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Sample records for clinical microbiology

  1. Consolidated Clinical Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Sautter, Robert L.; Thomson, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laborat...

  2. Clinical microbiology: Should microbiology be a clinical or a laboratory speciality?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Clinical microbiology is a specific combination of knowledge, attitude and practice aimed at direct clinical involvement in infectious disease management using the core principles of medical microbiology and clinical medicine. In this article certain areas in microbiology, where a more proactive approach could make a significant difference in clinical outcome has been delineated. The article reiterates the role of a medical microbiologist in a hospital setting. The practices described are the...

  3. Cost analysis in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezmes, M F; Ochoa, C; Eiros, J M

    2002-08-01

    The use of models for business management and cost control in public hospitals has led to a need for microbiology laboratories to know the real cost of the different products they offer. For this reason, a catalogue of microbiological products was prepared, and the costs (direct and indirect) for each product were analysed, along with estimated profitability. All tests performed in the microbiology laboratory of the "Virgen de la Concha" Hospital in Zamora over a 2-year period (73192 tests) were studied. The microbiological product catalogue was designed using homogeneity criteria with respect to procedures used, workloads and costs. For each product, the direct personnel costs (estimated from workloads following the method of the College of American Pathologists, 1992 version), the indirect personnel costs, the direct and indirect material costs and the portion of costs corresponding to the remaining laboratory costs (capital and structural costs) were calculated. The average product cost was 16.05 euros. The average cost of a urine culture (considered, for purposes of this study, as a relative value unit) reached 13.59 euros, with a significant difference observed between positive and negative cultures (negative urine culture, 10.72 euros; positive culture, 29.65 euros). Significant heterogeneity exists, both in the costs of different products and especially in the cost per positive test. The application of a detailed methodology of cost analysis facilitates the calculation of the real cost of microbiological products. This information provides a basic tool for establishing clinical management strategies. PMID:12226688

  4. Development of a website for clinical microbiology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Andreazzi, D; Chao, L W

    2002-01-01

    The quality of Brazilian health services, including clinical microbiology laboratories, varies enormously. We established a Website to provide different professionals with up-to-date information and to create a virtual Brazilian microbiology community. The Website became operational in February 2000 and had 198,976 hits in the subsequent 20 months. There were 1031 user registrations in its virtual community. Different microbiology topics were discussed and three virtual training courses (representing about 300 printed pages of information) were given. The e-learning centre and the Brazilian virtual community created by this Website have facilitated distance learning, and have encouraged professional integration within Brazilian clinical microbiology. PMID:12217118

  5. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex; Welker, Martin; Erhard, Marcel; Chatellier, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Clinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been introduced, embraced, and broadly accepted by clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the world as an innovative tool for definitive bacterial species identification. Herein, we review the current state of the art with respect to this exciting new technology and discuss potential future applications. PMID:22357505

  6. Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, J. C.; McCallum, N; Sintchenko, V.; Howden, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    SummaryGenomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology. The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology. Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in public health laboratories, reference laboratories, and hospital infection control-affiliated laborat...

  7. Aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.

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    Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. This review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of Aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. Antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. is also discussed. PMID:21163298

  8. Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various types of training programs carried out in the study of microbiology. Indicates that the need for new energy sources and the expansion of medical schools and food industry may lead to an increasing demand for qualified microbiologists. (CC)

  9. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis

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    Lucia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, the clinical features, underlying diseases and clinical outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis were investigated. In addition, a molecular analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolated from these patients was performed. Methods A prospective study of 62 cases of patients with cryptococcal infection was conducted at the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiás Dr. Anuar Auad from 2009-2010. Cryptococcal meningitis cases were diagnosed by direct examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample culture. The profiling of these patients was assessed. The CSF samples were submitted to India ink preparation and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. neoformans was identified by the production of urease, a positive phenoloxidase test and assimilation of carbohydrates. C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates were distinguished by growth on L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium, and molecular analysis was conducted via PCR fingerprinting reactions using M13 and (GACA4 primers. Results From the 62 patients with cryptococcosis, 71 isolates of CSF were obtained; 67 (94.4% isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii/VNI, and 4 (5.6% were identified as C. gattii/VGII. Of these patients, 53 had an HIV diagnosis. The incidence of cryptococcosis was higher among patients 20-40 years of age, with 74.2% of the cases reported in males. Cryptococcus-related mortality was noted in 48.4% of the patients, and the symptoms were altered sensorium, headache, fever and stiff neck. Conclusions The high morbidity and mortality observed among patients with cryptococcosis demonstrate the importance of obtaining information regarding the epidemiological profile and clinical course of the disease in the State of Goiás, Brazil.

  10. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Olla Wasfi; Mary Power; Slavcev, Roderick A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the...

  11. Clinical and microbiologic features of dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Shinder, Roman; LeFebvre, Daniel R; Sokol, Jason A; Boyce, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, and large case series of this clinical entity have been reported. This study was undertaken to identify a larger cohort of patients with this ailment, with the intent of defining its clinical and microbiologic features. Case logs from four institutions were reviewed to identify patients that suffered from dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis. A retrospective chart review was then performed to identify clinical features, management strategies, microbiologic features, and outcomes. A dedicated statistical software package was utilized to identify correlations between these variables. 13 patients (7 females, 6 males; mean age = 57.2 years, range = 7-89 years) were identified. One patient carried a diagnosis of immunosuppressive disease. All patients underwent emergent surgical drainage and received intravenous antibiotics. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction was found to be the underlying etiology in nine cases (69.2%), whereas four patients suffered from specific causes of their obstructions. An average of 1.07 organisms/patient (standard deviation = 0.49 organisms/patient) were recovered from microbiologic cultures, and Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of cultured organisms. All patients experienced either stable or improved vision upon discharge. The relationships between a specific etiology and the possibility of vision loss or the number of organisms cultured, between the number of organisms cultured and vision loss, and immunosuppression and vision loss or the number of organisms cultured were all not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis most commonly occurs in adult patients who do not carry immunosuppressive diagnoses and suffer from primary obstructions. Multiple microbiologic species may cause this problem, although Gram-positive organisms are most common. With appropriate management, stable or improved vision

  12. [External quality assessment for clinical microbiology and good laboratory management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, K

    1998-02-01

    The Tokyo Metropolitan external quality assessment (EQA) program has revealed some serious problems in private independent microbiology laboratories in Tokyo since 1982. The poor performance in the EQA surveys closely related to poor laboratory managements, the type of training, experience of the medical technologists or technicians, and supervisory ability of the consultant physicians in independent laboratories. Social factors impede the reform of the quality assurance of clinical microbiology. Such factors include poor infrastructure of continuing education for small private laboratories, closure of the central clinical laboratories in the hospitals and outsourcing of laboratory tests due to restructuring in response to economic problems, and limited numbers of certified clinical pathologists of the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). Therefore, the Tokyo Metropolitan EQA Scheme is still confidential and its main role is educational. Good two way communication between participants and the organizers' clinical pathologists is essential, if the quality of laboratory tests is to be improved. The new JSCP edition of the postgraduate training requirement in clinical pathology includes "Laboratory Administration and Management". Good laboratory management(GLM) is an increasingly important component of good laboratory practice. The practice activities of clinical pathologists must include general management in addition to exercising there specialized knowledge in medicine and technology. Whereas leadership of a good clinical pathologist provides the direction of where a good laboratory is going, good management provides the steps of how to get there. And I believe quality system models from business and industry may provide us with strong guidance to build a quality system for the good laboratory that will endure into the next century. PMID:9528335

  13. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  14. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauch, Andreas; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Soriano, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring) lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories. PMID:27155209

  15. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: A clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment

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    Amita Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

  16. Effect of staff attitudes on quality in clinical microbiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Sarah J; Sands, Richard L

    2002-01-01

    Technical quality of the work of clinical pathology laboratories is monitored regularly by both internal and external sources. Among the factors that might affect quality, laboratory staff attitudes are rarely considered. In this study, the psychological concepts of 'job satisfaction' and 'climate' are measured among microbiology biomedical scientists in the United Kingdom. A self-report questionnaire was developed and distributed (between November 1998 and February 1999) to biomedical scientists in 161 microbiology laboratories throughout the UK From 2415 questionnaires distributed, 931 replies were received--a response rate of 39%. A separate set of questions covering customer service and participation in internal and external quality assurance schemes was sent to laboratory managers. Biomedical scientists reported lower job satisfaction than did medical technologists in a previous study in the USA. Perception of climate was influenced by several demographic factors, the most important of which being the size of the laboratory. Optimal number of staff in a department was found to be less than 30. Aggregation of climate scores from members of the same department showed that a positive laboratory climate was important for good performance in internal and external measures of technical quality. For the best service, laboratory climate must be supported by a staff perception that the department is committed to enhancing quality--a climate for laboratory quality. PMID:12113406

  17. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

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    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and others can result in periodontal destruction and possibly correlate with disease severity. Data from controlled studies show high prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and Tr. denticola which represent the red complex (coexistence of these three species in patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Parallel investigation of probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL with the microbiological testing may give a confirmation of relation between subgingival pathogenic bacteria and severity of periodontitis.

  18. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF OTOMYCOSIS : OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Venugopal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Otomycosis is fungal infection of external auditory canal, which is common throughout the world. Otomycosis may be refractory to treatment prescribed and hence challenges the clinician. AIM: To identify the organism causing otomycosis and to explore speci fic predisposing factors and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study of cases of otomycosis attending ENT outpatient department of Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram which were evaluated clinically and microbiologically for one year. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The commonest predisposing factor for otomycosis is trauma due to self - cleaning and water entering the ear. Common in females. Common presentation is itching of ear and ear ache. Commonest organism isolated is Aspergillus Nige r. Usually respond to treatment with topical antifungal agent especially clotrimazole. Most of the cases responded satisfactorily with topical clotrimazole.

  19. The Point-of-Care Laboratory in Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, Michel; Michel-Lepage, Audrey; Boyer, Sylvie; Raoult, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) laboratories that deliver rapid diagnoses of infectious diseases were invented to balance the centralization of core laboratories. POC laboratories operate 24 h a day and 7 days a week to provide diagnoses within 2 h, largely based on immunochromatography and real-time PCR tests. In our experience, these tests are conveniently combined into syndrome-based kits that facilitate sampling, including self-sampling and test operations, as POC laboratories can be operated by trained operators who are not necessarily biologists. POC laboratories are a way of easily providing clinical microbiology testing for populations distant from laboratories in developing and developed countries and on ships. Modern Internet connections enable support from core laboratories. The cost-effectiveness of POC laboratories has been established for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections in both developed and developing countries. PMID:27029593

  20. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic considerations observed around dental implants

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    Fabiana Amaral Chiapinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periimplantitis is characterized by the inflammation of the soft tissues, bleeding, and suppuration, as well as rapid bone loss around dental implants that are in function. The lesion is associated with the presence of subgingival plaque, which contains a wide variety of Gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. Objective: This review aimed to expose some clinical, microbiological and radiographic characteristics found in periodontal tissues and around dental implants. Literature review: Despite the anatomical differences between the periodontium and the tissues around implants, several studies have indicated some similarities, such as the production of inflammatory mediators and active microbiota. Conclusion: Regular maintenance and daily plaque control may be important factors in the long-term maintenance of implant-supported prostheses.

  1. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

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    Özcan Deveci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to integrated approaches. This technology has great potential to provide medical diagnosis, monitor treatment and help in the development of new tools for infectious disease prevention and/or management. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current application of microarray platforms and nanomedicine in the study of experimental microbiology and the impact of this technology in clinical settings.

  2. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Longitudinal clinical data and prospective clinical and microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Abbas, F; Arief, EM; Armand, S; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    2000-01-01

    Background, aims: In order to investigate the role of various putative clinical and microbiological risk markers, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived of regular dental care. In 1987 all inhabitants in the age range 15-25 years living in a village with approximately 2000

  3. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya S; Mondal A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic ...

  4. Clinical and microbiological effects of commercially available dentifrice containing amine fluoride: A randomized controlled clinical trial

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    A R Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inability of the normal adult population to perform adequate tooth brushing has led to the search for chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve plaque control. This 6 month, single center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a dentifrice containing only amine fluoride (AF as the active ingredient on gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided in three groups: Group 1 - placebo toothpaste, Group 2 - AF containing toothpaste, and Group 3 - triclosan containing toothpaste with polymer and fluoride. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and the plaque index and microbiological counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by a questionnaire. Results: AF containing toothpaste showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to triclosan containing toothpaste. Conclusions: AF containing toothpaste may be a useful formulation for chemical plaque control agent and improvement in plaque and gingival status and add to the list of various therapeutic agents used for maintenance of gingival health.

  5. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

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    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious dise...

  6. From Clinical Microbiology to Infection Pathogenesis: How Daring To Be Different Works for Staphylococcus lugdunensis

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    Frank, Kristi L.; del Pozo, José Luis; Patel, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis has gained recognition as an atypically virulent pathogen with a unique microbiological and clinical profile. S. lugdunensis is coagulase negative due to the lack of production of secreted coagulase, but a membrane-bound form of the enzyme present in some isolates can result in misidentification of the organism as Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical microbiology laboratory. S. lugdunensis is a skin commensal and an infrequent pathogen compared to S. aureus and S. ...

  7. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in nosocomial infections and infection control

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    Sönmez, Dr. Emine; Özerol, Dr. İbrahim Halil; Şahin, Dr. Kazım

    1996-01-01

    The prevention and control of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections is a team effort requiring the cooperation of the hospital epidemiologist, infection control practitioner, and members of the clinical microbiology laboratory. The clinical microbiology laboratory clearly plays a key role in the diagnosis of nosocomial infections and is consulted frequently to assist in the epidemiologic investigation of nosocomial infection problems. In addition to performing routine isolation and identi...

  8. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? PMID:27008876

  9. The appropriateness of clinical microbiology laboratory investigations: a retrospective study of the cost and clinical relevance of specimen management and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    Each year, NHS clinical laboratories carry out more than 700 million laboratory tests, of which 50 million are microbiology investigations. Several studies have shown that between 25% and 40% of all tests sent to the laboratory are unnecessary, and up to 46% of ordered microbiology tests are inappropriate. In light of these accounts, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the process of microbiology specimen management in order to assess microbiology test utilisation and the appropriate...

  10. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-seropositive women.

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    Spinillo, A; G. Michelone; Cavanna, C; Colonna, L; Capuzzo, E.; De Nicola, S.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of symptomatic vaginal candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-seropositive women attending a gynaecologic outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). DESIGN--Vaginal, rectal and oral specimens from cases and controls were cultured for Candida spp. SUBJECTS--Eighty-four consecutive HIV-seropositive and 384 HIV-seronegative women with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis. SETTING--A gynaecological ou...

  11. Surgical site infection and clinical microbiology in orthopaedics surgeries in a rural hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pradeep K. Singh; Sandeep Shrivastva; Rajesh Dulani; Abhishek Yadav

    2011-01-01

    @@ Infection and Clinical Microbiology in Orthopaedics Surgeries in Wound infections resulting from contamination during major orthopaedics surgery continues to be a vital issue.In this study, specimens of pus,draining fluids or suspected pus from the wounds of surgical patients who had been undergone major orthopaedics surgical procedure were cultured.

  12. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Clinical and microbiological baseline data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Armand, S; Abbas, F; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    1998-01-01

    At present, several risk factors for the initiation and progression of periodontitis have been identified. In order to investigate the role of various potential clinical and microbiological risk factors and indicators, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived from regular de

  13. Impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system on the clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Azevedo Callefi; Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo Medeiros; Guilherme Henrique Campos Furtado

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterobacteriaceae strains are a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI). The aim of this study is to assess differences in clinical outcomes of patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before and after introduction of an automated microbiologic system by the microbiology laboratory. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system (Phoenix(tm)...

  14. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

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    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire show...

  15. Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP): Is It Value-Added for Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Susan E; Miller, Melissa B; Hindler, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) recently published their Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP [https://www.cms.gov/regulations-and-guidance/legislation/CLIA/Individualized_Quality_Control_Plan_IQCP.html]), which will be the only option for quality control (QC) starting in January 2016 if laboratories choose not to perform Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) [U.S. Statutes at Large 81(1967):533] default QC. Laboratories will no longer be able to use "equivalent QC" (EQC) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards alone for quality control of their microbiology systems. The implementation of IQCP in clinical microbiology laboratories will most certainly be an added burden, the benefits of which are currently unknown. PMID:26447112

  16. A Webinar Case Study by a Clinical Microbiologist to Microbiology and Physiology Students: An Integrative Learning Experience

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    Barbara D. Davis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a webinar format to connect to an off-site clinical microbiologist, we presented an interdisciplinary and interactive case study to undergraduate microbiology and anatomy and physiology students. After an introduction to pathophysiology and microbiology, the clinical microbiologist’s case study provided students with a unique look at real life problems. Our goal was to have students appreciate the interrelationship between microbiology and physiology, and to apply their knowledge of microbiology and physiology to solve the case study. The webinar format facilitated the delivery of the integrative learning experience to multiple classes and the off-site clinical microbiologist simultaneously. Students and faculty in both anatomy and physiology and microbiology undergraduate lectures and laboratory sessions can benefit from this approach.

  17. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

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    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  18. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

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    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  19. A clinical and microbiological study on the enantiomers of delmopinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Torgny; Nilner, Krister; Sparre, Birgitta; Bernet, Catarina; Åström, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    Objective The clinical part of this study aimed to investigate whether the racemate of delmopinol [(±)-delmopinol] is equivalent to its two enantiomers [(+)-delmopinol and (-)-delmopinol] with respect to efficiency and to determine and compare their pharmacokinetic properties. The purpose of the pre-clinical part was to elucidate possible differences in antimicrobial efficiency. Materials and methods The compounds were tested clinically in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study comprising three treatment periods of 4 days each. The antimicrobial efficacy of the enantiomers was compared in vitro with respect to planktonic and biofilm bacteria of different species. Results No statistically significant differences in prevention of plaque formation were observed. Except for a somewhat higher systemic exposure in terms of AUC and Cmax indicated for (-)-delmopinol compared to (+)-delmopinol, the pharmacokinetic properties were similar. The most common adverse event was a transient anaesthetic feeling in the mouth. This event was reported with the same frequency for all three test solutions. The enantiomers showed similar antimicrobial effects on planktonic bacteria and their biofilms. Conclusions The enantiomers were found to be equally effective with respect to inhibition of plaque development and only minor differences were observed with respect to their pharmacokinetic properties. No differences could be observed in the adverse events reports. There is, therefore, no reason to use one of the enantiomers of delmopinol instead of the racemate. This was further supported by the antimicrobial tests. It is suggested that the combined action of cationic and neutral delmopinol is important for its effect on biofilms. PMID:26940371

  20. Problem-oriented clinical microbiology and infection. 2nd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Humphreys; William, L. Irving [Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    This medical textbook is problem-based, in line with current medical teaching, and covers 70 clinical cases. This second edition has been updated to include new material on AIDS/HIV, emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new viral pathogens such as SARS. Sections are headed; Skin and mucous membranes; Respiratory tract; Gastrointestinal system which includes a case study entitled: Bob, a 55-year-old retired coal miner with abdominal pain; Genito-urinary system; Central nervous system; Systemic infections; Pregnancy and the neonate; and Miscellaneous. 29 ills., 125 photos.

  1. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: clinical and microbiological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang JS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan S Chang, Harry W Flynn Jr, Darlene Miller, William E Smiddy Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative organism known to cause opportunistic infections. It is a rare source of endophthalmitis, often in the setting of trauma, but has been reported following cataract extraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial sensitivities, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes in patients with endophthalmitis caused by S. maltophilia following cataract extraction. Methods: A retrospective case review of records from January 1, 1990 to June 30, 2010 was performed at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Results: Eight cases of S. maltophilia endophthalmitis were identified following cataract surgery. Initial visual acuity ranged from 20/200 to light perception. Time to diagnosis with cultures was 2–118 days. Patients received either intravitreal tap and inject (n = 5 or pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injections (n = 3. All patients had vitreous or anterior chamber cultures positive for S. maltophilia. Seven of seven isolates tested were found to be sensitive to ceftazidime. Seven of eight isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B, six of eight isolates were sensitive to amikacin, and five of the seven isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Two of four tested isolates were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulbactam. All eight isolates were resistant to gentamicin and seven of the seven tested isolates were resistant to imipenem. All patients received intravitreal ceftazidime as part of the initial treatment regimen. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/25 to 4/200. Conclusion: S. maltophilia endophthalmitis is a rare source of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. A case series of eight independent patients is reported, along with antibiotic resistance profiles and

  2. Clinical and Microbiological Profile of a Retrospective Cohort of Enteric Fever in 2 Spanish Tertiary Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; González-López, Juan José; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez, Irene; Planes, Anna M.; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enteric fever in high-income countries is diagnosed mainly in patients returning from endemic countries. We assess the clinical, microbiological, and prognosis aspects of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital and Ramón y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. We reviewed medical records of all patients who were diagnosed with enteric fever from January 2000 to January 2014 at these hospitals....

  3. Microbiological effects and clinical use of xylitol in preventing acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiainen, T. (Terhi)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the microbiological mechanism of action of xylitol and to assess its use in clinical practice for preventing acute otitis media (AOM). To test whether the effect of xylitol on S. pneumoniae is inhibited by fructose, a total of 20 strains of S. pneumoniae were exposed to xylitol in the presence of fructose and other carbon sources. Addition of 5% xylitol to the media resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally el...

  4. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D Rhoads; Novak, Susan M.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utili...

  5. Clinical and microbiological characterization of Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care hospital in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Danfeng; Peng Yibing; Zhang Lihua; Jiang Cen; Wang Xuefeng; Mao Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade,Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant nosocomial infection,yet little has been reported from China.This study aimed to characterize the clinical and microbiological features of CDI from a hospital in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CDI seen between December 2010 and March 2013 were included in this study,of which clinical data were retrospectively collected.The microbiological features of corresponding isolates were analyzed including genotype by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST),antimicrobial susceptibility,toxin production,sporulation capacity,biofilm formation,and motility.Results Ninety-four cases of CDI were included during this study period,12 of whom were severe cases.By reviewing the clinical data,all patients were treated empirically with proton pump inhibitor or antibiotics or both,and they were distributed widely across various wards,most frequently to the digestive ward (28/94,29.79%).Comparing the severe with mild cases,no significant differences were found in the basic epidemiological data or the microbiological features.Among the 94 isolates,31 were toxin A-negative toxin B-positive all genotyped as ST37.They generated fewer toxins and spores,as well as similar amounts of biofilm and motility percentages,but exhibited highest drug resistance to cephalosporins,quinolones,macrolide-lincosamide and streptogramin (MLSB),and tetracycline.Conclusions No specific clinical genotype or microbiological features were found in severe cases; antimicrobial resistance could be the primary reason for epidemic strains leading to the dissemination and persistence of CDI.

  6. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jaclyn Arquiette; Michael P. Stevens; Rabb, Jean M.; Kakotan Sanogo; Patrick Mason; Bearman, Gonzalo M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE). We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four ba...

  7. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  8. Clinical, Microbiological and Hematological Findings in Ovine Subclinical Mastitis

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    Daniela Marina Mot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its richness in nutrients, milk represents a complete and balanced food that can be prepared from many other important products in human nutrition. But milk is also a medium of culture for numerous microorganisms. Although milk possesses antimicrobial mechanisms, in many cases it can be contaminated by endogenous or exogenous sources. This microorganism contamination of sheep milk and finished products depreciate its qualitative and produce severe food poisoning to consumers. In this study aimed a bacteriological control of five samples of milk haphazardly collected from six particular herds of sheep in the western part of the country. In parallel was carried out a clinical examination of the animal, insisting on mammary gland and examination of blood samples collected from the same animals. In laboratory was performed a bacteriological examination of milk samples and leucogram on blood samples. The identified bacterial species in milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium. Although it started from the idea that the animals were healthy, it was still identified in more than half of the subjects examined subclinical mammary gland infections.

  9. Childhood brucellosis--a microbiological, epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, B G; Akki, A S; Mangalgi, Smita S; Patil, S V; Gobbur, R H; Peerapur, B V

    2004-06-01

    , reported in the literature. The cerebrospinal fluid obtained from the meningitis patient was positive for B. agglutinins. To our knowledge chorea of brucellar origin appears to be the first case reported in the literature. In 15 cases (16.13 per cent) brucellosis was suspected clinically whereas 78 (83.87 per cent) cases, only serological evidence of brucellosis confirmed the diagnosis. None of the cases relapsed. In our experience an initial combination therapy with a three-drug regimen followed by a two-drug regimen for a minimum of 6 weeks has been found to be effective in the prevention of a relapse. PMID:15233191

  10. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  11. Rapid enzyme analysis as a diagnostic tool for wound infection: Comparison between clinical judgment, microbiological analysis, and enzyme analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis-Arkes, Miriam H.E.; Haalboom, Marieke; Palen, van der Job; Heinzle, Andrea; Sigi, Eva; Guebitz, Georg; Beuk, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, diagnosis of wound infection is based on the classical clinical signs of infection. When infection is suspected, wounds are often swabbed for microbiological culturing. These methods are not accurate (clinical judgment in chronic wounds) or provide results after several days (w

  12. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Rhoads

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital plate reading (DPR is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated.

  13. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed. PMID:20084925

  14. Clinical Relevance of the Advanced Microbiologic and Biochemical Investigations in Periodontal Diagnosis: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to periodontal diagnosis, including advanced microbiologic, biochemical, and genetic tests, have been shown to provide the clinician with the information not available by traditional means. The purpose of a diagnostic test is to confirm, exclude, classify, or monitor disease to guide treatment. Their clinical value depends on whether the information they provide leads to improved patient outcomes. This can be assessed by randomized trials, which compare patient outcomes from the new diagnostic test versus the old test strategy. Being nonmandatory for marketing approval, such trials are not always feasible because of large sample sizes requirements. So, many diagnostic tests enter the practice without being critically analysed for any additional benefits. Effective diagnosis is just as essential as the selection of effective treatments for the success of periodontal therapy. So, the current paper aims to focus on the practical utility of this rapidly emerging plethora of periodontal diagnostic tools, emphasizing the critical issues surrounding the clinical application of microbiologic and biochemical investigations, employed for periodontal diagnosis.

