. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasi F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Methods: Forty eligible patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB were randomized to receive cefditoren 200 mg twice a day for 5 days (n = 20 or levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days (n = 20.Results: The inflammatory parameters which were significantly reduced at test-of-cure with respect to visit 1 were Krebs von den Lundgen-6 (KL-6 and interleukin-6. KL-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 19 ± 11 UI/mL to 6 ± 8 UI/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 19 ± 13 UI/mL to 8 ± 10 UI/mL, P = 0.006 and levofloxacin (from 19 ± 10 UI/mL to 5 ± 5 UI/mL, P = 0.000 arms. Similarly, interleukin-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 13.35 ± 16.41 pg/mL to 3 ± 4.7 pg/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 15.90 ± 19.54 pg/mL to 4.13 ± 6.42 pg/mL, P = 0.015 and levofloxacin (from 10.80 ± 12.55 pg/mL to 1.87 ± 1.16 pg/mL, P = 0.003 arms. At the end of treatment (test-of-cure, 6–9 days after drug initiation, the clinical success rate in the overall study population was 78%; the clinical cure rate was 80% in the cefditoren arm and 75% in the levofloxacin arm. Globally, bacteriological eradication at test-of-cure was obtained in 85% of the overall study population. Both treatments were well tolerated.Conclusion: Cefditoren represents a valid option in the treatment of mild to moderately severe cases of AECB in the outpatient care setting. Moreover, the use of this cephalosporin is associated with a significant

  16. Clinical and Microbiologic Analysis of the Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) phenotype among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) blood isolates can reach 38%. hVISA bacteremia is known to be associated with vancomycin treatment failure, including persistent bacteremia. We conducted this study to evaluate risk factors for 12-week mortality in patients with hVISA bacteremia through a detailed clinical and microbiological analysis of a prospective cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteremia. All isolates were collected on the first day of bacteremia and subjected to population analysis profiling for hVISA detection, genotyping, and PCR analysis for 39 virulence factors. Of 382 patient with MRSA bacteremia, 121 (32%) had hVISA bacteremia. Deceased patients were more likely to have hematologic malignancy (P = 0.033), ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (P = 0.007), and a higher Pitt bacteremia score (P = 0.010) than surviving patients. The sequence type 239 (ST239) clonal type and definitive linezolid treatment were associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.061 and 0.072, respectively), but a high vancomycin MIC (≥2 mg/liter) was not associated with increased mortality (P = 0.368). In a multivariate analysis, ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 6.85) and a high Pitt bacteremia score (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.48) were independent risk factors for mortality. Hematologic malignancy was associated with a trend toward increased mortality (P = 0.094), and ST239 was associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.095). Our study suggests that ST239 hVISA is a possible predictor of survival in hVISA bacteremia. PMID:25845875

  17. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Heteroresistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus from Bloodstream Infections in a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Morgado, Priscylla Guimarães Migueres; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Damasco, Andreia Paredes; Nouér, Simone Aranha; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed clinical and microbiological characteristics of heteroresistant (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in a Brazilian teaching hospital, between 2011 and 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution method and SCCmec was detected by PCR. Isolates with a vancomycin MIC ≥ 2mg/L were cultured on BHI agar with 3, 4 or 6 mg/L (BHIa3, BHIa4 or BHIa6) of vancomycin and BHIa4 with casein (BHIa4ca). Macromethod Etest® and Etest® Glicopeptides Resistance Detection were also used. VISA and hVISA isolates were confirmed by the population analysis profile then typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Medical data from the patients were obtained from their medical records. Among 110 consecutive isolates, 31 (28%) were MRSA and carried the SCCmec type II (15 isolates) or IV (16 isolates). Vancomycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. MRSA isolates had increased non-susceptibility to daptomycin (p = 0.0003). Six (5%) isolates were VISA, four of which were MRSA, three SCCmec type II/USA100/ST5 and one type IV/USA800/ST3192. One MRSA SCCmec II isolate grew on agar BHIa3, BHIa4 and BHIa4ca, and it was confirmed as hVISA. Among the six VISA isolates, five (83%) grew on BHIa3 and three (50%) on BHI4ca. Four of the six VISA isolates and the one hVISA isolate were from patients who had undergone dialysis. Thus, a possible dissemination of the SCCmec II/USA100/ST5 lineage may have occurred in the hospital comprising the VISA, hVISA and daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus Brazilian isolates from health care associated bloodstream infections. PMID:27575698

  18. Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Dai, Xing; Liang, Jiu-Hong; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Belfiore, Natalia M.; Bradford, Carol; Corn, Joseph L.; Cray, Carolyn; Glass, Gregory E.; Gordon, Melvin L.; Hesse, Richard A.; Montgomery, Donald L.; Nicholson, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine are known reservoirs, but how broadly enzootic its causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is remains controversial. To determine the prevalence of HEV infection in animals, a serological assay with capability to detect anti-HEV-antibody across a wide variety of animal species was devised. Recombinant antigens comprising truncated capsid proteins generated from HEV-subgenomic constructs that represent all four viral genotypes were used to c...

  19. Coral microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  20. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65% followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%. There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm’s early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections.

  1. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Dhabaan, Ghulam N; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%). There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm's early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections. PMID:24454384

  2. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  3. Voriconazole treatment of Candida tropicalis meningitis: persistence of (1,3)-β-d-glucan in the cerebrospinal fluid is a marker of clinical and microbiological failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Ghezzi, Maria Cristina; Raponi, Giammarco; Brunetti, Grazia; Marsiglia, Carolina; Fallani, Stefania; Novelli, Andrea; Venditti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Infections are still the most common complications of cerebral shunt procedures. Even though fungal etiologies are considered to be rare, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Due to their uncommonness, diagnostic procedures and optimal therapy are poorly defined. We report a case of Candida tropicalis infection of ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in a 49-year-old immune competent male treated with voriconazole (VOR). Methods: Microbiological and CSF markers (1,3-b-D-glucan-BDG) of fungal infection, biofilm production capacity, sensitivity of serial isolates of the pathogen, and the concentration of the antifungal drug have been monitored and related to the clinical course of this infection. Results: Despite appropriate treatment with VOR, in terms of adequate achieved CSF drug concentrations and initial effective therapeutic response, loss of VOR susceptibility of the C tropicalis and treatment failure were observed. Conclusion: Biofilm production of the C. tropicalis isolate might have had a significant role in treatment failure. Of interest, clinical and microbiological unfavorable outcome was anticipated by persistence of BDG in CSF. Rising titers of this marker were associated with relapse of fungal infection. PMID:27495087

  4. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  5. Increasing pathomorphism of pulmonary tuberculosis: an observational study of slow clinical, microbiological and imaging response of lung tuberculosis to specific treatment. Which role for linezolid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, a progressive emerging of tuberculosis occurred, related to the overall increased age of general population, primary and secondary (iatrogenic immunodeficiencies, the availability of invasive procedures, surgical interventions and intensive care supports, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and especially the recent immigration flows of people often coming from areas endemic for tuberculosis, and living with evident social-economical disadvantages, and with a reduced access to health care facilities. Since January 2006, at our reference centre we followed 81 consecutive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 65 of them which remained evaluable for the absence of extrapulmonary complications, and a continuative and effective clinical and therapeutic follow-up. The majority of episodes of evaluable pulmonary tuberculosis (49 cases out of 65: 75,4% occurred in patients who immigrated from developing countries. In two patients multiresistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were found, while two more subjects (both immigrated from Eastern Europe suffered from a disease due to extremely resistant (XDR M. tuberculosis strains. Although enforcing all possible measures to increase patients' adherence to treatment (empowerment, delivery of oral drugs under direct control, use of i.v. formulation whenever possible, over 72% of evaluable patients had a very slow clinical, microbiological, and imaging ameliorement (1-6 months, with persistance of sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid positive for M.tuberculosis microscopy and/or culture for over 1-4 months (mean 9.2±3.2 weeks, during an apparently adequate treatment. When excluding patients suffering from XDR and MDR tuberculosis, in four subjects we observed that off-label linezolid adjunct together with at least three drugs with residual activity against tuberculosis, led to a significantly more rapid clinical-radiological improvement and negative

  6. Effects of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Clinical Response, Microbiological Profile, and Glycemic Control in Malaysian Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mukhtar Buzinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group, were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups (P>0.05 and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously.

  7. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.;

    2016-01-01

    BCT app. The study was designed to achieve a high degree of realism as participants carried out a scenario representing the context of use for the MuxBCT app. As the MuxBCT was under development, the scenario involved the use of molecular blood culture tests similar to the MuxBCT for identification...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... and to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the design...

  8. Impact of the Daily Use of a Microcrystal Hydroxyapatite Dentifrice on De Novo Plaque Formation and Clinical/Microbiological Parameters of Periodontal Health. A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; May, Theodor W.; Gravemeier, Martina; Prior, Karola; Petersilka, Gregor; Ehmke, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Aim This 12-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, two-center trial evaluated the impact of a microcrystalline zinc hydroxyapatite (mHA) dentifrice on plaque formation rate (PFR) in chronic periodontitis patients. We hypothesized that mHA precipitates cause delayed plaque development when compared to a fluoridated control (AmF/SnF2), and therefore would improve periodontal health. Material & Methods At baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks, PFR and other clinical and microbiological parameters were recorded. Seventy periodontitis patients received a mHA or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice as daily oral care without hygiene instructions. Four weeks after baseline, participants received full mouth debridement and continued using the dentifrices for another 8 weeks. Results Primary outcome PFR did not change statistically significantly from baseline to weeks 4 and 12, neither in mHA (n = 33; 51.7±17.2% vs. 48.5±16.65% vs. 48.4±19.9%) nor in AmF/SnF2-group (n = 34; 52.3±17.5% vs. 52.5±21.3% vs. 46.1±21.8%). Secondary clinical parameters such as plaque control record, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and pocket probing depth improved, but between-group differences were not statistically significant. Microbiological analyses showed similar slight decreases in colony-forming units in both groups. Conclusion In patients with mild-to-moderate periodontitis, periodontal therapy and use of a mHA-or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice without instructions induced comparable improvements in periodontal health but did not significantly reduce the PFR. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT02697539 PMID:27467683

  9. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  10. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  11. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  12. Clinical predictors and microbiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective analysis in six Italian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, D; Pezzotti, P; Fortunato, E; Sordillo, P; Gini, S; Boros, S; Meledandri, M; Gallo, M T; Prignano, G; Caccese, R; D'Ambrosio, M; Citterio, G; Rocco, M; Leonardis, F; Natoli, S; Fontana, C; Favaro, M; Celeste, M G; Franci, T; Testore, G P; Andreoni, M; Sarmati, L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the main clinical predictors and microbiological features of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment. This work is a retrospective analysis over one year from September 2010 to September 2011. Patients' risk factors, causes of admission, comorbidities and respiratory specimens collected in six Italian ICUs were reviewed. Incidence and case fatality rate of VAP were evaluated. After stratification for VAP development, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of patients' conditions on the onset of this infection. A total of 1,647 ICU patients (pts) were considered. Overall, 115 patients (6.9 %) experienced at least one episode of VAP. The incidence rate for VAP was 5.82/1,000 pts-days, with a case fatality rate of 44.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that admission for neurological disorders (aIRR 4.12, CI 1.24-13.68, p = 0.02) and emergency referral to ICU from other hospitals (aIRR 2.11, CI 1.03-4.31, p = 0.04) were associated with higher risk of VAP, whereas a tendency to a higher risk of infection was detected for admission due to respiratory disease, cardiac disease, trauma and for having obesity or renal failure. A total of 372 microbiological isolates from respiratory specimens were collected in VAP patients. The most common species were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showing high resistance rates to carbapenems. Neurological disorders and emergency referral at the admission into the ICU are significantly associated with the onset of VAP. A high incidence of multi-drug resistant Gram- species was detected in the respiratory specimens. PMID:27272120

  13. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K;

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  14. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  15. Impact of Timing and Dosage of a Fluoroquinolone Treatment on the Microbiological, Pathological, and Clinical Outcomes of Calves Challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; Ferran, Aude A.; Assié, Sébastien; Cassard, Hervé; El Garch, Farid; Schneider, Marc; Woerhlé, Frédérique; Pacalin, Diane; Delverdier, Maxence; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Meyer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.107 CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in four groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON), 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2–4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2), 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35–39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10). In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5–4 and 5.5–6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24 h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia. PMID:26973615

  16. Impact of timing and dosage of a fluoroquinolone treatment on the microbiological, pathological and clinical outcomes of calves challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eLhermie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.107 CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in 4 groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON, 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2-4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2, 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35-39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10. In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5-4 and 5.5-6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia.

  17. Clinical, microbiological and immunological effects of natural compounds-containing mouthrinses in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; 陳勇

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment can give rise to bacteria and nonbacterial induced gingival inflammations. Previous studies have shown that some natural compounds-containing mouthrinses (NCCMs) have clinical benefits for maintaining gingival health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of NCCMs in the management of dental plaque and gingivitis among orthodontic patients. The present study consisted of three parts: 1) a systematic review on the effective...

  18. Clinical and microbiological outcome in septic patients with extremely low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at initiation of critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, G; Vallecoccia, M S; Schiattarella, A; Di Gravio, V; Cutuli, S L; Bello, G; Montini, L; Pennisi, M A; Spanu, T; Zuppi, C; Quraishi, S A; Antonelli, M

    2016-05-01

    A relationship between vitamin D status and mortality in patients in intensive care units (ICU) has been documented. The present study aims to describe the clinical profile and sepsis-related outcome of critically ill septic patients with extremely low (7 ng/mL (80.7% versus 58%, p 0.02; 35.3% versus 68%; p 0.03, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed that, in the extremely low vitamin D group, the 52 patients with pneumonia showed a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (9 days (3.75-12.5 days) versus 4 days (2-9 days), p 0.04) and the 66 with septic shock needed vasopressor support for a longer period of time (7 days (4-10 days) versus 4 days (2-7.25 days), p 0.02). Our results suggest that in critical septic patients extremely low vitamin D levels on admission may be a major determinant of clinical outcome. Benefits of vitamin D replacement therapy in this population should be elucidated. PMID:26721785

  19. Clinical and microbiological observational study on AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a hospital of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Baral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available regarding AmpC β-lactamase (ABL-producing Enterobacteriaceae compared to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria. Since ABL-producing organisms are often resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, therapeutic options against these pathogens are limited. Among 230 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 64 (27.8% were found to produce ABL in our study. Escherichia coli (83.9% was a predominant pathogen, followed by Citrobacter freundii (5.2%. A significant proportion of ABL-producing isolates (81.3% were found to be multidrug resistant against commonly used antibiotics. Univariate analysis showed that prior history of taking antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 5.278; confidence interval [CI], 2.838-9.817; p < 0.001 and being inpatients (OR, 4.587; CI, 2.132-9.9; p < 0.001 were associated with ABL positivity. Regular antimicrobial resistance surveillance for ABL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is warranted for proper antimicrobial treatment strategy and policy making due to ABL-positive infections.

  20. The clinical, pathological and microbiological outcome of an Escherichia coli O2:K1 infection in avian pneumovirus infected turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; Pensaert, M

    2001-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Escherichia coli infection in avian pneumovirus (APV)-infected turkeys. One group of 2-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) and two groups of 3-week-old conventional (CON) turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with virulent APV subtype A alone, with E. coli O2:K1 alone or with both agents at varying intervals (1, 3, 5 or 7 days) between the two inoculations. The birds were followed clinically and examined for macroscopic lesions at necropsy. Titres of APV were determined in the turbinates, trachea, lungs and air sacs. The number of E. coli O2:K1were assessed in the turbinates, trachea, lungs, air sacs, liver and heart. In both SPF and CON turkeys, dual infection resulted in an increased morbidity and a higher incidence of gross lesions compared to the groups given single infections, especially with a time interval between APV and E. coli inoculations of 3 and 5 days. APV was isolated from the respiratory tract of all APV-infected groups between 3 and 7 days post inoculation. E. coli O2:K1 was isolated only from turkeys that received a dual infection. It was recovered from the turbinates, trachea, lungs, heart and liver. These results show that APV may act as a primary agent predisposing to E. coli colonization and invasion.

  1. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  2. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  3. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  4. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  5. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered spe...... occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved....

  6. 77 FR 16807 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive), toxicology, risk assessment, infectious disease... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  8. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  9. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. PMID:27465488

  10. Egg Microbiology Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiology is the study of living microorganisms. This includes any single living animal not visible to the naked eye most of which are less than 0.1 mm in diameter. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, some algae and protozoans are considered microorganisms. Microbiology is a diverse field and fo...