  15. Clinical and microbiological profile of persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteraemia in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, G; Fouzas, S; Giormezis, N; Giannakopoulos, I; Tzifas, S; Foka, A; Anastassiou, D E; Spiliopoulou, I; Mantagos, S

    2011-11-01

    An atypical pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) sepsis, characterized by persistence despite aggressive antibiotic therapy, has been described in neonates cared for in neonatal intensive-care units. Our aim was to analyse the clinical, microbiological and molecular determinants of this persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Neonates with late-onset CoNS bacteraemia were studied for a 2-year period. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, microbiological and molecular data were compared between neonates with persistent (≥3 consecutive positive blood cultures) and non-persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Twenty-nine infants with persistent and 43 with non-persistent bacteraemia were identified, with no significant differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. Of a total of 170 CoNS isolates, 80 showed biofilm production (54 persistent and 26 non-persistent; p 0.013), whereas 127 were positive for the icaA and icaD genes (74 persistent and 53 non-persistent; p 0.598). Sixty ica-positive isolates did not produce slime, whereas 13 ica-negative isolates showed biofilm production. Endotracheal intubation and the presence of central vascular catheters were significant risk factors for persistent bacteraemia, but, in a logistic regression model, only biofilm production was significantly related to the persistent form of the disease (p 0.005). In this study, persistent CoNS sepsis in neonates requiring intensive care was not related to most of the known clinical risk factors, and it was associated with severe thrombocytopenia. Isolates associated with persistent bacteraemia were more likely to produce biofilm, independently of the presence of the ica operon. PMID:21463392

  16. Microbiological profile and clinical outcome of severe foot ulcers of diabetic inpatients

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    Marivaldo Loyola Aragão(

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the microbiological profile and clinical outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers of inpatients of a tertiary university hospital, at Ceara, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical charts data of all diabetic inpatients of the Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Walter Cantídio University Hospital (Federal University of Ceará, admitted from January, 2006 to June, 2007 for severe foot ulcers (minimum of grade 2 of Wagner`s classification, which were refractory to ambulatory treatment. Clinical data from each patient were recorded (sex, age, diabetes duration, and comorbidities as well as microbiological characteristics of foot ulcers and surgical (amputations material. Results: We identified 17 diabetic patients, all type 2, aged 58.11 ± 10.8 years and 12.4 ± 8.4 years of disease, 58.8% male. Of ulcers, 41.1% were grade 2; 35.2% grade 3; 11.7% grade 4 and 11.7% grade 5 of Wagner; 64.7% with less than 3 months of evolution. Debridement was performed in 82.3% of patients and amputation in 47%; osteomyelitis was identified in 47% of cases. All patients started empiric antibiotic therapy, where ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was the most used scheme (76.5%. Cultures were negative in 12.5% of the patients. In the positive ones, the most prevalent bacterial pathogens detected in the culture materials were: S. aureus (57.1%; S. viridans (28.7%; P. aeruginosas (28.7%; M. morganii (28.7%. The majority (75% of isolated S. aureus were methicillin-resistant, but were sensitive to vacomicin. Conclusion: We observed the presence of polymicrobial flora with a large number of multiresistant pathogens and high prevalence of osteomyelitis and amputations in diabetic patients with severe ulcers, neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease.

  17. Removal of black stains from teeth by photodynamic therapy: clinical and microbiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio; Damante, Carla; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2015-01-01

    Black-pigmented bacteria (BPB) are Gram-negative anaerobic, non-motile, proteolytic rods strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although pigments are produced in vitro, black pigmentation is rarely found clinically. However, it may compromise aesthetics and contribute to gingival inflammation. The aim of this report is to describe a clinical case of a 10-year-old boy showing black pigmentation covering all teeth and to propose an alternative therapy for removal of black pigmentation, based on photodynamic therapy (PDT). In order to perform microbiological analysis, plaque samples were collected before and after PDT, and analysed by real-time-PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed a significant reduction in BPB levels after therapy, along with clinical evidence of absence of black pigmentation and reduction in gingival bleeding, although the plaque index remained unaltered. This case showed that PDT is effective for eliminating black pigmentation caused by BPB, without recurrence during a follow-up period of 7 months. PMID:26701991

  18. Impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system on the clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Azevedo Callefi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacteriaceae strains are a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI. The aim of this study is to assess differences in clinical outcomes of patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before and after introduction of an automated microbiologic system by the microbiology laboratory. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system (Phoenix(tm automated microbiology system, Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD - Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD, USA on the outcomes of BSIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains. The study was undertaken at Hospital São Paulo, a 750-bed teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before the introduction of the automated system were compared with patients with BSI caused by the same pathogens after the introduction of the automated system with regard to treatment adequacy, clinical cure/improvement and 14- and 28-day mortality rates. RESULTS: We evaluated 90 and 106 patients in the non-automated and automated testing periods, respectively. The most prevalent species in both periods were Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. Clinical cure/improvement occurred in 70% and 67.9% in non-automated and automated period, respectively (p=0.75. 14-day mortality rates were 22.2% and 30% (p=0.94 and 28-day mortality rates were 24.5% and 40.5% (p= 0.12. There were no significant differences between the two testing periods with regard to treatment adequacy, clinical cure/improvement and 14- and 28-day mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of the BD Phoenix(tm automated microbiology system did not impact the clinical outcomes of BSIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains in our setting.

  19. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

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    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  20. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and ...

  1. Compliance of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories in the United States with Current Recommendations for Processing Respiratory Tract Specimens from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia ...

  2. Clinical and microbiologic aspects of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, C U; Miller, H

    1983-01-01

    10 patients with serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 cases of endocarditis in non-prosthetic valves, 1 was complicated by osteomyelitis, 1 case of osteomyelitis, and 1 case of septicemia) are described. Clinical and microbiologic features were evaluated including antibiotic sensitivity and synergy studies, phage typing and biotyping. Endocarditis tended to affect the elderly population and the clinical manifestations were quite similar to those caused by Streptococcus viridans. Both patients with osteomyelitis had involvement of the cervical spine with excellent response to antibiotic therapy. The only patient with septicemia acquired via hyperalimentation had delayed clearance of the bacteremia but ultimately responded to intravenous antibiotics. Rifampicin was the most effective of all antibiotics tested. All isolates were sensitive to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins and over half were sensitive to penicillin. Full synergistic activity was demonstrated with cephalothin and nafcillin in combination with rifampicin, and rifampicin-vancomycin was partially synergistic against the majority of the strains. Five of 8 available isolates were non-phage typeable and no definite pattern was established for various types of infections. Four of the 8 isolates were classified as biotype SIIa, 2 biotype SIIc and 2 biotype SVh. PMID:6361977

  3. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Arquiette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE. We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four bacterial classifications from each sample. Sixty-five surveys were completed. Forty-five (69% individuals used a filter. Fifteen respondents reported diarrhea in their home in the last 30 days; this incidence was higher in homes not using a filter. Thirty-three paired water samples and surveys were available. Twenty-eight samples (85% demonstrated bacterial growth. A control sample was obtained from the local river, the principal water source; number and bacterial colony types were innumerable within 24 hours. Access to clean water, the use of filters, and other treatment methods differed within a geographically proximal region. Although the majority of the water samples failed to achieve bacterial eradication, water filters may sufficiently reduce bacterial coliform counts to levels below infectious inoculation. Clay water filters may be sustainable water treatment measures in resource poor settings.

  4. Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Danikuu Francis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale, urban northern Ghana. Methods Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT- PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods. Results Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months. Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22% and wasting (19% were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P P = 0.02. Conclusion Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.

  5. Enterococcus: review of its physiology, pathogenesis, diseases and the challenges it poses for clinical microbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John VU; John CARVALHO

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterococcus is composed of 38 species,the most important of which are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium-both human intestinal colonizers.Hospitals within the United States and around the world commonly isolate these bacteria because they are a cause of bacteremia,urinary tract infections (UTIs),endocarditis,wound infections,meningitis,intraabdominal and pelvic infections,and nosocomial and iatrogenic infections.Given the ubiquity of enterococci within the human population,it is important for laboratories to be able to distinguish these agents within hospitalized patients from other bacterial genera and also differentiate different species within the Enterococcus genus as well as different strains within each species.Unfortunately,the enterococci are emerging as serious pathogens in both the developed world,where surveillance needs to be improved and speciation procedures are inadequate or cumbersome,and in developing nations,which lack the trained hospital personnel or funding to sufficiently identify enterococci to the genus or species level.This review explores the Enterococcus genus and highlights some of the concerns for national and international clinical microbiology laboratories.

  6. Partial caries removal in primary teeth: association of clinical parameters with microbiological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lula, E C O; Almeida, L J S; Alves, C M C; Monteiro-Neto, V; Ribeiro, C C C

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between clinical characteristics of carious dentin and bacterial colonization after partial caries removal is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to compare microbial counts between categories of carious dentin color, consistency and humidity, and to evaluate the correlation between these characteristics and the presence of cariogenic microorganisms in deep cavities (2/3 or more of the dentin thickness) submitted to partial caries removal. Sixteen primary teeth were submitted to the removal of all carious tissue from the lateral walls of the cavity, whereas carious tissue of the pulp wall was removed superficially. Dentin in the pulp wall was classified according to color, consistency and humidity immediately after cavity preparation and 3-6 months after cavity sealing and a tissue sample was collected on the same occasion for microbiological evaluation. Before sealing, Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.033) and Lactobacillus spp. (p = 0.048) counts were higher in cavities with humid dentin compared to cavities with dry dentin. A negative correlation was observed between carious dentin consistency and S. mutans count during this phase (r(s) = -0.571; p = 0.020). Arrest of dentinal caries lesions was observed after sealing, which was characterized by a reduction of bacterial counts and changes in dentin color, consistency and humidity, irrespectively of baseline dentin characteristics. The clinical characteristics of carious dentin change after the period of cavity sealing and cannot be applied as absolute indicators to limit the excavation of carious dentin when minimally invasive techniques are used. PMID:21576960

  7. "Salvage microbiology": detection of bacteria directly from clinical specimens following initiation of antimicrobial treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Farrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS is a diagnostic approach that has demonstrated the capacity to detect pathogenic organisms from culture negative clinical samples after antibiotic treatment has been initiated. [1] We describe the application of PCR/ESI-MS for detection of bacteria in original patient specimens that were obtained after administration of antibiotic treatment in an open investigation analysis. METHODS: We prospectively identified cases of suspected bacterial infection in which cultures were not obtained until after the initiation of antimicrobial treatment. PCR/ESI-MS was performed on 76 clinical specimens that were submitted for conventional microbiology testing from 47 patients receiving antimicrobial treatment. FINDINGS: In our series, 72% (55/76 of cultures obtained following initiation of antimicrobial treatment were non-diagnostic (45 negative cultures; and 10 respiratory specimens with normal flora (5, yeast (4, or coagulase-negative staphylococcus (1. PCR/ESR-MS detected organisms in 83% (39/47 of cases and 76% (58/76 of the specimens. Bacterial pathogens were detected by PCR/ESI-MS in 60% (27/45 of the specimens in which cultures were negative. Notably, in two cases of relapse of prosthetic knee infections in patients on chronic suppressive antibiotics, the previous organism was not recovered in tissue cultures taken during extraction of the infected knee prostheses, but was detected by PCR/ESI-MS. CONCLUSION: Molecular methods that rely on nucleic acid amplification may offer a unique advantage in the detection of pathogens collected after initiation of antimicrobial treatment and may provide an opportunity to target antimicrobial therapy and "salvage" both individual treatment regimens as well as, in select cases, institutional antimicrobial stewardship efforts.

  8. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the clinical microbiology laboratory: comparison of conventional and molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Pelt (Cindy); C.M. Verduin (Cees); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B. Tummler; C. Segonds; F. Reubsaet; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situat

  9. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi F; Tarsia P; Mantero M; Morlacchi LC; Piffer F

    2013-01-01

    Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Metho...

  10. The Lebanese Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) guidelines for adult community-acquired pneumonia (Cap) in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnieh, Rima; Yared Sakr, Nadine; Kanj, Souha S; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Husni, Rula; Jradeh, Mona; Al-Awar, Ghassan; Matar, Madona; Jureij, Wafa; Antoine, Saad; Azar, Eid; Abi Hanna, Pierre; Minari, Afaf; Hammoud, Jamale; Kfoury, Joumana; Mahfouz, Tahsin; Abou Chakra, Diaa; Zaatari, Mohamad; Tabbarah, Zuhayr A

    2014-01-01

    Adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality which is managed by different disciplines in a heterogeneous fashion. Development of consensus guidelines to standardize these wide variations in care has become a prime objective. The Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) convened to set Lebanese national guidelines for the management of CAP since it is a major and a prevalent disease affecting the Lebanese population. These guidelines, besides being helpful in direct clinical practice, play a major role in establishing stewardship programs in hospitals in an effort to contain antimicrobial resistance on the national level. These guidelines are intended for primary care practitioners and emergency medicine physicians. They constitute an appropriate starting point for specialists' consultation being based on the available local epidemiological and resistance data. This document includes the following: 1/ Rationale and scope of the guidelines; 2/ Microbiology of CAP based on Lebanese data; 3/ Clinical presentation and diagnostic workup of CAP; 4/ Management and prevention strategies based on the IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines, 2007, and the ESCMID Guidelines, 2011, and tailored to the microbiological data in Lebanon; 5/ Comparison to regional guidelines. The recommendations made in this document were graded based on the strength of the evidence as in the 2007 IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines. Hopefully, these guidelines will be an important step towards standardization of CAP care in Lebanon and set the agenda for further research in this area. PMID:24684125

  11. Non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease: a clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.

  12. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data – The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of c...

  13. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Darenberg, Jessica; Neal, Shona; Siljander, Tuula; Strakova, Lenka; Tanna, Asha; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Tassios, Panayotis T; van der Linden, Mark; Straut, Monica; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Efstratiou, Androulla; Schalén, Claes; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Jasir, Aftab

    2009-04-01

    In an attempt to compare the epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes infection within Europe, prospective data were collected through the Strep-EURO program. Surveillance for severe cases of S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe by using a standardized case definition and questionnaire. Patient data as well as bacterial isolates were collected and characterized by T and M/emm typing, and selected strains were analyzed for the presence of superantigen genes. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical and microbiological patterns of the infections across the participating countries. A total of 4,353 isolates were collected from 5,521 cases with severe S. pyogenes infections who were identified. A wide diversity of M/emm types (n = 104) was found among the S. pyogenes clinical isolates, but the M/emm type distribution varied broadly between participating countries. The 10 most predominant M/emm types were M/emm type 1 (M/emm1), M/emm28, M/emm3, M/emm89, M/emm87, M/emm12, M/emm4, M/emm83, M/emm81, and M/emm5, in descending order. A correlation was found between some specific disease manifestations, the age of the patients, and the emm types. Although streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis were caused by a large number of types, they were particularly associated with M/emm1 and M/emm3. The emm types included in the 26-valent vaccine under development were generally well represented in the present material; 16 of the vaccine types accounted for 69% of isolates. The Strep-EURO collaborative program has contributed to enhancement of the knowledge of the spread of invasive disease caused by S. pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues. PMID:19158266

  14. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Disease in Europe▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Darenberg, Jessica; Neal, Shona; Siljander, Tuula; Strakova, Lenka; Tanna, Asha; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Tassios, Panayotis T.; van der Linden, Mark; Straut, Monica; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Efstratiou, Androulla; Schalén, Claes; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Jasir, Aftab

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to compare the epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes infection within Europe, prospective data were collected through the Strep-EURO program. Surveillance for severe cases of S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe by using a standardized case definition and questionnaire. Patient data as well as bacterial isolates were collected and characterized by T and M/emm typing, and selected strains were analyzed for the presence of superantigen genes. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical and microbiological patterns of the infections across the participating countries. A total of 4,353 isolates were collected from 5,521 cases with severe S. pyogenes infections who were identified. A wide diversity of M/emm types (n = 104) was found among the S. pyogenes clinical isolates, but the M/emm type distribution varied broadly between participating countries. The 10 most predominant M/emm types were M/emm type 1 (M/emm1), M/emm28, M/emm3, M/emm89, M/emm87, M/emm12, M/emm4, M/emm83, M/emm81, and M/emm5, in descending order. A correlation was found between some specific disease manifestations, the age of the patients, and the emm types. Although streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis were caused by a large number of types, they were particularly associated with M/emm1 and M/emm3. The emm types included in the 26-valent vaccine under development were generally well represented in the present material; 16 of the vaccine types accounted for 69% of isolates. The Strep-EURO collaborative program has contributed to enhancement of the knowledge of the spread of invasive disease caused by S. pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues. PMID:19158266

  15. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of perianal infections in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perianal infection is a common problem for patients with acute leukemia. However, neutropenia and bleeding tendency are relatively contraindicated to surgical intervention. The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes of perianal infection in leukemic patients are also rarely discussed. METHOD: The medical records of 1102 adult patients with acute leukemia at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULT: The prevalence of perianal infection was 6.7% (74 of 1102 in adult patients with acute leukemia. Twenty-three (31% of the 74 patients had recurrent episodes of perianal infections. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia had higher recurrent rates than acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (p = 0.028. More than half (n = 61, 53% of the perianal infections were caused by gram-negative bacilli, followed by gram-positive cocci (n = 36, 31%, anaerobes (n = 18, 15% and Candida (n = 1, 1% from pus culture. Eighteen patients experienced bacteremia (n = 24 or candidemia (n = 1. Overall 41 (68% of 60 patients had polymicrobial infection. Escherichia coli (25% was the most common micro-organism isolated, followed by Enterococcus species (22%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%, and Bacteroides species (11%. Twenty-five (34% of 74 patients received surgical intervention. Acute leukemia patients with surgically managed anal fistulas tended to have fewer recurrences (p = 0.067. Four (5% patients died within 30 days after diagnosis of perianal infection. Univariate analysis of 30-day survival revealed the elderly (≧ 65 years (p = 0.015 and patients with shock (p<0.001 had worse outcome. Multivariate analysis showed septic shock to be the independent predictive factor of 30-day crude mortality of perianal infections (p = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Perianal infections were common and had high recurrence rate in adult patients with acute

  16. WGS Analysis and Interpretation in Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Laboratories: What Are the Requirements and How Do Existing Tools Compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Wyres, Kelly L.; Conway, Thomas C.; Saurabh Garg; Carlos Queiroz; Matthias Reumann; Kathryn Holt; Rusu, Laura I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the field of clinical and public health microbiology, and in the last few years numerous case studies have demonstrated successful applications in this context. Among other considerations, a lack of user-friendly data analysis and interpretation tools has been frequently cited as a major barrier to routine use of these techniques. Here we consider the requirements of microbiology laboratories for the analysis, clin...

  17. Microbiological and Clinical Features of Four Cases of Catheter-Related Infection by Methylobacterium radiotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Han, Xiang Y.

    2015-01-01

    Four cases of central venous catheter-related Methylobacterium radiotolerans infection are presented here. The patients were all long-term catheter carriers with an underlying diagnosis of leukemia, and they mostly manifested fevers. The isolated bacterial strains all showed far better growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar during the initial isolation and/or subcultures than they did on sheep blood or chocolate agar. This microbiological feature may improve the culture recovery of th...

  18. Clinical application of a rapid microbiological test based on capillary zone electrophoresis to assess local skin infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeliga Jacek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic clinical problem associated with infection treatment is the fact that classic, commonly and routinely used isolation and identification methods are based on long-term processes of a phenotypic analysis of microorganisms. Consequently sometimes, especially in small centres, rapid implementation of antibacterial treatment becomes delayed. The work presents the initial results of rapid microbiological identification based on an original method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. The study involved the analysis of 78 biological samples from post-operative wounds and trophic ulcers. Results The attempt was made to identify individual bacterial species based on characteristic features of electropherograms achieved. Finally, G(+ cocci type bacteria and different G(- rods were identified with sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions Based on the clinical trials using an electrophoretic technique in the field of microbiological diagnostics of infected exudate from a post-operative wound it can be concluded that it is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for initial identification of infectious pathogens.

  19. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients. PMID:26895996

  20. Comparing clinical and microbiological methods for the diagnosis of true bacteraemia among patients with multiple blood cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wohoush, I; Rivera, J; Cairo, J; Hachem, R; Raad, I

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clinical criteria as well as other microbiological methods for the diagnosis of coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteraemia. The CDC clinical criteria had low accuracy, which can be improved by speciation, particularly if the patient had more than two positive blood cultures. PMID:20854425

  1. WGS Analysis and Interpretation in Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Laboratories: What Are the Requirements and How Do Existing Tools Compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Wyres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the field of clinical and public health microbiology, and in the last few years numerous case studies have demonstrated successful applications in this context. Among other considerations, a lack of user-friendly data analysis and interpretation tools has been frequently cited as a major barrier to routine use of these techniques. Here we consider the requirements of microbiology laboratories for the analysis, clinical interpretation and management of bacterial whole-genome sequence (WGS data. Then we discuss relevant, existing WGS analysis tools. We highlight many essential and useful features that are represented among existing tools, but find that no single tool fulfils all of the necessary requirements. We conclude that to fully realise the potential of WGS analyses for clinical and public health microbiology laboratories of all scales, we will need to develop tools specifically with the needs of these laboratories in mind.

  2. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.;

    2016-01-01

    through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... to assist users in reaching an exact bacterial or fungal diagnosis based on blood specimen observations and controls. Additionally, the app allows for entry of test results, and communication thereof to the laboratory information system (LIS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the...... design considerations of the MuxBCT app and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation. METHODS: The MuxBCT tablet app was developed and set up for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory. A near-live simulation study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory to evaluate the...

  3. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, Ayman

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To identify the risk factors for, and to report the microbiological findings and clinical outcomes of, severe microbial keratitis (MK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all cases of presumed MK admitted to a tertiary referral center over a 2-year period (September 2001 to August 2003). Data recorded included demographic data, details relating to possible risk factors, results of microbiological studies, clinical findings at presentation, and clinical and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety patients were admitted with a diagnosis of presumed MK during the study period. The mean age of patients was 45 +\\/- 32 years, and the male to female ratio was 47:43 (52.2%:47.7%). Predisposing risk factors for MK included contact lens wear (37; 41.1%), anterior segment disease (19; 21.1%), ocular trauma (13; 14.4%), systemic disease (5; 5.6%), and previous ocular surgery (1; 1.1%). Cultured organisms included gram-negative bacteria (17; 51.5%), gram-positive bacteria (11, 33.3%), acanthamoeba (2; 6.1%), and fungi (1; 3%). Visual acuity improved significantly after treatment [mean best-corrected visual acuity (+\\/-standard deviation) at presentation: 0.76 (+\\/-0.11); mean best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up: 0.24 (+\\/-0.07); P < 0.001]. Secondary surgical procedures were required in 18 (20%) cases, and these included punctal cautery (1; 1.1%), tissue glue repair of corneal perforation (2; 2.2%), tarsorrhaphy (9; 9.9%), Botulinum toxin-induced ptosis (1; 1.1%), penetrating keratoplasty (3; 3.3%), and evisceration (2; 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contact lens wear remains a significant risk factor for severe MK. MK remains a threat to vision and to the eye, but the majority of cases respond to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  4. ASSOCIATION OF THE BONE LOSS WITH MAIN CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Dosseva-Panova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature data have reported that certain Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria from the subgingival environment are important etiological agents of chronic periodontal disease. Based on published criteria identifying periodontal pathogens, major evidences has been shown for: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia; moderate evidences for: Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus /Micromonas/ micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum, Campylobacter rectus, and spirochetes (Treponema denticola. Microbiological data has been suggested by several studies as a useful indicator of disease progression, selection of an adjunctive antimicrobial administration, healing assessment and disease recurrence. The results of this study demonstrate statistically significant correlation between periodontal attachment loss and the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Peptostreptococcus (Micromonas micros in deep periodontal pockets of severe chronic periodontitis patients.

  5. A Prospective Study on the Clinical and Microbiological Spectrum of Endophthalmitis in a Specific Region in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Hamoudi, Hassan; Friis-Møller, Alice; la Cour, Morten

    2016-01-01

    clinically examined before, during and after surgical intervention for endophthalmitis. RESULTS: Fifty eyes with endophthalmitis were included. Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery (post-cataract), anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) intravitreal injections (post-injection) and cases of...... endogenous endophthalmitis were responsible for 40, 28 and 18% of all cases, respectively. There was no difference in the microbiological spectrum in post-cataract patients and post-injection patients, but patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis presented statistically significantly more frequently with...... hypopyon and fibrin in the anterior chamber. Between 20 and 25% of post-cataract and post-injection endophthalmitis patients developed a surgical complication after primary surgical intervention for endophthalmitis, and this was statistically significantly associated with a poor visual outcome. There was...

  6. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  7. Clinical and microbiological features of dientamoebiasis in patients suspected of suffering from a parasitic gastrointestinal illness: A comparison of Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia lamblia infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Vandenberg; R. Peek; H. Souayah; A. Dediste; M. Buset; R. Scheen; P. Retore; G. Zissis; T. van Gool

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical and microbiological features of Dientomoeba fragilis and Giordia lamblia infected patients, and to analyze the genetic variation of D. fragilis strains. Methods: For a period of two years, all stool samples collected from patients suspected of having a parasitic

  8. Bacteria prevalence in a large Italian population sample: a clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, L; Gatto, M R; Checchi, V; Carinci, F

    2016-01-01

    The present study detects those bacterial species which are more strongly related to bleeding on probing, suppuration and smoking in periodontal-affected patients. Nine hundred and fifty-one patients with periodontal diseases were admitted to the Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Dental School of Bologna University where they underwent microbiological tests for six periodontal pathogens (Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia). Cluster analysis explored the variables that mostly influence both the presence and absolute\\relative bacterial load. Logistic regression and multivariate linear regression quantifies these relations. The probability of recovering bacteria belonging to the Red Complex is greater by 25-48% in presence of bleeding on probing. When probing depth is less than 3 mm the probability of presence of each bacterial species is inferior in comparison with depth >6 mm both for Red Complex (of 20-37%), the Orange complex (of 41-61%) and Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans (46%). Total bacterial cell count increases with pocket depth above all for the Red Complex. As Treponema Denticola and Tannerella Forsytia presence is associated with bleeding on probing and Prevotella intermedia presence with suppuration and smoking. The examination of these three as indicators of periodontitis evolution is suggested. PMID:27469569

  9. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data--The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Kohlmann

    Full Text Available Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years.We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014.One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates.The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national guidelines for standardized cAST data

  10. Microbiological and Epidemiological Features of Clinical Respiratory Isolates of Burkholderia gladioli▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segonds, Christine; Clavel-Batut, Patricia; Thouverez, Michelle; Grenet, Dominique; Le Coustumier, Alain; Plésiat, Patrick; Chabanon, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia gladioli, primarily known as a plant pathogen, is involved in human infections, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the present study, the first respiratory isolates recovered from 14 French patients with CF and 4 French patients without CF, identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, were tested for growth on B. cepacia selective media, for identification by commercial systems, and for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, and were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Patients' data were collected. All 18 isolates grew on oxidation-fermentation-polymyxin B-bacitracin-lactose medium and Pseudomonas cepacia agar, but only 13 grew on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar. API 20NE strips did not differentiate B. gladioli from B. cepacia, whereas Vitek 2 GN cards correctly identified 15 isolates. All isolates were susceptible to piperacillin, imipenem, aminoglycosides, and ciprofloxacin and were far less resistant to ticarcillin than B. cepacia complex organisms. Fifteen PFGE types were observed among the 18 isolates, but shared types were not identified among epidemiologically related patients. The microbiological follow-up of CF patients showed that colonization was persistent in 3 of 13 documented cases; B. gladioli was isolated from posttransplantation cultures of blood from 1 patient. Among the patients without CF, B. gladioli was associated with intubation (three cases) or bronchiectasis (one case). In summary, the inclusion of B. gladioli in the databases of commercial identification systems should improve the diagnostic capabilities of those systems. In CF patients, this organism is more frequently involved in transient infections than in chronic infections, but it may be responsible for complications posttransplantation; patient-to-patient transmission has not been demonstrated to date. Lastly, B. gladioli appears to be naturally susceptible to aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin, although resistant isolates may emerge in

  11. Clinical and microbiologic effects of chemical versus mechanical cleansing in professional supportive implant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strooker, H; Rohn, S; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cleansing properties of mechanical supportive care for dental implants with the use of an etching gel. Sixteen patients underwent a 5-month clinical trial with monthly recalls. These patients, wearing maxillary complete dentures and mandibular overdent

  12. Microbiologic characterization of isolates from a dalbavancin clinical trial for catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Beth P; Jones, Ronald N; Fritsche, Thomas R; Biedenbach, Douglas J

    2006-02-01

    Dalbavancin, a new-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide in phase 3 clinical development, has been documented to be more active than vancomycin or teicoplanin against Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains, by in vitro testing and in animal models. The human pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin predicts efficacy at weekly dosing intervals. In a phase 2 open-label clinical trial, dalbavancin exhibited superiority when compared with vancomycin against catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). The majority of pathogens identified in this study as in clinical practice were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), necessitating rigorous characterization of duplicate isolates to rule out contaminants and to validate cases for study evaluations. At follow-up for the intent-to-treat population, overall pathogen eradication was 92.3% for dalbavancin and 75.9% for vancomycin. We describe the details of organisms isolated, their epidemiologic/genetic characterization, susceptibility patterns against glycopeptides, and the eradication rates by organism group. In conclusion, dalbavancin was active against all isolated pathogens associated with CR-BSI (CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis; all MIC results, < or = 0.25 microg/mL) and achieved significant (P < 0.05) clinical success when compared with vancomycin. PMID:16458124

  13. Nontuberculous mycobacterial ocular infections--comparing the clinical and microbiological characteristics between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense.

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    Hsiao-Sang Chu

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM ocular infections and the species-specific in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility.In 2000 to 2011 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, multilocus sequencing of rpoB, hsp65 and secA was used to identify NTM isolates from ocular infections. The clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were retrospectively compared between species. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin (AMK, clarithromycin (CLA, ciprofloxacin (CPF, levofloxacin (LVF, moxifloxacin (MXF and gatifloxacin (GAF against all strains. The activities of antimicrobial combinations were assessed by the checkerboard titration method.A total of 24 NTM strains (13 Mycobacterium abscessus and 11 Mycobacterium massiliense were isolated from 13 keratitis, 10 buckle infections, and 1 canaliculitis cases. Clinically, manifestations and outcomes caused by these two species were similar and surgical intervention was necessary for medically unresponsive NTM infection. Microbiologically, 100% of M. abscessus and 90.9% of M. massiliense ocular isolates were susceptible to amikacin but all were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Inducible clarithromycin resistance existed in 69.3% of M. abscessus but not in M. massiliense isolates. None of the AMK-CLA, AMK-MXF, AMK-GAF, CLA-MXF and CLA-GAF combinations showed synergistic or antagonistic effect against both species in vitro.M. abscessus and M. massiliense are the most commonly identified species for NTM ocular infections in Taiwan. Both species were resistant to fluoroquinolones, susceptible to amikacin, and differ in clarithromycin resistance. Combined antimicrobial treatments showed no interaction in vitro but could be considered in combination with surgical interventions for eradication of this devastating ocular infection.

  14. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  15. A microbiological study of vaginal discharge in women attending a Malaysian gynaecological clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y M; Ng, Y P; Chin, C S; Thambu, J

    1992-03-01

    Vaginal discharge is a common complaint of women attending gynaecological clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of commonly implicated microorganisms in vaginal discharge amongst women with or without the complaint, attending a gynaecological and family planning clinic. The association of Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis was also studied. It was found that there were no significant differences between the cases and controls in the isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis, Torulopsis glabrata, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma ssp and Group B streptococcus (p greater than 0.05). Only the isolation rate of Candida albicans was significantly higher in the cases than controls (p less than 0.01). However, there was a significant association of G. vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:1387449

  16. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  17. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of tcdA-negative variant clostridium difficile infections

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    Kim Jieun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tcdA-negative variant (A-B+ of Clostridium difficile is prevalent in East Asian countries. However, the risk factors and clinical characteristics of A-B+C. difficile infections (CDI are not clearly documented. The objective of this study was to investigate these characteristics. Methods From September 2008 through January 2010, the clinical characteristics, medication history and treatment outcomes of CDI patients were recorded prospectively. Toxin characterization and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on stool isolates of C. difficile. Results During the study period, we identified 22 cases of CDI caused by tcdA-negative tcdB-positive (A-B+ strains and 105 cases caused by tcdA-positive tcdB-positive (A+B+ strains. There was no significant difference in disease severity or clinical characteristics between the two groups. Previous use of clindamycin and young age were identified as significant risk factors for the acquisition of A-B+ CDI (OR = 4.738, 95% CI 1.48–15.157, p = 0.009 and OR = 0.966, 95% CI 0.935–0.998, p = 0.038, respectively in logistic regression. Rates of resistance to clindamycin were 100% and 69.6% in the A-B+ and A+B+ isolates, respectively (p = 0.006, and the ermB gene was identified in 17 of 21 A-B+ isolates (81%. Resistance to moxifloxacin was also more frequent in the A-B+ than in the A+B+ isolates (95.2% vs. 63.7%, p = 0.004. Conclusions The clinical course of A-B+ CDI is not different from that of A+B+ CDI. Clindamycin use is a significant risk factor for the acquisition of tcdA-negative variant strains.

  18. Clinical and microbiological effects of a subantimicrobial dose of oral doxycycline on periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S E; Hwang, S Y; Jeong, M; Lee, Y; Lee, E R; Park, Y W; Ahn, J S; Kim, S; Seo, K

    2016-02-01

    Doxycycline is regarded as an effective treatment for periodontal inflammation. In humans, it has been shown that the long-term administration of a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) does not induce antimicrobial effects on the subgingival microflora and furthermore does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of oral administration of SDD on normal periodontal microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility in dogs. Experimental periodontitis was induced in 12 experimental dogs using a silk and wire-twisted ligature for 60 days. After the periodontitis induction period, the ligature was removed, and dental cleaning (subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling) was performed. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an SDD group with six dogs receiving 2 mg/kg PO once daily and a control group with six dogs receiving a placebo. At weeks 0, 4 and 8, clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. After the clinical assessments, subgingival plaque was sampled and then cultured in an anaerobic system for one week, and the total anaerobes, Porphyromonas spp., Bacteroides spp. and Pasteurella spp. counts were investigated. Using the agar dilution method, the minimum bactericidal concentration of doxycycline was evaluated and the resistance for doxycycline was monitored during this experimental phase. The clinical periodontal status of the SDD group was significantly improved compared to the control group (P  0.05), and antibacterial resistance was not established in the SDD group during the experimental periods (P dogs. PMID:26639830

  19. Bacterial brain abscess in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma following radiotherapy: microbiology, clinical features and therapeutic outcomes

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    Fang Peng-Hsiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the clinical features, causative pathogens, neuro-imaging findings, and therapeutic outcomes of bacterial brain abscess in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC following radiotherapy. Methods NPC patients with bacterial brain abscess were evaluated. Their clinical data were collected over a 22-year period. For comparison, the clinical features, causative pathogens, neuro-imaging findings, and therapeutic outcomes between NPC and non-NPC patients were analyzed. Results NPC accounted for 5.7% (12/210 of the predisposing factors, with Viridans streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus as the two most common causative pathogens. Significant statistical analysis between the two groups (NPC and non-NPC patients included chronic otitis media (COM as the underlying disease, post-radiation necrosis by neuro-imaging, and the temporal lobe as the most common site of brain abscesses. The fatality rate in patients with and without NPC was 16.7% and 20.7%, respectively. Conclusions NPC patients with bacterial brain abscess frequently have COM as the underlying disease. Neuro-imaging often reveals both post-radiation necrosis and the temporal lobe as the most common site of brain abscesses, the diagnosis of which is not always a straightforward process. Radiation necrosis can mimic brain abscess on neuro-imaging and pose significant diagnostic challenges. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential for survival.

  20. Clinical, microbiological and pathological findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three Australian Possum species.

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    Carolyn R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998-2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus, a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases, and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals

  1. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarda, Hitesh; Gurav, Abhijit; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant; Shete, Abhijeet; Gaikwad, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU) with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination. PMID:25346838

  2. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  3. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER; Maristela Honório CAYETANO; Elerson Gaetti JARDIM JR; Sosígenes Victor BENFATTI; João BAUSELLS

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947) while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seco...

  4. Clinically and Microbiologically Derived Azithromycin Susceptibility Breakpoints for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Dolecek, Christiane; Karkey, Abhilasha; Gupta, Ruchi; Turner, Paul; Dance, David; Maude, Rapeephan R.; Ha, Vinh; Tran, Chinh Nguyen; Thi, Phuong Le; Be, Bay Pham Van; Phi, La Tran Thi; Ngoc, Rang Nguyen; Ghose, Aniruddha; Dongol, Sabina; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Duy Pham; Thanh, Tuyen Ha; Moore, Catrin E.; Sona, Soeng; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama; Anh, Ho Van; Van, Sach Nguyen; Tinh, Hien Tran; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen; Thwaites, Guy; Faiz, Mohamed Abul; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul; Basnyat, Buddha; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Azithromycin is an effective treatment for uncomplicated infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A (enteric fever), but there are no clinically validated MIC and disk zone size interpretative guidelines. We studied individual patient data from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antimicrobial treatment in enteric fever in Vietnam, with azithromycin used in one treatment arm, to determine the relationship between azithromycin treatment response and the azithromycin MIC of the infecting isolate. We additionally compared the azithromycin MIC and the disk susceptibility zone sizes of 1,640 S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A clinical isolates collected from seven Asian countries. In the RCTs, 214 patients who were treated with azithromycin at a dose of 10 to 20 mg/ml for 5 to 7 days were analyzed. Treatment was successful in 195 of 214 (91%) patients, with no significant difference in response (cure rate, fever clearance time) with MICs ranging from 4 to 16 μg/ml. The proportion of Asian enteric fever isolates with an MIC of ≤16 μg/ml was 1,452/1,460 (99.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.9 to 99.7) for S. Typhi and 207/240 (86.3%; 95% CI, 81.2 to 90.3) (P 16 μg/ml and to determine MIC and disk breakpoints for S. Paratyphi A. PMID:25733500

  5. Microbiological contamination of cubicle curtains in an out-patient podiatry clinic

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    O'Neil Bill

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to potential pathogens on contaminated healthcare garments and curtains can occur through direct or indirect contact. This study aimed to identify the microorganisms present on podiatry clinic curtains and measure the contamination pre and post a standard hospital laundry process. Method Baseline swabs were taken to determine colony counts present on cubical curtains before laundering. Curtains were swabbed again immediately after, one and three weeks post laundering. Total colony counts were calculated and compared to baseline, with identification of micro-organisms. Results Total colony counts increased very slightly by 3% immediately after laundry, which was not statistically significant, and declined significantly (p = 0.0002 by 56% one-week post laundry. Three weeks post laundry colony counts had increased by 16%; although clinically relevant, this was not statistically significant. The two most frequent microorganisms present throughout were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species. Laundering was not completely effective, as both species demonstrated no significant change following laundry. Conclusion This work suggests current laundry procedures may not be 100% effective in killing all microorganisms found on curtains, although a delayed decrease in total colony counts was evident. Cubicle curtains may act as a reservoir for microorganisms creating potential for cross contamination. This highlights the need for additional cleaning methods to decrease the risk of cross infection and the importance of maintaining good hand hygiene.

  6. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  7. Implementation of Next-Generation Sequencing for Hepatitis B Virus Resistance Testing and Genotyping in a Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Merrick, Linda; Harrigan, P Richard; Mazzulli, Tony; Sherlock, Christopher H; Ritchie, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Sanger sequencing or DNA hybridization have been the primary modalities for hepatitis B (HBV) resistance testing and genotyping; however, there are limitations, such as low sensitivity and the inability to detect novel mutations. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for HBV can overcome these limitations, but there is limited guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories to validate this novel technology. In this study, we describe an approach to implementing deep pyrosequencing for HBV resistance testing and genotyping in a clinical virology laboratory. A nested PCR targeting the pol region of HBV (codons 143 to 281) was developed, and the PCR product was sequenced by the 454 Junior (Roche). Interpretation was performed by ABL TherapyEdge based on European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Previously characterized HBV samples by INNO-LiPA (LiPA) were compared to NGS with discordant results arbitrated by Sanger sequencing. Genotyping of 105 distinct samples revealed a concordance of 95.2% (100/105), with Sanger sequencing confirming the NGS result. Resistance testing by NGS was concordant with LiPA in 85% (68/80) of previously characterized samples. Additional mutations were found in 8 samples, which related to the identification of low-level mutant subpopulations present at <10% (6/8). To balance the costs of testing for the validation study, reproducibility of the NGS was investigated through an analysis of sequence variants at loci not associated with resistance in a single patient sample. Our validation approach attempts to balance costs with efficient data acquisition. PMID:26537448

  8. Comparison of efficacy and cost-effectiveness of BIOMIC VIDEO and Vitek antimicrobial susceptibility test systems for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, I; Tierno, P M

    1996-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing expense may be a significant portion of a clinical microbiology laboratory's budget. This study compares the BIOMIC VIDEO system (Giles Scientific, Inc., New York, N.Y.) with the Vitek system (bioMérieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), an established automated method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the ability to generate MIC data. The BIOMIC system is relatively inexpensive and automates the reading of the classical disk agar diffusion test to ...

  9. SVARAP and aSVARAP: simple tools for quantitative analysis of nucleotide and amino acid variability and primer selection for clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tamalet Catherine; Colson Philippe; Raoult Didier

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize primer selection, which is critical for the identification of infectious pathogens based on gene sequencing: primers must target conserved nucleotide regions bordering highly variable areas to ensure discrimination of species. Second, it can be of interest to reveal mut...

  10. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Musbah Alasil; Rahmat Omar; Salmah Ismail; Mohd Yasim Yusof; Ghulam N. Dhabaan; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of...

  11. PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS IN CORONARY ATHEROMA AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE – A CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

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    Col S K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that hea rt disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of gram negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. AIMS : The present study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of P.ging ivalis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study was designed with 07 patients who had underwent coronary endarterectomy for CVD and 28 controls . The periodontal examination for cases was performed one day before vascular surgery and t he controls we re clinically examined. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the Intraoral plaque samples were subjected to PCR for identification of P.gingivalis. The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and subgingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Means and proportions for personal characters, major risk factors and c linical parameters were calculated for both the groups. The significance of any difference in means was tested by using “Students t test”, and the significance of any difference in proportions was tested by using Dunn - Sidak Adjusted p Value. RESULTS : D uring the microbial analysis of plaque samples by PCR in group A it was seen that Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100 % of the samples . Microbial analysis of endarterectomy samples by PCR in group A shows that Porphyromonas

  12. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947 while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seconds and tranferred to tubes containing 5 ml of thioglicolate broth. Microorganisms were isolated on blood agar and CVE an agar after incubation under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC, for 10 days. The identification of the isolates was based on their morphological, cellular and biochemical features. Results: 91.40% shows gingivitis while 70.97% presented mild gingivitis. Only 8.6% didn’t presented gingivitis. It was verified that the most of children presented mild gengivitis and was had some periodontopathogens. Conclusion: The gingivitis deteriored with age and only F. nucleatum was related with the deterioration of gengival status.

  13. Microbiological and biochemical studies on certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from certain clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection is a dynamic process involving invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and reactions of the tissues to microorganisms and their toxins. Pathogenic microorganisms isolated from clinical samples are of great threat to human health.The outcome of an infection depends on the virulence of the pathogen and the relative degree of resistance or susceptibility to antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antimicrobial agents interfere with specific processes that are essential for growth and division.Development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a problem of great concern. The high prevalence of resistant bacteria seems to be related to uncontrolled usage of antibiotics. B-lactamases are the most common cause of bacterial resistance to B-lactam antimicrobial agents, and it is one of the most important reason for increasing the resistance in pathogenic bacteria against some antibiotics especially those acting on inhibition of cell wall synthesis. One hundred and seven clinical samples and specimens were collected from public, private hospitals and National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Cairo, Egypt. Out of them 72 cases positive for microbial infection. Twelve cases were showed mixed infection. Eighty four isolates of pathogenic bacteria and yeast were collected from single and mixed culture. Susceptibilities of the isolates to 20 different antimicrobial agents were determined according to Kirby-Bauer method. Nine multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial strains were identified by (Micro Scan WalkAway 96 SI System). Six of them urine isolates, 2 wound (pus) isolates and one sputum isolate. The identified strains were exposed to in-vitro gamma irradiation at dose level of 24.4 Gy, which is biologically equivalent to the fractionated multiple therapeutic dose used in the protocol of cancer treatment of some patients. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the nine multi-drug resistant strains were carried out by disk diffusion method before and after irradiation

  14. Effectiveness of sub gingival irrigation of an indigenous 1% curcumin solution on clinical and microbiological parameters in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthima N. V. S. Gottumukkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 1% curcumin (CU solution and compare it with conventional irrigant i.e., 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate and a positive control (saline as an adjunct to thorough scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with non-adjacent probing pocket depths (PPDs ≥5mm were randomly assigned to CHX, CU and positive control irrigation groups and subjected to randomized single blinded clinical control trial. The clinical parameters bleeding on probing, redness, plaque index, PPD and microbiological parameter N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA test were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months interval. Results: At 1 month evaluation, CU group showed better results compared with the other groups. However, by the end of the study period CHX group showed the best results with as light recurrence in the CU group. The results of BANA test showed similar results for both CU and CHX group throughout the study period. Conclusion: The results of this study show a mild to moderate beneficiary effect of CU irrigation when used as an adjunct to Scaling and root planing. Further studies may be required using varied concentrations of the drug to improve the substantivity of the drug and also to prevent early re-colonization of periodontal pathogens.

  15. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasi F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Methods: Forty eligible patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB were randomized to receive cefditoren 200 mg twice a day for 5 days (n = 20 or levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days (n = 20.Results: The inflammatory parameters which were significantly reduced at test-of-cure with respect to visit 1 were Krebs von den Lundgen-6 (KL-6 and interleukin-6. KL-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 19 ± 11 UI/mL to 6 ± 8 UI/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 19 ± 13 UI/mL to 8 ± 10 UI/mL, P = 0.006 and levofloxacin (from 19 ± 10 UI/mL to 5 ± 5 UI/mL, P = 0.000 arms. Similarly, interleukin-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 13.35 ± 16.41 pg/mL to 3 ± 4.7 pg/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 15.90 ± 19.54 pg/mL to 4.13 ± 6.42 pg/mL, P = 0.015 and levofloxacin (from 10.80 ± 12.55 pg/mL to 1.87 ± 1.16 pg/mL, P = 0.003 arms. At the end of treatment (test-of-cure, 6–9 days after drug initiation, the clinical success rate in the overall study population was 78%; the clinical cure rate was 80% in the cefditoren arm and 75% in the levofloxacin arm. Globally, bacteriological eradication at test-of-cure was obtained in 85% of the overall study population. Both treatments were well tolerated.Conclusion: Cefditoren represents a valid option in the treatment of mild to moderately severe cases of AECB in the outpatient care setting. Moreover, the use of this cephalosporin is associated with a significant

  16. A quasi-universal medium to break the aerobic/anaerobic bacterial culture dichotomy in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, N; Khelaifia, S; La Scola, B; Lagier, J C; Raoult, D

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-19th century, the dichotomy between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was introduced. Nevertheless, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacterial species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Fusobacterium necrophorum, in a culture medium containing antioxidants, was recently demonstrated. We tested aerobically the culture of 623 bacterial strains from 276 bacterial species including 82 strictly anaerobic, 154 facultative anaerobic, 31 aerobic and nine microaerophilic bacterial species as well as ten fungi. The basic culture medium was based on Schaedler agar supplemented with 1 g/L ascorbic acid and 0.1 g/L glutathione (R-medium). We successively optimized this media, adding 0.4 g/L uric acid, using separate autoclaving of the component, or adding haemin 0.1 g/L or α-ketoglutarate 2 g/L. In the basic medium, 237 bacterial species and ten fungal species grew but with no growth of 36 bacterial species, including 22 strict anaerobes. Adding uric acid allowed the growth of 14 further species including eight strict anaerobes, while separate autoclaving allowed the growth of all tested bacterial strains. To extend its potential use for fastidious bacteria, we added haemin for Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Eikenella corrodens and α-ketoglutarate for Legionella pneumophila. This medium allowed the growth of all tested strains with the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Testing primoculture and more fastidious species will constitute the main work to be done, but R-medium coupled with a rapid identification method (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) will facilitate the anaerobic culture in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26577141

  17. Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Dai, Xing; Liang, Jiu-Hong; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Belfiore, Natalia M.; Bradford, Carol; Corn, Joseph L.; Cray, Carolyn; Glass, Gregory E.; Gordon, Melvin L.; Hesse, Richard A.; Montgomery, Donald L.; Nicholson, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine are known reservoirs, but how broadly enzootic its causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is remains controversial. To determine the prevalence of HEV infection in animals, a serological assay with capability to detect anti-HEV-antibody across a wide variety of animal species was devised. Recombinant antigens comprising truncated capsid proteins generated from HEV-subgenomic constructs that represent all four viral genotypes were used to c...

  18. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; Wil A van der Reijden; Dahlen, Gunnar; Andrew J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into...

  19. Coral microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  20. SVARAP and aSVARAP: simple tools for quantitative analysis of nucleotide and amino acid variability and primer selection for clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamalet Catherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize primer selection, which is critical for the identification of infectious pathogens based on gene sequencing: primers must target conserved nucleotide regions bordering highly variable areas to ensure discrimination of species. Second, it can be of interest to reveal mutations associated with drug resistance of pathogen agents. Our aim was therefore to test easy and cost-free tools (SVARAP and aSVARAP that require short hands-on work, little expertise, and which allow visual interpretation and statistical analysis of results. Results We first tested SVARAP to improve a strategy of identification of streptococci species of the Viridans Group targeting the groESL gene. Two regions with p -3. Secondly, aSVARAP was tested on reverse transcriptase (RT sequences from 129 HIV-1 clinical strains to identify natural polymorphisms and drug-selected mutations emerging under nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI-selective pressure. It revealed eleven of the 18 RT mutations considered in a reference HIV-1 genotypic NRTI-resistance interpretation algorithm. Conclusion SVARAP and aSVARAP are simple, versatile and helpful tools for analysis of sequence variability, and are currently being used in real practice in our clinical microbiology laboratory.

  1. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65% followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%. There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm’s early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections.