  11. Focus on the clinical microbiology laboratory construction and development%关注抗菌药物整治活动加强临床微生物实验室建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英春; 范欣

    2013-01-01

    The development of clinical microbiology laboratory is an essential part in promoting the development of clinical microbiology and the basis rational use of antimicrobial agents.Under the circumstances of national specific rectification of antimicrobials,clinical microbiology laboratory should focus on self-buildup and improvement.The development of clinical microbiology laboratory should focus on development of both software and hardware capabilities for lab examination and diagnosis in an all-round way,enhance the antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance,and emphasize and communication and cooperation between laboratory and other departments e.g.clinical departments,pharmacy department and nosocomial surveillance and control office,making concept translation from past ‘paramedical department' to a ‘platform department',contribute its due share to the rational uses of antimicrobial agents.%临床微生物实验室建设是微生物检验发展的重要环节,同时是临床抗菌药物合理使用的基础和保障.在全国抗菌药物临床应用专项整治活动的背景下,临床微生物实验室作为医院的平台科室,需要着力于自身的进一步建设与提高.微生物实验室的建设与发展的重点是要全面加强微生物检验与诊断的软硬件能力,做好病原菌的抗菌药物敏感性监测工作,同时注重与临床、药剂、院感控制等多个学科与部门的交流与合作,实现从临床“辅助科室”到“平台科室”的理念转化,在抗菌药物的合理应用方面做出应有的贡献.

  12. Perfil clínico e microbiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana Clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Ribeiro de Figueiredo Leite

    2010-02-01

    ,2%, Cocos Gram-positivos (98,2%, além de bacilos Gram-positivos (99,3% e negativos (91,0%. As colpocitologias oncóticas mostraram presença muito escassa de lactobacilos, que estiveram presentes em apenas 8 citologias (2,9% do total de 273 exames realizados. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados do estudo não mostraram diferença em relação à literatura quanto aos sintomas referidos pelas mulheres, os critérios clínicos mais observados no diagnóstico, ou as espécies bacterianas demonstradas nas culturas de conteúdo vaginal. Os achados demonstram serem necessários novos estudos que melhor elucidem as inter-relações entre os achados microbiológicos e a expressão clínica da vaginose bacteriana. Registro do ensaio clínico: ISRCTN18987156PURPOSE: to study the clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis participating in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, which compared the vaginal use of preparations from red pepper tree and metronidazole for the treatment of genital discharge. METHODS: the study was conducted on a series of 277 women with bacterial vaginosis concomitantly diagnosed by the criteria of Amsel and Nugent, selected from a total of 462 recruited patients using the information obtained before intervention. Data were analyzed with the Epi-Info 3.32 software. In order to compare the outcomes frequencies between the intervention groups, the χ2 test was used and the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. The intention to treat analysis was performed. In addition to the determination of diagnostic parameters, the culture of vaginal content and a Papanicolaou cytology test were also performed. RESULTS: the most frequent clinical complaints were genital discharge, observed in 206 participants (74.4% and the fish odor of the vaginal secretion, which occurred in 68.6% of the cases (190 patients. Among the diagnostic clinical criteria, the presence of clue-cells was positive in 275 women (99.3%, the Whiff test, in 266

  13. Application of MALDI-TOF MS in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples%MALDI-TOF MS在临床微生物样本直接检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 胡玢婕; 赵虎

    2015-01-01

    基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)是近年来发展起来的一项新兴的微生物鉴定技术,与传统的生化表型鉴定方法和分子生物学方法相比,MALDI-TOF MS具有操作简单、快速、准确和经济的特点。鉴于其对培养出的纯菌落鉴定的准确性和稳定性,MALDI-TOF MS也可被应用于临床样本的直接检测,包括阳性血培养瓶、中段尿、脑脊液等。本文主要就MALDI-TOF MS用于直接检测临床样本的原理、流程、鉴定效能及其研究进展等方面做一综述。%Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS),as a newly developed technology in recent years , is an easy, rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for microbial identification in clinical microbiology , compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology .Given the accuracy and reliability of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of microorganisms grown on solid medium , this technology might also be directly applied to some clinical microbiological samples , such as positive blood culture bottles , midstream urine , cerebrospinal fluid and so on .The goal of this review was to discuss the application of MALDI-TOF MS technology in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples , including the principles , protocols, performance and research progress .

  14. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  15. Microbiology: a dangerous profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Mercè

    2007-09-01

    The history of science contains many cases of researchers who have died because of their professional activity. In the field of microbiology, some have died or have come close to death from infection by agents that were the subject of their research (Table 1). Infections that had a lethal outcome were usually accidental. Sometimes, however, researchers inoculated themselves with the pathogen or did not take preventive measures against the potential pathogen because they wanted to prove their hypotheses--or disprove someone else's--regarding the origin of the infection. Here is an overview of several episodes in the history of microbiology since the mid nineteenth century involving researchers or workers in fields related to microbiology who have become infected. They are considered here in their historical context to provide insights into some of the pillars of modern microbiology--The giants on whose shoulders several generations of microbiologists have stood to see further.

  16. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  17. [Evaluation of the status of patients with severe infection, criteria for intensive care unit admittance. Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine and Coronary Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, Pedro M; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Sánchez, Miguel; Torres, Antonio; Palomar, Mercedes; Fernández, Pedro; Miró, José M; Cisneros, José Miguel; Torres, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that early attention in patients with serious infections is associated with a better outcome. Assistance in intensive care units (ICU) can effectively provide this attention; hence patients should be admitted to the ICU as soon as possible, before clinical deterioration becomes irreversible. The objective of this article is to compile the recommendations for evaluating disease severity in patients with infections and describe the criteria for ICU admission, updating the criteria published 10 years ago. A literature review was carried out, compiling the opinions of experts from the Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC, Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC, Spanish Society for Intensive Medicine, Critical Care and Coronary Units) as well as the working groups for infections in critically ill patients (GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC). We describe the specific recommendations for ICU admission related to the most common infections affecting patients, who will potentially benefit from critical care. Assessment of the severity of the patient's condition to enable early intensive care is stressed.

  18. Clinical microbiological quality control in the existing problems and countermeasures%临床微生物检验中质量控制存在的问题与对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春雷; 白俊龙; 刘丽丽

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, microbial species in the human survival environment is extremely diverse, most of the generic drug resistant strains and drug-resistant bacteria can significantly hamper the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, to strengthen the quality control of clinical microbiological examination in time, puts forward improvement strategy, can effectively promote clinical medical research. In order to further explore the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease, provide scientific clinical information, the study of clinical microbiological quality control in the analysis of existing problems, and puts forward some countermeasures to improve.%近年来,微生物在人类生存环境中种类极为多样,大多数泛耐药菌株和耐药菌均能显著阻碍感染性疾病的治疗。因此,及时加强对临床微生物检验的质量控制并提出改进策略能够有效推进临床医学研究。为进一步探讨临床疾病的诊断和治疗方法,提供科学的临床信息,本次研究对临床微生物检验中质量控制存在的问题进行分析,同时对临床微生物检验存在的若干问题进行改进策略。

  19. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories.

  20. Microbiological and Morphological Analysis of Dental Implants Removed for Incomplete Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Passariello, C.; Berlutti, F.; Selan, L.; C Amodeo; Comodi-Ballanti, M R; L. Serafino; Thaller, M C

    2011-01-01

    Dental implants may share both severe infection and incomplete osseointegration in the absence of obvious clinical signs of infection. While microbiological data have been collected on peri-implant infections, no previous studies have investigated microbiologically incompletely osseointegrated implants. This paper presents microbiological and scanning electron microscopy observations on 30 implants showing incomplete osseointegration. All the 30 implants were colonised by bacterial species th...

  1. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs. PMID:27118790

  2. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs.

  3. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.

  4. Application of molecular techniques in clinical microbiological determination%关注分子技术在临床微生物检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪语星

    2014-01-01

    备的结核分枝杆菌融合蛋白-6用于结核病血清学检测具有较好的敏感性和特异性,可用于结核病患者的血清学诊断。%We carefully organized 6 manuscripts,including 1 review and 5 research papers for the molecular microbiology diagnosis special issue,mainly about the diagnosis,treatment (resistance ),prevention and control of clinical common bacterium,fungus and mycobacterium infections.The special issue focuses on the application research of molecular biology techniques in the direct detection of clinical specimens,genotyping,resistance gene research, antigen preparation,serological diagnosis and so on.Blood stream infection is a serious infectious disease,but blood cultures have the problem with long turn-around-time and low positive rate.The application of molecular biology techniques can be used to the detection of common or rare pathogenic bacteria,mycobacteria,fastidous bacteria for rapid identification and drug resistance analysis in the blood stream infection,which can shorten the turn-around-time. Clostridium difficile is a kind of important nosocomial infection pathogen which can cause antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. GeneXpert real-time fluorescence quantitation polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) can directly detect Clostridium difficile infection and has the advantages of rapid detection,simple operation and so on.Candida glabrata can cause blood stream infection and other infections.It is a common invasive fungus in nosocomial infection with strong drug resistance.Microsatellite polymorphism offers a simple and rapid method for genotyping with resolution,which is higher than multilocus sequence typing (MLST).Therefore,microsatellite polymorphism can be the preferred choice for Candida glabrata genotyping in laboratory.In recent years,Candida albicans azole resistance has increasing trend.The expression ofgenes related to azole resistance and biofilm in Candida albicans suggests that ERG1 1 gene over expression for

  5. Clinical and economic evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment to CHROMSal and Hektoen enteric agars to detect enteric Salmonella in a large regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Emshey, Diana; Lloyd, Tracie; Pitout, Johann

    2010-09-01

    Stool culture for enteric pathogens is one of the most labor-intensive clinical microbiology procedures. Direct plating of stool to BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment (Sel) to CHROMSal (Sel-CHROMSal) and Hektoen enteric agar (Sel-Hek) (PML Microbiologicals, Eugene, OR) to detect Salmonella were compared. The number of colony picks and biochemical/serotyping tests per plate was recorded. A cost comparison was done. Fifty-one of 2999 (1.7%) stools yielded Salmonella sp., and 80% of isolates grew on CHROMSal by 24 h. CHROMSal demonstrated much less false-positive growth compared to Sel-Hek (P < 0.0001), which reduced biochemical and serotyping tests by 85% and 20%, respectively. Sel-CHROMSal and CHROMSal versus Sel-Hek improved enteric Salmonella detection when compared to a true positive "gold standard" (i.e., recovery by any culture method) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% and 94.12%, 100% and 99.97%, 100% and 97.96%, and 100% and 99.90%, respectively. CHROMSal use would result in substantial cost and labor savings.

  6. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  7. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown. PMID:21491069

  8. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  9. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  10. Microbiology Made Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Lois S.; Metz, Mildred C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are two hospital-based laboratory exercises which helped students perceive the relationship between the principles of microbiology and the practice of nursing. The exercises involved an environmental study focusing on problems of nosocomial infection and a study of patients hospitalized with infectious diseases. (Author/MS)

  11. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  12. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  13. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists.

  14. Microbiological aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is now recognized as commonly occurring in power plants as well as other industries. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored survey and the case histories it contained implicated MIC in fire protection systems, heat exchangers, and the structural reliability and functioning of a variety of service water system components at nuclear power plants. A similar study covering various components of fossil-fired plants found that heat exchangers, piping and storage vessels were susceptible to MIC. A more recent publication sponsored by EPRI contained additional case histories covering MIC of carbon steels, stainless steels, copper alloys and high nickel alloys in a variety of components in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors present field and laboratory experiences in MIC of various alloys and present a model for the pitting corrosion of carbon steel. In the case of other alloys, more speculative information is presented attempting to relate the microbes and their activities to the corrosion

  15. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  16. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  17. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  18. Structuring Free-text Microbiology Culture Reports For Secondary Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wen-wai; Evans, Heather L.; Yetisgen, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology lab culture reports are a frequently used diagnostic tool for clinical providers. However, their incorporation into clinical surveillance applications and evidence-based medicine can be severely hindered by the free-text nature of these reports. In this work, we (1) created a microbiology culture template to structure free-text microbiology reports, (2) generated an annotated microbiology report corpus, and (3) built a microbiology information extraction system. Specifically, we combined rule-based, hybrid, and statistical techniques to extract microbiology entities and fill templates for structuring data. System performances were favorable, with entity f1-score 0.889 and relation f1-score 0.795. We plan to incorporate these extractions as features for our ongoing ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance project, though this tool can be used as an upstream process in other applications. Our newly created corpus includes 1442 unique gram stain and culture microbiology reports generated from a cohort of 715 patients at the University of Washington Medical Facilities. PMID:26306288

  19. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  20. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.

  1. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  2. Trends in wine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  3. [The clinical and microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of oral irrigation on the periodontal tissues of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Murro, C; Paolantonio, M; Petti, S; Tomassini, E; Festa, F; Grippaudo, C; Sbolgi, S

    1992-11-01

    The aim of the present study has been the evaluation of the effectiveness of oral irrigation with or without toothbrushing and dental flossing, in individuals treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, on controlling the development of dental plaque and, hence, of gingivitis. Eight individuals with a good general and oral status have been chosen. Before the experimental period, they received instructions about oral hygiene with toothbrushing and dental flossing and then they have been monitored to verify they were doing well. At the time T0, the upper tooth have been banded, three Periodontal Indexes (Plaque Index according to Silness and Loe, Modified Gingival Index according to Lobene and Gingival Bleeding Index according to Ainamo and Bay) registered and subgingival plaque samples from the premolars' gingival sulcus collected in order to point out the total anaerobes bacterial counts, the rates of motile bacteria, spirochetes, Gram positive and Gram negative cocci and bacteria, by means of optical and dark field microscopy and of cultural methods. For their oral hygiene, the patients had to use, in the right side toothbrush and dental floss (Control 1), in the left side the oral irrigator alone (Test 1). One month later (time T1), the lower teeth have been banded, too. In the right side the patients had to use toothbrush and dental floss (Control 2), while in the left one they used the same devices as Control 2 plus the oral irrigator (Test 2). At the time T1 Periodontal Indexes and Microbiological analyses have been extended to all the four quadrants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1294872

  4. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of adult patients with recurrent bacteraemia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-H; Su, L-H; Chen, F-J; Tang, Y-F; Chien, C-C; Liu, J-W

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of patients with recurrent bacteraemia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae (EK) are rarely described. Flomoxef belongs to the cephamycins group and demonstrates in vitro activity against ESBL-producing organisms. Whether flomoxef may be used for the treatment of such infections remains controversial. This retrospective case-control study enrolled adult patients who had bacteraemia caused by ESBL-EK during 2005-2011. Case patients were those who had more than one episode of ESBL-EK bacteraemia. Controls were those who were matched for age and interval time of blood sampling and had only one episode of ESBL-EK bacteraemia with subsequent bacteraemia episodes caused by other non-ESBL-EK bacteria. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and microbiologic profiles of the initial and subsequent ESBL-EK isolates were analysed. During the study period, 424 patients were found to have at least one positive blood culture after the first ESBL-EK bacteraemia episode, and 67 (15.8%) had a second episode of ESBL-EK bacteraemia. Bacteraemia resulting from vascular catheter-related infection (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.05), and definitive therapy with flomoxef (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-8.15) were both independent risk factors for the recurrence. Among the 56 patients with available ESBL-EK isolates for analysis, 38 (67.8%) were infected by genetically similar strains. In three of these 38 recurrent ESBL-EK bacteraemia cases caused by an identical strain, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenem for the subsequent K. pneumoniae isolates were fourfold or higher than the initial isolates. Recurrent bacteraemia was not uncommon in our patients with ESBL-EK bacteraemia, and most of the episodes were caused by identical strains.

  5. Microbiological study of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD and the usefulness of analytical and clinical parameters in its identification (VIRAE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boixeda R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Boixeda,1,5 Nuria Rabella,2 Goretti Sauca,3 Maria Delgado,1 Xavier Martinez-Costa1, Montserrat Mauri,1 Vanessa Vicente,1 Elisabet Palomera,4 Mateu Serra-Prat,4 Josep Antón Capdevila11Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Santa Creu and Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Research, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: Respiratory infection is the most common cause for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD. The aim of this work was to study the etiology of the respiratory infection in order to assess the usefulness of the clinical and analytical parameters used for COPD identification.Patients and methods: We included 132 patients over a period of 2 years. The etiology of the respiratory infection was studied by conventional sputum, paired serology tests for atypical bacteria, and viral diagnostic techniques (immunochromatography, immunofluorescence, cell culture, and molecular biology techniques. We grouped the patients into four groups based on the pathogens isolated (bacterial versus. viral, known etiology versus unknown etiology and compared the groups.Results: A pathogen was identified in 48 patients. The pathogen was identified through sputum culture in 34 patients, seroconversion in three patients, and a positive result from viral techniques in 14 patients. No significant differences in identifying etiology were observed in the clinical and analytical parameters within the different groups. The most cost-effective tests were the sputum test and the polymerase chain reaction.Conclusion: Based on our experience, clinical and analytical parameters are not useful for the etiological identification of COPD exacerbations. Diagnosing COPD exacerbation is difficult, with the

  6. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  7. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  8. The case for biocentric microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ramy Karam

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology is a relatively modern scientific discipline intended to objectively study microorganisms, including pathogens and nonpathogens. However, since its birth, this science has been negatively affected by anthropocentric convictions, including rational and irrational beliefs. Among these, for example, is the artificial separation between environmental and medical microbiology that weakens both disciplines. Anthropocentric microbiology also fails to properly answer questions concerning the evolution of microbial pathogenesis. Here, I argue that an exclusively biocentric microbiology is imperative for improving our understanding not only of the microbial world, but also of our own species, our guts, and the world around us. PMID:19653908

  9. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  10. The association of clinical and microbiologic parameters with histologic observations in relatively healthy peri-implant conditions- a preliminary short-term in vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brakel, Ralph; Meijer, Gert J.; de Putter, Cornelis; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Jansen, John; Cune, Marco S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether clinical findings-bleeding on probing, pocket depth, recession, and bacterial sampling-correlate with histologic outcomes in relatively healthy peri-implant soft tissues in people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 20 edentulo

  11. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  12. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STAPHYLO- COCCAL INFECTIONS TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko S.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Overview summarizes the data of the domestic and for-eign literature about the prevalence and biological prop-erties of S. aureus. S. аureus enzymes of aggression andpathogenicity factors (capsular polysaccharides, differentextracellular protein substances (hemolysins, leuko-cidins, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, co-agulase etc. which disintegrate structural components ofconnective tissue and eukaryotic cells are described interms of improvement and enhancement of microbiologi-cal technologies. Detailed information about the prob-lem of Staphylococcus aureus multidrugresistance andmechanisms of methicillin resistance formation is given.The necessity of targeted monitoring of the biologicalproperties of S. aureus selected clinical isolates in orderto optimize detection of the pathogen aggressiveness isproved.