  2. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Dhabaan, Ghulam N; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%). There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm's early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections. PMID:24454384

  3. Voriconazole treatment of Candida tropicalis meningitis: persistence of (1,3)-β-d-glucan in the cerebrospinal fluid is a marker of clinical and microbiological failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Ghezzi, Maria Cristina; Raponi, Giammarco; Brunetti, Grazia; Marsiglia, Carolina; Fallani, Stefania; Novelli, Andrea; Venditti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Infections are still the most common complications of cerebral shunt procedures. Even though fungal etiologies are considered to be rare, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Due to their uncommonness, diagnostic procedures and optimal therapy are poorly defined. We report a case of Candida tropicalis infection of ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in a 49-year-old immune competent male treated with voriconazole (VOR). Methods: Microbiological and CSF markers (1,3-b-D-glucan-BDG) of fungal infection, biofilm production capacity, sensitivity of serial isolates of the pathogen, and the concentration of the antifungal drug have been monitored and related to the clinical course of this infection. Results: Despite appropriate treatment with VOR, in terms of adequate achieved CSF drug concentrations and initial effective therapeutic response, loss of VOR susceptibility of the C tropicalis and treatment failure were observed. Conclusion: Biofilm production of the C. tropicalis isolate might have had a significant role in treatment failure. Of interest, clinical and microbiological unfavorable outcome was anticipated by persistence of BDG in CSF. Rising titers of this marker were associated with relapse of fungal infection. PMID:27495087

  4. Evaluation of the 10th External Quality Assessment Scheme results in clinical microbiology laboratories in Tehran and districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, M; Rahbar, M; Hekmat Yazdi, S; Rashed Marandi, F; Sabourian, R; Saremi, M

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of microbiology laboratories in the 10th run of the external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) in Tehran and districts. Each laboratory was sent 2 species of bacteria for identification. Of the 487 laboratories that participated, 437 returned their findings. While 77.0% and 69.9% correctly identified Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Citrobacter freundii respectively, only 29.8% correctly identified Acinetobacter baumanii, 25.3% identified Enterococcus faecalis and 35.6% identified Enterobacter agglomerans. However 78.7% and 79.5% of the laboratories reported correct -results for susceptibility testing for S. saprophyticus and C. freundii respectively. PMID:17037699

  5. Increasing pathomorphism of pulmonary tuberculosis: an observational study of slow clinical, microbiological and imaging response of lung tuberculosis to specific treatment. Which role for linezolid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, a progressive emerging of tuberculosis occurred, related to the overall increased age of general population, primary and secondary (iatrogenic immunodeficiencies, the availability of invasive procedures, surgical interventions and intensive care supports, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and especially the recent immigration flows of people often coming from areas endemic for tuberculosis, and living with evident social-economical disadvantages, and with a reduced access to health care facilities. Since January 2006, at our reference centre we followed 81 consecutive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 65 of them which remained evaluable for the absence of extrapulmonary complications, and a continuative and effective clinical and therapeutic follow-up. The majority of episodes of evaluable pulmonary tuberculosis (49 cases out of 65: 75,4% occurred in patients who immigrated from developing countries. In two patients multiresistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were found, while two more subjects (both immigrated from Eastern Europe suffered from a disease due to extremely resistant (XDR M. tuberculosis strains. Although enforcing all possible measures to increase patients' adherence to treatment (empowerment, delivery of oral drugs under direct control, use of i.v. formulation whenever possible, over 72% of evaluable patients had a very slow clinical, microbiological, and imaging ameliorement (1-6 months, with persistance of sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid positive for M.tuberculosis microscopy and/or culture for over 1-4 months (mean 9.2±3.2 weeks, during an apparently adequate treatment. When excluding patients suffering from XDR and MDR tuberculosis, in four subjects we observed that off-label linezolid adjunct together with at least three drugs with residual activity against tuberculosis, led to a significantly more rapid clinical-radiological improvement and negative

  6. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  7. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  8. Impact of the Daily Use of a Microcrystal Hydroxyapatite Dentifrice on De Novo Plaque Formation and Clinical/Microbiological Parameters of Periodontal Health. A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; May, Theodor W.; Gravemeier, Martina; Prior, Karola; Petersilka, Gregor; Ehmke, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Aim This 12-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, two-center trial evaluated the impact of a microcrystalline zinc hydroxyapatite (mHA) dentifrice on plaque formation rate (PFR) in chronic periodontitis patients. We hypothesized that mHA precipitates cause delayed plaque development when compared to a fluoridated control (AmF/SnF2), and therefore would improve periodontal health. Material & Methods At baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks, PFR and other clinical and microbiological parameters were recorded. Seventy periodontitis patients received a mHA or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice as daily oral care without hygiene instructions. Four weeks after baseline, participants received full mouth debridement and continued using the dentifrices for another 8 weeks. Results Primary outcome PFR did not change statistically significantly from baseline to weeks 4 and 12, neither in mHA (n = 33; 51.7±17.2% vs. 48.5±16.65% vs. 48.4±19.9%) nor in AmF/SnF2-group (n = 34; 52.3±17.5% vs. 52.5±21.3% vs. 46.1±21.8%). Secondary clinical parameters such as plaque control record, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and pocket probing depth improved, but between-group differences were not statistically significant. Microbiological analyses showed similar slight decreases in colony-forming units in both groups. Conclusion In patients with mild-to-moderate periodontitis, periodontal therapy and use of a mHA-or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice without instructions induced comparable improvements in periodontal health but did not significantly reduce the PFR. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT02697539 PMID:27467683

  9. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  10. Clinical predictors and microbiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective analysis in six Italian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, D; Pezzotti, P; Fortunato, E; Sordillo, P; Gini, S; Boros, S; Meledandri, M; Gallo, M T; Prignano, G; Caccese, R; D'Ambrosio, M; Citterio, G; Rocco, M; Leonardis, F; Natoli, S; Fontana, C; Favaro, M; Celeste, M G; Franci, T; Testore, G P; Andreoni, M; Sarmati, L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the main clinical predictors and microbiological features of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment. This work is a retrospective analysis over one year from September 2010 to September 2011. Patients' risk factors, causes of admission, comorbidities and respiratory specimens collected in six Italian ICUs were reviewed. Incidence and case fatality rate of VAP were evaluated. After stratification for VAP development, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of patients' conditions on the onset of this infection. A total of 1,647 ICU patients (pts) were considered. Overall, 115 patients (6.9 %) experienced at least one episode of VAP. The incidence rate for VAP was 5.82/1,000 pts-days, with a case fatality rate of 44.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that admission for neurological disorders (aIRR 4.12, CI 1.24-13.68, p = 0.02) and emergency referral to ICU from other hospitals (aIRR 2.11, CI 1.03-4.31, p = 0.04) were associated with higher risk of VAP, whereas a tendency to a higher risk of infection was detected for admission due to respiratory disease, cardiac disease, trauma and for having obesity or renal failure. A total of 372 microbiological isolates from respiratory specimens were collected in VAP patients. The most common species were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showing high resistance rates to carbapenems. Neurological disorders and emergency referral at the admission into the ICU are significantly associated with the onset of VAP. A high incidence of multi-drug resistant Gram- species was detected in the respiratory specimens. PMID:27272120

  11. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  12. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  13. Impact of Timing and Dosage of a Fluoroquinolone Treatment on the Microbiological, Pathological, and Clinical Outcomes of Calves Challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; Ferran, Aude A; Assié, Sébastien; Cassard, Hervé; El Garch, Farid; Schneider, Marc; Woerhlé, Frédérique; Pacalin, Diane; Delverdier, Maxence; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Meyer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.10(7) CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in four groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON), 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2-4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2), 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35-39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10). In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5-4 and 5.5-6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24 h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia. PMID:26973615

  14. Clinical, microbiological and immunological effects of natural compounds-containing mouthrinses in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; 陳勇

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment can give rise to bacteria and nonbacterial induced gingival inflammations. Previous studies have shown that some natural compounds-containing mouthrinses (NCCMs) have clinical benefits for maintaining gingival health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of NCCMs in the management of dental plaque and gingivitis among orthodontic patients. The present study consisted of three parts: 1) a systematic review on the effective...

  15. Clinical and microbiological outcome in septic patients with extremely low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at initiation of critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, G; Vallecoccia, M S; Schiattarella, A; Di Gravio, V; Cutuli, S L; Bello, G; Montini, L; Pennisi, M A; Spanu, T; Zuppi, C; Quraishi, S A; Antonelli, M

    2016-05-01

    A relationship between vitamin D status and mortality in patients in intensive care units (ICU) has been documented. The present study aims to describe the clinical profile and sepsis-related outcome of critically ill septic patients with extremely low (7 ng/mL (80.7% versus 58%, p 0.02; 35.3% versus 68%; p 0.03, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed that, in the extremely low vitamin D group, the 52 patients with pneumonia showed a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (9 days (3.75-12.5 days) versus 4 days (2-9 days), p 0.04) and the 66 with septic shock needed vasopressor support for a longer period of time (7 days (4-10 days) versus 4 days (2-7.25 days), p 0.02). Our results suggest that in critical septic patients extremely low vitamin D levels on admission may be a major determinant of clinical outcome. Benefits of vitamin D replacement therapy in this population should be elucidated. PMID:26721785

  16. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin in primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lula, E C O; Monteiro-Neto, V; Alves, C M C; Ribeiro, C C C

    2009-01-01

    Since viable bacteria can persist in tooth cavities regardless of the technique used for caries removal, the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to examine the microflora of primary teeth treated by complete or partial removal of carious dentin. Deciduous molars with acute carious lesions in the inner half of dentin and vital pulp were randomly divided into two groups of 16: complete removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed with the help of a caries detector dye, and partial removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed from the dentinoenamel junction and lateral walls, while the necrotic carious dentin from the cavity floor was only removed superficially. Dentin samples were obtained with a sterile No. 3 bur after caries removal and 3-6 months after protection with calcium hydroxide cement and restoration of the cavities with resin composite. The samples were stored in thioglycolate. Decimal dilutions were then prepared and seeded for the enumeration of Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. and total microorganisms. Before sealing, a larger number of microorganisms was detected in teeth submitted to partial caries removal compared to the complete removal group. However, after sealing the level of colonization was similar in the two groups for all microorganisms studied. The results suggest that persistence of bacteria does not seem to be a reason for reopening of cavities in deciduous teeth after partial caries removal. PMID:19648746

  17. [THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MODERN METHODS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN CLINICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavzyutova, G A; Kuzovkina, O Z; Mirsayapova, I A

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to determine etiological structure and informativeness of different methods of detection of agents of community-acquired pneumonia, the sampling included 274 examined patients aged from 16 to 80 years with community-acquired pneumonia of different degree of severity and being under hospital treatment. Besides of standard laboratory and clinical methods of examination ofpatients with community-acquired pneumonia special techniques of etiological verification were applied: molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction) of phlegm, qualitative detection of antigen Legionella pneumophila of serogroup 1 and antigen Streptococcus pneumoniae in samples of urine using quick immune chromatographic test, detection of level of serum specific immunoglobulines class M and G to Chlamidophilia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pListeria monocytogenes in dynamics using immunoenzyme technique. The etiological structure of community-acquired pneumonia was established based of study results. The analysis of informativeness of different methods of etiological verification of diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated that combination ofpolymerase chain reaction and serological method is the optimal one. PMID:27032250

  18. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known. This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  19. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  20. Variability in Urine Culture Reporting by Canadian Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Michael A.; Nikiforuk, Shirley

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of microbiology laboratories to perform and to report urine colony counts.DESIGN: Clinical Microbiology Proficiency Testing program participants received stabilized simulated urine samples. Laboratories were asked to perform the appropriate test and report results.PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and nine clinical microbiology laboratories in British Columbia, Alberta and Nova Scotia.OUTCOME MEASURES: Consistency of reporting was compared with standards for report...

  1. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  2. Effectiveness of sub gingival irrigation of an indigenous 1% curcumin solution on clinical and microbiological parameters in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gottumukkala, Sruthima N. V. S.; Suneetha Koneru; Satheesh Mannem; Narendra Mandalapu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 1% curcumin (CU) solution and compare it with conventional irrigant i.e., 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate and a positive control (saline) as an adjunct to thorough scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with non-adjacent probing pocket depths (PPDs) ≥5mm were randomly assigned to CHX, CU and positive control irrigation groups and subjected to randomized single blinded clinical control trial. The clin...

  3. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  4. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  5. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered spe...... occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved....

  6. Perfil clínico e microbiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana Clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Ribeiro de Figueiredo Leite

    2010-02-01

    ,2%, Cocos Gram-positivos (98,2%, além de bacilos Gram-positivos (99,3% e negativos (91,0%. As colpocitologias oncóticas mostraram presença muito escassa de lactobacilos, que estiveram presentes em apenas 8 citologias (2,9% do total de 273 exames realizados. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados do estudo não mostraram diferença em relação à literatura quanto aos sintomas referidos pelas mulheres, os critérios clínicos mais observados no diagnóstico, ou as espécies bacterianas demonstradas nas culturas de conteúdo vaginal. Os achados demonstram serem necessários novos estudos que melhor elucidem as inter-relações entre os achados microbiológicos e a expressão clínica da vaginose bacteriana. Registro do ensaio clínico: ISRCTN18987156PURPOSE: to study the clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis participating in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, which compared the vaginal use of preparations from red pepper tree and metronidazole for the treatment of genital discharge. METHODS: the study was conducted on a series of 277 women with bacterial vaginosis concomitantly diagnosed by the criteria of Amsel and Nugent, selected from a total of 462 recruited patients using the information obtained before intervention. Data were analyzed with the Epi-Info 3.32 software. In order to compare the outcomes frequencies between the intervention groups, the χ2 test was used and the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. The intention to treat analysis was performed. In addition to the determination of diagnostic parameters, the culture of vaginal content and a Papanicolaou cytology test were also performed. RESULTS: the most frequent clinical complaints were genital discharge, observed in 206 participants (74.4% and the fish odor of the vaginal secretion, which occurred in 68.6% of the cases (190 patients. Among the diagnostic clinical criteria, the presence of clue-cells was positive in 275 women (99.3%, the Whiff test, in 266

  7. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  8. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. PMID:27465488

  9. Egg Microbiology Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiology is the study of living microorganisms. This includes any single living animal not visible to the naked eye most of which are less than 0.1 mm in diameter. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, some algae and protozoans are considered microorganisms. Microbiology is a diverse field and fo...

  10. Application of MALDI-TOF MS in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples%MALDI-TOF MS在临床微生物样本直接检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 胡玢婕; 赵虎

    2015-01-01

    基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)是近年来发展起来的一项新兴的微生物鉴定技术,与传统的生化表型鉴定方法和分子生物学方法相比,MALDI-TOF MS具有操作简单、快速、准确和经济的特点。鉴于其对培养出的纯菌落鉴定的准确性和稳定性,MALDI-TOF MS也可被应用于临床样本的直接检测,包括阳性血培养瓶、中段尿、脑脊液等。本文主要就MALDI-TOF MS用于直接检测临床样本的原理、流程、鉴定效能及其研究进展等方面做一综述。%Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS),as a newly developed technology in recent years , is an easy, rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for microbial identification in clinical microbiology , compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology .Given the accuracy and reliability of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of microorganisms grown on solid medium , this technology might also be directly applied to some clinical microbiological samples , such as positive blood culture bottles , midstream urine , cerebrospinal fluid and so on .The goal of this review was to discuss the application of MALDI-TOF MS technology in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples , including the principles , protocols, performance and research progress .

  11. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  12. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs. PMID:27118790

  13. Application of molecular techniques in clinical microbiological determination%关注分子技术在临床微生物检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪语星

    2014-01-01

    备的结核分枝杆菌融合蛋白-6用于结核病血清学检测具有较好的敏感性和特异性,可用于结核病患者的血清学诊断。%We carefully organized 6 manuscripts,including 1 review and 5 research papers for the molecular microbiology diagnosis special issue,mainly about the diagnosis,treatment (resistance ),prevention and control of clinical common bacterium,fungus and mycobacterium infections.The special issue focuses on the application research of molecular biology techniques in the direct detection of clinical specimens,genotyping,resistance gene research, antigen preparation,serological diagnosis and so on.Blood stream infection is a serious infectious disease,but blood cultures have the problem with long turn-around-time and low positive rate.The application of molecular biology techniques can be used to the detection of common or rare pathogenic bacteria,mycobacteria,fastidous bacteria for rapid identification and drug resistance analysis in the blood stream infection,which can shorten the turn-around-time. Clostridium difficile is a kind of important nosocomial infection pathogen which can cause antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. GeneXpert real-time fluorescence quantitation polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) can directly detect Clostridium difficile infection and has the advantages of rapid detection,simple operation and so on.Candida glabrata can cause blood stream infection and other infections.It is a common invasive fungus in nosocomial infection with strong drug resistance.Microsatellite polymorphism offers a simple and rapid method for genotyping with resolution,which is higher than multilocus sequence typing (MLST).Therefore,microsatellite polymorphism can be the preferred choice for Candida glabrata genotyping in laboratory.In recent years,Candida albicans azole resistance has increasing trend.The expression ofgenes related to azole resistance and biofilm in Candida albicans suggests that ERG1 1 gene over expression for

  14. Microbiological and Morphological Analysis of Dental Implants Removed for Incomplete Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Passariello, C.; Berlutti, F.; Selan, L.; C Amodeo; Comodi-Ballanti, M R; L. Serafino; Thaller, M C

    2011-01-01

    Dental implants may share both severe infection and incomplete osseointegration in the absence of obvious clinical signs of infection. While microbiological data have been collected on peri-implant infections, no previous studies have investigated microbiologically incompletely osseointegrated implants. This paper presents microbiological and scanning electron microscopy observations on 30 implants showing incomplete osseointegration. All the 30 implants were colonised by bacterial species th...

  15. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown. PMID:21491069

  16. Microbiology Made Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Lois S.; Metz, Mildred C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are two hospital-based laboratory exercises which helped students perceive the relationship between the principles of microbiology and the practice of nursing. The exercises involved an environmental study focusing on problems of nosocomial infection and a study of patients hospitalized with infectious diseases. (Author/MS)

  17. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  18. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  19. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  1. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  2. Microbiological aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is now recognized as commonly occurring in power plants as well as other industries. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored survey and the case histories it contained implicated MIC in fire protection systems, heat exchangers, and the structural reliability and functioning of a variety of service water system components at nuclear power plants. A similar study covering various components of fossil-fired plants found that heat exchangers, piping and storage vessels were susceptible to MIC. A more recent publication sponsored by EPRI contained additional case histories covering MIC of carbon steels, stainless steels, copper alloys and high nickel alloys in a variety of components in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors present field and laboratory experiences in MIC of various alloys and present a model for the pitting corrosion of carbon steel. In the case of other alloys, more speculative information is presented attempting to relate the microbes and their activities to the corrosion

  3. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  4. [The clinical and microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of oral irrigation on the periodontal tissues of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Murro, C; Paolantonio, M; Petti, S; Tomassini, E; Festa, F; Grippaudo, C; Sbolgi, S

    1992-11-01

    The aim of the present study has been the evaluation of the effectiveness of oral irrigation with or without toothbrushing and dental flossing, in individuals treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, on controlling the development of dental plaque and, hence, of gingivitis. Eight individuals with a good general and oral status have been chosen. Before the experimental period, they received instructions about oral hygiene with toothbrushing and dental flossing and then they have been monitored to verify they were doing well. At the time T0, the upper tooth have been banded, three Periodontal Indexes (Plaque Index according to Silness and Loe, Modified Gingival Index according to Lobene and Gingival Bleeding Index according to Ainamo and Bay) registered and subgingival plaque samples from the premolars' gingival sulcus collected in order to point out the total anaerobes bacterial counts, the rates of motile bacteria, spirochetes, Gram positive and Gram negative cocci and bacteria, by means of optical and dark field microscopy and of cultural methods. For their oral hygiene, the patients had to use, in the right side toothbrush and dental floss (Control 1), in the left side the oral irrigator alone (Test 1). One month later (time T1), the lower teeth have been banded, too. In the right side the patients had to use toothbrush and dental floss (Control 2), while in the left one they used the same devices as Control 2 plus the oral irrigator (Test 2). At the time T1 Periodontal Indexes and Microbiological analyses have been extended to all the four quadrants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1294872

  5. Microbiological study of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD and the usefulness of analytical and clinical parameters in its identification (VIRAE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boixeda R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Boixeda,1,5 Nuria Rabella,2 Goretti Sauca,3 Maria Delgado,1 Xavier Martinez-Costa1, Montserrat Mauri,1 Vanessa Vicente,1 Elisabet Palomera,4 Mateu Serra-Prat,4 Josep Antón Capdevila11Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Santa Creu and Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Research, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: Respiratory infection is the most common cause for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD. The aim of this work was to study the etiology of the respiratory infection in order to assess the usefulness of the clinical and analytical parameters used for COPD identification.Patients and methods: We included 132 patients over a period of 2 years. The etiology of the respiratory infection was studied by conventional sputum, paired serology tests for atypical bacteria, and viral diagnostic techniques (immunochromatography, immunofluorescence, cell culture, and molecular biology techniques. We grouped the patients into four groups based on the pathogens isolated (bacterial versus. viral, known etiology versus unknown etiology and compared the groups.Results: A pathogen was identified in 48 patients. The pathogen was identified through sputum culture in 34 patients, seroconversion in three patients, and a positive result from viral techniques in 14 patients. No significant differences in identifying etiology were observed in the clinical and analytical parameters within the different groups. The most cost-effective tests were the sputum test and the polymerase chain reaction.Conclusion: Based on our experience, clinical and analytical parameters are not useful for the etiological identification of COPD exacerbations. Diagnosing COPD exacerbation is difficult, with the

  6. Structuring Free-text Microbiology Culture Reports For Secondary Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wen-wai; Evans, Heather L.; Yetisgen, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology lab culture reports are a frequently used diagnostic tool for clinical providers. However, their incorporation into clinical surveillance applications and evidence-based medicine can be severely hindered by the free-text nature of these reports. In this work, we (1) created a microbiology culture template to structure free-text microbiology reports, (2) generated an annotated microbiology report corpus, and (3) built a microbiology information extraction system. Specifically, we combined rule-based, hybrid, and statistical techniques to extract microbiology entities and fill templates for structuring data. System performances were favorable, with entity f1-score 0.889 and relation f1-score 0.795. We plan to incorporate these extractions as features for our ongoing ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance project, though this tool can be used as an upstream process in other applications. Our newly created corpus includes 1442 unique gram stain and culture microbiology reports generated from a cohort of 715 patients at the University of Washington Medical Facilities. PMID:26306288

  7. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K; Lundgren, Bettina; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Hansen, Dennis Schrøder; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Jensen, Thøger Gorm; Dessau, Ram; Møller, Jens K.; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Lomborg, Steen; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Kjældgaard, Poul; Truberg, Kjeld; Hoffmann, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...... of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of...

  8. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Watling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent to those developments it has been shown that microbial communities in metals extraction are more diverse than originally thought, and extremely robust and adaptable to different and variable environments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, exploiting hugely increased computing power and speed, have made it possible to describe not only which microorganisms are present in bioleaching systems, but also what physiological functions are being exercised. The body of knowledge being acquired through the application of molecular biology methods will be used increasingly to monitor microbial behaviour, optimise conditions for more appropriate microbiological activity and/or infer the “microbiological health” of bioreactors (tanks and heaps.

  9. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  10. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  11. Impact of Ramadan on clinical and microbiologic parameters of patients seen at a diarrheal hospital in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel T; Das, Sumon K; Malek, M A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A S G; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan is a month in the Islamic calendar when Muslims fast during daylight hours. We used data from the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country, to compare the etiology and clinical presentation of patients who presented with diarrhea during Ramadan to that of control periods, defined as the 30 days immediately before Ramadan. The proportion of infecting pathogens was largely the same, although Shigella spp. were less likely to be identified during Ramadan. Clinical presentations during Ramadan among adult Muslim diarrheal patients were also comparable to those admitted during control periods. A subgroup of cholera patients who presented after sunset during Ramadan had a shorter duration of diarrhea and higher prevalence of severe thirst, drowsiness, and severe dehydration. Our findings suggest that Ramadan has few effects on the profile of enteric pathogens and clinical features of adults seeking medical care for diarrhea. PMID:24394479

  12. Impact of Ramadan on Clinical and Microbiologic Parameters of Patients Seen at a Diarrheal Hospital in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1996–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel T.; Das, Sumon K.; Malek, M. A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A. S. G.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan is a month in the Islamic calendar when Muslims fast during daylight hours. We used data from the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country, to compare the etiology and clinical presentation of patients who presented with diarrhea during Ramadan to that of control periods, defined as the 30 days immediately before Ramadan. The proportion of infecting pathogens was largely the same, although Shigella spp. were less likely to be identified during Ramadan. Clinical presentations during Ramadan among adult Muslim diarrheal patients were also comparable to those admitted during control periods. A subgroup of cholera patients who presented after sunset during Ramadan had a shorter duration of diarrhea and higher prevalence of severe thirst, drowsiness, and severe dehydration. Our findings suggest that Ramadan has few effects on the profile of enteric pathogens and clinical features of adults seeking medical care for diarrhea. PMID:24394479

  13. The association of clinical and microbiologic parameters with histologic observations in relatively healthy peri-implant conditions- a preliminary short-term in vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brakel, Ralph; Meijer, Gert J.; de Putter, Cornelis; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Jansen, John; Cune, Marco S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether clinical findings-bleeding on probing, pocket depth, recession, and bacterial sampling-correlate with histologic outcomes in relatively healthy peri-implant soft tissues in people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 20 edentulo

  14. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Alita R.; James J. Smith

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the...

  15. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  16. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology. PMID:24958671

  17. Comparative evaluation of natural curcumin and synthetic chlorhexidine in the management of chronic periodontitis as a local drug delivery: A clinical and microbiological study

    OpenAIRE

    V.Anitha; Rajesh, P.; Shanmugam, M.; B Meena Priya; Prabhu, S.; V Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background of the Study: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of natural curcumin in the management of chronic periodontitis as local drug delivery in comparison to synthetic chlorhexidine, which is the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients with an age range of 20-50 years with probing pocket depth (PPD) of 4-6 mm were included. Curcumin and chlorhexidine gel was applied in the contralateral disease sites at baseline and day 15. The clinic...

  18. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials ...

  19. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Singhal; Shashidhar Acharya; Arun Singh Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materi...

  20. Applications of molecular diagnostics techniques in clinical microbiology laboratory%分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长贵; 成军

    2013-01-01

    Applications of molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratory were introduced in the article,including nucleic acid hybridization,nucleic acid amplification,DNA sequencing,gene chips and mass spectrometry.Molecular diagnostic techniques provide major tools for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases,molecular epidemiology investigation,rapid identification of microbial pathogens and the study of the pathogenicity and antibiotics resistance.The application of these new technologies,as the complement of traditional culture methods,increases sensitivity,accuracy and diagnostic efficiency of assays.%主要介绍分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用,内容包括核酸杂交、核酸扩增、DNA测序、基因芯片和质谱技术.分子诊断技术为感染病的快速诊断、分子流行病学调查、微生物的快速鉴定、病原菌的致病性和抗生素的耐受性研究等提供了重要的检测手段.这些新技术的应用,作为传统培养法的补充,提高了检测的灵敏度、准确性和诊断效率.

  1. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  2. Microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I

    2016-07-01

    Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the commonest isolates in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) were recovered from over a third of these patients. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for over 60 % of S. aureus isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative Gram-negative rods are frequently recovered in nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and in cystic fibrosis. The CRS infection evolves the formation of a biofilm that might play a significant role in the pathogenesis and persistence of CRS. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. Recognition of the unique microbiology of CRS and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of great importance when selecting antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27086363

  3. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  4. [Microbiology laboratory management: an (almost) pending matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Javier; Nogueira, José Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Many professionals from distinct disciplines work in health centers and consequently these workplaces should be considered as service companies, involving human, material and financial resources aimed at providing a service required by society. Hospitals are one of the most complex types of company, in which diverse goods and services are produced and consumed. Like the hospital as a whole, the various units and departments in which the hospital is divided, including the microbiology department, are sufficiently different to be called distinct, but related, branches of the same company, given that none can perform their function without the others. Viewing a hospital service as a branch of a large company (the hospital as a whole) allows its production, the resources used in this production, and its clients to be identified more clearly. The healthcare model based on clinical management units aims to constitute a new organizational model for public health systems in which health strategies are performed that allow innovation and decentralization of the healthcare network. Clinical management provides the framework for attending to the population's healthcare needs through a person-centered approach and involves all the professionals in any of the settings in which healthcare is provided. Among the aims of this model is to guarantee continuity of care, facilitate comprehensive health promotion and deliver daily healthcare effectively. The main instruments of clinical management are structured knowledge of the population's health needs, the use of the best scientific knowledge available, and a comprehensive and participatory practical model, together with assessment tools. Three possible clinical management models are proposed for the work of specialists in microbiology and parasitology: a) a microbiology clinical management unit; b) a biological diagnosis clinical management unit, and c) a multidisciplinary clinical management unit with cross-competencies with

  5. Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy and Lasers as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis – A Clinical and Microbiologic Short Term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indranil; Rajan, Padma; Pai, Jagdish; Malagi, Sachin; Bharmappa, Radhika; Kamath, Vinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive periodontitis comprises a group of rare, severe, rapidly progressive form of periodontitis. Conventional treatment includes mechanical debridement augmented with adjunctive antimicrobial therapy. Development of antibiotic resistance has led to use of lasers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel non-invasive therapeutic approach with increased site and pathogen specificity. This study compares PDT and Lasers as an adjunct to conventional Scaling in the treatment of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods Fifteen untreated aggressive periodo-ntitis patients were randomly assigned in a split mouth design for one of the following treatment modalities: 1) SRP alone; (2) SRP + Diode Laser irradiation with 810 nm at 1W, continuous mode for 30 sec per tooth; (3) SRP + PDT on “0” day; (4) SRP + PDT on “0”, 7th and 21st day. The clinical parameters included PI, BOP, PPD, CAL recorded at the baseline & 3rd month. The site with greatest probing pocket depth (PPD) was selected from each quadrant for bacterial sampling and cultured for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis & Prevotella intermedia. Results Statistically significant reduction in clinical & microbial parameters was seen. Sites 4 showed a greater reduction compared to other groups. Conclusion Photodynamic therapy is a valuable treatment modality adjunctive to conventional scaling and root planing. PMID:27042576

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STAPHYLO- COCCAL INFECTIONS TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko S.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Overview summarizes the data of the domestic and for-eign literature about the prevalence and biological prop-erties of S. aureus. S. аureus enzymes of aggression andpathogenicity factors (capsular polysaccharides, differentextracellular protein substances (hemolysins, leuko-cidins, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, co-agulase etc. which disintegrate structural components ofconnective tissue and eukaryotic cells are described interms of improvement and enhancement of microbiologi-cal technologies. Detailed information about the prob-lem of Staphylococcus aureus multidrugresistance andmechanisms of methicillin resistance formation is given.The necessity of targeted monitoring of the biologicalproperties of S. aureus selected clinical isolates in orderto optimize detection of the pathogen aggressiveness isproved.

  7. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  8. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  9. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitish Durga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease has been thought to be associated with several restricted members of the oral anaerobic species, such as black-pigmented Porphyromonas species and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, in the subgingival environment. Apart from bacteria, certain viruses and fungi that are associated with periodontal disease are also present in the subgingival plaque . Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover split-mouth design was performed. A total of 16 patients suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The study period of 18 days was divided into two time-intervals, i.e. baseline (0 days to 7 th day, with a washout period of 4 days followed by a second time interval of 7 days. The use of ozone and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX irrigation was randomized. Both the patient and the clinician evaluating the clinical parameters were blinded regarding the type of irrigation used. Results: The interpretation of clinical and microbial data is from baseline to 7 th day. A higher percentage of plaque index (12%, gingival index (29% and bleeding index (26% reduction was observed using ozone irrigation as compared to chlorhexidine. The percentile reduction of Aa (25% using ozone was appreciable as compared to no change in Aa occurrence using chlorhexidine. By using O 3 and chlorhexidine, there was no antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Tannerella forsythensis. The antifungal effect of ozone from baseline (37% to 7 th day (12.5% was pronounced during the study period, unlike CHX, which did not demonstrate any antifungal effect. Conclusion: Ozone may be considered as an alternative management strategy due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. Also, there is growing evidence that ozone can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent in both dentistry and medicine.

  10. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R; Smith, James J

    2016-05-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27158306

  11. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  12. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  13. How Many Samples and How Many Culture Media To Diagnose a Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Clinical and Microbiological Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémer, Pascale; Léger, Julie; Tandé, Didier; Plouzeau, Chloé; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bret, Laurent; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Corvec, Stéphane; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous perioperative samples and culture media are required to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI), their exact number and types have not yet been definitely determined with a high level of proof. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to determine the minimal number of samples and culture media required for accurate diagnosis of PJI. Over a 2-year period, consecutive patients with clinical signs suggesting PJI were included, with five perioperative samples per patient. The bacteriological and PJI diagnosis criteria were assessed using a random selection of two, three, or four samples and compared with those obtained using the recommended five samples (references guidelines). The results obtained with two or three culture media were then compared with those obtained with five culture media for both criteria. The times-to-positivity of the different culture media were calculated. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, with a bacteriological criterion in 192 (89%). The PJI was monomicrobial (85%) or polymicrobial (15%). Percentages of agreement of 98.1% and 99.7%, respectively, for the bacteriological criterion and confirmed PJI diagnosis were obtained when four perioperative samples were considered. The highest percentages of agreement were obtained with the association of three culture media, a blood culture bottle, a chocolate agar plate, and Schaedler broth, incubated for 5, 7, and 14 days, respectively. This new procedure leads to significant cost saving. Our prospective multicenter study showed that four samples seeded on three culture media are sufficient for diagnosing PJI. PMID:26637380

  14. Transdisciplinarity and Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A graphical representation of the transdisciplinary pyramid, as a tool, helps us in the design of practical classroom activities that deal with transdisciplinarity, microbiology, and, more generally, with biology. As regard to classroom implementation, we propose two main practical approaches. On the one hand, we can concretize/realize transdisciplinarity through a new design of the lesson, which shall rely on a team of four teachers/professors representing disciplines from all the four levels of the pyramid. On the other hand, a class debate with a teacher–moderator shall be used as a Trojan horse to launch the insights into the newly proposed point of view. The presence of four teachers/professors provides a rigorous study of the topics together with a concretized high-quality transdisciplinarity. Conversely, the class discussion promotes student involvement and the development of critical thought.

  15. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials and Methods: Primary molars with acute carious lesions in inner half of dentine and vital pulp were randomly divided into three groups of 14 each: Group A: Partial caries removal using hand instruments atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) only; Group B: Partial caries removal using bur; Group C: Complete caries removal using bur and caries detector dye. Dentine sample obtained after caries removal and 3 weeks after restoration, were subjected to microbial culture and counting (colony-forming units [CFU]/mg of dentine) for total viable bacterial count, Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. Results: Three techniques of caries removal showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all microorganisms studied after 3 weeks of evaluation, but there was no statistically significant difference in percentage reduction of microbial count among three groups. Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management. PMID:26962313

  16. Peritonsillar abscess (PTA): clinical characteristics, microbiology, drug exposures and outcomes of a large multicenter cohort survey of 412 patients hospitalized in 13 French university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity. PMID:26942743

  17. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  18. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; der Reijden Wa, Wil A Van; Dahlen, Gunnar; Smith, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135) number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections. PMID:22084647

  19. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  20. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  1. Microbiological study of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) and the usefulness of analytical and clinical parameters in its identification (VIRAE study)

    OpenAIRE

    Boixeda R; Rabella N; Sauca G; Delgado M; Martínez-Costa X; Mauri M; Vicente V; Palomera E; Serra-Prat M; Capdevila JA

    2012-01-01

    Ramon Boixeda,1,5 Nuria Rabella,2 Goretti Sauca,3 Maria Delgado,1 Xavier Martinez-Costa1, Montserrat Mauri,1 Vanessa Vicente,1 Elisabet Palomera,4 Mateu Serra-Prat,4 Josep Antón Capdevila11Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Santa Creu and Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Research, Hospital of Mataró...

  2. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  3. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  4. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben;

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  5. A study on the microbiological surveillance before irradiaton sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the microbiological surveillance of workshops in seven factories are repoted. The data obtained showed that the use of the general sterile measures are the better methods for microbiological surveillance. The microbes in the environment can be controlled at the permitted number (≤ 500 CFU/m3) and the high standard of the biological load (≤ 1 CFU/m3) in medical instruments is ensured. The resistance among the common micro-organisms has not been found. This can provide a scientific basis for selecting the dosage of irradiation and safe clinical use

  6. Microbiology of the white coat in a dental operatory

    OpenAIRE

    Malini, M.; Titus K Thomas; Darpan Bhargava; Smiline Girija

    2012-01-01

    Background: It remains important to have a thorough knowledge of the micro-flora harboring the white coats of doctors to minimize cross-contamination and improve patient safety by reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. This study presents the microbiological analysis of the white coats in clinical departments of a dental college and hospital. Materials and Methods: The swabs for the study were taken from the white coats of undergraduate students posted in various clinical departments...

  7. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  8. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  9. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  10. Microbiological Principles in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the important microbiological objectives of irradiation treatments, with special reference to the definitions of the proposed new terms, radappertization, radicidation and radurization. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the food in determining the microbiological requirements of the irradiation treatment. It is suggested that, just as with heat-processed foods, classifications into the major groups of ''acid'' or ''cured'' foods will remain valid with the irradiation process, and that different microbiological criteria will apply to these different classes of foods. The differences depend in part on the influence which the nature of the food has on the effectiveness of the irradiation treatment itself, but more especially on the way in which the nature of the food affects the activities of those microorganisms which might survive irradiation. The principles used to calculate the appropriate doses of radiation are discussed, with comments on the reliability of the fundamental assumptions or the need for further experimentation. The microbiological characteristics of irradiated foods are compared with those of corresponding heat- processed foods, to emphasize points of difference, with special reference to the appropriateness of suggested classifications for heat-processed foods. Finally, some general difficulties are considered, such as uncertainty about the significance and behaviour of food-borne viruses, and about the significance of the mutations which might conceivably be induced in microorganisms surviving-an irradiation process. (author)

  11. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  12. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  13. Fixação esquelética externa em cães: avaliação clínica e microbiológica External skeletal fixation in dogs: clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Carneiro

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven dogs, of both sexes, average weight of 12kg, with ages ranging from two to five years were used with the objective of evaluating two treatments of skin wounds produced after percutaneous bone transfixation of the tibia. In six animals, cotton swabs embedded in 0.2% iodine-alcohol were used to clean the areas of pin perforations. In five dogs, a 0.9% sodium chloride solution, under approximate 30 psi pulse pressure, was used. In both cases, and treatments were carried out every three to four days, during four weeks. Clinical specimens were collected under anaerobic conditions, immediately before the treatments, and on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after surgery. Samples were cultured in specific media in order to allow isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeast. Dogs treated with sodium chloride solution showed little purulent exudation, while dogs treated with iodine-alcohol presented dry skin wounds with minimum blood-serous to serous exudation. The microbiological evaluation revealed predominance of Staphylococcus spp, but no differences were observed between the two treatments. The results allowed to conclude that both methods are efficient for post-surgical treatments of bone percutaneous transfixation in dogs.Foram utilizados 11 cães de ambos os sexos, sem raça definida, clinicamente sadios, com média de peso de 12kg e idade entre dois e cinco anos, para avaliação de dois métodos de tratamento da ferida cutânea produzida pela transfixação óssea percutânea da tíbia íntegra. Em seis animais empregou-se haste de polipropileno com ponta de algodão embebida em álcool iodado a 0,2% para limpeza dos orifícios de penetração dos pinos. Em cinco cães usou-se soro fisiológico sob pressão pulsátil (± 30 psi. Em ambos os casos, os tratamentos eram repetidos a cada três a quatro dias, por um período de quatro semanas. Espécimes clínicos foram colhidos em anaerobiose após 3, 7, 14 e 28 dias da cirurgia, imediatamente

  14. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  16. Microbiological examination of sebeel water.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Z H; Dirar, H A

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from clay storage jugs ("zeers") located in homes and at public watering stands ("sebeels") at streets, mosques, and schools were examined. Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were detected in 100, 69, 88, and 91.56% of the samples, respectively. The general microbiology of the water and some factors affecting microbial load were studied. The predominant bacterial genera of sebeel water were found to be Staphylococcus. Aerococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Bacil...

  17. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  18. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordo B. A. Saeed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized the detection of DNA and RNA. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR is becoming the gold standard test for accurate, sensitive and fast diagnosis for a large range of infectious agents. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity, high throughout and quantification. RT-PCR assays have advanced the diagnostic abilities of clinical laboratories particularly microbiology and infectious diseases. In this review we would like to briefly discuss RT-PCR in diagnostic microbiology laboratory, beginning with a general introduction to RT-PCR and its principles, setting up an RT PCR, including multiplex systems and the avoidance and remediation of contamination issues. A segment of the review would be devoted to the application of RT-PCR in clinical practice concentrating on its role in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

  19. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  20. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velea Oana A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbiological current knowledge. Materials and Methods. Microbiological studies and clinical trials were selected from medical and dental journals, and studied thoroughly. Results. Plaque biofilm and prolonged hyperglycemia increase the risk of PD development in DM. These two features determine inflammatory reactions that end-up in tissue destruction and impaired healing responses. Few pathogens are considered highly prevalent periodontal pathogens, with destructive actions. Studies have shown that metabolic balance or lack of balance determines bacterial variations in diabetic patients with PD. Other results demonstrate the importance of microbial tests (especially PCR techniques as indicators for healing or disease progression. Conclusions. There aren’t many studies assessing the relationship between PD and DM from microbiological points of view. In light of increasing evidence, larger interventional studies are needed

  1. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY ESTIMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS’ ANTI-INFLAMMATORY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Ryba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with microbiological status of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis of medium severity. On the basis of clinical and microbiological data the analysis of different methods efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy was carried out. We studied antimicrobial effect of laser therapy, ozonotherapyandcombinations oflaser- ozonotherapyin comparison with influence ofchlorhexidine 0,2%. Combined laser and ozone influence on periodontium provided high antibacterial effect with increased local nonspecific resistance, and it extended remission term of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  2. A platform for leveraging next generation sequencing for routine microbiology and public health use

    OpenAIRE

    Rusu, Laura I.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Reumann, Matthias; Queiroz, Carlos; Bojovschi, Alexe; Conway, Tom; Garg, Saurabh; David J Edwards; Hogg, Geoff; Holt, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have revolutionised the field of bacterial genomics in recent years, a major barrier still exists to the implementation of NGS for routine microbiological use (in public health and clinical microbiology laboratories). Such routine use would make a big difference to investigations of pathogen transmission and prevention/control of (sometimes lethal) infections. The inherent complexity and high frequency of data analyse...

  3. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  4. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  5. Development of e-Juba, a preliminary proof of concept unmanned aerial vehicle designed to facilitate the transportation of microbiological test samples from remote rural clinics to National Health Laboratory Service laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, B; Muir, P; Boshielo, B T; Robertson, J

    2007-11-01

    For students and academics within the field of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, it is readily apparent what an enormous professional contribution Professor Hendrik Koornhof has made to this critically important specialty, not only in Africa, but worldwide. For those outside of the specialty, his contributions as a thoroughly decent person and role model are no less evident. What emerges in both spheres is his clear commitment to the welfare of others, as opposed to himself. His modesty and self-effacing nature have endeared Hendrik to many generations of students, peers and others who have indeed been privileged to have benefited from knowing him and working with him. In his 50 years with the South African Institute for Medical Research, and subsequently with the National Health Laboratory Service, Hendrik Koornhof has been the ideal academic, who is not as concerned about receiving financial rewards, recognition, etc. as about contributing to scientific knowledge. Many of his contributions have been in guiding others by his words and his deeds, and as a result he has been rewarded in seeing the accomplishments of his students, many of whom have gone on to achieve greatness in diverse fields, both locally and abroad. As we reflect in this festschrift on Hendrik's many achievements over 80 years, we thank him for more than just his research and teaching contributions over half a century with the South African Institute for Medical Research and the National Health Laboratory Service. We thank him for showing us what a privilege it is to work in the world of academia. Although we are not microbiologists, we thank him for having inspired us with the will to address problems of service delivery in the fight against microbiological diseases, which constitute the overwhelming bulk of the burden of disease in the developing world, both in Africa and further afield. PMID:18250941

  6. Perspectives in biotechnology and applied microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alani, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    Upon an invitation from Arab Burea of Education for the Gulf States 'ABEGS', an International Converence on Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology was held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The conference was sponsored by ABEGS and organised through cooperation with Saudi Biological Society (SEBS). The main topics were grouped into sections representing seven themes of Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology-production of microbial proteins; utilization of microorganisms for the production of chemicals; microbial treatment and utilization of waste; continuous culture; application of biotechnology in plant science; applied microbiology and environment and applied microbiology and biotechnology; international cooperation between developed and developing countries.

  7. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. PMID:26935727

  8. Microbiological aspects of radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of microorganism, mainly bacteria and, less frequently, moulds and yeasts, have been found on many medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Complete eradication of these microorganisms (sterilization) is essential to the safety of medical devices and pharmaceutical products. The sterilization process must be validated to verify that it effectively and reliably kills any microorganisms that may be present on the presterilized product. Radiation sterilization, as a physical cold process, has been widely used in many developed and developing countries for the sterilization of health care products. Earlier, a minimum dose of 25 kGy was routinely applied for many medical devices, pharmaceutical products and biological tissues. Now, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the sterilization dose must be set for each type of product depending on its bioburden. Generally, the determination of sterilization dose is the responsibility of the principal manufacturer of the medical product, who must have access to a well qualified microbiology laboratory. Radiation sterilization is currently regulated by two standards, ISO 11137:1995 and EN 552. These standards will be harmonized in the very near future and published by the ISO as ISO 11137 part 1, part 2 and part 3. Currently, all three parts of the revised ISO 11137 are at the Final Draft International Standard stage (FDIS), and they are expected to be published together. These three parts then will replace ISO 11137:1995 and EN552. In this section, the requirements of ISO 11137:1995 have been followed, which is valid at the time of writing. A sterile product is one that is free from viable microorganisms. Items produced under controlled manufacturing conditions can, prior to sterilization, have microorganisms on them, although ordinarily in low numbers. Such products are, by definition, non-sterile. The purpose of sterilization processing is to destroy the microbiological

  9. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting... entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The purpose of the public meeting is to provide stakeholders an opportunity to present information regarding cosmetic microbiological safety and to...

  10. Adoption of Lean Principles in a High-Volume Molecular Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, P. Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  11. Rapid methods and automation in dairy microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, P C

    1993-10-01

    The importance of microbiology to the dairy industry has been demonstrated by recent outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with consumption of milk and dairy products that had been contaminated with pathogenic organisms or toxins. Undesirable microorganisms constitute the primary hazard to safety, quality, and wholesomeness of milk and dairy foods. Consequently, increased emphasis has been placed on the microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products designed to evaluate quality and to ensure safety and regulatory compliance. The focus of dairy microbiology, however, remains largely on conventional methods: plate counts, most probable numbers, and dye reduction tests. These methods are slow, tedious, intensive in their requirements for material and labor, and often not suitable for assessing the quality and shelf-life of perishable dairy foods. With the exception of coliforms, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, isolation and characterization of various organisms occurring in milk and milk products are seldom a part of the routine microbiological analysis in the dairy industry. Recent emphasis on the programs based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) for total quality management in the dairy industry and increased demand for microbiological surveillance of products, process, and environment have led to increased interest in rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Several methods for rapid detection, isolation, enumeration, and characterization of microorganisms are being adapted by the dairy industry. This presentation reviews rapid methods and automation in microbiology for microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products. PMID:8227634

  12. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  13. Changing needs, opportunities and constraints for the 21st century microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eldere, J

    2005-04-01

    Clinical microbiologists and microbiology laboratories are experiencing changes due to evolving views on 'healthcare delivery' as an economic activity, due to changes in the medical environment and the demographics of the workforce, and technical evolution. Cost-effectiveness of laboratory procedures has been achieved through consolidation and integration of laboratories. Consolidation offers economy of scale and reduction in numbers of on-site staff, but also leads to separation of microbiologists from their clinical colleagues. Integration puts different laboratory disciplines under a single management, and leads to reorganisation of laboratories along common work-lines. Cost-savings combined with on-site availability of laboratories are achieved at the expense of a reduction in the influence of microbiologists in the daily running of the laboratory. Medically, there is growing emphasis on evidence-based diagnostics. Because of time-delays inherent in culturing, microbiology through rapid testing is mandatory. There is an increasing shortage in Europe and the USA of trained microbiology laboratory technicians and microbiologists. This reinforces the trend towards more automation and integration. Technological advances, particularly in molecular diagnostics, offer the possibility of rapid reporting and improvement of the impact of clinical microbiology on patient management. Molecular tests, however, fit perfectly the concept of an integrated laboratory and may further loosen the link between microbiologist and microbiology tests. The challenge for clinical microbiology will be to use new techniques to improve its cost-effectiveness and impact on infectious disease management. The future organisation of microbiology laboratories must support this but is itself of secondary importance. The training of future microbiologist must prepare them for this changing environment. PMID:15816102

  14. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  15. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland;

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...... information generated through conducting a risk assessment, such as a risk estimate, ranking of risks, identification of key controlling or risk-generating factors, or highlighting of data gaps,can assist governments in their role of setting national policies, criteria or providing public health advice, and...

  16. Evaluation of local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roobal Behal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of experimental local-drug delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric (gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with the effect achieved using SRP alone by assessing their respective effects on plaque, gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing pocket depth, relative attachment levels and trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex " microorganisms, namely, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphvromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic localized or generalized periodontitis with pocket depth of 5 to 7 mm were selected in a split-mouth study design. Control sites received SRP alone, while experimental sites received SRP plus experimental material (2% whole turmeric gel. Plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, probing pocket depth (PPD, relative attachment loss (RAL, microbiological study of collected plaque sample for trypsin-like activity of "red complex" by BAPNA assay were the parameters recorded on day 0, 30 days and 45 days. Results: Both groups demonstrated statistically significant reduction in PI, GI, SBI, PPD; and gain in RAL. Significant reduction in the trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex" (BAPNA values was observed for both the groups when compared to the baseline activity. Greater reduction was seen in all the parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: The experimental local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel can be effectively used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing and is more effective than scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of periodontal pockets.

  17. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  18. Evaluación clínica, microbio lógica e inmuológica de la ozonoterapia en pacientes con bolsas periodontales moderadas-severas Clinical, microbiological and inmunological evaluation of the ozone's therapy in patients with moderate-severe periodontal pockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ripollés de Ramón

    2004-04-01

    hallazgos.INTRODUCTION. In recent years, important progress has be en made in the knowledge of periodontal disease, from a multifactorial etiology, the responsable microbiology, the local inmunological response as also multiple aspects related to its epidemiology, etiology and its evolution. Given a greater knowledge in thsese fields new techniques (pharmacological products and apparatus are being developed to treat and detain the periodontal disease and preserve dental health. OBJECTIVES. Analyse the periodontal response from a clinical, microbiological and immunological point of view of a population with moderate-severe periodontal pockets and its comparison with the scraping and smoothing periodontal technique. METHOD AND MATlRIAL. A total of 72 cuadrants with at least more than four teeth in each cuadrant and more than 6mm.pocket depth probe were studied in a population of 43 average age. Toestablish comparison between both groups a cross mouth study has been done, in which half were treated with ozone and the rest with scraping technique. The variable results were evaluated: clinical, microbiological and immunological response with descriptive estadistic analysis and ANOVA. CONCLUSION: We can say that the periodontal treatment with ozone produces estadisticaly significant reduction in the amount of index gingival bleeding, in the microbiological periodontal parameters as also in the immunological patterns of IL1b y TNF-alfa, however there is no variation in relation to the level periodon tal insertion and the depth of the periodontal pocket that requires a periodontal technique of scraping.