  14. [Microbiology laboratory management: an (almost) pending matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Javier; Nogueira, José Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Many professionals from distinct disciplines work in health centers and consequently these workplaces should be considered as service companies, involving human, material and financial resources aimed at providing a service required by society. Hospitals are one of the most complex types of company, in which diverse goods and services are produced and consumed. Like the hospital as a whole, the various units and departments in which the hospital is divided, including the microbiology department, are sufficiently different to be called distinct, but related, branches of the same company, given that none can perform their function without the others. Viewing a hospital service as a branch of a large company (the hospital as a whole) allows its production, the resources used in this production, and its clients to be identified more clearly. The healthcare model based on clinical management units aims to constitute a new organizational model for public health systems in which health strategies are performed that allow innovation and decentralization of the healthcare network. Clinical management provides the framework for attending to the population's healthcare needs through a person-centered approach and involves all the professionals in any of the settings in which healthcare is provided. Among the aims of this model is to guarantee continuity of care, facilitate comprehensive health promotion and deliver daily healthcare effectively. The main instruments of clinical management are structured knowledge of the population's health needs, the use of the best scientific knowledge available, and a comprehensive and participatory practical model, together with assessment tools. Three possible clinical management models are proposed for the work of specialists in microbiology and parasitology: a) a microbiology clinical management unit; b) a biological diagnosis clinical management unit, and c) a multidisciplinary clinical management unit with cross-competencies with

  15. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

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    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  16. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  17. Applications of molecular diagnostics techniques in clinical microbiology laboratory%分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长贵; 成军

    2013-01-01

    Applications of molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratory were introduced in the article,including nucleic acid hybridization,nucleic acid amplification,DNA sequencing,gene chips and mass spectrometry.Molecular diagnostic techniques provide major tools for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases,molecular epidemiology investigation,rapid identification of microbial pathogens and the study of the pathogenicity and antibiotics resistance.The application of these new technologies,as the complement of traditional culture methods,increases sensitivity,accuracy and diagnostic efficiency of assays.%主要介绍分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用,内容包括核酸杂交、核酸扩增、DNA测序、基因芯片和质谱技术.分子诊断技术为感染病的快速诊断、分子流行病学调查、微生物的快速鉴定、病原菌的致病性和抗生素的耐受性研究等提供了重要的检测手段.这些新技术的应用,作为传统培养法的补充,提高了检测的灵敏度、准确性和诊断效率.

  18. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  19. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  20. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  1. Transdisciplinarity and Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A graphical representation of the transdisciplinary pyramid, as a tool, helps us in the design of practical classroom activities that deal with transdisciplinarity, microbiology, and, more generally, with biology. As regard to classroom implementation, we propose two main practical approaches. On the one hand, we can concretize/realize transdisciplinarity through a new design of the lesson, which shall rely on a team of four teachers/professors representing disciplines from all the four levels of the pyramid. On the other hand, a class debate with a teacher–moderator shall be used as a Trojan horse to launch the insights into the newly proposed point of view. The presence of four teachers/professors provides a rigorous study of the topics together with a concretized high-quality transdisciplinarity. Conversely, the class discussion promotes student involvement and the development of critical thought.

  2. Clinical and microbiological features of community-acquired and nosocomial bloodstream infections in the surgical department of a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) You; GUO Peng; YE Ying-jiang; WANG Hui; SHEN Zhan-long; WANG Qi; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSls) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery.This study aimed at elucidating the clinical characteristics of community-acquired BSls (CABs) and nosocomial BSls (nBSls) in patients admitted to the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Beijing,China.Methods This cross-sectional study compared 191 episodes of BSls in 4074 patients admitted to the surgical wards between January 2008 and December 2011.Cases of BSls were classified as CABs or nBSls,and the characteristics,relevant treatments,and outcomes of CABs and nBSls were compared.Results Of the 191 BSls,52 (27.2%) and 139 (72.8%) were CABs and nBSls,respectively.Eschedchia coli,coagulasenegative staphylococci,and Klebsiella spp,were the most frequently isolated microorganisms.There were significant differences between CABs and nBSls with respect to the use of hormonal drugs,ventilation,acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores,and prevalence of cancer (P <0.05).Empirical antibacterial therapy did not decrease the crude mortality,but multivariate analysis showed that high APACHE Ⅱ was independently associated with a risk of mortality (odds ratio =0.97,95% confidence interval:0.93-1.02 for APACHE Ⅱ).Conclusions We found significant differences in the clinical characteristics of surgical patients with CABs and nBSls.The outcome of patients seems to be related to high APACHE Ⅱ scores.

  3. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitish Durga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease has been thought to be associated with several restricted members of the oral anaerobic species, such as black-pigmented Porphyromonas species and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, in the subgingival environment. Apart from bacteria, certain viruses and fungi that are associated with periodontal disease are also present in the subgingival plaque . Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover split-mouth design was performed. A total of 16 patients suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The study period of 18 days was divided into two time-intervals, i.e. baseline (0 days to 7 th day, with a washout period of 4 days followed by a second time interval of 7 days. The use of ozone and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX irrigation was randomized. Both the patient and the clinician evaluating the clinical parameters were blinded regarding the type of irrigation used. Results: The interpretation of clinical and microbial data is from baseline to 7 th day. A higher percentage of plaque index (12%, gingival index (29% and bleeding index (26% reduction was observed using ozone irrigation as compared to chlorhexidine. The percentile reduction of Aa (25% using ozone was appreciable as compared to no change in Aa occurrence using chlorhexidine. By using O 3 and chlorhexidine, there was no antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Tannerella forsythensis. The antifungal effect of ozone from baseline (37% to 7 th day (12.5% was pronounced during the study period, unlike CHX, which did not demonstrate any antifungal effect. Conclusion: Ozone may be considered as an alternative management strategy due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. Also, there is growing evidence that ozone can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent in both dentistry and medicine.

  4. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  5. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis resistant to penicillin clinical and microbiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigilancia de las Infecciones Neumocócicas, durante el lapso 1994-1998. Los datos clínicos y de laboratorio se colectaron de cada expediente. RESULTADOS: Del total de niños, 63% era menor de dos años de edad, 28.9% mostró cepas insensibles a la penicilina, 18.4% tenía resistencia intermedia, y 10.5% tenía resistencia elevada. El 2.6% mostró también resistencia a la cefotaxima. La única característica (por la prueba exacta de Fisher asociada con la resistencia fue: enfermedad de base previa al proceso (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. To describe and compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome among children infected with strains either susceptible or resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 children with pneumococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled in the Institutional Surveillance Program for Pneumococcal Infections during 1994-1998. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by chart review. RESULTS: Of the 38 children, 24 (63% were less than 2 years of age, 11 (28.9% had drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, 18.4% had intermediate resistance, 10.5% high level resistance and 2.6% also showed high level resistance to cefotaxime. The only associated factors (by Fisher’s exact test associated to resistance were: previous use of antibiotics (p=0

  6. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  7. [Clinical, microbiological and immunological findings in peri-implantitis patients with bar-retained lower removable partial dentures, compared to a healthy control group (12-month-follow-up)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Christian; Forster, András; Antal, Márk; Nagy, Katalin

    2012-06-01

    Cause, treatment strategies and prognosis of peri-implantitis is not well understood. The aim of this study was to followup clinical, microbiological and immunological findings in individuals wearing bar-retained lower partial dentures with and without peri-implantitis, pre and post treatment. From the Tuebingen Implant Registry recall program 16 peri-implantitis patients were compared to 16 healthy individuals in a prospective, unblinded study. Peri-implantitis was treated with a single anti-inflammatory therapy according to the CIST protocol while the controls received professional implant cleaning. The following findings were recorded at four time points before treatment (T1) and 30, 90, 360 days post treatment (T2-T4): sulcular fluid flow rate, probing depth, plaque and bleeding index, implant stability (Periotest); sulcular concentrations of interleukin-1 beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 2, prostaglandin E2, and the sum score of five periodonto-pathogenic bacteria species by PCR (Hain Microldent test). Statistically significant differences between healthy and diseased implants were found for probing depth, bleeding on probing, bacterial load, and implant stability. For the first three, a significant decrease in severity was observed after treatment, but reached initial pre-treatment values within one year. No changes could be observed in the individuals without peri-implantitis. The results of the present study confirm marked differences in peri-implant findings between healthy and diseased sites. They demonstrate that a single anti-inflammatory intervention can initially--but not sustained--reduce probing depth, bleeding on probing, and the total bacterial load as evident from PCR diagnostics. Further immunological diagnostic measures do not seem to provide more information in the patients investigated.

  8. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  9. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  10. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteu......Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods...... distributions) were advocated. It is believed that it is necessary to define some applicable methodologies for the development of growth models for complex products such as fermented dairy products. Model development is a comprehensive process with an almost infinite data requirement and the findings...

  11. Microbiological study of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) and the usefulness of analytical and clinical parameters in its identification (VIRAE study)

    OpenAIRE

    Boixeda R; Rabella N; Sauca G; Delgado M; Martínez-Costa X; Mauri M; Vicente V; Palomera E; Serra-Prat M; Capdevila JA

    2012-01-01

    Ramon Boixeda,1,5 Nuria Rabella,2 Goretti Sauca,3 Maria Delgado,1 Xavier Martinez-Costa1, Montserrat Mauri,1 Vanessa Vicente,1 Elisabet Palomera,4 Mateu Serra-Prat,4 Josep Antón Capdevila11Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Santa Creu and Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Research, Hospital of Mataró...

  12. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben;

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  13. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  14. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  15. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  16. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  17. Microbiology of the white coat in a dental operatory

    OpenAIRE

    Malini, M.; Titus K Thomas; Darpan Bhargava; Smiline Girija

    2012-01-01

    Background: It remains important to have a thorough knowledge of the micro-flora harboring the white coats of doctors to minimize cross-contamination and improve patient safety by reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. This study presents the microbiological analysis of the white coats in clinical departments of a dental college and hospital. Materials and Methods: The swabs for the study were taken from the white coats of undergraduate students posted in various clinical departments...

  18. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  20. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  1. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  2. Microbiological Principles in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the important microbiological objectives of irradiation treatments, with special reference to the definitions of the proposed new terms, radappertization, radicidation and radurization. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the food in determining the microbiological requirements of the irradiation treatment. It is suggested that, just as with heat-processed foods, classifications into the major groups of ''acid'' or ''cured'' foods will remain valid with the irradiation process, and that different microbiological criteria will apply to these different classes of foods. The differences depend in part on the influence which the nature of the food has on the effectiveness of the irradiation treatment itself, but more especially on the way in which the nature of the food affects the activities of those microorganisms which might survive irradiation. The principles used to calculate the appropriate doses of radiation are discussed, with comments on the reliability of the fundamental assumptions or the need for further experimentation. The microbiological characteristics of irradiated foods are compared with those of corresponding heat- processed foods, to emphasize points of difference, with special reference to the appropriateness of suggested classifications for heat-processed foods. Finally, some general difficulties are considered, such as uncertainty about the significance and behaviour of food-borne viruses, and about the significance of the mutations which might conceivably be induced in microorganisms surviving-an irradiation process. (author)

  3. Microbiologic spectrum of acute and chronic dacryocystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram; Eshraghi; Parisa; Abdi; Mohammadreza; Akbari; Masoud; Aghsaei; Fard

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To report the microbiological spectrum of acute and chronic dacrocystitis.METHODS:Retrospective study on 100 patients who presented to the ophthalmic plastic clinic of a tertiary eye care center from May 2011 and April 2013 with acute and chronic dacryocystitis was reviewed for demographic and microbiological profile. The culture results and organisms isolated were recorded.RESULTS:Sixty patients had acute onset and the remaining 40 patients had chronic onset dacryocystitis.The female to male ratio was 1.78. The mean age of patients was 44 y. Gram-positive organisms were the most commonly isolated accounting for 54%, and the commonest species isolated was S. aureus in 26%.Percentage of gram positive cultures was higher in chronic dacryocystitis than acute ones(82% vs 48% of positive cultures; P =0.003). Also in culture positive acute dacryocystitis, gram negative species were found in 52%of eyes but only in 18% of chronic dacryocystitis.CONCLUSION:Gram negative bacteria, culture negative samples, unusual and more virulent organisms are more common in acute dacryocystitis than chronic ones. The results of this study have significant bearing on the treatment of patients with dacrocystitis.

  4. Fixação esquelética externa em cães: avaliação clínica e microbiológica External skeletal fixation in dogs: clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Carneiro

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven dogs, of both sexes, average weight of 12kg, with ages ranging from two to five years were used with the objective of evaluating two treatments of skin wounds produced after percutaneous bone transfixation of the tibia. In six animals, cotton swabs embedded in 0.2% iodine-alcohol were used to clean the areas of pin perforations. In five dogs, a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, under approximate 30 psi pulse pressure, was used. In both cases, and treatments were carried out every three to four days, during four weeks. Clinical specimens were collected under anaerobic conditions, immediately before the treatments, and on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after surgery. Samples were cultured in specific media in order to allow isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeast. Dogs treated with sodium chloride solution showed little purulent exudation, while dogs treated with iodine-alcohol presented dry skin wounds with minimum blood-serous to serous exudation. The microbiological evaluation revealed predominance of Staphylococcus spp, but no differences were observed between the two treatments. The results allowed to conclude that both methods are efficient for post-surgical treatments of bone percutaneous transfixation in dogs.Foram utilizados 11 cães de ambos os sexos, sem raça definida, clinicamente sadios, com média de peso de 12kg e idade entre dois e cinco anos, para avaliação de dois métodos de tratamento da ferida cutânea produzida pela transfixação óssea percutânea da tíbia íntegra. Em seis animais empregou-se haste de polipropileno com ponta de algodão embebida em álcool iodado a 0,2% para limpeza dos orifícios de penetração dos pinos. Em cinco cães usou-se soro fisiológico sob pressão pulsátil (± 30 psi. Em ambos os casos, os tratamentos eram repetidos a cada três a quatro dias, por um período de quatro semanas. Espécimes clínicos foram colhidos em anaerobiose após 3, 7, 14 e 28 dias da cirurgia, imediatamente

  5. [The introduction of automation and systematization in the department of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, J

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Laboratory Medicine is considered to be the transmission subdivision of medical information. However, most of the information is provided from the subdivisions of clinical chemistry, hematology and immunology. Moreover, the information is slowly transferred from the subdivision of microbiology. The Department of Laboratory Medicine at Saga Medical School developed a flexible microbiological test & information system in 1998, called Dr. Fleming. However, many methods of operation, effects, and problems are associated with the standardization and introduction of such a system. Therefore, the ideas of leaders in the field of microbiology and infectious disease will be discussed before establishing this system.

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  7. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  8. Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As humans continue to travel further into space, microorganisms will accompany them. Thus, understanding how microorganisms can impact the crew, the spacecraft, and spacecraft systems is critical to enable future spaceflight exploration. To mitigate microbial risks during spaceflight, NASA relies heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. While these precautions minimize the proliferation of infectious agents, their presence cannot be completely eliminated. Microbiological contamination of vehicle systems can also be a key issue for long duration missions, as system deterioration and fouling have been previously observed in spacecraft. Current studies of the microbiomes of the crew and the International Space Station environment are providing a wealth of information and hold the potential to help refine microbiological requirements for NASA mission beyond low Earth orbit, as spaceflight environments and mission architectures rapidly evolve.

  9. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland;

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  10. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  11. [Modified lateral condensation (microbiological analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome Musule, J L; Vázquez del Mercado, M A; Hernández, J L; Granillo, N E

    1989-05-01

    In order to ascertain the presence of endodontobacterial flora, an in vivo microbiological study on fifty human teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical bone destruction, is submitted. The study verifies elimination of bacteria through a technique for the preparation of root canals. Results of this research ratify the presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as the means to inhibit them. That will allow performing obturation under optimal conditions, thus increasing assurance of success in the endodontic therapy.