  19. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  20. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  1. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. PMID:26299932

  2. Estudio microbiológico de la periimplantitis: Presentación de 9 casos clínicos Microbiological study of the peri-implantitis: presentation of 9 clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quinteros Borgarello

    2000-12-01

    .Objective: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process affecting the tissues around an osseointegrated implant in function, resulting in loss of supporting bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subgingival microbiota at dental implants associated with peri-implantitis treated in our service. A total of 16 implants of 9 patients were studied. In all cases implants were under functional conditions. Materials and Methods: We studied 16 peri-implantitis in 9 patients; in each patient subgingival bacterial samples were obtained using paper-points or inflammatory soft tissue, and subjected to microbiological analysis by culture. Each site was sample by serting paper points into the sulcus around the implant with peri-implantitis, in 14 implants, or by inflammatory soft tissue, in other 2 implants. Then the samples were grown in brain heart infusion broth. Results: We found Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in one sample, Prevotella oralis, in one sample, Peptostreptococcus, in one sample, and Stomatococcus, in 3 samples. In 9 samples were impossible to found one predominant bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined. Antibacterial activity of amoxicillin-clavulanate was significantly higher than with other antimicrobials tested like amoxicillin or metronidazole. Conclusions: This study found that microbiota associated with periimplantitis are Stomatococcus, Prevotella oralis, Peptostreptococcus and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the sampIes. Possible risk factors of peri-implantitis were hydroxyapatite, dental implants of 3,25 mm of diameter or distal position of implants in maxillary prosthetic superstructure.

  3. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  4. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  5. Microbiological and clinical effects of enamel matrix derivative and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline application as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy in peri-implant mucosal inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Masumeh; Goharfar, Zahra; Pourabbas, Reza; Kashefimehr, Atabak; Shirmohmmadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the microbial and clinical effects of mechanical debridement (MD) alone or in combination with the application of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline (MSM) for treatment of peri-implant mucosal infl ammation (PIMI). Materials and Methods Subjects with at least one implant with PIMI were included and divided into control and two different test groups. In all three groups, MD was performed. In the M...

  6. Destructive Knee Joint Infection Caused by Peptostreptococcus micros: Importance of Early Microbiological Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Riesbeck, Kristian; Sanzén, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    Peptostreptococcus micros is a commensal of the oral cavity and the genitourinary tract that rarely causes serious infections. A case of a destructive knee joint infection with rapid progress caused by P. micros is presented. The significance of the microbiological findings was initially not acknowledged, which contributed to a nonsuccessful clinical outcome.

  7. Microbiological quality of milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work microbiological acceptability has been determined for 802 samples of consume milk and dairy products produced in Križevci region, by 11 producers from northwest Croatia. From the total number of analysed samples the requirements for microbiological acceptability did not fulfilled 147 (18.33% samples: 42.86% goat’s milk, 36.36% fruit yoghurt, 20.51% consume milk, 33.33% sweet cream, 31.51% sour cream, 26.77% soft (fresh cheeses, 20% cheese spreads, 15% semi-hard cheeses, 2.63% butters, 1.72% processed cheese, and 1.16% yoghurts. The main reasons for microbiological not-acceptability of the samples were higher number of enterobacteriae, yeast and moulds, higher number of total bacteria, E. coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. In the same samples Streptococcus faecalis, S. pyogenes and Pseudomonas were found.

  8. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  9. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  10. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  11. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  12. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  13. 77 FR 16126 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid... the Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee (Microbiology Devices Panel.... VI. Risks to Health After considering the information discussed by the Microbiology Devices...

  14. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and a...

  15. 7 CFR 58.528 - Microbiological requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements. 58.528 Section 58.528 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  16. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  17. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  18. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  19. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  20. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  1. A Cartoon History of Soil Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of cartoons in presenting a historical perspective of soil microbiology that makes this information more entertaining to introductory students. Presents basic historical facts and major accomplishments of the pioneering soil microbiologists in a factual but tongue-in-cheek survey. (Author/JRH)

  2. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper;

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  3. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  4. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-08-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas.

  5. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  6. The Microbiology of Counterflow Scalding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most of the thousands of years that humans have used scalding to make it easier to remove feathers from birds, no one knew about the microbiological implications of scalding. The hot water in scald tanks kills many bacteria, but scalding multiple birds in the same tank gives surviving bacteria ...

  7. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device...

  9. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  10. Microbiologic structure of diffuse peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ermetov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 99 patients with diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis (DP were examined. There were 64 (64.6% males and 35 (35.4% females, an average age was 44.07±19.15 (±SD, range - 15-83 years. Systemic inflammatory reaction manifesting in clinic of DP and abdominal sepsis were provoked first of all by Klebsiella spp. (20, 20.2% and Ваcteroides fragilis (24, 24.2% possessing the greatest virulence compared with other intestinal bacteria. Exudates of the died patients differed from the survived ones by prevalence of gram-negative microflora (60.6% in association with gram-positive microflora (24.2% and anaerobes (48.5%. Though specific weight of these microorganisms was higher by 3.07, 1.45 and 2.46 times from survived patients.

  11. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  12. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  13. Connecting Clinical Practices with Microbiological and Biochemical Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Espinosa, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    The word technology refers to the knowledge of techniques, skills, methods or processes used to produce goods, services or to reach specific objectives (research, business, etc.). The concept technology can also be used to make reference to devices, computers and factories.

  14. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Popova; Velichka Dosseva-Panova; Vladimir E. Panov

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobac...

  15. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karat, C; Madhivanan, P; Krupp, K; Poornima, S; Jayanthi, N V; Suguna, J S; Mathai, E

    2006-10-01

    Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM. PMID:17185848

  16. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  17. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Karat C; Madhivanan P; Krupp K; Poornima.S; Jayanthi N; Suguna J; Mathai E

    2006-01-01

    Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fl...

  18. Susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents: applications to clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelaifia, S; Drancourt, M

    2012-09-01

    We herein review the state of knowledge regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents, including some new molecules. Indeed, some archaea colonizing the human microbiota have been implicated in diseases such as periodontopathy. Archaea are characterized by their broad-spectrum resistance to antimicrobial agents. In particular, their cell wall lacks peptidoglycan, making them resistant to antimicrobial agents interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Archaea are, however, susceptible to the protein synthesis inhibitor fusidic acid and imidazole derivatives. Also, squalamine, an antimicrobial agent acting on the cell wall, proved effective against human methanogenic archaea. In vitro susceptibility data could be used to design protocols for the decontamination of complex microbiota and the selective isolation of archaea in anaerobic culture. PMID:22748132

  19. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Deveci; Erkan Yula

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to int...

  20. Tuberculous otitis media with facial paralysis: microbiological and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mosca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease affecting various organs and tissues even if the lung is the most commonly involved site.A case of tuberculous otitis media in a patient who had no history of tuberculosis is herewith presented with the aim of increasing the awareness of this disease whose diagnosis is often delayed because either of the rarity of this pathologic condition or of its usually indolent course.

  1. [Microbiologic evaluation of instant soup concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara; Falkowski, Joachim; Jakubowska, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The microbiological condition of instant soup powders purchased in retail network has been assessed. The study included 37 instant soups (8 types) manufactured by four Polish companies. The microbiological quality of a majority of soup powders fulfilled the requirements of the standard. No pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were detected, nor were there any spores of sulphitereducing anaerobic bacteria found. However, some samples of powders, mainly from one manufacturer, did have an excessive total number of bacteria (> 10(5) cfu/g) and a reduced (down to 0.01 g) level of coliform count. Aerobic bacteria occurring in powders were of vegetative and spore forms and exhibited the activity of amylo-, lipo- and proteolytic exoenzymes. The quantity of moulds did not exceed 100 cfu/g in a majority of samples. They were mainly represented by Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. PMID:12235671

  2. Radiometric microbiological estimation of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of vitamin B12 in blood is very important to determine in deficiency and diagnosis of anemic patients. Vitamin B12 in blood can be estimated by spectrochemical, enzymatic, radioisotopic and microbiological methods. In the present study vitamin B12 was determined in 48 normal subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad by radiometric microbiological assay (RMA) technique using a very rapid, sensitive and automated instrument Bactec 460. In this procedure 14C-glucose media and microorganisms Lactobacillus leichmannii were used. The sensitivity of the method for vitamin B12 is 1 pg/ml and the vitamin B12 found in normal subjects was in the range of 105-535 pg/ml with a median value of 246±6 pg/ml. (author) 26 refs.; 1 fig

  3. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  4. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  5. 9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

  6. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc); Pourmand MR; Shirazi, MH. (PhD); Yousefi, M.; Hajikhani, S. (BSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream wer...

  7. Quantitative Microbiologic Models for Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Lee, Mei-Ling; Lieberman, Ellice; Delaney, Mary L; Tuomala, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. An epidemiological association between PTD and various bacteria that are part of the vaginal microflora has been reported. No single bacterial species has been identified as being causally associated with PTD, suggesting a multifactorial etiology. Quantitative microbiologic cultures have been used previously to define normal vaginal microflora in a predictive model. These techniques have been a...

  8. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The leve...

  9. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  10. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Perestrelo; A. N. Norberg; F. Guerra-Sanches; Torres, A.C.; E Pile

    2006-01-01

    Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each) were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatu...

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  13. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  14. Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

  15. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  16. Implementation of Proper Hand Hygiene among Microbiological Laboratory Workers Respectively to WHO Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Popovska, Katja; Zdravkovska, Milka; Blazevska, Bozhica; Icev, Konstantin; Eftimovski, G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene has a fundamental role in the prevention of one of the most challenging problems in the management of modern hospitals: nosocomial infections and occupational diseases. Aim: This survey presents the experience of laboratorians in the Microbiology Department in the Clinical Center in Skopje in promoting proper hand hygiene by participating in a training course and implementation of WHO guidelines among laboratory staff. Material and Methods: The group of 36 Healt...

  17. Doença periodontal em portadoras de valvopatia durante a gravidez: estudo clínico e microbiológico Enfermedad periodontal en portadoras de valvopatía durante la gravidez: estudio clínico y microbiológico Periodontal disease in pregnant patients with rheumatic valvular disease: clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Samuel Ávila

    2011-04-01

    disease during pregnancy of women with rheumatic valve disease imply infective endocarditis risks and higher rate of preterm birth and low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: To study the periodontal disease rate of women with rheumatic valve disease during pregnancy. METHODS: We studied 140 pregnant women who included 70 patients with rheumatic valve disease and 70 healthy women. The periodontal examination included: 1 periodontal clinical exam regard the follow variables: a probing depth; b gingival margin; c clinical attachment level; d bleeding on probing; e plaque index and f gingival index; and 2 microbiological test was performed in samples serum and gingival crevicular fluid and considered positive controls to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsithia e Aggregobacter actinomycetemcomitans. RESULTS: Age and parity were similar between groups; as single or combined the mitral valve disease was prevalent among the rheumatic valve lesion in 45 (32.1% e 20 (28.5% cases, respectively. Among the periodontal variables gingival margin (p=0.01 and plaque index (p=0.04 were different between groups. The periodontal disease was identified in 20 (14,3% pregnant women, seven (10% of them were patients with valve rheumatic disease and the remain 13 (18,6% were healthy women, its percentual was not different between groups (p=0,147. Microbiological analyses of oral samples showed higher percentual of P. gingivalis in healthy pregnant women (p=0.004. CONCLUSION: The clinical and microbiological study during pregnancy showed comparable incidence of periodontal disease between women with rheumatic valve disease and healthy women.

  18. Microbiological quality of meat and ready-to-eat food in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2008-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Uzunović; Sanita Sejdinoska; Ilma Šakić

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the microbiological quality of meat, meatproducts and ready-to-eat food in Zenica-Doboj Canton inorder to point out the importance of food monitoring and toprovide safe food for consumers.Methods Using the protocols of bacteriological food analysisthe Laboratory for Sanitary and Clinical Microbiology, CantonalPublic Health Institute Zenica, retrospectively analyzed theresults of bacteriological testing of all samples of meat, meatproducts and ready-to-eat food samples submi...

  19. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed a...

  20. Microbiological risk assessment for safe food design & management

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Andrés; Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    An important element of microbiological risk analysis, is risk assessment; a process in which the dynamics of microbiological hazards in the food chain are identified and characterized, and the exposure of consumers to the particular hazards is estimated. The current focus of microbiological risk assessment studies is “how it can best be utilized in food safety management to understand the magnitude of prevailing risk regarding a pathogen/product combination, to design risk ...

  1. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  2. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  3. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  4. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  5. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release...

  6. Cystic Fibrosis: Microbiology and Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T; Hoffman, Lucas R

    2016-08-01

    The earliest descriptions of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) showed the involvement of 3 interacting pathophysiologic elements in CF airways: mucus obstruction, inflammation, and infection. Over the past 7 decades, our understanding of CF respiratory microbiology and inflammation has evolved with the introduction of new treatments, increased longevity, and increasingly sophisticated laboratory techniques. This article reviews the current understanding of infection and inflammation and their roles in CF lung disease. It also discusses how this constantly evolving information is used to inform current therapeutic strategies, measures and predictors of disease severity, and research priorities. PMID:27469179

  7. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  9. Microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudhan; Yanti Muslikan; Nabilah Ismail; Adil Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis presented to the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan in 5 years duration from 2005 until 2010. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who were clinically diagnosed as acute dacryocystitis from 2005 until 2010 to determine the regional microbiological pattern. The age, gender, predisposing factors, intravenous antibiotics and their microbiological results of discharge from punctal expression were collected. The laboratory procedures were in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: There were 23 patients admitted to the eye ward during study period. Females (n=17) outnumbered males (n=6). Majority of isolates were Gram-positive bacteria (n=10, 43.4%) followed by Gram-negative isolates (n=2, 12.9%). The most predominant isolates were Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumonia) (21.7%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (13.0%). Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was the commonest gram positive organism identified in our study. 47.8% patients showed resistant to initial empirical treatment.

  10. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. PMID:27389286

  11. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  12. 2009 Applied and Environmental Microbiology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Dubilier

    2009-07-12

    The topic of the 2009 Gordon Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology is: From Single Cells to the Environment. The Conference will present and discuss cutting-edge research on applied and environmental microbiology with a focus on understanding interactions between microorganisms and the environment at levels ranging from single cells to complex communities. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics such as single cell techniques (including genomics, imaging, and NanoSIMS), microbial diversity at scales ranging from clonal to global, environmental 'meta-omics', biodegradation and bioremediation, metal - microbe interactions, animal microbiomes and symbioses. The Conference will bring together investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with extensive discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an ideal setting for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas, brainstorm and discuss cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  13. Microscopic and microbiological investigations of Mississippian sylvite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.

    2012-11-01

    Sylvite is a potassium chloride (KCl) mineral that was first discovered in 1832 in evaporite deposits in sedimentary basins of Mt. Vesuvius. Sylvite is colorless (grey or white) but it is often found in association with red deposits of halite and a variety of other minerals (e.g., hilgardite, volkovskite, trembathite and strontioginorite). We have conducted an Optical Microscopy and Microbiological study of freshly fractured interior material of core samples of Sylvite and Halite from the Penobsquis Mines of Kings County, New Brunswick. These samples are dated as Early Carboniferous period, and of Mississippian sub-period (Toumaisian stage 345-359 Myr) from the Upper Halite Member of the Windsor Group Evaporites. During this study, viable microorganisms were isolated in enrichment cultures that represent an ancient life of the deposits. Currently, in microbiology, there are several records of the isolation of viable bacterial cultures from the Permian salt crystals and oil. In this article, we present the preliminary results of the study of ancient anaerobic enrichment cultures isolated from Mississippian Sylvite and Halite samples. Therefore, this study extends by more than 50 million years the paleontological record of viable and culturable microorganisms preserved in ancient salt crystals.

  14. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  15. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  16. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 103-104 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10-3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  17. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECYCLED PAPER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the microbiological safety of sanitary tissues made of recycled scrap papers in Iran, random samples were taken for one year with the cooperation of the Iranian Standard and Industrial Research Institute (Karaj unit, of 44 types of sanitary tissues, two samples of each type including tissues, toilet papers and dippers as well as a control sample and their probable contamination with microbiological elements (bacterial & fungal were assessed using proper ordinary and specific culture environments while also performing confirmation tests. Considering all aspects of this study including easy identification, high precision, simplicity of application, economic justification and observation of better results, the method which applies ringer 1/4 solution as the thinner environment was preferable to the saline peptone water solution. No contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E.coli bacteria was observed, but the excessive contamination with the mesophillic bacteria was confirmed. Among the 27 samples tested with the ringer 1/4 method, 8 cases (29.6% were excessively contaminated with the mesophillic bacteria and one case (3.7% with fungi. Meanwhile, out of the 43 samples that were tested with the saline peptone water solution, there was no excessive contamination with mesophillic bacteria and only one case (2.3% of fungal contamination was observed.

  18. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  19. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts †

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS EDISON E. DELA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Castigliego; L. Vallone; A. Armani; M.A. Marzano; Li, X. N.; F Fanzone; Fusco, S.; E. Facibeni; I. Dragoni; D. Gianfaldoni; A Guidi

    2009-01-01

    A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  1. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...

  2. Development of soil microbiology methods: from respirometry to molecular approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriel, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1289-1297. ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Soil microbiology * Continuous cultivation * Microbial growth Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010

  3. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mulas; G. Bassu; A. Coccollone; G. Masia; C. Muzzigoni; M. Picoi; P.A. Cabras

    2011-01-01

    Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiolo...

  5. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  6. Clinical Usefulness of Arbekacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-03-01

    Arbekacin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Arbekacin has antibacterial activities against high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococci, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii et al. Here, we reviewed in vitro data on arbekacin in Staphylococci and Gram-negative microorganisms. We also reviewed clinical studies for clinical efficacy and microbiologic efficacy data in patients with identified MRSA and suspected MRSA infections. The overall clinical efficacy ranged from 66.7% to 89.7%. The microbiologic efficacy rate ranged from 46.2% to 83%. In comparative studies between arbekacin and glycopeptides, arbekacin was similar to other glycopeptides with respect to clinical and microbiological efficacy rates. Combination trials with other antibiotics suggest that arbekacin will be a promising strategy to control Enterococcus spp. multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa. The major adverse reaction was nephrotoxicity/hepatotoxicity, but patients recovered from most adverse reactions without any severe complications. Based on these results, arbekacin could be a good alternative to vancomycin/teicoplanin in MRSA treatment. Finally, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to maximize clinical efficacy and decrease nephrotoxicity. PMID:27104010

  7. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students

  8. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle;

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis....... The limited reproducibility may be caused by variability in the preculture, or more precisely, variations in the physiological state of the bacteria in the precultures just before used as inoculum....

  9. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  10. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  11. [The microbiological diagnosis in severe infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piédrola Angulo, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious processes has been marked as any other laboratory test, two fundamental criteria: sensitivity and specificity of the results. But inserious infections in the hospital, once achieved the above criteria, it is claimed more and more third requirement: the speed at which the agent get the picture producer and antimicrobial susceptibility. In recent years there has been significant progress in this regard, which have always been behind the biochemical and hematological tests. Lately there ultrafast techniques such as mass spectrometry soft ionization, which can detect proteins of bacteria, fungi and yeasts, in a very short time. These techniques have some tangible gains in reducing hospitalization times, reduced health care costs per patient-oriented management and allow early and more effective antibiotics in areas such as ICU, pediatric ICU, Unit of Infectious and decreased waiting times in emergency patients. PMID:22263356

  12. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  13. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  14. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  15. [Vinogradskiĭ and modern microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2006-01-01

    The 150th anniversary of the birth of Sergei N. Winogradsky is a special date for general microbiology. Apart from the discovery of chemosynthesis, the development of the elective method, the application of the direct method, and formulation of microbial ecology problems, Winogradsky, in his pioneering studies, addressed fundamental aspects of the naturalistic Weltanschauung from the position of a microbiologist who studies the role of microorganisms in nature. These problems are still important today. Expanding knowledge throws light on them from different angles of view and highlights them with varying degrees of completeness, but the problems remain beyond time. It may be useful for contemporary microbiologists to realize the extent to which they would recognize their own work in the system of questions and answers stated a hundred years ago. PMID:17091583

  16. Colistin combination therapy improves microbiologic cure in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant gram-negative pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchem, N L; Bauer, K A; Cook, C H; Mangino, J E; Jones, C D; Porter, K; Murphy, C V

    2016-09-01

    Currently, in vitro synergy with colistin has not translated into improved clinical outcomes. This study aimed to compare colistin combination therapy to colistin monotherapy in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant gram-negative (MDR-GN) pneumonia. This was a retrospective analysis of critically ill adult patients receiving intravenous colistin for MDR-GN pneumonia comparing colistin combination therapy to colistin monotherapy with a primary endpoint of clinical cure. Combination therapy was defined by administration of another antibiotic to which the MDR-GN pathogen was reported as susceptible or intermediate. Ninety patients were included for evaluation (41 combination therapy and 49 monotherapy). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. No difference in clinical cure was observed between combination therapy and monotherapy in univariate analysis, nor when adjusted for APACHE II score and time to appropriate antibiotic therapy (57.1 vs. 63.4 %, adjusted OR 1.15, p = 0.78). Microbiological cure was significantly higher for combination therapy (87 vs. 35.5 %, p Colistin combination therapy was associated with a significant improvement in microbiological cure, without improvement in clinical cure. Based on the in vitro synergy and improvement in microbiological clearance, colistin combination therapy should be prescribed for MDR-GN pneumonia. Further research is warranted to determine if in vitro synergy with colistin translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27230510

  17. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production. PMID:26337846

  18. Nutritive and safe meals, microbiologically treated by gamma irradiation, for immunocompromised patients. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunocompromised people have diminished immune response , being more vulnerable to food borne infections. Ionizing radiation has been proved to be effective in controlling pathogenic microorganisms in food with negligible temperature raise , which leads it to be called 'cold pasteurization'. Nutritional losses and sensory changes due to this treatment are minimal. In this work a whole gamma irradiated lunch composed of three dishes was tasted by 44 immunocompromised patients at the Clinical Hospital 'Jose de San Martin', Buenos Aires, to evaluate sensory acceptability. The packaged meals were irradiated in the cobalt-60 industrial facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center at doses sufficient to reduce 6 log cycles of Salmonella enteritidis and stored under refrigeration for one week. Microbiological and sensory analysis (consumer panel of 50 healthy members) were carried out previously to the experience with patients. Experimental work is depicted as related to meals selection, elaboration, packaging, irradiation , storage, microbiological challenge tests, microbiological analysis according to Argentine Alimentary Code specifications, sensory trials with both healthy and immunocompromised consumer panels along storage time. Results showed very good sensory acceptability of the irradiated meals. Nutritional and psychological benefits to the patients, further applications and scope are discussed. (author)

  19. Preventive biocenosis of oil strata and combatting microbiological corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfandiyarov, F.A.; Kildibekov, I.G.; Nizamov, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The following conclusions are drawn on the basis of the conducted studies: the use of chemical reagents (bactericides or bacterial corrosion inhibitors) is a rational way to combat sulfate reduction in oil strata and microbiological corrosion; the use of bactericides in the early stage of development is an effective method for sterilizing the pumped water to prevent contamination of the productive strata with sulfate reducing bacteria (SVB) and microbiological corrosion and the use of bacterial corrosion inhibitors is an effective method for suppressing microbiological corrosion and reducing sulfate reduction in the later stage of development.

  20. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  1. Droplet microfluidics for microbiology: techniques, applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Tomasz S; Scheler, Ott; Garstecki, Piotr

    2016-06-21

    Droplet microfluidics has rapidly emerged as one of the key technologies opening up new experimental possibilities in microbiology. The ability to generate, manipulate and monitor droplets carrying single cells or small populations of bacteria in a highly parallel and high throughput manner creates new approaches for solving problems in diagnostics and for research on bacterial evolution. This review presents applications of droplet microfluidics in various fields of microbiology: i) detection and identification of pathogens, ii) antibiotic susceptibility testing, iii) studies of microbial physiology and iv) biotechnological selection and improvement of strains. We also list the challenges in the dynamically developing field and new potential uses of droplets in microbiology. PMID:27212581

  2. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  3. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  4. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  5. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  6. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  7. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  8. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  9. A Review of Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications, 2nd ed.; Colin Munn; (2011. Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. Paperback, 364 pages. ISBN 9780815365174.

  10. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  11. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies

  12. Microbiological sampling of the forgotten components of a flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope: what lessons can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay M; Peterson, Ellena M; Verma, Sunil P

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of a Cidex-based decontamination protocol was analyzed for its effectiveness in cleaning various components of a flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope (FFL), including the handle, eyepiece, and detachable light cable. A random microbiological sampling and aerobic bacterial culture analysis of 6 FFL eyepieces, 6 FFL driver handles, and 5 light cables prior to patient use was performed. Of 17 samples collected, 7 (41%) were contaminated with bacterial organisms. Organisms recovered represented both environmental organisms from skin and oral flora origin. This study demonstrates that potential contaminants may be present on FFL eyepieces and light cables, which are commonly overlooked in the cleaning protocols of a standard otolaryngology clinic. PMID:24334960

  13. Intensified microbiological investigations in adult patients admitted to hospital with lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, TR; Sommer, T;

    2002-01-01

    microbiological sampling. Patients in the study group with known aetiology had higher values of inflammatory markers than patients with unknown aetiology. For Streptococcus pneumoniae infection culture and urine antigen detection were complimentary depending on recent antibiotic therapy since seven of eight...... diagnostic yield from 7% to 51% of patients in the study group with an aetiologic diagnosis. Routine FOB with BAL had no apparent effect on clinical outcome and seems only justified in selected patients with severe LRTI with infiltrates on chest X-ray and signs of severe inflammation where a high diagnostic...

  14. Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Raw Milk Consumed in Burdur

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Tasci

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological and chemical properties of raw milk consumed in Burdur. A total of 100 samples obtained from different producers were analyzed for microbiological and chemical properties. For this purpose, counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, yeast, mold and Micrococcus-Staphylococcus, Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus microorganisms were made. In the raw milk samples, the mean level of tot...

  15. Microbiological and mycotoxicological correctness of protein feed ingredients in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Salma Nataša M.; Pantić Vladimir R.; Adamović Milan J.; Miljković Aleksandra D.; Suzić Svetlana V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the microbiological tests of a total of 40 samples of protein feed ingredients (sunflower meal, soybean, soybean cake, soybean grits and soybean meal) originating from Vojvodina were carried out. The most of the samples (57.5%) matched the Serbian regulations on feed. Microbiologically, there was not adequate quality of protein ingredients, which was a consequence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria: Proteus spp. in 12 samples of sunflower meal, 1 sample of soyb...

  16. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Petrová; Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Margarita Terentjeva; Simona Kunová; Henrieta Blaškovičová; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococ...

  17. Microbiology Services for External Company Sampling from 2009 until 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological Laboratory Medical Technology Division is committed in providing microbiological test service to internal and outside customer of Nuclear Malaysia. This paper presents a report on tests that have been performed on various type of samples received from outside customer from year 2009 to year 2012. Between 600 and 800 requests received ever year and 6 companies are our regular customers. Regular tests are sterility test, endotoxin limit test and incubation. Charge for the service contributes to agency's income every year. (author)

  18. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C). Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sa...

  19. Toxic Metals in Aquatic Ecosystems: A Microbiological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, David P; Ford, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based sys...

  20. The Influence of Rickettsiologists on Post-Modern Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Kalliopi; Merhej, Vicky; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Many of the definitions in microbiology are currently false. We have reviewed the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the twentieth century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent ...

  1. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  2. Alternatives to control microbiological cheese defects: use of aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    LIBRÁN CUERVAS-MONS, CELIA MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO CONTROL MICROBIOLOGICAL CHEESE DEFECTS: USE OF AROMATIC PLANTS 1. Introduction Cheeses are traditionally affected by microbiological spoilage that leads to great economic loss. On the one hand, bacteria such as coliforms or butyric acid are some of the responsible for early and late cheese blowing, respectively (COGAN, 2011; GARDE et al., 2011). These are two cheese paste defects characterised by the internal presence of numerous and odorous holes (MCSWEENEY, 2007; MULLA...

  3. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  4. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castigliego

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  6. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies to ensure food quality and safety. Predictive microbiology is one such technology, where growth responses of homogenous pure broth cultures of microorganism to the environment are quantified. In t...

  7. Sensory evaluation and microbiological characterization of autochthonous Sombor cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mijačević Zora; Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of organoleptic evaluation, chemical and microbiological analysis of Sombor cheese were presented. Sombor cheese is a type of autochthonous cheese whose traditional processing method is still in use in areas of northern part of Serbia. The sensory profile, chemical and microbiological analysis were performed on 19 samples of traditionally made cheese collected from two households. The sensory evaluation of cheese samples showed its variation in taste and consistency,...

  8. The Metagenomic in the Service of the Food Microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Taminiau, Bernard; Nezer, Carine; Poullet, Jean-Baptiste; Adolphe, Ysabelle; Clinquart, Antoine; Daube, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Food products represent great biotopes for bacteria. The optimisation of foodstuffs conservation, mattering so economically as from the point of view of the public health, pass by a better understanding of those biotopes and their spoilage. Microbiologists had already tried to resolve this problem throughout several approaches. Studies based on classical microbiology cultures were completed by strategies centred on approaches independent from the microbiological culture. Pur...

  9. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303

  10. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  11. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion and the bacterial density cannot be estimated separately, not even in a multiple dilution experiment. Only the product can be estimated, changing the interpretation of the most probable number estimator. The asymptotic power of the likelihood ratio statistic for comparing an alternative method with the compendial method, is optimal for a single dilution experiment. The bacterial density should either be close to two CFUs per test unit or equal to zero, depending on differences in the model parameters between the two test methods. The proposed strategy for method validation is to use these two dilutions and test for differences in the two model parameters, addressing the validation parameters specificity and accuracy. Robustness of these two parameters might still be required, but all other validation parameters can be omitted. A confidence interval-based approach for the ratio of the detection proportions for the two methods is recommended, since it is most informative and close to the power of the likelihood ratio test. PMID:25412584

  12. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M.

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  13. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  14. Tantalum Nitride-Decorated Titanium with Enhanced Resistance to Microbiologically Induced Corrosion and Mechanical Property for Dental Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yifei Zhang; Yunfei Zheng; Yongliang Li; Lixin Wang; Yanjie Bai; Qiang Zhao; Xiaoling Xiong; Yan Cheng; Zhihui Tang; Yi Deng; Shicheng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of metallic devices/implants in the oral region is one major cause of implant failure and metal allergy in patients. Therefore, it is crucial to develop practical approaches which can effectively prevent MIC for broad clinical applications of these materials. In the present work, tantalum nitride (TaN)-decorated titanium with promoted bio-corrosion and mechanical property was firstly developed via depositing TaN layer onto pure Ti using magnetron sput...

  15. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cell Count (SCC among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.

  16. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  17. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  18. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  19. Use of Case Studies to Introduce Undergraduate Students to Principles of Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Monica A.; Sumner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Mock outbreaks of infectious disease offer the ability to introduce principles of food microbiology, ecology, and epidemiology to undergraduate students using an inquiry driven process. Students were presented with an epidemiological case study detailing patient history, clinical presentation, and foods recently consumed. The students then had to…

  20. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  1. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Journal of Medical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Kalai; Silver, Lynn L; Tatke, Gorakh

    2015-12-01

    In the last 70 years, we have seen a radical change in our perception and understanding of the microbial world. During this period, we learned from Woese and Fox there exists a third kingdom called 'Archea' based on the phylogenetic studies of the 16S rRNA that revolutionized microbiology (Woese & Fox, 1977; Woese et al., 1978). Furthermore, we were forced to reckon with the fact that Koch and Pasteur's way of growing cells in test-tubes or flasks planktonically does not necessarily translate to the real-life scenario of bacterial lifestyle, where they prefer to live and function as a closely knit microbial community called biofilm. Thanks are due to Costerton, who led the crusade on the concept of biofilms and expanded its scope of inquiry, which forced scientists and clinicians worldwide to rethink how we evaluate and apply the data. Then progressively, disbelief turned into belief, and now it is universally accepted that the micro-organisms hobnob with the members of their community to communicate and coordinate their behaviour, especially in regard to growth patterns and virulence traits via signalling molecules. Just when we thought that we were losing the battle against bacteria, antimicrobials were discovered. We then witnessed the rise and fall of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Due to space and choice limitation, we will focus on the three areas that caused this major paradigm shift (i) antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) biofilm and (iii) quorum sensing (QS), and how the Journal of Medical Microbiology played a major role in advancing the shift. PMID:26689963

  2. Microbiological Analysis on Romanian Dairy Products Obtained from Buffalo Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk hygiene, expressed mainly by the chemical composition and microbiological stability, has a influence on the quality of the dairy products. The major hazard is the microbial contamination, related to the content in pathogens such as as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The present research aimed the microbiological analysis of dairy products obtained from buffalo milk. Research consisted on the evaluation of coliform bacteria, yeast and mold number and the pathogen germs of Salmonella and Stafilococcus. The obtained results permitted the classification of samples according to Regulation. High contamination with coliform bacteria, yeast and mould was recorded in almost all analyzed products. No Salmonella contamination was detected. The improper microbiological content was related to unsatisfactory hygiene standards in the production process and due to a possible recontamination after pasteurization.

  3. [Microbiological quality of street-vendor ice cream in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdara-Kane, A; Ranaivo, A; Spiegel, A; Catteau, M; Rocourt, J

    2000-01-01

    During a multicenter study initiated by the International Network of Pasteur Institutes and Associated Institutes, microbiological quality of street-vended ice creams in Dakar was evaluated. 313 samples of ice creams from 170 street-vendors were collected and tested for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms. Results showed that microbiological quality of 45% of tested samples was unsatisfactory because of large populations of aerobic mesophilic organisms (36.7%), thermotolerant coliforms bacteria (21.4%) and sometimes E. coli. (10.6%). Strict pathogens as Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae were not found. An investigation conducted among vendors showed a lack of education and training; these vendors need information about food preparation and storage practices that reduce microbiological contamination of foods. PMID:14666784

  4. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity. PMID:23323467

  5. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  6. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.;

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  7. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice in order to strengthen the students’ application-oriented competences and engagement. In this paper the results from the evaluation of the course will be presented and a discussion will be carried out ab...

  8. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň Peter Haščík; Miroslava Kačániová; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Maciej Kluz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC) in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged...

  9. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Konyalı; O. Dagliogli; Gumus, T

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g), coliform bacteria (83.3%of the tota...

  10. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  11. Short Videos to Enhance Student Learning in Microbiological Laboratory Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual understan......This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual...

  12. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  13. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  14. 76 FR 63615 - Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... discussions which will be held at the EPA Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory. DATES:...

  15. Brucella abortus Infection Acquired in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Pier Luigi; Mastrandrea, Scilla; Rappelli, Paola; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2000-01-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  16. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Dahir Ramos de; Andrade Júnior Dahir Ramos de

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of ...

  17. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for sherbet. 58.653 Section 58.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  18. Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationship of these features with microbiological quality of milk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teat morphology and size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiological quality of milk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm3 of milk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001. The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001. The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001. The experiment showed no statistically significant correlations between teat’s length, width, morphological structures and total bacteria count (p > 0.05. Therefore, the application of these features in a rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of sheep milk is unusable.  

  19. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  20. Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

  1. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs a

  2. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  3. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In the Bachelor Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at University College VIA, the students work in a classified microbiology laboratory. This means that they are not allowed to bring their personal computers into the lab. Until now the students have used paper based lab instructions...

  4. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk Based Inspection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Hillier, Elizabeth; Andersen, Erlend S.

    2016-01-01

    . Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a degradation mechanism that has received increased attention from corrosion engineers and asset operators in the past decades. In this paper, the most recent models that have been developed in order to assess the impact of MIC on asset integrity will be presented and...

  5. A Review of Microbiology: An Evolving Science, Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara May

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  6. IPMP 2013 - A comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods undergoing complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It f...

  7. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  8. Introduction of Molecular Methods into a Food Microbiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Hammons, Susan R.; McKenzie, Emily; Cho, Young-Hee; Oliver, Haley F.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining current, relevant curriculum in undergraduate Food Microbiology courses is essential for training future experts in food quality and safety. Having an understanding of the fundamental techniques (for example, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) that are used in the food industry and regulatory agencies is critical for students entering…

  9. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  10. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses. PMID:20202342

  11. Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

  12. Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Milk on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the microbiological and sensory quality of 30 assortments of market milk was the objective of the presented research. The study also compared the sensory profile of selected samples of milk differing in preservation method. Microbiological tests included determination of the presence and number of Enterobacteriaceae and the total number of microorganisms. Sensory characteristics of all the milk samples was performed by scaling method (5-points scale. Selected samples of milk were additionally assessed by means of profile method. Microbiological tests showed satisfactory microbiological purity of milk, which indicates the effectiveness of the heat treatment and the lack of secondary contamination. Regardless of the preservation method, all the evaluated milk samples were characterised by a high sensory quality (4.25-5 points. There were no changes in smell and taste, resulting from the development of undesirable microflora. The tested samples of milk differing in the preservation method (sterilisation, pasteurisation at high temperature and subjected to microfiltration and low pasteurisation varied in the sensory profile. Milk pasteurised at high temperature was characterised by the most harmonised overall quality.

  13. External Quality Assessments for Microbiologic Diagnosis of Diphtheria in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-01-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014.

  14. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  15. Microbiological risk assessment of foods in international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.

    2002-01-01

    The international workshop on "Promotion of Technical Harmonisation on Risk-Based Decision Making" reviewed the use of risk-based decision making across a range of industry sectors and countries. This paper presents the contribution to the workshop covering microbiological risk assessment of foods i

  16. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization; Zagadnienia mikrobiologiczne w sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, E. [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs.

  17. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  18. Scalding: Effects of Additives on Carcass Microbiology and Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalding poultry before removing feathers has been practiced for thousands of years, but spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were discovered relatively recently by comparison. The microbiological consequences of scalding and other practices used in converting live birds to food was unknown, although i...

  19. Novel technologies in rumen microbiology: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in the 1950s, rumen microbiology enjoyed a golden age in which the secrets of the rumen began to be teased out through the isolation of numerous new microbial species and the discovery of such important concepts as interspecies hydrogen transfer and the quantitative aspects of bacterial gr...

  20. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.;

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the...

  1. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport... § 866.2900 Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. (a) Identification. A microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  2. 76 FR 69033 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Yersinia Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... 866 Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Yersinia Species Detection...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices...), in accordance with the recommendation of the Microbiology Devices Advisory Panel (the panel). FDA...

  3. 76 FR 28689 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Classification of In... recommendation of the Microbiology Devices Advisory Panel (the Panel). In addition, the proposed rule would.... Transcript of the FDA Microbiology Devices Panel meeting, March 7, 2002, at...

  4. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  5. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  6. Microbiological and microscopic analysis of the pulp of non-vital traumatized teeth with intact crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Firmino Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80% for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15% did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15% exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in

  7. Randomized trial interpreting sputum quality in a clinical laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizrachi, H H; Valenstein, P N

    1987-01-01

    The role for laboratory interpretation of microbiologic results remains controversial, and many laboratories leave the interpretation of culture results entirely to physicians. We examined the effects of furnishing a laboratory interpretation of sputum quality on physician decision making. Quality of sputum was determined on Gram-stained smears by using a modification of the criteria of Bartlett (R. C. Bartlett, Medical Microbiology: Quality, Cost, and Clinical Relevance, p. 24-31, 1974). A t...

  8. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  9. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Dahir Ramos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila. The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge.

  10. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Dahir Ramos; de Andrade Júnior, Dahir Ramos

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila). The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d) The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e) The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge. PMID:14502344

  11. Clinico-microbiological profile and treatment outcome of infectious scleritis: experience from a tertiary eye care center of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sahu, Srikant; Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri; Sahu, Kalyani

    2012-01-01

    Medical and microbiology records of seventeen patients (17 eyes), diagnosed as scleritis of infectious origin were reviewed; to study clinical features, predisposing risk factors, microbiologic profile and treatment outcome of infectious scleritis. The mean patient age was 52.3 ± 19.75 years. Twelve patients (70.6%) had history of trauma/prior surgery. Isolated organisms included Staphylococcus species (spp) (n = 5), Fungus (n = 4), Nocardia spp (n = 3), two each of atypical Mycobacterium spp and Streptococcus pneumoniae and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment included intensive topical antimicrobial in all eyes and systemic medication in 15 (88.2%) patients; surgical exploration was needed for 13 (76.5%) patients and scleral patch graft was done in four (23.5%) patients. Lesions resolved in all patients and none required evisceration. The presenting log MAR visual acuity of 1.77 ± 1.40 and improved to 0.99 ± 0.91. (P ≤ 0.039) after treatment with a mean follow up of 22.57 ± 19.53 weeks. A microbiological confirmation, appropriate medical and/or surgical intervention has a good tectonic and visual outcome. PMID:22164345

  12. Integrating Statistics with a Microbiology Laboratory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lorowitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important tool for microbiologists but is virtually absent from undergraduate laboratory activities. The variables in a stringent protocol, the antibiotic disk diffusion assay described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, were examined by the authors as a means for introducing hypothesis testing and the application of elementary statistical tools. After several experiments, a lab activity was developed where students examine the effect of cell concentration on antibiotic activity and analyze data with the t test. They also collect data independently from the same samples and compare their measurements using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The outcome of the activity, including an assessment tool, indicated that students learned the appropriate use of the t test and ANOVA, gained an appreciation for standardized protocols, and enjoyed the experience.

  13. Neonatal Mastitis: A Clinico-Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Masoodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population. DURATION: 2011 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 neonates with features of mastitis or abscess were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory work-up were recorded for all these patients in a patient form. Gram stain of the purulent nipple discharge or pus obtained on drainage was done and the specimens were culture plated. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion and categorized by current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Most babies were full term, the age range was 6-48 days. Peak incidence for mastitis was in the 2nd week and for abscess in the 4th week. The ratio of male: female was 1:2 in the entire group, there was greater preponderance of female involvement with increasing age. Massage for expression of secretions a common practice in the study population had been done in 15 patients, especially in male babies. The babies were generally well and associated skin pustulosis was common. Laboratory workup showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis and CRP positivity. Gram staining showed gram positive cocci in 13 patients and gram negative rods in 1 patient. Culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 18, E.col in 2, klebsiella in 1 patient and was sterile in 2 patients. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to macrolides and penicillins. Fifteen were methicillin sensitive and 3 were resistant but were sensitive to amikacin, ofloxacin and vancomycin. Gram negative rods

  14. Characterization and monitoring of host immune responses to infectious agents: what a future for microbiological diagnostics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dolcetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying microbial pathogenesis and host-microbe interactions has greatly improved over the last decade. In particular, the development of new and specific analytical methods has allowed the detailed characterization of innate and adaptive immune responses against clinically relevant microbial infections. Immunogenetic studies are continuously providing new insights on the genetic bases of individual differences in susceptibility to specific pathogens and most of the genetic markers identified so far include polymorphisms in genes controlling both innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, new standardized T cell assays allow reliable and reproducible evaluations of T cell phenotype and functions (i.e.: ELISPOT, including the identification of distinct functional signatures that are associated with the control of the infection.Although the number of these assays currently used in clinical practice is limited, a considerable increase is foreseen for the near future.This perspective constitutes an unprecedented opportunity for Clinical Microbiologists, who may now develop and apply integrated microbiologic/immunologic assays that may be useful for a more precise diagnostic definition and a more accurate clinical monitoring of the disease.

  15. An update on microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa De Martino; Francesca Paola Nocera; Karina Mallardo; Sandra Nizza; Eleonora Masturzo; Filomena Fiorito; Giuseppe Iovane; Piergiorgio Catalanotti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To update the recent knowledge of the microbiological causes of canine otitis externa in Campania Region (Italy) and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the iso-lated strains. Methods: A total of 122 dogs were examined by otoscopy, and auricular swab samples were collected from both ears in 74 dogs presenting clinical bilateral otitis and from single ears in 48 dogs displaying clinical unilateral otitis. Cytological examination, bacteriological analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Thirty-one out of 122 dogs were positive for yeast species (25.4%, 95% con-fidence interval (CI): 18.2%–34.2%) with a higher prevalence of Malassezia pachy-dermatis (21/31 isolates, 67.7%, CI: 48.5%–82.7%), and a total of 91 out of 122 dogs were positive for bacterial species (74.6%;CI:65.8%–81.8%) with a higher prevalence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (45/143 isolates, 31.5%, CI: 24.1%–39.8%). These results are the first description of Streptococcus agalactiae-associated otitis. The yeasts isolated showed high levels of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested; on the con-trary all the isolated bacterial strains were highly resistant to at least four out of ten antimicrobial classes. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed high resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate and kanamycin hence they are not recommended as initial empirical therapy for the otitis treatment. Conclusions: This update illustrates an increase in antibiotic resistances providing an insight into the current knowledge of the therapeutic procedures followed on canine otitis externa in Italy. It also emphasizes the importance of considering the results of the microbiological and sensitivity tests to decide on an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  16. Pertussis: Microbiology, Disease, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Zervos, Marcus J; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a severe respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, and in 2008, pertussis was associated with an estimated 16 million cases and 195,000 deaths globally. Sizeable outbreaks of pertussis have been reported over the past 5 years, and disease reemergence has been the focus of international attention to develop a deeper understanding of pathogen virulence and genetic evolution of B. pertussis strains. During the past 20 years, the scientific community has recognized pertussis among adults as well as infants and children. Increased recognition that older children and adolescents are at risk for disease and may transmit B. pertussis to younger siblings has underscored the need to better understand the role of innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immunity, including the role of waning immunity. Although recognition of adult pertussis has increased in tandem with a better understanding of B. pertussis pathogenesis, pertussis in neonates and adults can manifest with atypical clinical presentations. Such disease patterns make pertussis recognition difficult and lead to delays in treatment. Ongoing research using newer tools for molecular analysis holds promise for improved understanding of pertussis epidemiology, bacterial pathogenesis, bioinformatics, and immunology. Together, these advances provide a foundation for the development of new-generation diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. PMID:27029594

  17. Microbiologic picture of microflora offemale urogenital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyudyun A.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report authors give a detailed analysis of microorganisms that can contaminate mucous membranes of female urogenital system in normal range and in the formation of certain dysbiotic position. The composition of microorganisms that colonize the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract depends on many exogenous and endogenous factors. The main microorganisms that provide colonizing resistance of vaginal biotop (VB are lactobacilli and lactobacteria. The protective properties of lactobacillus are implemented by antagonistic activity and ability to produce lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus, L. spp.; Propionbacterium spp.; Fusobacterium spp.; Porphyromonas spp.; Prevotella spp.; S. epidermidis and S. Saprophyticus novobionrezistentni and Streptococcus spp. and others are of definite importance in supporting normobiots of mucous membranes of urogenital system of women. Decreasing number of lactobacilli and other microorganisms of normobiota leads to colonization of mucous membranes of the vagina with G.vaginalis, B.bivies, B.disiens, B.melaninigenius, Mobiluncus, E.coli, E.fecalis, S.epidermidis and development of clinical manifestation of VB. The authors show microscopic and bacteriological characteristics of microorganisms that form normal microbiota and pathological states. The development of basic subjects promotes increasing number of the known microorganisms, important in the development of VB.

  18. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  19. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  20. Practical application of predictive microbiology software programs to HACCP plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, H; Kokubo, Y

    2001-08-01

    We studied how predictive microbiology models could practically be applied to HACCP plans with two predictive software programs that are currently available. The software programs were the Food Micromodel elaborated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, U.K. and the Pathogen Modeling Program of Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture. They successfully provided useful information on (i) the determination of Critical Control Points (CCPs), (ii) the estimation of critical limits at CCPs, (iii) the decision of abused products, (iv) the assessment of equivalence of HACCP plans, and further (v) the development of new products. With the information simulated by the software programs, HACCP teams could make scientific and objective decisions for developing their individual plans. It was also confirmed that microbiological process standards for food processing are indispensable for the application of the predictive programs to HACCP plans. PMID:11817141

  1. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Mohamed E; Mohammed M. Assiry; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Ahmed M. Al-Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 201...

  2. Microbiology of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ in activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shaomei; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ is a biotechnologically important bacterial group that can accumulate large amounts of intracellular polyphosphate, contributing to biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment. Since its first molecular identification more than a decade ago, this bacterial group has drawn significant research attention due to its high abundance in many biological phosphorus removal systems. In the past 6 years, our understanding of Accumulibacter microbiology and ...

  3. Microbiological stability of homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Teresa Cegalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic medicines are prepared in homeopathic pharmacies. This leads to freedom of prescription but requires more knowledge of the clinicians to achieve the best results. Preparations made of purified water receive a validity of 24 hours, but there are prescriptions for up to 30 days. This contradiction raises tensions among physicians, pharmacists and patients. Aims: to evaluate the increase in microbiological contamination in homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle compared with the microbiological stability of purified water. Contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicine and treatment. Methodology: daily microbiological analysis for one week to assess the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas, yeasts and molds. The reference used was the USP 32/NF 27 and the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. Results: there was a higher growth of microorganisms on the medicine, compared with purified water. From the 2nd day on, this growth has been beyond the legal limits. Discussion: medicines for oral use are not sterile preparations, but they must remain stable during its shelf life. Our results indicate that contamination occurs from the earliest days of use. This shows the need to change the prescription in relation of the vehicle, to ensure hygiene and avoid potential contamination of the patient. It is necessary to prevent conflict of information between pharmacists and patients, and the contradiction of the doctor's advice, besides the potential risk of responsibility to be attributed to the pharmacy. It is necessary to promote a discussion between pharmacists and clinicians, to spread this information for those that prescribe. Conclusion: there was an increased of microbiological contamination of the medicines dispensed in purified water, which harms the quality of homeopathic medicine and homeopathic treatment.

  4. Microbiological transformations of phosphorus and sulphur compounds in acid soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stamenov Dragana; Jarak Mirjana; Đurić Simonida; Jafari Hajnal Timea; Bjelić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of phosphorus and sulphur in soil is closely related to the dynamics of the biological cycle in which microorganisms play a central role. There is not much microbiological activity in acid soils because aerobes are scarce, rhizosphere is restricted to the shallow surface layer, and the biomass of microorganisms decreases with higher acidity. The aim of the research was to investigate the number of microorganisms, which decompose organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds an...

  5. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  6. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    M. Falasconi; Concina, I.; Gobbi, E; V. Sberveglieri; Pulvirenti, A.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs) have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a) Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b) early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c) screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination ...

  7. Semester-Long Assessment of Aseptic Technique in Microbiology Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aruscavage

    2013-01-01

    Biology educators emphasize aseptic technique when teaching lab courses. Aseptic technique is very important in microbiology to ensure safety and prevent cross-contamination. Although it can be assessed throughout the semester by examining the students’ technique and observation of contamination, this tool offers a simple semester-long graded assessment of each student’s technique. The procedures allow the students to perform a quick exercise that can determine if cross-contamination occurs, ...