  12. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordo B. A. Saeed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized the detection of DNA and RNA. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR is becoming the gold standard test for accurate, sensitive and fast diagnosis for a large range of infectious agents. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity, high throughout and quantification. RT-PCR assays have advanced the diagnostic abilities of clinical laboratories particularly microbiology and infectious diseases. In this review we would like to briefly discuss RT-PCR in diagnostic microbiology laboratory, beginning with a general introduction to RT-PCR and its principles, setting up an RT PCR, including multiplex systems and the avoidance and remediation of contamination issues. A segment of the review would be devoted to the application of RT-PCR in clinical practice concentrating on its role in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

  13. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  14. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  15. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  16. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY ESTIMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS’ ANTI-INFLAMMATORY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Ryba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with microbiological status of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis of medium severity. On the basis of clinical and microbiological data the analysis of different methods efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy was carried out. We studied antimicrobial effect of laser therapy, ozonotherapyandcombinations oflaser- ozonotherapyin comparison with influence ofchlorhexidine 0,2%. Combined laser and ozone influence on periodontium provided high antibacterial effect with increased local nonspecific resistance, and it extended remission term of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  17. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  18. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. PMID:26935727

  19. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes.

  20. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  1. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  2. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.

  3. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  4. Evaluation of local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roobal Behal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of experimental local-drug delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric (gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with the effect achieved using SRP alone by assessing their respective effects on plaque, gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing pocket depth, relative attachment levels and trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex " microorganisms, namely, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphvromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic localized or generalized periodontitis with pocket depth of 5 to 7 mm were selected in a split-mouth study design. Control sites received SRP alone, while experimental sites received SRP plus experimental material (2% whole turmeric gel. Plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, probing pocket depth (PPD, relative attachment loss (RAL, microbiological study of collected plaque sample for trypsin-like activity of "red complex" by BAPNA assay were the parameters recorded on day 0, 30 days and 45 days. Results: Both groups demonstrated statistically significant reduction in PI, GI, SBI, PPD; and gain in RAL. Significant reduction in the trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex" (BAPNA values was observed for both the groups when compared to the baseline activity. Greater reduction was seen in all the parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: The experimental local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel can be effectively used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing and is more effective than scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of periodontal pockets.

  5. [Information on nosocomial infections in hospitals without microbiological laboratories: effective data utilization through outsourcing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikata, Rie; Hosoi, Susumu; Tsuruoka, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    To implement hospital-acquired infection control, sharing information, including the most recent data, is vital. With the current crisis in community healthcare and a subsequent lack of hospital laboratories, increasing numbers of clinical tests, unprofitable microbiological tests in particular, have been outsourced. At present, most medium- and small-scale hospitals in Japan do not conduct microbiological testing themselves, and so the outsourcing of these tests is essential for the promotion of infection control, including the provision of data on microbial detection. Our hospital, a central and the only general hospital with 160 beds in our area, usually outsources microbiological testing. With the aim of enhancing infection prevention and other clinical support services and promoting hospital infection control, were developing a system, led by the Department of Inspection, to provide appropriate information on nosocomial infections in collaboration with other departments within the hospital and partner organizations.

  6. Microbiological profile of selected mucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.; Wyczółkowski, A. I.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Matyka-Sarzynska and Sokolowska (2000) emphasize that peats and peat soils comprise large areas of Poland. The creation of soil begins when the formation of swamp has ended. Gawlik (2000) states that the degree of influence of the mucky process of organic soils on the differentiations of the conditions of growth and development of plants is mainly connected with the changes of moisture-retentive properties of mucks which constitute the material for these soils, and the loss of their wetting capacities. The above-mentioned changes, which usually occur gradually and show a clear connection with the extent of dehydration and, at times, with its duration, intensify significantly when the soils are under cultivation. The mucky process of peat soils leads to transformations of their physical, chemical and biological properties. The main ingredient of peat soils is organic substance. The substance is maintained inside them by the protective activity of water. The process of land improvement reduces the humidity of the environment, and that Intensifies the pace of the activity of soil microorganisms which cause the decay of organic substance. The decay takes place in the direction of two parallel processes: mineralization and humification. All groups of chemical substances constituting peat undergo mineralization. Special attention should be called to the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen compounds, which constitute a large percentage of theorganic substance of the peat organic mass. Okruszko (1976) has examined scientificbases of the classification of peat soils depending on the intensity of the muck process. The aim of this publication was to conduct a microbiological characteristic of selected mucky material. METHODS AND MATERIALS Soil samples used in the experiments were acquired from the Leczynsko-Wlodawski Lake Region, a large area of which constitutes a part of the Poleski National Park, which is covered to a large extent with high peat bogs. It was

  7. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  8. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  9. Evaluación clínica, microbio lógica e inmuológica de la ozonoterapia en pacientes con bolsas periodontales moderadas-severas Clinical, microbiological and inmunological evaluation of the ozone's therapy in patients with moderate-severe periodontal pockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ripollés de Ramón

    2004-04-01

    hallazgos.INTRODUCTION. In recent years, important progress has be en made in the knowledge of periodontal disease, from a multifactorial etiology, the responsable microbiology, the local inmunological response as also multiple aspects related to its epidemiology, etiology and its evolution. Given a greater knowledge in thsese fields new techniques (pharmacological products and apparatus are being developed to treat and detain the periodontal disease and preserve dental health. OBJECTIVES. Analyse the periodontal response from a clinical, microbiological and immunological point of view of a population with moderate-severe periodontal pockets and its comparison with the scraping and smoothing periodontal technique. METHOD AND MATlRIAL. A total of 72 cuadrants with at least more than four teeth in each cuadrant and more than 6mm.pocket depth probe were studied in a population of 43 average age. Toestablish comparison between both groups a cross mouth study has been done, in which half were treated with ozone and the rest with scraping technique. The variable results were evaluated: clinical, microbiological and immunological response with descriptive estadistic analysis and ANOVA. CONCLUSION: We can say that the periodontal treatment with ozone produces estadisticaly significant reduction in the amount of index gingival bleeding, in the microbiological periodontal parameters as also in the immunological patterns of IL1b y TNF-alfa, however there is no variation in relation to the level periodon tal insertion and the depth of the periodontal pocket that requires a periodontal technique of scraping.

  10. [Current views on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jing; Qin, Tian; Deng, Aihua; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has generated many branches during the development for more than 90 years. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) improves SNR by using the interaction between tested materials and the surface of rough metal, as to quickly get higher sensitivity and precision spectroscopy without sample pretreatment. This article describes the characteristic and classification of SERS, and updates the theory and clinical application of SERS. It also summarizes the present status and progress of SERS in various disciplines and illustrates the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the application for SERS in microbiology.

  11. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  12. The microbiology of metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ratul; Donofrio, Robert S

    2012-06-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are complex mixtures of chemicals and are indispensable materials in industry. They are used as cooling and lubricating agents in different machining process such as grinding, milling, and cutting. The quality of MWFs is affected by physical, chemical, and microbial contaminates. In particular, MWFs are highly vulnerable to microbial contamination, which may act both as potential pathogens and deteriorgens. Microbial contamination is of major concern due to potential health hazards such as skin dermatitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The contaminated MWFs can exhibit high degrees of microbial loading, ranging from 10(4) to 10(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Wide varieties of microorganisms are reported to colonize MWFs. Traditional culturing techniques are not only laborious and time consuming but also underestimate the actual distribution of the microorganisms present in the contaminated MWFs. Therefore, rapid molecular methods such as real-time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization are implemented to monitor the microbial load. In industry, biocides are presently used to control microbial contamination. However, it has its own disadvantages and therefore, in recent years, alternative methods such as UV irradiation were evaluated to reduce microbial contamination in MWFs. Microbes inhabiting the MWF are also capable of forming biofilm which is detrimental to the MWF system. Biofilm is resistant to common disinfectant methods, and thus further research and development is required to effectively control its formation within MWF systems. This review is intended to discuss the overall microbiological aspects of MWF. PMID:22543351

  13. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. PMID:26299932

  14. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, E.R. van den

    2010-01-01

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on validat

  15. 75 FR 39201 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... published this information with errors on June 30, 2010, at 75 FR 37754. The Agency, therefore, is... the previously issued Federal Register notice dated August 18, 2008 (73 FR 48191) will be considered... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and...

  16. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... the previously issued Federal Register notice dated August 18, 2008 (73 FR 48191) will be considered...://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.html&log=linklog&to=http://www.fsis.usda.gov... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and...

  17. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  18. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  19. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  20. Estudio microbiológico de la periimplantitis: Presentación de 9 casos clínicos Microbiological study of the peri-implantitis: presentation of 9 clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quinteros Borgarello

    2000-12-01

    .Objective: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process affecting the tissues around an osseointegrated implant in function, resulting in loss of supporting bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subgingival microbiota at dental implants associated with peri-implantitis treated in our service. A total of 16 implants of 9 patients were studied. In all cases implants were under functional conditions. Materials and Methods: We studied 16 peri-implantitis in 9 patients; in each patient subgingival bacterial samples were obtained using paper-points or inflammatory soft tissue, and subjected to microbiological analysis by culture. Each site was sample by serting paper points into the sulcus around the implant with peri-implantitis, in 14 implants, or by inflammatory soft tissue, in other 2 implants. Then the samples were grown in brain heart infusion broth. Results: We found Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in one sample, Prevotella oralis, in one sample, Peptostreptococcus, in one sample, and Stomatococcus, in 3 samples. In 9 samples were impossible to found one predominant bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined. Antibacterial activity of amoxicillin-clavulanate was significantly higher than with other antimicrobials tested like amoxicillin or metronidazole. Conclusions: This study found that microbiota associated with periimplantitis are Stomatococcus, Prevotella oralis, Peptostreptococcus and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the sampIes. Possible risk factors of peri-implantitis were hydroxyapatite, dental implants of 3,25 mm of diameter or distal position of implants in maxillary prosthetic superstructure.

  1. Use of Shadowing-Based Learning in an Allied Health Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. Lowrey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Students in an undergraduate microbiology course for health professions majors perform a shadowing-based learning exercise for their course project. Students accomplish this by shadowing a health care professional of their choice, specifically incorporating basic microbiological concept themes into their observations. These concept themes include the biological nature, health effects, detection, and control of microorganisms. Upon completion of the shadowing experience, students present a concise report, which is graded on how well the students connect course scientific concepts with actual clinical practice.

  2. Microbiological and clinical effects of enamel matrix derivative and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline application as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy in peri-implant mucosal inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Masumeh; Goharfar, Zahra; Pourabbas, Reza; Kashefimehr, Atabak; Shirmohmmadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the microbial and clinical effects of mechanical debridement (MD) alone or in combination with the application of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline (MSM) for treatment of peri-implant mucosal infl ammation (PIMI). Materials and Methods Subjects with at least one implant with PIMI were included and divided into control and two different test groups. In all three groups, MD was performed. In the M...

  3. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  4. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  5. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  6. Models and microbiology: Pasteur and the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James G

    2003-01-01

    Louis Pasteur developed a model of the body as a culture vessel in the late 1870s as an explanation of both natural and acquired immunity, and other investigators quickly applied the model in the explanation of other microbiological phenomena, principally the tissue tropism seen in the normal and the pathological flora. This paper will argue that although Pasteur quickly abandoned the model, it persisted as an explanation of tissue tropism for nearly 70 years, structuring the interpretation of data by and guiding the research of a diverse group of microbiological researchers.

  7. Manual de microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  8. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  9. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  10. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  11. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and a...

  12. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations.

  13. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device that... (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of...

  14. Microbiology and epidemiology of 165 diarrhea patients in intestinal tract clinic%肠道门诊165例腹泻患者的病原菌及流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭; 于艳华; 张立丽; 何菡; 王晨; 赵秀英; 孙桂珍; 李俊红

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市2010年肠道门诊就诊患者的病原菌检出率、流行特征和危险因素,以便针对重点人群制定肠道传染病的防治策略.方法 回顾性总结并运用描述性研究,对2010年4-9月在医院肠道门诊按腹泻病就诊的165例患者,分别进行细菌学、流行病学调查,并采集粪便标本进行细菌检测.结果 在165例腹泻患者粪便标本中,检出病原菌13株,占7.9%,主要为志贺菌属与霍乱弧菌,患者中男性多于女性,以20~50岁的病例居多;可疑致病的食物以熟肉冷荤、水产品等为主.结论 2010年腹泻患者的病原菌检出率不高,但有霍乱病例,提示对该病仍应重点预防控制;由于感染性腹泻与非感染性腹泻从临床症状上难以鉴别,应针对重点人群开展有效预防控制工作.%OBJECTIVE To investigate pathogenic bacteria' isolating rates, epidemic characters and risk factors of patients from an intestinal tract clinic in 2010, in order to formulate prevention and cure strategy for enteric infection diseases.METHODS A total of 165 patients diagnosed as diarrhea disease in an intestinal tract clinic from April to September in 2010 were analyzed by retrospective summary and descriptive research.Stool samples were collected to detect pathogenic bacteria.RESULTS Totally 13 pathogenic strains were detected in 165 samples and the detection rate was 7.9 %.The main bacteria were Shigella and Vibrio cholerae.The morbidity of male was more than female aged between 20 and 50 years old.The food suspected morbigenous mainly contained deli and cold dish, fishery product and so on.CONCLUSIONS The intestinal pathogenic bacteria' detection rates are not high.However, choleara were detected, and it needs the emphasis on prevention and control.Through this investigation of diarrhea disease, it is difficult to distinguish infectious diarrhea and non-infectious diarrhea through the clinical symptom.Thus, it is essential to launch valid

  15. The Microbiology of Counterflow Scalding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most of the thousands of years that humans have used scalding to make it easier to remove feathers from birds, no one knew about the microbiological implications of scalding. The hot water in scald tanks kills many bacteria, but scalding multiple birds in the same tank gives surviving bacteria ...

  16. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  17. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion a

  18. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  19. Institute of Microbiology moves to new premises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The CAS Institute of Microbiology, which is originally located in northeast Beijing's Zhongguancun, a suburb northwest to the downtown, has recently moved to its new buildings in the northern suburbs of Beijing, where most of the CAS institutes in life sciences and geosciences in Beijing area herd together.

  20. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  1. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  2. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  3. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Sloveni...

  4. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  5. Is water in dental units microbiologically safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Michałkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water supplied to the dental units must be of sufficient quality. The article presents the results of the microbiological analysis of cold municipal water which flows into a patient’s disposable mouthwash cup, and demineralized water which flows through a waterline into the tool panel of a dental unit from the tank placed in the water group. Material and Methods: In order to assess the degree of purity (impurities of water used in dental units, 2 series of microbiological tests were carried out in 6 dental surgeries from April to June, 2013. The water samples for microbiological testing were collected into sterile microbiological bottles in accordance with the current methodology. The water for the tests was collected from a sterile cup-filling tap (municipal water and from an air/water syringe (demineralized water. The bacteria were cultured according to the Polish Standards – PN-EN ISO 6222, PN-EN ISO 9308-1, and PN-EN ISO 16266. Results: In the tested samples of water numerous psychrophilic bacteria (max 29 100 CFU/ml and mesophilic bacteria (max 24 700 CFU/ml, including single coliforms, were found. Conclusions: The results show that water delivered to a dental unit should be periodically tested bacteriologically and in terms of physical and chemical properties. Water systems of dental units should also be periodically disinfected to eliminate bacteria and biofilm. Med Pr 2015;66(6:763–770

  6. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  7. A Cartoon History of Soil Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of cartoons in presenting a historical perspective of soil microbiology that makes this information more entertaining to introductory students. Presents basic historical facts and major accomplishments of the pioneering soil microbiologists in a factual but tongue-in-cheek survey. (Author/JRH)

  8. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper;

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  9. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle;

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...

  10. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  11. The Microbiology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Emtestam, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Although the clinical presentation of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is strongly reminiscent of bacterial infection, the role of bacteria remains controversial. Studies have isolated an array of different bacterial specimens as well as biofilm formation in lesional HS skin. Consistent findings of Gram-positive cocci and -rods including Staphylococus aureus, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Corynebacterium species (spp) in deep tissue samples have been demonstrated in HS. Although efficacy of antibiotics, i.e., rifampicin, clindamycin or tetracycline may support a microbial role in disease pathogenesis, the most often isolated bacterial specimens are commensal bacteria (CoNS).

  12. Microbiologic structure of diffuse peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ermetov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 99 patients with diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis (DP were examined. There were 64 (64.6% males and 35 (35.4% females, an average age was 44.07±19.15 (±SD, range - 15-83 years. Systemic inflammatory reaction manifesting in clinic of DP and abdominal sepsis were provoked first of all by Klebsiella spp. (20, 20.2% and Ваcteroides fragilis (24, 24.2% possessing the greatest virulence compared with other intestinal bacteria. Exudates of the died patients differed from the survived ones by prevalence of gram-negative microflora (60.6% in association with gram-positive microflora (24.2% and anaerobes (48.5%. Though specific weight of these microorganisms was higher by 3.07, 1.45 and 2.46 times from survived patients.

  13. Viability of bacteria in dental calculus - A microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moolya Nikesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (1 To investigate the viability of bacteria within supragingival and subgingival calculus, (2 To examine motility of bacteria, and (3 To identify bacterial morphotypes in calculus. Materials and Methods: Supra and subgingival calculus were harvested from 30 subjects having clinical evidence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease and were divided into two groups . Samples from both groups were immediately transported to the Department of Microbiology for gram staining, acridine orange staining, bacterial culture and to the Department of Oral Pathology for dark field microscopy. Results: Gram staining revealed presence of bacteria within the samples. Dark field microscopic examination revealed presence of filamentous organisms, spirochetes, and motile short bacilli. Acridine orange fluorescent stain showed that the viable bacteria appeared apple green. Bacterial culture revealed presence of a variety of aerobic organisms. Conclusion: From the results, it appeared that viable bacteria were present within calculus especially within internal channels and lacunae.

  14. Towards the innovation for microbiology curriculum change: students' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rumpa; Das, Shukla; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2012-08-01

    For a medical curriculum to be an effective means of learning for today's students, it has to be designed with knowledge of their priorities, needs and abilities. This can be best achieved by inviting students' view-point during curriculum planning. The present study thus elicits opinion of the medical students through a randomly issued set of questionnaires, towards the present microbiology curriculum in order to quantitate from their view-point, the weakness as well as the strengths of the existing curriculum. Their evaluation reveals that they welcome new techniques like problem-based learning but at the same time emphasise the need to integrate what is taught in close association with clinical circumstance. Hence it is important to understand the minds and needs of our students before implementing the syllabus content across to the consumers.

  15. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  16. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  17. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed.

  18. [Microbiologic evaluation of instant soup concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara; Falkowski, Joachim; Jakubowska, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The microbiological condition of instant soup powders purchased in retail network has been assessed. The study included 37 instant soups (8 types) manufactured by four Polish companies. The microbiological quality of a majority of soup powders fulfilled the requirements of the standard. No pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were detected, nor were there any spores of sulphitereducing anaerobic bacteria found. However, some samples of powders, mainly from one manufacturer, did have an excessive total number of bacteria (> 10(5) cfu/g) and a reduced (down to 0.01 g) level of coliform count. Aerobic bacteria occurring in powders were of vegetative and spore forms and exhibited the activity of amylo-, lipo- and proteolytic exoenzymes. The quantity of moulds did not exceed 100 cfu/g in a majority of samples. They were mainly represented by Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. PMID:12235671

  19. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology.

  20. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  1. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  2. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  4. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The leve...

  5. Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  7. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  8. Susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents: applications to clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelaifia, S; Drancourt, M

    2012-09-01

    We herein review the state of knowledge regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents, including some new molecules. Indeed, some archaea colonizing the human microbiota have been implicated in diseases such as periodontopathy. Archaea are characterized by their broad-spectrum resistance to antimicrobial agents. In particular, their cell wall lacks peptidoglycan, making them resistant to antimicrobial agents interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Archaea are, however, susceptible to the protein synthesis inhibitor fusidic acid and imidazole derivatives. Also, squalamine, an antimicrobial agent acting on the cell wall, proved effective against human methanogenic archaea. In vitro susceptibility data could be used to design protocols for the decontamination of complex microbiota and the selective isolation of archaea in anaerobic culture. PMID:22748132

  9. Tuberculous otitis media with facial paralysis: microbiological and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mosca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease affecting various organs and tissues even if the lung is the most commonly involved site.A case of tuberculous otitis media in a patient who had no history of tuberculosis is herewith presented with the aim of increasing the awareness of this disease whose diagnosis is often delayed because either of the rarity of this pathologic condition or of its usually indolent course.

  10. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Deveci; Erkan Yula

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to int...

  11. Connecting Clinical Practices with Microbiological and Biochemical Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Espinosa, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    The word technology refers to the knowledge of techniques, skills, methods or processes used to produce goods, services or to reach specific objectives (research, business, etc.). The concept technology can also be used to make reference to devices, computers and factories.

  12. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Popova; Velichka Dosseva-Panova; Vladimir E. Panov

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobac...

  13. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative co

  14. Doença periodontal em portadoras de valvopatia durante a gravidez: estudo clínico e microbiológico Enfermedad periodontal en portadoras de valvopatía durante la gravidez: estudio clínico y microbiológico Periodontal disease in pregnant patients with rheumatic valvular disease: clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Samuel Ávila

    2011-04-01

    disease during pregnancy of women with rheumatic valve disease imply infective endocarditis risks and higher rate of preterm birth and low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: To study the periodontal disease rate of women with rheumatic valve disease during pregnancy. METHODS: We studied 140 pregnant women who included 70 patients with rheumatic valve disease and 70 healthy women. The periodontal examination included: 1 periodontal clinical exam regard the follow variables: a probing depth; b gingival margin; c clinical attachment level; d bleeding on probing; e plaque index and f gingival index; and 2 microbiological test was performed in samples serum and gingival crevicular fluid and considered positive controls to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsithia e Aggregobacter actinomycetemcomitans. RESULTS: Age and parity were similar between groups; as single or combined the mitral valve disease was prevalent among the rheumatic valve lesion in 45 (32.1% e 20 (28.5% cases, respectively. Among the periodontal variables gingival margin (p=0.01 and plaque index (p=0.04 were different between groups. The periodontal disease was identified in 20 (14,3% pregnant women, seven (10% of them were patients with valve rheumatic disease and the remain 13 (18,6% were healthy women, its percentual was not different between groups (p=0,147. Microbiological analyses of oral samples showed higher percentual of P. gingivalis in healthy pregnant women (p=0.004. CONCLUSION: The clinical and microbiological study during pregnancy showed comparable incidence of periodontal disease between women with rheumatic valve disease and healthy women.

  15. Microbiological risk assessment for safe food design & management

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Andrés; Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    An important element of microbiological risk analysis, is risk assessment; a process in which the dynamics of microbiological hazards in the food chain are identified and characterized, and the exposure of consumers to the particular hazards is estimated. The current focus of microbiological risk assessment studies is “how it can best be utilized in food safety management to understand the magnitude of prevailing risk regarding a pathogen/product combination, to design risk ...

  16. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan.

  18. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  19. Cystic Fibrosis: Microbiology and Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T; Hoffman, Lucas R

    2016-08-01

    The earliest descriptions of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) showed the involvement of 3 interacting pathophysiologic elements in CF airways: mucus obstruction, inflammation, and infection. Over the past 7 decades, our understanding of CF respiratory microbiology and inflammation has evolved with the introduction of new treatments, increased longevity, and increasingly sophisticated laboratory techniques. This article reviews the current understanding of infection and inflammation and their roles in CF lung disease. It also discusses how this constantly evolving information is used to inform current therapeutic strategies, measures and predictors of disease severity, and research priorities. PMID:27469179

  20. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  2. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. PMID:26026881

  3. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  4. Microbiological estimate of parodontitis laser therapy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, F. M.; Akbarova, Ju. A.; Bajenov, L. G.; Arslanbekov, T. U.

    1995-04-01

    In this work was carried out microbiological estimate the efficiency of ultraviolet and He-Ne laser radiation at the treatment of parodontitis. 90 persons was investigated with parodontitis of middle serious diagnosis. The optimal regimes of ultraviolet radiation influence on various micro-organisms discharged from pathologic tooth pocket (PTP) were determined. On the base of specils microflora composition study and data of microbic PTP dissemination owe may conclude that the complex He- Ne and ultraviolet laser radiation show the most pronounced antimicrobic effect.

  5. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  6. Microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudhan; Yanti Muslikan; Nabilah Ismail; Adil Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis presented to the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan in 5 years duration from 2005 until 2010. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who were clinically diagnosed as acute dacryocystitis from 2005 until 2010 to determine the regional microbiological pattern. The age, gender, predisposing factors, intravenous antibiotics and their microbiological results of discharge from punctal expression were collected. The laboratory procedures were in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: There were 23 patients admitted to the eye ward during study period. Females (n=17) outnumbered males (n=6). Majority of isolates were Gram-positive bacteria (n=10, 43.4%) followed by Gram-negative isolates (n=2, 12.9%). The most predominant isolates were Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumonia) (21.7%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (13.0%). Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was the commonest gram positive organism identified in our study. 47.8% patients showed resistant to initial empirical treatment.

  7. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  8. Microbiological aspects of public health planning and preparedness for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Gilad, J; Chand, M; Brown, C; Shetty, N; Morris, G; Green, J; Jenkins, C; Ling, C; McLauchlin, J; Harrison, T; Goddard, N; Brown, K; Bolton, F J; Zambon, M

    2012-12-01

    Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years. PMID:22892344

  9. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 103-104 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10-3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  10. 2009 Applied and Environmental Microbiology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Dubilier

    2009-07-12

    The topic of the 2009 Gordon Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology is: From Single Cells to the Environment. The Conference will present and discuss cutting-edge research on applied and environmental microbiology with a focus on understanding interactions between microorganisms and the environment at levels ranging from single cells to complex communities. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics such as single cell techniques (including genomics, imaging, and NanoSIMS), microbial diversity at scales ranging from clonal to global, environmental 'meta-omics', biodegradation and bioremediation, metal - microbe interactions, animal microbiomes and symbioses. The Conference will bring together investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with extensive discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an ideal setting for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas, brainstorm and discuss cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  11. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  12. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  13. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food.

  14. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica.

  15. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  16. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECYCLED PAPER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the microbiological safety of sanitary tissues made of recycled scrap papers in Iran, random samples were taken for one year with the cooperation of the Iranian Standard and Industrial Research Institute (Karaj unit, of 44 types of sanitary tissues, two samples of each type including tissues, toilet papers and dippers as well as a control sample and their probable contamination with microbiological elements (bacterial & fungal were assessed using proper ordinary and specific culture environments while also performing confirmation tests. Considering all aspects of this study including easy identification, high precision, simplicity of application, economic justification and observation of better results, the method which applies ringer 1/4 solution as the thinner environment was preferable to the saline peptone water solution. No contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E.coli bacteria was observed, but the excessive contamination with the mesophillic bacteria was confirmed. Among the 27 samples tested with the ringer 1/4 method, 8 cases (29.6% were excessively contaminated with the mesophillic bacteria and one case (3.7% with fungi. Meanwhile, out of the 43 samples that were tested with the saline peptone water solution, there was no excessive contamination with mesophillic bacteria and only one case (2.3% of fungal contamination was observed.

  17. Microbiological analysis of dried goose carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kamber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological studies on chicken meat and carcasses are well documented, but very few studies exist on goose meat and carcasses. Therefore, in this study, dried goose carcass samples were collected from the local households in Kars/Turkey and microbiologically analyzed in terms of public health risks. The total mesophilic viable count was found to be 6.58 (mean log10 CFU g-1 (100%. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was 4.85 (92.8%. Coliform bacteria was counted at the numbers of 2.98 (67.8%, while it was 3.95 (91.1% for the enterococci, 0.42 (26.7% for the clostridia, 0.04 (3.5% for the Clostridium perfringens, and 0.41 (12.5% for the coagulase positive staphylococci. The numbers of mould and yeast were 0.93 (25% and 4.81 (94.6%, respectively. Salmonellae and Bacillus cereus could not be isolated in the samples. The results indicate that the dried goose meat samples had poor hygienic quality, contained some of the pathogen microorganisms that are likely to pose a potential health risk.

  18. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. PMID:27389286

  19. 21 CFR 211.113 - Control of microbiological contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of microbiological contamination. 211.113... Process Controls § 211.113 Control of microbiological contamination. (a) Appropriate written procedures... contamination of drug products purporting to be sterile, shall be established and followed. Such...

  20. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mulas; G. Bassu; A. Coccollone; G. Masia; C. Muzzigoni; M. Picoi; P.A. Cabras

    2011-01-01

    Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiolo...

  2. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  3. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  4. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  5. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    - positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish......Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram...

  8. Colistin combination therapy improves microbiologic cure in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant gram-negative pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchem, N L; Bauer, K A; Cook, C H; Mangino, J E; Jones, C D; Porter, K; Murphy, C V

    2016-09-01

    Currently, in vitro synergy with colistin has not translated into improved clinical outcomes. This study aimed to compare colistin combination therapy to colistin monotherapy in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant gram-negative (MDR-GN) pneumonia. This was a retrospective analysis of critically ill adult patients receiving intravenous colistin for MDR-GN pneumonia comparing colistin combination therapy to colistin monotherapy with a primary endpoint of clinical cure. Combination therapy was defined by administration of another antibiotic to which the MDR-GN pathogen was reported as susceptible or intermediate. Ninety patients were included for evaluation (41 combination therapy and 49 monotherapy). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. No difference in clinical cure was observed between combination therapy and monotherapy in univariate analysis, nor when adjusted for APACHE II score and time to appropriate antibiotic therapy (57.1 vs. 63.4 %, adjusted OR 1.15, p = 0.78). Microbiological cure was significantly higher for combination therapy (87 vs. 35.5 %, p Colistin combination therapy was associated with a significant improvement in microbiological cure, without improvement in clinical cure. Based on the in vitro synergy and improvement in microbiological clearance, colistin combination therapy should be prescribed for MDR-GN pneumonia. Further research is warranted to determine if in vitro synergy with colistin translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27230510

  9. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production. PMID:26337846

  10. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production.

  11. Candiduria in catheterized intensive care unit patients : Emerging microbiological trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI as a result of Candida spp. is becoming increasingly common in hospitalized setting. Clinicians face dilemma in differentiating colonization from true infection and whether to treat candiduria or not. The objective of the present study was to look into the significance of candiduria in catheterized patients admitted in the ICUs and perform microbiological characterization of yeasts to guide treatment protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive isolates of Candida spp. from the urine sample of 70 catheterized patients admitted in the ICU were collected and stocked for further characterization. A proforma was maintained containing demographic and clinical details. Blood cultures were obtained from all these 70 patients and processed. Species identification of yeasts was done on VITEK. Results: Candiduria was more common at extremes of age. The mean duration of catheter days was 11.1 ± 6 days. Other associated risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and antibiotic usage were seen in 38% and 100% of our study group. Concomitant candidemia was seen in 4.3% of cases. Non-albicans Candida spp. (71.4% emerged as the predominant pathogen causing nosocomial UTI. Conclusion: The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients, especially in the presence of diabetes and antibiotic usage. Non-albicans Candida spp. are replacing Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. Hence, we believe that surveillance for nosocomial candiduria should be carried out in hospitalized patients.

  12. Preventive biocenosis of oil strata and combatting microbiological corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfandiyarov, F.A.; Kildibekov, I.G.; Nizamov, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The following conclusions are drawn on the basis of the conducted studies: the use of chemical reagents (bactericides or bacterial corrosion inhibitors) is a rational way to combat sulfate reduction in oil strata and microbiological corrosion; the use of bactericides in the early stage of development is an effective method for sterilizing the pumped water to prevent contamination of the productive strata with sulfate reducing bacteria (SVB) and microbiological corrosion and the use of bacterial corrosion inhibitors is an effective method for suppressing microbiological corrosion and reducing sulfate reduction in the later stage of development.

  13. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL PATTERN AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRENDS OF FUNGAL KERATITIS IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Rizvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Spectrum of fungal keratitis continues to change with geographical location and season. Microbiological and epidemiological data provide guidelines to the treating physician facilitating chances of successful treatment. PURPOSE To report microbiologic and epidemiologic profile of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis treated at a tertiary centre in North India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN All cases reporting directly or referred to the OPD of Eye Department of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, India, diagnosed and treated as fungal keratitis during a 3-year period between March 2012 and Feb 2015. METHODS Retrospective analysis of clinical and microbiological data of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical course and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS All patients were residents of 11 adjoining districts of Northern India. Of the 119 patients, 76 (63.8% were males (male: female ratio 1.79:1. 81(68% patients were in young productive age group of 20-45 years. 87 (73% were rural based. Ocular trauma with vegetative material, especially sugarcane leaf or dust falling in eyes were the chief precipitating factors; n = 89 (74.7%. Microbiologically Fusarium was the predominant isolate, 64 cases (53.7%, followed by Aspergillus 34(28.6% and Candida 11(9.2%. 2 cases of Alternaria and Curvularia and solitary cases of Acremonium and Scedosporium were reported. 4 strains remained unidentified. Mode of injury had a causal relation with fungal aetiology. Majority of Fusarium infections were caused by vegetative injuries 39(61%. Of these, 15(23.4% were attributed to sugarcane leaves. Soil/dust fall in eye or Surma application were responsible for bulk of Aspergillus infections; 21(61.7%. Candida infections were sporadic with a higher presenting age (Mean av 51.2 years and a frequent association with topical steroid usage, (8 of 11 cases. Aspergillus infections were predominant

  15. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  16. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  17. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  18. A Review of Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications, 2nd ed.; Colin Munn; (2011. Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. Paperback, 364 pages. ISBN 9780815365174.

  19. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  20. [Revolution in diagnostic microbiology. Needs, driving forces and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukholm, G; Rollag, H

    1995-11-10

    Introducing molecular biological technology into medical microbiology promotes deeper insight into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of infectious diseases. New technology has helped to highlight the complicated biological interaction between host and microbes and has created a need for more advanced technology both in microbiological diagnostics and in microbiological science. Extra-professional factors like the high prestige of new techniques have also been of considerable significance. Medical microbiologists will become an important link between the inventors of new technology and the physicians who diagnose and treat the patients. Through these contacts and their diagnostic laboratory work, they will become important generators and communicators of knowledge. In this connection it will be important to represent reason in introducing technology in medical microbiological diagnostics. Since patients are expected to play a more active part in health care, communicating knowledge to patients and the population in general will become an obligation. PMID:7491583

  1. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ginny

    2016-03-01

    Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  2. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  3. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hoffman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format.

  4. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies

  5. Microbiological sampling of the forgotten components of a flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope: what lessons can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay M; Peterson, Ellena M; Verma, Sunil P

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a Cidex-based decontamination protocol was analyzed for its effectiveness in cleaning various components of a flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope (FFL), including the handle, eyepiece, and detachable light cable. A random microbiological sampling and aerobic bacterial culture analysis of 6 FFL eyepieces, 6 FFL driver handles, and 5 light cables prior to patient use was performed. Of 17 samples collected, 7 (41%) were contaminated with bacterial organisms. Organisms recovered represented both environmental organisms from skin and oral flora origin. This study demonstrates that potential contaminants may be present on FFL eyepieces and light cables, which are commonly overlooked in the cleaning protocols of a standard otolaryngology clinic. PMID:24334960

  6. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies to ensure food quality and safety. Predictive microbiology is one such technology, where growth responses of homogenous pure broth cultures of microorganism to the environment are quantified. In t...

  7. The Influence of Rickettsiologists on Post-Modern Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Kalliopi; Merhej, Vicky; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Many of the definitions in microbiology are currently false. We have reviewed the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the twentieth century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent ...

  8. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  9. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castigliego

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  11. What is a microbiologist? A survey exploring the microbiology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Verran, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Microbiology has a long tradition of making inspirational, world-changing discovery. Microbiology now plays essential roles in many disciplines, leading to some microbiologists raising concern over the apparent loss of identity. An electronic survey was undertaken to capture the scientific identity (based on scientific discipline) of people for whom microbiology forms a part of their profession, in addition to information regarding their first degree (title, country and year in which the degree was completed) and the sector in which they currently work. A total of 447 responses were collected, representing 52 countries from which they gained their first degree. Biology was the most common first degree title (of 32 titles provided), while microbiologist was the most common scientific identity (of 26 identities provided). The data collected in this study gives a snapshot of the multidisciplinarity, specialism and evolving nature of the microbiology academic workforce. While the most common scientific identity chosen in this study was that of a microbiologist, it appears that the microbiological workforce is contributed to by a range of different disciplines, highlighting the cross-cutting, multidisciplined and essential role microbiology has within scientific endeavour. Perhaps, we should be less concerned with labels, and celebrate the success with which our discipline has delivered.

  12. Bioprospecting of Moringa (Moringaceae: Microbiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide array of functions. Some of these have been subsequently exploited by humans for their beneficial role in a diverse array of applications. However, out of 750,000 species available on earth, only 1 to 10 % is being potentially used. Moringa is one such genus belonging to the family of Moringaceae, a monotypic family of single genera with around 33 species. Most of these species have not been explored fully despite the enormous bioactivity reports concerning various potentials such as: cardiac and circulatory stimulants; anti-tumor; antipyretic; antiepileptic; anti-inflammatory; antiulcer; antispasmodic; diuretic antihypertensive; cholesterol lowering; antioxidant; antidiabetic; hepato protective; antibacterial and antifungal activities. They are claimed to treat different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. Surprisingly, some of the species have been reported to be extinct from the face of earth before their exploration and exploitation for economic benefits. This review focuses on the bio-prospects of Moringa particularly on relatively little explored area of their microbiological applications.

  13. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  14. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  15. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  16. Human Safety in Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117

  17. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303

  18. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M.

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  19. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  20. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  1. Tantalum Nitride-Decorated Titanium with Enhanced Resistance to Microbiologically Induced Corrosion and Mechanical Property for Dental Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yifei Zhang; Yunfei Zheng; Yongliang Li; Lixin Wang; Yanjie Bai; Qiang Zhao; Xiaoling Xiong; Yan Cheng; Zhihui Tang; Yi Deng; Shicheng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of metallic devices/implants in the oral region is one major cause of implant failure and metal allergy in patients. Therefore, it is crucial to develop practical approaches which can effectively prevent MIC for broad clinical applications of these materials. In the present work, tantalum nitride (TaN)-decorated titanium with promoted bio-corrosion and mechanical property was firstly developed via depositing TaN layer onto pure Ti using magnetron sput...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cell Count (SCC among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.

  3. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y microbiológica del brote de diarrea asociado a Clostridium difficile, ocurrido en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, 2008-2009 Epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic description of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2012-09-01

    ías (1-90 días. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con metronidazol o vancomicina. La letalidad asociada directamente a EDACD fue del 7%. Discusión: se describe un brote de EDACD en un hospital nacional de 700 camas, el cual fue observado con mayor frecuencia en adultos mayores (>65 años, con largas estancias hospitalarias, con múltiples patologías asociadas, quienes habían recibido varios antibióticos por periodos prolongados, principalmente cefotaxima, fluoroquinolonas o clindamicina. Con las medidas médico - sanitarias implementadas, se logró disminuir su incidencia en un 75%, en el transcurso de 8 mesesBackground: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the world. Recently there was an outbreak of CDAD in the San Juan de Dios Hospital, San José -Costa Rica; a tertiary care center with 700 beds. This study analyses the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of the inpatients with CDAD treated from November 2008 to June 2009. Population and methods: A CDAD case was defined as a patient with diarrhea and with positive ELISA for C. difficile A toxin in feces. An analysis of the annual incidence of CDAD from 2004 to 2008, and the monthly incidence in 2009 at HSJD was made, as well as a retrospective and observational study of 112 medical records for patients diagnosed with CDAD treated at this hospital, from November 15, 2008 to June 15, 2009. The analysis of the data was made using descriptive statistics and measures of association. Results: The incidence of CDAD increased significantly since the end of 2008 and reached its maximum peak in April 2009, when sanitary measures were implemented. They reduced by 75% the number of patients with CDAD in 8 months. Of the 112 medical records reviewed, 63 (56% were men. The mean age was 65.33 years, 103 (92% patients developed the disease while hospitalized; the mean period of hospitalization was 18.6 days. Only 9% did not suffer from

  4. Use of Case Studies to Introduce Undergraduate Students to Principles of Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Monica A.; Sumner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Mock outbreaks of infectious disease offer the ability to introduce principles of food microbiology, ecology, and epidemiology to undergraduate students using an inquiry driven process. Students were presented with an epidemiological case study detailing patient history, clinical presentation, and foods recently consumed. The students then had to…

  5. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  6. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  7. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  8. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  9. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  10. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Journal of Medical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Kalai; Silver, Lynn L; Tatke, Gorakh

    2015-12-01

    In the last 70 years, we have seen a radical change in our perception and understanding of the microbial world. During this period, we learned from Woese and Fox there exists a third kingdom called 'Archea' based on the phylogenetic studies of the 16S rRNA that revolutionized microbiology (Woese & Fox, 1977; Woese et al., 1978). Furthermore, we were forced to reckon with the fact that Koch and Pasteur's way of growing cells in test-tubes or flasks planktonically does not necessarily translate to the real-life scenario of bacterial lifestyle, where they prefer to live and function as a closely knit microbial community called biofilm. Thanks are due to Costerton, who led the crusade on the concept of biofilms and expanded its scope of inquiry, which forced scientists and clinicians worldwide to rethink how we evaluate and apply the data. Then progressively, disbelief turned into belief, and now it is universally accepted that the micro-organisms hobnob with the members of their community to communicate and coordinate their behaviour, especially in regard to growth patterns and virulence traits via signalling molecules. Just when we thought that we were losing the battle against bacteria, antimicrobials were discovered. We then witnessed the rise and fall of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Due to space and choice limitation, we will focus on the three areas that caused this major paradigm shift (i) antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) biofilm and (iii) quorum sensing (QS), and how the Journal of Medical Microbiology played a major role in advancing the shift.

  11. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Journal of Medical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Kalai; Silver, Lynn L; Tatke, Gorakh

    2015-12-01

    In the last 70 years, we have seen a radical change in our perception and understanding of the microbial world. During this period, we learned from Woese and Fox there exists a third kingdom called 'Archea' based on the phylogenetic studies of the 16S rRNA that revolutionized microbiology (Woese & Fox, 1977; Woese et al., 1978). Furthermore, we were forced to reckon with the fact that Koch and Pasteur's way of growing cells in test-tubes or flasks planktonically does not necessarily translate to the real-life scenario of bacterial lifestyle, where they prefer to live and function as a closely knit microbial community called biofilm. Thanks are due to Costerton, who led the crusade on the concept of biofilms and expanded its scope of inquiry, which forced scientists and clinicians worldwide to rethink how we evaluate and apply the data. Then progressively, disbelief turned into belief, and now it is universally accepted that the micro-organisms hobnob with the members of their community to communicate and coordinate their behaviour, especially in regard to growth patterns and virulence traits via signalling molecules. Just when we thought that we were losing the battle against bacteria, antimicrobials were discovered. We then witnessed the rise and fall of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Due to space and choice limitation, we will focus on the three areas that caused this major paradigm shift (i) antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) biofilm and (iii) quorum sensing (QS), and how the Journal of Medical Microbiology played a major role in advancing the shift. PMID:26689963

  12. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  13. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of milk according to the seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasons have a major influence on milk production, especially when animals are exposed to climatic variations. This situation is very common in Brazil and further investigation is needed to understand the losses caused by oscillations in milk constituents. The aim was to evaluate how seasonality can affect the physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw milk in Ivaiporã region, state of Paraná, Brazil. In this research, the milk from properties in northern Paraná was evaluated during 24 months for lactose, protein, fat, total solids, total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The regional rainfall and average temperature recorded at each station were analyzed for determination of Thermal Comfort Index and evaluation of heat stress. This study concluded that seasonality have influence on microbiological and physicochemical quality of milk in Ivaiporã region, with higher percentages of solids in the fall and inferior microbiological quality in the spring.

  14. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity. PMID:23323467

  15. [Microbiological quality of street-vendor ice cream in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdara-Kane, A; Ranaivo, A; Spiegel, A; Catteau, M; Rocourt, J

    2000-01-01

    During a multicenter study initiated by the International Network of Pasteur Institutes and Associated Institutes, microbiological quality of street-vended ice creams in Dakar was evaluated. 313 samples of ice creams from 170 street-vendors were collected and tested for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms. Results showed that microbiological quality of 45% of tested samples was unsatisfactory because of large populations of aerobic mesophilic organisms (36.7%), thermotolerant coliforms bacteria (21.4%) and sometimes E. coli. (10.6%). Strict pathogens as Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae were not found. An investigation conducted among vendors showed a lack of education and training; these vendors need information about food preparation and storage practices that reduce microbiological contamination of foods. PMID:14666784

  16. [The history of commensalism: a contemporary history of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2014-01-01

    Commensalism is a biological association between two species, with one species, the commensal, getting an advantage, whereas the other one, the host, gets no advantage neither disadvantage. This concept is theorized in the 1860's by Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden. Van Beneden is a physician in the 1850's, nevertheless, he is well known as a zoologist. The concept of commensalism developed by Van Beneden is employed in many scientific fields, not only in zoology, but also, in microbiology. Although the use of a possible play of the commensal bacterial microflora is exposed at the end of the 19th century, it is only during the second part of the 20th century that this way is studied. Commensalism in animal microbiology is studied first and then it is studied in human. The aim of this article is to present the history of commensalism as a main part of the history of microbiology.

  17. [Proposal for microbiological criteria for the control of cheese spreads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, E C; Rivas, M

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen lots of processed cheese and processed cheese spread were analyzed. Results obtained for the yeasts and molds count (RHL) and the total coliforms count (RCT) were 88.9% inferior to 100 per gram, in the 90 subsamples studied. The fecal coliforms count (RCF) and the S. aureus count were, respectively, 96.6% and 94.4% inferior to 10 per gram, for the same subsamples. Taking into account the format presented by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the results of our survey, a three class plan is proposed for the following microbiological tests: RHL (n = 5, c = 2, m = 100, M = 1000); RCT (n = 5, c = 2, m = 100, M = 1000); RCF (n = 5, c = 2, m = 10, M = 100); and S. aureus count (n = 5, c = 1, m = 100, M = 1000). Therefore, applying these microbiological specifications, 4 lots (22.2%) would be rejected.

  18. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  19. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  20. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  1. 76 FR 63615 - Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... discussions which will be held at the EPA Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory. DATES: The... at the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Road, Ft....

  2. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  3. Assessment of the requisites of microbiology based infectious disease training under the pressure of consultation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Hakan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of infectious disease (ID specialists is structured on classical clinical microbiology training in Turkey and ID specialists work as clinical microbiologists at the same time. Hence, this study aimed to determine the clinical skills and knowledge required by clinical microbiologists. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June 1, 2010 and September 15, 2010 in 32 ID departments in Turkey. Only patients hospitalized and followed up in the ID departments between January-June 2010 who required consultation with other disciplines were included. Results A total of 605 patients undergoing 1343 consultations were included, with pulmonology, neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology, nephrology, dermatology, haematology, and endocrinology being the most frequent consultation specialties. The consultation patterns were quite similar and were not affected by either the nature of infections or the critical clinical status of ID patients. Conclusions The results of our study show that certain internal medicine subdisciplines such as pulmonology, neurology and dermatology appear to be the principal clinical requisites in the training of ID specialists, rather than internal medicine as a whole.

  4. The microbiological safety of bathing water – Waterborne pathogens beyond bathing water legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of recreational water of poor microbiological quality may negatively impact on the health of people that are exposed during a diversity of leisure activities. Microbiological contamination of recreational waters may arise from various human and animal faecal sources, but the microbiological

  5. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  6. 76 FR 28689 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Classification of In... recommendation of the Microbiology Devices Advisory Panel (the Panel). In addition, the proposed rule would.... Transcript of the FDA Microbiology Devices Panel meeting, March 7, 2002, at...

  7. Scalding: Effects of Additives on Carcass Microbiology and Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalding poultry before removing feathers has been practiced for thousands of years, but spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were discovered relatively recently by comparison. The microbiological consequences of scalding and other practices used in converting live birds to food was unknown, although i...

  8. Novel technologies in rumen microbiology: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in the 1950s, rumen microbiology enjoyed a golden age in which the secrets of the rumen began to be teased out through the isolation of numerous new microbial species and the discovery of such important concepts as interspecies hydrogen transfer and the quantitative aspects of bacterial gr...

  9. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  10. Cell Biology and Microbiology: A Continuous Cross-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Microbiology and cell biology both involve the study of cells, albeit at different levels of complexity and scale. Interactions between both fields during the past 25 years have led to major conceptual and technological advances that have reshaped the whole biology landscape and its biomedical applications. PMID:27161870

  11. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs a

  12. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In the Bachelor Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at University College VIA, the students work in a classified microbiology laboratory. This means that they are not allowed to bring their personal computers into the lab. Until now the students have used paper based lab instructions...

  13. A Review of Microbiology: An Evolving Science, Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara May

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Introduction of Molecular Methods into a Food Microbiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Hammons, Susan R.; McKenzie, Emily; Cho, Young-Hee; Oliver, Haley F.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining current, relevant curriculum in undergraduate Food Microbiology courses is essential for training future experts in food quality and safety. Having an understanding of the fundamental techniques (for example, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) that are used in the food industry and regulatory agencies is critical for students entering…

  15. Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R.L.; Cole, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling

  16. Cell Biology and Microbiology: A Continuous Cross-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Microbiology and cell biology both involve the study of cells, albeit at different levels of complexity and scale. Interactions between both fields during the past 25 years have led to major conceptual and technological advances that have reshaped the whole biology landscape and its biomedical applications.

  17. Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

  18. IPMP 2013 - A comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods undergoing complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It f...

  19. Starting small: using microbiology to foster scientific literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Amy F; Jude, Brooke A

    2014-07-01

    In order to achieve scientific literacy for all students, Bard College recently implemented Citizen Science, a common January course for all first-year students. Structured around the question 'how do we reduce the global burden of disease?', this course uses microbiological tools to develop an understanding of potential answers.

  20. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  1. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  2. Microbiological risk assessment of foods in international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.

    2002-01-01

    The international workshop on "Promotion of Technical Harmonisation on Risk-Based Decision Making" reviewed the use of risk-based decision making across a range of industry sectors and countries. This paper presents the contribution to the workshop covering microbiological risk assessment of foods i

  3. MICROCRM: Feasibility certification studies of microbiological reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Nagelkerke NJD; Demarquilly C; Lemdani M; Stewardson D; Fouweather T; Lightfoot N; Simonart T; MGB

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 feasibility certification studies were carried out on three different types of microbiological reference materials for eight different ISO and EN standard methods, related to EU water legislation (Drinking-water Directive and Bathing-water Directive). These studies were performed as part of

  4. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization; Zagadnienia mikrobiologiczne w sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, E. [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. Controlling Food Microbiological Issues : Food Safety and - Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces various challenges affecting food safety and quality. Changing consumer demands, raw materials with fluctuating quality, new emerging food pathogens, and the changing scale of production, all can influence the microbiological status of the (end-) product. These challenges req

  6. External Quality Assessments for Microbiologic Diagnosis of Diphtheria in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-01-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014.

  7. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  8. Short Videos to Enhance Student Learning in Microbiological Laboratory Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual...

  9. Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Milk on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the microbiological and sensory quality of 30 assortments of market milk was the objective of the presented research. The study also compared the sensory profile of selected samples of milk differing in preservation method. Microbiological tests included determination of the presence and number of Enterobacteriaceae and the total number of microorganisms. Sensory characteristics of all the milk samples was performed by scaling method (5-points scale. Selected samples of milk were additionally assessed by means of profile method. Microbiological tests showed satisfactory microbiological purity of milk, which indicates the effectiveness of the heat treatment and the lack of secondary contamination. Regardless of the preservation method, all the evaluated milk samples were characterised by a high sensory quality (4.25-5 points. There were no changes in smell and taste, resulting from the development of undesirable microflora. The tested samples of milk differing in the preservation method (sterilisation, pasteurisation at high temperature and subjected to microfiltration and low pasteurisation varied in the sensory profile. Milk pasteurised at high temperature was characterised by the most harmonised overall quality.

  10. Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationship of these features with microbiological quality of milk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teat morphology and size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiological quality of milk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm3 of milk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001. The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001. The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001. The experiment showed no statistically significant correlations between teat’s length, width, morphological structures and total bacteria count (p > 0.05. Therefore, the application of these features in a rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of sheep milk is unusable.  

  11. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  12. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  13. Non Tuberculous Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis in a primary school in Rome: epidemiological and microbiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ancona, F P; Kanitz, E E; Marinelli, L; Sinagra, J L; Prignano, G; Cerocchi, C; Bonadonna, L; Tortoli, E; Capitanio, B; Cottarelli, A; De Giusti, M

    2014-01-01

    During the school years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 a total of 25 cases of Non Tuberculous Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis (NTCM) were notified in children attending the same school with a swimming pool in Rome. Environmental microbiological and epidemiological investigations (only for suspected outbreaks in 2009-2010) were conducted. We screened students with skin lesions, and environmental samples were collected from the school area and the swimming pool. During the school year 2009-10 18 cases were clinically identified among 514 primary school children (3.50%) and all cases attended the swimming pool. Only 2 out of 18 cultures were positive for Mycobacterium chelonae complex (Group III, M. abscessus). Attack Rate for swimming pool use was 13,10% (17/130), with a Relative Risk 54,70 (95% CI: 9,4 - ∞). In February 2011 additional 7 cases of cutaneous NTM among children - who attended the same primary school and swimming pool were notified to the local public health authority followed by environmental microbiological investigation. Environmental samples were positive for NTM but not for M. abscessus. Mycobacteria are not included in water-quality criteria in Italy for this reason it is important to collect evidences of NTM cases caused by these infrequent pathogens, to be able to perform rapid risk assessment and to identify the best practices in prevention and management of such a risk.

  14. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Megan H; Pulido, Lila; Garza, Melinda N; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy; Einspahr, Christopher L; Yarsa, Joseph; Sood, Pramilla K; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine is committed to providing the best pathology and medicine through: state-of-the art techniques, progressive ground-breaking research, education and training for the clinical diagnosis and research of cancer and related diseases. After surveying the laboratory staff and other hospital professionals, the Department administrators and Human Resource generalists developed a professional development model for Microbiology to support laboratory skills, behavior, certification, and continual education within its staff. This model sets high standards for the laboratory professionals to allow the labs to work at their fullest potential; it provides organization to training technologists based on complete laboratory needs instead of training technologists in individual areas in which more training is required if the laboratory needs them to work in other areas. This model is a working example for all microbiology based laboratories who want to set high standards and want their staff to be acknowledged for demonstrated excellence and professional development in the laboratory. The PDM model is designed to focus on the needs of the laboratory as well as the laboratory professionals.

  15. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  16. Microbiological and microscopic analysis of the pulp of non-vital traumatized teeth with intact crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Firmino Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80% for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15% did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15% exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in

  17. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  18. Integrating Statistics with a Microbiology Laboratory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lorowitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important tool for microbiologists but is virtually absent from undergraduate laboratory activities. The variables in a stringent protocol, the antibiotic disk diffusion assay described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, were examined by the authors as a means for introducing hypothesis testing and the application of elementary statistical tools. After several experiments, a lab activity was developed where students examine the effect of cell concentration on antibiotic activity and analyze data with the t test. They also collect data independently from the same samples and compare their measurements using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The outcome of the activity, including an assessment tool, indicated that students learned the appropriate use of the t test and ANOVA, gained an appreciation for standardized protocols, and enjoyed the experience.

  19. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, G P H T; Willemse, M J; Hoefs, S G G; Cremers, G; van den Heuvel, E R

    2010-09-01

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on validation and comparability with classical methods. Equivalence studies become less relevant when rapid methods are able to detect only one single microorganism. Directly testing this capability is currently impossible due to problems associated with preparing a spiked sample with low microbial counts. To be able to precisely estimate the limit of detection of rapid absence/presence tests, the method of the most probable limit is presented. It is based on three important elements; a relatively precise quantity of microorganisms, a non-serial dilution experiment and a statistical approach. For a set of microorganisms, a limit of detection of one was demonstrated using two different rapid methods.

  20. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Oral Yeast Colonization in Hemopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Steven D.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Freytes, Cesar O.; Toro, Juan J.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Redding, Spencer W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We monitored the epidemiology and microbiology of oral yeast colonization in patients undergoing hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) to examine associations between yeast colonization and oral mucositis. Study Design One hundred twenty-one consecutive HPCT patients were sampled for oral yeasts prior to fluconazole (FLC) prophylaxis, at transplant, and weekly until discharge. Clinical oral mucositis screenings were performed tri-weekly. Results Yeast colonization was evident at 216 of 510 total visits. Candida albicans and C. glabrata were the predominate organisms. Eight patients showed elevated MICs to FLC. One patient developed fungal septicemia. Patients with OMAS mucositis scores <20 had higher colonization rates than those with higher scores. Conclusions FLC is very effective in controlling a variety of oral yeasts in HPCT recipients. FLC resistant yeasts do emerge and can be the source of fungal sepsis. A positive association was not shown between yeast colonization and presence or severity of oral mucositis. PMID:23312542

  1. An update on microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa De Martino; Francesca Paola Nocera; Karina Mallardo; Sandra Nizza; Eleonora Masturzo; Filomena Fiorito; Giuseppe Iovane; Piergiorgio Catalanotti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To update the recent knowledge of the microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region (Italy) and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the iso-lated strains. Methods: A total of 122 dogs were examined by otoscopy, and auricular swab samples were collected from both ears in 74 dogs presenting clinical bilateral otitis and from single ears in 48 dogs displaying clinical unilateral otitis. Cytological examination, bacteriological analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Thirty-one out of 122 dogs were positive for yeast species (25.4%, 95% con-fidence interval (CI): 18.2%–34.2%) with a higher prevalence of Malassezia pachy-dermatis (21/31 isolates, 67.7%, CI: 48.5%–82.7%), and a total of 91 out of 122 dogs were positive for bacterial species (74.6%;CI:65.8%–81.8%) with a higher prevalence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (45/143 isolates, 31.5%, CI: 24.1%–39.8%). These results are the first description of Streptococcus agalactiae-associated otitis. The yeasts isolated showed high levels of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested; on the con-trary all the isolated bacterial strains were highly resistant to at least four out of ten antimicrobial classes. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed high resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate and kanamycin hence they are not recommended as initial empirical therapy for the otitis treatment. Conclusions: This update illustrates an increase in antibiotic resistances providing an insight into the current knowledge of the therapeutic procedures followed on canine otitis externa in Italy. It also emphasizes the importance of considering the results of the microbiological and sensitivity tests to decide on an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  2. Characterization and monitoring of host immune responses to infectious agents: what a future for microbiological diagnostics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dolcetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying microbial pathogenesis and host-microbe interactions has greatly improved over the last decade. In particular, the development of new and specific analytical methods has allowed the detailed characterization of innate and adaptive immune responses against clinically relevant microbial infections. Immunogenetic studies are continuously providing new insights on the genetic bases of individual differences in susceptibility to specific pathogens and most of the genetic markers identified so far include polymorphisms in genes controlling both innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, new standardized T cell assays allow reliable and reproducible evaluations of T cell phenotype and functions (i.e.: ELISPOT, including the identification of distinct functional signatures that are associated with the control of the infection.Although the number of these assays currently used in clinical practice is limited, a considerable increase is foreseen for the near future.This perspective constitutes an unprecedented opportunity for Clinical Microbiologists, who may now develop and apply integrated microbiologic/immunologic assays that may be useful for a more precise diagnostic definition and a more accurate clinical monitoring of the disease.

  3. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  4. Microbiological quality of saffron from the main producer countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosano, Inmaculada; Pintado, Concepción; Acevedo, Olga; Novella, José Luis; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; de la Rosa, Carmen; Rotger, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological study of saffron spice was undertaken in the context of a European research project (Methodologies for Implementing International Standards for Saffron Purity and Quality, the acronym for which is SAFFIC), analyzing 79 samples obtained from the main producer countries, namely Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, and Spain. Current microbiological quality criteria are the same as for other spices, but saffron is added in minute quantities during the cooking process, so the health risk associated with microbial contamination might be lower. We did not detect Salmonella either by culture or by PCR methods in any sample, and Escherichia coli was only found in five samples. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently found (70.9% of the samples), but most of them belonged to species of probable environmental origin. Aerobic sporulated bacteria were also common, but only three samples contained Bacillus cereus at low levels (100 CFU g(-1), an acceptable value. Overall, microbial contamination in saffron was markedly lower than it was in other spices.

  5. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The physicochemical analyses highlighted the moisture (Drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content, as well as nitrite (Griess method and sodium chloride concentrations (Mohr method of the final products. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the examined samples found no deviations from legal norms imposed for smoked sausage.  All of the quality parameters comply with the limits stipulated by STAS. 

  6. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  7. Normal vaginal microbiology of women of childbearing age in relation to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Morris, D F

    1967-07-01

    The vaginal microbiology of women attending a family planning clinic was found to be unrelated to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons. Beta haemolytic streptococci isolated from this ;normal' population were compared with those from 1,104 women attending general practitioners complaining of vaginal discharge. There is a caution regarding the indications for antibiotic therapy. Observations were made on the effects of contamination of vaginal swabs with yeasts and beta-haemolytic streptococci from the vulva. The persistent character of the vaginal flora over a six-month period is described. PMID:5602581

  8. Microbiologic picture of microflora offemale urogenital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyudyun A.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report authors give a detailed analysis of microorganisms that can contaminate mucous membranes of female urogenital system in normal range and in the formation of certain dysbiotic position. The composition of microorganisms that colonize the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract depends on many exogenous and endogenous factors. The main microorganisms that provide colonizing resistance of vaginal biotop (VB are lactobacilli and lactobacteria. The protective properties of lactobacillus are implemented by antagonistic activity and ability to produce lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus, L. spp.; Propionbacterium spp.; Fusobacterium spp.; Porphyromonas spp.; Prevotella spp.; S. epidermidis and S. Saprophyticus novobionrezistentni and Streptococcus spp. and others are of definite importance in supporting normobiots of mucous membranes of urogenital system of women. Decreasing number of lactobacilli and other microorganisms of normobiota leads to colonization of mucous membranes of the vagina with G.vaginalis, B.bivies, B.disiens, B.melaninigenius, Mobiluncus, E.coli, E.fecalis, S.epidermidis and development of clinical manifestation of VB. The authors show microscopic and bacteriological characteristics of microorganisms that form normal microbiota and pathological states. The development of basic subjects promotes increasing number of the known microorganisms, important in the development of VB.

  9. [Microbiological conservation medicine and exotic pets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The keeping and the breeding of exotic pets in privacy is a hobby with increasing popularity in industrialised countries. The growing demand for animals usually imported from the tropics, the growing demand for unprofessionally bred feeder organisms, and the increasing number of cases of faulty caring behaviour lead to the creation of new infectiological niches in the interface between exotic pet--nurse--feed--vivarium. These niches are filled preferably by ubiquitous, facultative pathogenic, stress- and age-deduced opportunists with a broad host spectrum. On the one hand these extraordinary germ faunas, relating to their compositions, may generate broad relevance in human medicine, lead to bizarre clinical pictures in specific cases, and may contribute to a reduction of the mean span of life of exotic pets kept in human care. On the other hand the quantitative composition of the fauna may also be a direct measure of the degree of stress the pets are suffering in captivity. Thus, a professional designation of the germ fauna of an exotic pet may contribute to an optimisation of the captivity conditions. PMID:15683044

  10. Single-Cell Microbiology: Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Information on how cells respond to their environment, interact with each other, or undergo complex processes such as cellular differentiation or gene expression has been obtained mostly by inference from population-level data. Individual microorganisms, even those in supposedly “clonal” populations, may differ widely from each other in terms of their genetic composition, physiology...

  11. Microbiology of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ in activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shaomei; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ is a biotechnologically important bacterial group that can accumulate large amounts of intracellular polyphosphate, contributing to biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment. Since its first molecular identification more than a decade ago, this bacterial group has drawn significant research attention due to its high abundance in many biological phosphorus removal systems. In the past 6 years, our understanding of Accumulibacter microbiology and ...

  12. Microbiological stability of homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Teresa Cegalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic medicines are prepared in homeopathic pharmacies. This leads to freedom of prescription but requires more knowledge of the clinicians to achieve the best results. Preparations made of purified water receive a validity of 24 hours, but there are prescriptions for up to 30 days. This contradiction raises tensions among physicians, pharmacists and patients. Aims: to evaluate the increase in microbiological contamination in homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle compared with the microbiological stability of purified water. Contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicine and treatment. Methodology: daily microbiological analysis for one week to assess the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas, yeasts and molds. The reference used was the USP 32/NF 27 and the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. Results: there was a higher growth of microorganisms on the medicine, compared with purified water. From the 2nd day on, this growth has been beyond the legal limits. Discussion: medicines for oral use are not sterile preparations, but they must remain stable during its shelf life. Our results indicate that contamination occurs from the earliest days of use. This shows the need to change the prescription in relation of the vehicle, to ensure hygiene and avoid potential contamination of the patient. It is necessary to prevent conflict of information between pharmacists and patients, and the contradiction of the doctor's advice, besides the potential risk of responsibility to be attributed to the pharmacy. It is necessary to promote a discussion between pharmacists and clinicians, to spread this information for those that prescribe. Conclusion: there was an increased of microbiological contamination of the medicines dispensed in purified water, which harms the quality of homeopathic medicine and homeopathic treatment.

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  14. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    M. Falasconi; Concina, I.; Gobbi, E; V. Sberveglieri; Pulvirenti, A.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs) have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a) Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b) early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c) screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination ...

  15. Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

  16. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; SPÎNU, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human invo...

  17. Qualitative Microbiological Risk Assessment of Unpasteurized Fruit Juice and Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlovic, Biljana; Dixon, Brent; Couture, Hélène; Farber, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Until recent decades, unpasteurized fruit juice and cider have been considered non-hazardous with respect to microbiological pathogens due to their acidic nature. However, in light of the many global foodborne illness outbreaks associated with these products, it is apparent that certain bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens can survive these acidic conditions and remain infectious. Specifically, outbreaks of human illness have been attributed to infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Sal...

  18. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu); Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The physicochemical analyses highlighted th...

  19. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  20. Historical microbiology, is it relevant in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-05-01

    Facsimile microscopes have been used to examine the possibilities of van Leeuwenhoek microscopes with a range of magnifications, particularly to confirm that bacteria can be seen if the microscope is strong enough. The relevance of historical microbiology in education is also illustrated by adapting versions of van Leeuwenhoek's pepper water experiment and Beijerinck's use of bioluminescent bacteria as oxygen probes. These experiments can demonstrate fundamentals such as enrichment and isolation cultures, physiology and experimental planning as well as critical reading of published material.

  1. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  2. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  3. Space Habitation and Microbiology: Status and Roadmap of Space Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane; Shirakawa, Masaki; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Hida, Masamitsu; Yamazaki, Takashi; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbiology is reflected in the diversity of microbiological research and operational efforts at NASA. For example, the impact of microorganisms on other planets and the protection of Earth from the potential of microbial life elsewhere is the responsibility of the Office of Planetary Protection (http://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/ about). While the Office of Planetary Protection does not include forward or back contamination to or from a low Earth orbit, research platforms, such as the ISS, are being used to better understand the survival of microorganisms and corresponding contamination control in the extreme conditions of space (2, 4, 10). Another example is the NASA Center for Astrobiology, which focuses on the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe (https:// astrobiology.nasa.gov/). The large focus on microbiology is within its human exploration operations. NASA has historically set microbiological requirements, including stringent monitoring regimes, to mitigate risks to the health and performance of astronauts. Microorganisms can have both positive and negative impacts on many aspects of human spaceflight, including the risk and prevention of infectious diseases, performance of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), spaceflight foods, and vehicle design and integrity. Even though a great amount of information has been obtained, several key questions regarding the impact of microorganisms on human spaceflight still remain. Research into the uncertainties of risks that may affect crew health are the responsibility of the NASA Human Research Program (http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/human research/). The research that addresses our fundamental understanding of space life science and its translation for benefits to the general public on Earth is the responsibility of NASA Space Biology.

  4. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  5. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  6. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Peer M.; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Vivian A. Rincon-Florez

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used tradit...

  7. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  8. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  9. The New Microbiology: a conference at the Institut de France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Bierne, Hélène; Ribet, David; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    In May 2012, three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. The conference, entitled "The New Microbiology", was a joint effort of the French Académie des sciences, of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and of the British Royal Society. The organizers - Pascale Cossart and Philippe Sansonetti from the "Académie des sciences", David Holden and Richard Moxon from the "Royal Society", and Jörg Hacker and Jürgen Hesseman from the "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften" - wanted to highlight the current renaissance in the field of microbiology mostly due to the advent of technological developments and allowing for single-cell analysis, rapid and inexpensive genome-wide comparisons, sophisticated microscopy and quantitative large-scale studies of RNA regulation and proteomics. The conference took place in the historical Palais de l'Institut de France in Paris with the strong support of Jean-François Bach, Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des sciences.

  10. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  11. Validation of duckweed microbiological test for assessing hazardous substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Soukupova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we used modified EN ISO 20079. The modificationconsists in application of polystyrene macroplates, with the advantageof requiring low sample volumes for the test (10 ml. Lemna minorwas cultivated as a monoculture by various dosesof chemicals for seven days. The aim of our work was to compare theacute toxicity (168hEC50 obtained from conventional testing (100 mland from microbiological tests (10 ml using reference toxicants:potassium chloride and 3.5 – dichlorphenol. The resulting value168hEC50 for potassium chloride using conventional test was 9.78 g.l-1 and for 3.5 – dichlorphenol it was 5.71 mg.l-1. The resulting valuesfrom microbiological tests were 8.69 g.l-1 and 4.24 mg.l-1,respectively. The comparison of measured values of acute toxicityfrom conventional tests and microbiological tests indicates thatmicrobiological tests are an appropriate alternative to todaycommonly used ecotoxicological biotests, for measuring andassessing of biological effects of toxic substances in the aquaticenvironment.

  12. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  13. Edging into the future: education in microbiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2016-04-01

    State-of-the-art papers from around the globe addressing current topics in education were published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Education' in November 2015 (http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/thematic-issue-education), which was innovative and well received by microbiologists and other educators. Its unique content is reviewed here to facilitate broader access and further discussions in the professional community. Best practice in supporting school teaching and exposing students to concepts from other disciplines is presented in context of inspiring the next generations, where also historical microbiology can be drawn upon. Technology-enhanced education is discussed including its applications (e.g. lecture podcasts for flipped learning, learning from experts via videoconference). Authentic learning is covered with examples of research-led teaching, water and showerhead biofilm analyses and participation in the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Enhancing employability is focussed on, including supporting personal development and work-readiness in general and for the changing nature of the microbiology profession. International mobility develops international awareness but challenges teachers. Teaching training, teaching excellence and dissemination of best practice are reviewed. Times of challenge and change in the Higher Education landscape motivate us to improve educational approaches and frameworks, so that we are prepared for new topics to emerge as current topics in education. PMID:26940289

  14. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  15. Microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin on human colonic microflora in chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Yao, Junping; Wu, Qinghua; Wei, Yajing; Dai, Menghong; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiological safety of tilmicosin on human intestinal microflora, four chemostat models of healthy human colonic ecosystems were exposed to tilmicosin (0, 0.436, 4.36, and 43.6 μg/mL) for 7 days. Prior to and during drug exposure, three microbiological endpoints were monitored daily including short-chain fatty acids, bacterial counts and macrolide susceptibility. Colonization resistance of each community was determined by 3 successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Genes associated with virulence and macrolide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis were determined by PCR. Transcriptional expression of the virulence gene (gelE) in E. faecalis was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that different concentrations of tilmicosin did not disrupt the colonization resistance in each chemostat. During exposure to 4.36 and 43.6 μg/mL tilmicosin, the Bacteroides fragilis population was significantly decreased while the proportion of resistant Enterococci increased. After long-term exposure to the highest concentration (43.6 μg/mL) of tilmicosin, the gelE gene was significantly up-regulated in the high-level macrolide resistant strains that also contained the ermB resistance gene. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin using a chemostat model. These findings also provide new insight into the co-occurrence of macrolide resistance and virulence in E. faecalis under tilmicosin selective pressure.

  16. Microbiological pattern of ventilator associated pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important and common complication of mechanically ventilated patients. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Intensive Care Units (ICU) worldwide. The aim of study was to determine the pattern of bacteria involved in VAP in intensive care unit of Jinnah hospital Lahore. Methods: It was descriptive case series study, conducted over a period of one year on mechanically ventilated 50 patients. American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines recommend quantitative/semi-quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) or bronchoscopic aspirates/washing from the infected lung segments for the diagnosis of VAP. Hence this study was conducted to identify the types of bacteria involved in VAP in our ICU. Patients enrolled were clinically and radiologically suspected VAP, admitted in the ICU of Jinnah Hospital/Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) Lahore. Bronchial washings were taken with the help of Fiber optic bronchoscope. Wherever bronchoscopy was not possible, subglottic secretions were collected with the help of sterilized catheter and sucker. Collected samples were sent to the Pathology laboratory of AIMC for aerobic culture and sensitivity. Results: Major pathogenic bacteria isolated were Gram negative (74%). Among this group E. coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were the commonest organisms. Gram positive bacteria were 20%, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and haemolyticus streptococci were the major isolate. In 4% cases mixed growth and in 2% cases no growth was reported. Conclusion: Major pathogenic organisms of VAP in our ICU are Gram negative bacteria. The Bacteriological culture of endobroncheal aspirates is helpful in the diagnosis and management of VAP. Emperic antibiotic therapy for VAP should cover Gram negative organisms. (author)

  17. History, present situation, and prospects of probiotic research conducted in the G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Aleshkin; Amerhanova, A.M.; Pospelova, V.V.; Afanasiev, S.S.; Shenderov, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology has made a major contribution to the development of probiotic preparations in the Russian Federation. As long ago as the 1960s the researchers at the institute began to conduct investigations on the selection of probiotic strains, development of the probiotic preparations of different formulations and functions and technologies for their industrial production, studies of clinical efficacy and the mechanisms of their ac...

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CSOM AT KIMS - AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a major public-health problem with a high-prevalence rate. Several organisms have been implicated in the causation of CSOM, posing a challenge to the management. This is further complicated by the problem of emerging antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. OBJECTIVE We undertook the present study to identify the causative organisms in CSOM and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics in a rural teaching hospital in South India. METHODS A total number of 100 ear swabs were bacteriologically investigated for the present study. All the swabs collected from patients with clinical diagnosis of CSOM visiting the ENT outpatient department of a rural teaching hospital from December 2014 to May 2015. All these are new patients who did not have recent treatment with antibiotics either locally or systemically. Another group of 30 ear swabs were collected from healthy individuals with no history of ear discharged for control study. RESULTS Of the 100 patients, 45 were males. Out of 100 swabs cultured, 95% were culture positive and 5% were culture negative. Of the culture positive cases, 70% were aerobes, 25% were anaerobes and 5% sterile. Further, of the 99% culture positive cases, gram positive isolates were 22(31.42% and gram negative isolates were 48(68.57%. The isolated organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=26; 37.15%, Staphylococcus aureus (n=15; 21.43%, Klebsiella pneumonia (n=12; 17.15%, Proteus spp. (n=6; 8.57%, Escherichia coli (n=4; 5.72%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (n=5; 7.14%, Streptococcus pyogenes (n=1; 1%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1; 1%, Bacteroides (n=13; 52%, peptostreptococcus (n=11; 44% and Fusobacterium (n=1; 4%. When antibiotic susceptibility was assessed, organisms were most susceptible to amikacin, followed by g the Antibiotics tested for sensitivity of the Isolates Amikacin stands first followed by Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSION CSOM is a

  19. Studying bacteria in respiratory specimens by using conventional and molecular microbiological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gondi JP

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drawing from previous studies, the traditional routine diagnostic microbiology evaluation of samples from chronic respiratory conditions may provide an incomplete picture of the bacteria present in airways disease. Here, the aim was to determine the extent to which routine diagnostic microbiology gave a different assessment of the species present in sputa when analysed by using culture-independent assessment. Methods Six different media used in routine diagnostic microbiology were inoculated with sputum from twelve patients. Bacterial growth on these plates was harvested and both RNA and DNA extracted. DNA and RNA were also extracted directly from the same sample of sputum. All nucleic acids served as templates for PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification of "broad range" bacterial 16S rRNA gene regions. The regions amplified were separated by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP profiling and compared to assess the degree of overlap between approaches. Results A mean of 16.3 (SD 10.0 separate T-RF band lengths in the profiles from each sputum sample by Direct Molecular Analysis, with a mean of 8.8 (SD 5.8 resolved by DNA profiling and 13.3 (SD 8.0 resolved by RNA profiling. In comparison, 8.8 (SD 4.4 T-RF bands were resolved in profiles generated by Culture-derived Molecular Analysis. There were a total of 184 instances of T-RF bands detected in the direct sputum profiles but not in the corresponding culture-derived profiles, representing 83 different T-RF band lengths. Amongst these were fifteen instances where the T-RF band represented more than 10% of the total band volume (with a mean value of 23.6%. Eight different T-RF band lengths were resolved as the dominant band in profiles generated directly from sputum. Of these, only three were detected in profiles generated from the corresponding set of cultures. Conclusion Due to their focus on isolation of a small group of recognised pathogens, the

  20. Microbiology of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction: simple epiphora, acute dacryocystitis, and chronic dacryocystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpanich K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kanograt Pornpanich,1 Panitee Luemsamran,1 Amornrut Leelaporn,2 Jiraporn Santisuk,3 Nattaporn Tesavibul,1 Buntitar Lertsuwanroj,1 Sumalee Vangveeravong1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Eye Surgery Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the microbiology of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO and its antimicrobial susceptibilities.Methods: Ninety-three patients (100 eyes diagnosed with PANDO, categorized as acute, chronic dacryocystitis, or simple epiphora, were prospectively enrolled. Lacrimal sac contents were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Cultured organisms were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for aerobic bacteria. Results: Seventy-nine of the 100 samples were culture positive. One hundred twenty-seven organisms were isolated, and 29 different species were identified. Most microorganisms were Gram-positive bacteria (45 samples or 57.0% of all positive culture samples, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi were found in 39 (49.4%, 24 (30.4%, and four samples (5.1%, respectively. The most frequently isolated group was coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.8%, followed by nonspore-forming Gram-positive rods (anaerobe (17.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.2%. Of the 100 samples, five, 45, and 50 samples were obtained from patients with acute dacryocystitis, chronic dacryocystitis, and simple epiphora, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that Gram-negative organisms were isolated more frequently from the chronic dacryocystitis subgroup than from the simple epiphora subgroup (P=0.012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that ciprofloxacin was the most effective drug against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Conclusion: Patients with PANDO, with or without clinical signs of lacrimal infection, were

  1. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ginny Webb

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during...

  2. Microbiological Pollution of Water in the Bay of Durrës

    OpenAIRE

    ORNELA SHOSHI; SULEJMAN SULÇE; PJERIN SHOSHI; ZAMIRA RADA

    2014-01-01

    Several microorganisms with human or animal origin can be the cause of the diseases transmitted through water (microbiological effects). The discharges of used waters, contaminated with pathogen microbes, constitute the main cause of the microbiological pollution of the water. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the water microbiological status in Durrës bay, compared with the EEA resolution (European Environmental Agency), with a view of identifying the risk factors and the...

  3. BiOutils: an interface to connect university laboratories with microbiology classes in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Caine, Massimo; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of microbiology to the scientific advances of modern experimental biology has very often made the difference. Despite this, its role as an independent discipline has slowly started to fade away. This situation has been worsening due to (i) a marginal role of microbiology in academic curricula and (ii) a low or misplaced interest by the public at large towards this field of study. In order to counter this phenomenon, microbiology researchers and passionate scientists have made...

  4. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galfrè; Dorio Vacca; Patrizia Meloni; Antonio Contu; Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2012-01-01

    Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, ...

  5. [Funding for Division of Microbiology in 2014 by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianjun; Huang, Chenyang; Liu, Lin; Wen, Mingzhang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we provided an overview of proposals submitted and projects funded in 2014 at the Division of Microbiology, Department of Life Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China. The traits and problems in different sub-disciplines were analyzed, the background, results and analysis of internet voting before panel meetings in Microbiology discipline were also introduced. The information will provide references for Chinese researchers to apply funding in microbiology discipline in the future.

  6. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  7. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains.

  8. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains. PMID:27257745

  9. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  10. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine. PMID:27455568

  11. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during a microbiology lecture results in an increase in engagement, interest, attendance, and retention of material.

  12. Evaluation of an online program to teach microbiology to internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Burd, Eileen M; Kraft, Colleen S; Armstrong, Wendy S; Lenorr, Kenya; Spicer, Jennifer O; Martin, Donna; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology rounds are an integral part of infectious disease consultation service. During microbiology rounds, we highlight microbiology principles using vignettes. We created case-based, interactive, microbiology online modules similar to the vignettes presented during microbiology rounds. Since internal medicine residents rotating on our infectious disease elective have limited time to participate in rounds and learn microbiology, our objective was to evaluate the use of the microbiology online modules by internal medicine residents. We asked residents to complete 10 of 25 online modules during their infectious disease elective. We evaluated which modules they chose and the change in their knowledge level. Forty-six internal medicine residents completed assessments given before and after accessing the modules with an average of 11/20 (range, 6 to 19) and 16/20 (range, 9 to 20) correct questions, respectively (average improvement, 5 questions; P = 0.0001). The modules accessed by more than 30 residents included those related to Clostridium difficile, anaerobes, Candida spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis. We demonstrated improved microbiology knowledge after completion of the online modules. This improvement may not be solely attributed to completing the online modules, as fellows and faculty may have provided additional microbiology education during the rotation.

  13. Professor Philip D. Marsh is New Associate Editor of Journal of Oral Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ingar

    2014-01-01

    Philip D. Marsh is Professor of Oral Microbiology at the School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, UK, and is Programme Leader for the TB & Public Health Microbiology group at Public Health England, Salisbury, UK. He has published over 240 research papers and review articles, and is co-author of a leading text book on oral microbiology.(Published: 25 November 2014)Citation: Journal of Oral Microbiology 2014, 6: 26584 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jom.v6.26584

  14. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine.

  15. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  16. [The current clinical approach in puerperal endometritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranchev, N; Istatkov, M; Mekhandzhieva, V

    1993-01-01

    The authors report a study on clinical and microbiological aspects of endometritis in 50 parturients. The analysis of results shows that major risk factors for the development of puerperal endometritis are urgent Caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes for more than 15 hours and surgical vaginal delivery. In conclusion the authors propose their actual clinical view on diagnosis and treatment of puerperal endometritis. PMID:8172336

  17. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  18. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  19. Microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold in Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold directly to the consumers in Skopje, Macedonia. Sampling took place in 16 sampling points (bakeries, confectioneries with total number of 70 samples being investigated. All the samples were tested for S. aureus, nterobacteriaceae, aerobic colony count, E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The samples were tested in the Food microbiology laboratory at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje using standard ethods accredited by the Macedonian Institute for Accreditation. Results were interpreted according to the guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Analysis of Some Ready-To-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (HPA, UK. After the analysis of the results the following data was obtained: S.aureus: 68.57% (n= 48 of the samples were satisfactory, 31.42% (n=22 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Enterobacteriaceae: 60.0% (n= 42 of the samples were satisfactory, 40.0% (n=28 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Aerobic colony count: 51.42% (n= 36 of the samples were satisfactory, 45.71 (n=32 were acceptable and 2.85% (n= 2 were unsatisfactory; Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E.coli: None of these microorganisms were detected in the samples taken. High levels of ACC, Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus reflect unsatisfactory hygienic practice during processing of food from source to table. This often indicate contaminated raw materials or unsatisfactory processing and unsuitable time/temperature control during storage. The established level of acceptable and unsatisfactory results highlight the need for targeted inspection and education program in order to address the potential food safety risk from hygienic practice issues.

  20. IPMP 2013--a comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihan

    2014-02-01

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods exposed to complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It finds applications in shelf-life prediction and risk assessments of foods. The objective of this research was to describe the performance of a new user-friendly comprehensive data analysis tool, the Integrated Pathogen Modeling Model (IPMP 2013), recently developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service. This tool allows users, without detailed programming knowledge, to analyze experimental kinetic data and fit the data to known mathematical models commonly used in predictive microbiology. Data curves previously published in literature were used to test the models in IPMP 2013. The accuracies of the data analysis and models derived from IPMP 2013 were compared in parallel to commercial or open-source statistical packages, such as SAS® or R. Several models were analyzed and compared, including a three-parameter logistic model for growth curves without lag phases, reduced Huang and Baranyi models for growth curves without stationary phases, growth models for complete growth curves (Huang, Baranyi, and re-parameterized Gompertz models), survival models (linear, re-parameterized Gompertz, and Weibull models), and secondary models (Ratkowsky square-root, Huang square-root, Cardinal, and Arrhenius-type models). The comparative analysis suggests that the results from IPMP 2013 were equivalent to those obtained from SAS® or R. This work suggested that the IPMP 2013 could be used as a free alternative to SAS®, R, or other more sophisticated statistical packages for model development in predictive microbiology.