  8. Microbiological contamination of food at self-service restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Jose Oliveira von Dolinger; Poliana de Castro Melo; Gilsimeire Rodrigues Morais; Carlos Roberto Menezes da Silva; Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological conditions of food served in self-service restaurants in Itumbiara-GO. In total, we studied 23 restaurants and the foods collected were: pasta, tomato and cucumber salad, mayonnaise and meat from the pan. The samples were acquired with the support of the municipality’s sanitary inspectors. Our research was focused on total mesophiles, coagulase positive staphylococci and heat tolerant coliforms. The sample preparations and their di...

  9. Determination of some chemical and microbiological characteristics of Kaymak

    OpenAIRE

    Ökten, Sevtap; Ünal, Gülfem; Gönç, Siddik; Sibel Akalin, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream, which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow’s milk in Turkey. It is generally consumed with honey at breakfast and some traditional Turkish desserts. The aim of this study was to determine some chemical and microbiological properties of kaymak. The samples were obtained from different dairy plants producing kaymak from cow’s milk and local markets located in Zmir. They were examined for total solids and fat contents, acidity, pH ...

  10. Simulated acid rain effects on soil chemistry and microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research study was carried out regarding the effects of artificial rains at different pH's (3.1, 4.0, 5.6) on soil samples from Appiano Gentile pinewood. Chemical parameters, biological activities and microbiological groups, particularly sensitive to possible variations in the presence of pH changes, were monitored after 2, 4 and 6 months of treatment of the soil on eluate obtained from treatment with artificial acid rains. The paper reports the results research

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  12. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Peer M.; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Vivian A. Rincon-Florez

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used tradit...

  13. Qualitative Microbiological Risk Assessment of Unpasteurized Fruit Juice and Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlovic, Biljana; Dixon, Brent; Couture, Hélène; Farber, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Until recent decades, unpasteurized fruit juice and cider have been considered non-hazardous with respect to microbiological pathogens due to their acidic nature. However, in light of the many global foodborne illness outbreaks associated with these products, it is apparent that certain bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens can survive these acidic conditions and remain infectious. Specifically, outbreaks of human illness have been attributed to infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Sal...

  14. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; SPÎNU, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human invo...

  15. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu); Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The physicochemical analyses highlighted th...

  16. Forensic microbiology and the bioterrorism risk (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  17. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira; Priscila Aiko Hiane; Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães; Maria Isabel Lima Ramos; Daniel Pecoraro Demarque; Júnia Elisa Carvalho de Meira

    2014-01-01

    The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for...

  18. Space Habitation and Microbiology: Status and Roadmap of Space Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane; Shirakawa, Masaki; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Hida, Masamitsu; Yamazaki, Takashi; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbiology is reflected in the diversity of microbiological research and operational efforts at NASA. For example, the impact of microorganisms on other planets and the protection of Earth from the potential of microbial life elsewhere is the responsibility of the Office of Planetary Protection (http://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/ about). While the Office of Planetary Protection does not include forward or back contamination to or from a low Earth orbit, research platforms, such as the ISS, are being used to better understand the survival of microorganisms and corresponding contamination control in the extreme conditions of space (2, 4, 10). Another example is the NASA Center for Astrobiology, which focuses on the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe (https:// astrobiology.nasa.gov/). The large focus on microbiology is within its human exploration operations. NASA has historically set microbiological requirements, including stringent monitoring regimes, to mitigate risks to the health and performance of astronauts. Microorganisms can have both positive and negative impacts on many aspects of human spaceflight, including the risk and prevention of infectious diseases, performance of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), spaceflight foods, and vehicle design and integrity. Even though a great amount of information has been obtained, several key questions regarding the impact of microorganisms on human spaceflight still remain. Research into the uncertainties of risks that may affect crew health are the responsibility of the NASA Human Research Program (http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/human research/). The research that addresses our fundamental understanding of space life science and its translation for benefits to the general public on Earth is the responsibility of NASA Space Biology.

  19. Microbiological quality of some iced fishes of Imphal market, Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Lilabati, H.; Vishwanath, W.

    1994-01-01

    Imphal is the main marketing centre of fish in Manipur. As fish production of the state is not sufficient to meet the demands, about 120 metric tons of iced fishes are annually brought from other states and sold in this market. Microbiological quality of iced Wallago attu, Labeo rohita, L. gonius and Aorichthy aor in respect of total fungal count (TFC), total plate count of bacteria (TPC), Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliforms, Streptococci, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Escherichia coli i...

  20. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs are the result of efforts, which was started many years ago, to develop standardised samples that could be used in collaborative studies and in particular for the evaluation of methods for the detec...

  1. Single-Cell Microbiology: Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Information on how cells respond to their environment, interact with each other, or undergo complex processes such as cellular differentiation or gene expression has been obtained mostly by inference from population-level data. Individual microorganisms, even those in supposedly “clonal” populations, may differ widely from each other in terms of their genetic composition, physiology...

  2. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro; Lucas Ghedin Ghizzi; Natacha Deboni Cereser; Helenice Gonzalez de Lima; Cláudio Dias Timm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese sam...

  3. Commercial babassu mesocarp: microbiological evaluation and analysis of label information

    OpenAIRE

    Laisa Lis Fontinele Sá; Tamyres Andrade Macedo; Sean Teles Pereira; Nouga Cardoso Batista; Lívio Cesar Cunha Nunes; Waleska Ferreira Albuguergue

    2015-01-01

    The babassu mesocarp is easily found in supermarkets and other commercial establishments in Brazil. Despite its widespread use in both pharmaceutical and food industries, the literature has neither scientific studies about microbial contamination for these products nor about legal information expressed on label. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in babassu mesocarp sold in commercial establishments in Teresina-PI/Brazil besides the conformity of ...

  4. Normal vaginal microbiology of women of childbearing age in relation to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Morris, D F

    1967-07-01

    The vaginal microbiology of women attending a family planning clinic was found to be unrelated to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons. Beta haemolytic streptococci isolated from this ;normal' population were compared with those from 1,104 women attending general practitioners complaining of vaginal discharge. There is a caution regarding the indications for antibiotic therapy. Observations were made on the effects of contamination of vaginal swabs with yeasts and beta-haemolytic streptococci from the vulva. The persistent character of the vaginal flora over a six-month period is described. PMID:5602581

  5. Microbiological pattern of ventilator associated pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important and common complication of mechanically ventilated patients. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Intensive Care Units (ICU) worldwide. The aim of study was to determine the pattern of bacteria involved in VAP in intensive care unit of Jinnah hospital Lahore. Methods: It was descriptive case series study, conducted over a period of one year on mechanically ventilated 50 patients. American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines recommend quantitative/semi-quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) or bronchoscopic aspirates/washing from the infected lung segments for the diagnosis of VAP. Hence this study was conducted to identify the types of bacteria involved in VAP in our ICU. Patients enrolled were clinically and radiologically suspected VAP, admitted in the ICU of Jinnah Hospital/Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) Lahore. Bronchial washings were taken with the help of Fiber optic bronchoscope. Wherever bronchoscopy was not possible, subglottic secretions were collected with the help of sterilized catheter and sucker. Collected samples were sent to the Pathology laboratory of AIMC for aerobic culture and sensitivity. Results: Major pathogenic bacteria isolated were Gram negative (74%). Among this group E. coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were the commonest organisms. Gram positive bacteria were 20%, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and haemolyticus streptococci were the major isolate. In 4% cases mixed growth and in 2% cases no growth was reported. Conclusion: Major pathogenic organisms of VAP in our ICU are Gram negative bacteria. The Bacteriological culture of endobroncheal aspirates is helpful in the diagnosis and management of VAP. Emperic antibiotic therapy for VAP should cover Gram negative organisms. (author)

  6. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; dos Santos, Joice Sifuentes; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels. PMID:26821492

  7. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  8. Validation of duckweed microbiological test for assessing hazardous substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Soukupova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we used modified EN ISO 20079. The modificationconsists in application of polystyrene macroplates, with the advantageof requiring low sample volumes for the test (10 ml. Lemna minorwas cultivated as a monoculture by various dosesof chemicals for seven days. The aim of our work was to compare theacute toxicity (168hEC50 obtained from conventional testing (100 mland from microbiological tests (10 ml using reference toxicants:potassium chloride and 3.5 – dichlorphenol. The resulting value168hEC50 for potassium chloride using conventional test was 9.78 g.l-1 and for 3.5 – dichlorphenol it was 5.71 mg.l-1. The resulting valuesfrom microbiological tests were 8.69 g.l-1 and 4.24 mg.l-1,respectively. The comparison of measured values of acute toxicityfrom conventional tests and microbiological tests indicates thatmicrobiological tests are an appropriate alternative to todaycommonly used ecotoxicological biotests, for measuring andassessing of biological effects of toxic substances in the aquaticenvironment.

  9. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  10. Edging into the future: education in microbiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2016-04-01

    State-of-the-art papers from around the globe addressing current topics in education were published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Education' in November 2015 (http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/thematic-issue-education), which was innovative and well received by microbiologists and other educators. Its unique content is reviewed here to facilitate broader access and further discussions in the professional community. Best practice in supporting school teaching and exposing students to concepts from other disciplines is presented in context of inspiring the next generations, where also historical microbiology can be drawn upon. Technology-enhanced education is discussed including its applications (e.g. lecture podcasts for flipped learning, learning from experts via videoconference). Authentic learning is covered with examples of research-led teaching, water and showerhead biofilm analyses and participation in the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Enhancing employability is focussed on, including supporting personal development and work-readiness in general and for the changing nature of the microbiology profession. International mobility develops international awareness but challenges teachers. Teaching training, teaching excellence and dissemination of best practice are reviewed. Times of challenge and change in the Higher Education landscape motivate us to improve educational approaches and frameworks, so that we are prepared for new topics to emerge as current topics in education. PMID:26940289

  11. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  12. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  13. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CSOM AT KIMS - AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a major public-health problem with a high-prevalence rate. Several organisms have been implicated in the causation of CSOM, posing a challenge to the management. This is further complicated by the problem of emerging antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. OBJECTIVE We undertook the present study to identify the causative organisms in CSOM and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics in a rural teaching hospital in South India. METHODS A total number of 100 ear swabs were bacteriologically investigated for the present study. All the swabs collected from patients with clinical diagnosis of CSOM visiting the ENT outpatient department of a rural teaching hospital from December 2014 to May 2015. All these are new patients who did not have recent treatment with antibiotics either locally or systemically. Another group of 30 ear swabs were collected from healthy individuals with no history of ear discharged for control study. RESULTS Of the 100 patients, 45 were males. Out of 100 swabs cultured, 95% were culture positive and 5% were culture negative. Of the culture positive cases, 70% were aerobes, 25% were anaerobes and 5% sterile. Further, of the 99% culture positive cases, gram positive isolates were 22(31.42% and gram negative isolates were 48(68.57%. The isolated organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=26; 37.15%, Staphylococcus aureus (n=15; 21.43%, Klebsiella pneumonia (n=12; 17.15%, Proteus spp. (n=6; 8.57%, Escherichia coli (n=4; 5.72%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (n=5; 7.14%, Streptococcus pyogenes (n=1; 1%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1; 1%, Bacteroides (n=13; 52%, peptostreptococcus (n=11; 44% and Fusobacterium (n=1; 4%. When antibiotic susceptibility was assessed, organisms were most susceptible to amikacin, followed by g the Antibiotics tested for sensitivity of the Isolates Amikacin stands first followed by Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSION CSOM is a

  15. [Recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Work Group (GTEI) of the Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC) and the Infections in Critically Ill Patients Study Group (GEIPC) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) for the diagnosis and treatment of influenza A/H1N1 in seriously ill adults admitted to the Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Alvarez-Rocha, L; Sirvent, J M; Zaragoza, R; Nieto, M; Arenzana, A; Luque, P; Socías, L; Martín, M; Navarro, D; Camarena, J; Lorente, L; Trefler, S; Vidaur, L; Solé-Violán, J; Barcenilla, F; Pobo, A; Vallés, J; Ferri, C; Martín-Loeches, I; Díaz, E; López, D; López-Pueyo, M J; Gordo, F; del Nogal, F; Marqués, A; Tormo, S; Fuset, M P; Pérez, F; Bonastre, J; Suberviola, B; Navas, E; León, C

    2012-03-01

    The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 is mainly clinical, particularly during peak or seasonal flu outbreaks. A diagnostic test should be performed in all patients with fever and flu symptoms that require hospitalization. The respiratory sample (nasal or pharyngeal exudate or deeper sample in intubated patients) should be obtained as soon as possible, with the immediate start of empirical antiviral treatment. Molecular methods based on nucleic acid amplification techniques (RT-PCR) are the gold standard for the diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1. Immunochromatographic methods have low sensitivity; a negative result therefore does not rule out active infection. Classical culture is slow and has low sensitivity. Direct immunofluorescence offers a sensitivity of 90%, but requires a sample of high quality. Indirect methods for detecting antibodies are only of epidemiological interest. Patients with A/H1N1 flu may have relative leukopenia and elevated serum levels of LDH, CPK and CRP, but none of these variables are independently associated to the prognosis. However, plasma LDH> 1500 IU/L, and the presence of thrombocytopenia high suspicion of influenza A/H1N1 infection must continue with antiviral treatment, regardless of the negative results of initial tests, unless an alternative diagnosis can be established or clinical criteria suggest a low probability of influenza. In patients with influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia, empirical antibiotic therapy should be provided due to the possibility of bacterial coinfection. A beta-lactam plus a macrolide should be administered as soon as possible. The microbiological findings and clinical or laboratory test variables may decide withdrawal or not of antibiotic treatment. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended as a preventive measure in the population at risk of suffering severe complications. Although the use of moderate- or low-dose corticosteroids has been proposed for the treatment of influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia, the existing scientific

  16. Clinical and Bacteriological Survey of Diabetic Foot Infections in Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, JJ; Marques-Costa, A; Vilela, C.; Neves, J.; Candeias, N; Cavaco-Silva, P.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: An epidemiological survey of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) in Lisbon, stratifying the bacterial profile based on patient demographical data, diabetic foot characteristics (PEDIS classification), ulcer duration and antibiotic therapy. METHODS: A transversal observational multicenter study, with clinical data collection using a structured questionnaire and microbiological products (aspirates, biopsies or swabs collected using the Levine method) of clinically infected foot ulcers of ...

  17. Microbiology of rhinosinusitis in immunosupressed patients from the university hospital Microbiologia das rinossinusites nos imunossuprimidos do hospital de clínicas

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Ortiz; Ronny Tah Yen Ng; Fernando Canola Alliegro; Cristiane Teixeira; Eder Barbosa Muranaka; Eulalia Sakano

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are often susceptible to upper airway infections, especially those of the paranasal sinuses. These can sometimes jeopardize treatment success and even lead to a fatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To study the paranasal microbiology of immunosuppressed patients with clinical evidence of rhinosinusitis, and compare it with that from immunocompetent patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study, in which 42 immunosuppressed and 16 immunocompetent patients were selected. All...

  18. History, present situation, and prospects of probiotic research conducted in the G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Aleshkin; Amerhanova, A.M.; Pospelova, V.V.; Afanasiev, S.S.; Shenderov, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology has made a major contribution to the development of probiotic preparations in the Russian Federation. As long ago as the 1960s the researchers at the institute began to conduct investigations on the selection of probiotic strains, development of the probiotic preparations of different formulations and functions and technologies for their industrial production, studies of clinical efficacy and the mechanisms of their ac...

  19. High-Throughput Identification of Bacteria and Yeast by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Conventional Medical Microbiology Laboratories ▿

    OpenAIRE

    van Veen, S. Q.; Claas, E.C.J.; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Dis...

  20. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Severe Sepsis Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Héctor Jova Dueñas; Diosdania Alfonso Falcón; Marcos Diosdado Iraola Ferrer; Inti Santana Carballosa; José Noel Marrero.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Severe Sepsis Treatment. It is a syndrome of inflammatory systemic response caused by documented infection (clinical and/or microbiological), associated with organic dysfunction (respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, haematological and neurological), hypotension or hypoperfusion. This document includes a review and update of the concept, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be ...

  2. Microbiological Pollution of Water in the Bay of Durrës

    OpenAIRE

    ORNELA SHOSHI; SULEJMAN SULÇE; PJERIN SHOSHI; ZAMIRA RADA

    2014-01-01

    Several microorganisms with human or animal origin can be the cause of the diseases transmitted through water (microbiological effects). The discharges of used waters, contaminated with pathogen microbes, constitute the main cause of the microbiological pollution of the water. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the water microbiological status in Durrës bay, compared with the EEA resolution (European Environmental Agency), with a view of identifying the risk factors and the...

  3. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ginny Webb

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during...

  4. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  5. BiOutils: an interface to connect university laboratories with microbiology classes in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Caine, Massimo; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of microbiology to the scientific advances of modern experimental biology has very often made the difference. Despite this, its role as an independent discipline has slowly started to fade away. This situation has been worsening due to (i) a marginal role of microbiology in academic curricula and (ii) a low or misplaced interest by the public at large towards this field of study. In order to counter this phenomenon, microbiology researchers and passionate scientists have made...

  6. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galfrè; Dorio Vacca; Patrizia Meloni; Antonio Contu; Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2012-01-01

    Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, ...

  7. Infective endocarditis in Greece: a changing profile. Epidemiological, microbiological and therapeutic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, C; Mavroidi, N; Boutsikakis, I; Paniara, O; Deligarou, O; Manoli, H; Saroglou, G

    2004-06-01

    The epidemiology, and clinical and microbiological spectrum, of infective endocarditis (IE) in Greece was analysed in a prospective 4-year study in a tertiary hospital and a heart surgery centre in Athens. In total, 101 cases of IE (71 men, 30 women, aged 54.4 +/- 17.1 years) were studied, with a follow-up period of 3 months. Seventy-seven cases were definite and 24 possible; 59 involved native valves (native valve endocarditis; NVE), 31 prosthetic valves (prosthetic valve endocarditis; PVE), of which nine were early and 22 late, and 11 permanent pacemakers (pacemaker endocarditis; PME). There was a predominant involvement of aortic (48/101) and mitral (40/101) valves. Seven patients had rheumatic valvular disease, two had mitral valve prolapse, and eight had a previous history of IE. Thirteen and six patients had undergone dental and endoscopic procedures, respectively. In 13 patients, intravenous catheters were used within the 3 months before diagnosis of IE. There were three intravenous drug users among the patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most important pathogen, isolated in 22% of cases, followed by viridans streptococci (19%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (16%). Enterococcus spp. were responsible for 3%, HACEK group for 2%, and fungi for 6% of cases. Viridans streptococci were the leading cause of NVE (29%), Staphylococcus epidermidis of PVE (16%), and S. aureus of PME (54.5%). Six of 22 S. aureus and ten of 16 S. epidermidis isolates were methicillin-resistant. Surgical intervention, including total pacemaker removal, was performed in 51.5% of patients. Overall mortality was 16%, but was 29% with PVE, and was significantly higher with medical than with combined surgical and medical therapy (24.5% vs. 8%). Compared with previous studies, there were changing trends in the epidemiology, microbiology, treatment and prognosis of IE in Greece. PMID:15191385

  8. Endophthalmitis patients seen in a tertiary eye care centre in Odisha: A clinico-microbiological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Geographical variations are known to influence different aspects of endophthalmitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological profile of patients with infectious endophthalmitis presented to a tertiary eye care centre in Odisha, India, and compare the results with published reports from other parts of India. Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 107 patients, seen between December 2006 and January 2009 was done. All patients had undergone parsplana vitrectomy with intraocular antibiotics and the management was based on microbiological analysis of the vitreous fluid. Results: Forty six (43.0% patients had post-operative (PO, 43 had post-traumatic (PT and 18 (16.8% had endogenous (EG endophthalmitis. Males were predominant in all three types of endophthalmitis. Significantly younger individuals constituted PT group. While culture established microbial diagnosis in 45 patients (42%, direct microscopy was positive in 38 patients (35.5%. Fungal aetiology was found in 13 patients (PO-7, PT-4, EG-2 and bacteria accounted for 32. Similar to studies from north, central and south India, fungi and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for a large number of PO endophthalmitis cases. Two PT patients had polymicrobial infection. All Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftazidime was variable among the Gram-negative bacteria. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA at presentation was less than 20/200 in majority (93% of the patients. While the treatment outcome was variable in fungal and sterile endophthalmitis, the BCVA was either unchanged or improved in 100 per cent of bacterial endophthalmitis patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The spectrum of infection and outcome of infectious endophthalmitis in Odisha was similar to other parts of the country. Fungi and bacteria were involved in all three types of endophthalmitis. Empirical use of standard intravitreal therapy is

  9. Elucidation of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus outbreaks in Austria by complementary epidemiological and microbiological investigations, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Rademacher, Corinna; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Frenzel, Elrike; Simons, Erica; Allerberger, Franz; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Identifying Bacillus cereus as the causative agent of a foodborne outbreak still poses a challenge. We report on the epidemiological and microbiological investigation of three outbreaks of food poisoning (A, B, and C) in Austria in 2013. A total of 44% among 32 hotel guests (A), 22% among 63 employees (B) and 29% among 362 residents of a rehab clinic (C) fell sick immediately after meal consumption. B. cereus isolated from left overs or retained samples from related foods were characterized by toxin gene profiling, and molecular typing using panC sequencing and M13-PCR typing (in outbreak A and C). We identified two B. cereus strains in outbreak A, and six B. cereus strains, each in outbreak B and C; we also found Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in outbreak A. The panC sequence based phylogenetic affiliation of the B. cereus strains, together with findings of the retrospective cohort analyses, helped determining their etiological role. Consumption of a mashed potatoes dish in outbreak A (RR: ∞), a pancake strips soup in outbreak B (RR 13.0; 95% CI 1.8-93.0) and for outbreak C of a fruit salad (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.00), deer ragout (RR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22) and a cranberry/pear (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.50-4.03)were associated with increased risk of falling sick. An enterotoxigenic strain affiliated to the phylogenetic group with the highest risk of food poisoning was isolated from the crème spinach and the strawberry buttermilk, and also from the stool samples of the one B. cereus positive outbreak case-patient, who ate both. Our investigation of three food poisoning outbreaks illustrates the added value of a combined approach by using epidemiological, microbiological and genotyping methods in identifying the likely outbreak sources and the etiological B. cereus strains. PMID:27257745

  10. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  11. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during a microbiology lecture results in an increase in engagement, interest, attendance, and retention of material.

  12. Professor Philip D. Marsh is New Associate Editor of Journal of Oral Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ingar

    2014-01-01

    Philip D. Marsh is Professor of Oral Microbiology at the School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, UK, and is Programme Leader for the TB & Public Health Microbiology group at Public Health England, Salisbury, UK. He has published over 240 research papers and review articles, and is co-author of a leading text book on oral microbiology.(Published: 25 November 2014)Citation: Journal of Oral Microbiology 2014, 6: 26584 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jom.v6.26584

  13. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine. PMID:27455568

  14. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  15. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  16. Microbiological profile of milk: Impact of household practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is susceptible to contamination by many microorganisms including microbial pathogens responsible for causing diseases. Various processes including pasteurization, boiling or storage under refrigerated conditions are undertaken to minimize the microbial contamination of milk. Objective: This study was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the effect of household practices on the microbiological profile of milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of pasteurized, ultra heat treated (UHT as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor′s milk were collected. The effect of different storage practices and treatments on the microbiological profile (standard plate count (SPC, coliform, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, yeast and moulds, anaerobic spore count, and Listeria monocytogenes of milk was studied using National/ International Standard Test Methods. Results: Average SPC in vendor′s milk was found very high as compared to pasteurized milk. Coliform, yeast and moulds, E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in the samples of vendor′s as well as pasteurized milk. Boiling the milk reduces SPC and kills the other microorganisms. Storage of boiled milk under room temperature or refrigerated condition resulted in a similar increase in SPC at the end of 24 h, but storage of un-boiled milk even under refrigerated conditions increased SPC manifold after 24 h. Conclusion: The pasteurization process and hygienic conditions at the milk processing units along with cold chain of milk from suppliers to end users needs improvement. Currently, even pasteurized milk does not match the microbiological standards. It is recommended that milk should be boiled before consumption and refrigerated for storage to improve its shelf life/keeping quality.

  17. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  18. Microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold in Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold directly to the consumers in Skopje, Macedonia. Sampling took place in 16 sampling points (bakeries, confectioneries with total number of 70 samples being investigated. All the samples were tested for S. aureus, nterobacteriaceae, aerobic colony count, E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The samples were tested in the Food microbiology laboratory at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje using standard ethods accredited by the Macedonian Institute for Accreditation. Results were interpreted according to the guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Analysis of Some Ready-To-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (HPA, UK. After the analysis of the results the following data was obtained: S.aureus: 68.57% (n= 48 of the samples were satisfactory, 31.42% (n=22 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Enterobacteriaceae: 60.0% (n= 42 of the samples were satisfactory, 40.0% (n=28 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Aerobic colony count: 51.42% (n= 36 of the samples were satisfactory, 45.71 (n=32 were acceptable and 2.85% (n= 2 were unsatisfactory; Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E.coli: None of these microorganisms were detected in the samples taken. High levels of ACC, Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus reflect unsatisfactory hygienic practice during processing of food from source to table. This often indicate contaminated raw materials or unsatisfactory processing and unsuitable time/temperature control during storage. The established level of acceptable and unsatisfactory results highlight the need for targeted inspection and education program in order to address the potential food safety risk from hygienic practice issues.

  19. The effect of microstructure on microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Dan; Pope, Dan; Danford, Merlin; Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Results of several investigations involving stainless steels, aluminum alloys, and low-alloy steels are reviewed, and the effect of welding on microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) susceptibility in these materials is discussed. Emphasis is placed on research performed at California Polytechnic State University on the relationship between MIC and metallurgical microstructure. Topics addressed include initial stages of film development in materials with different microstructure and surface conditions, effects of inclusion on the MIC response of materials, aluminum 2219, effects of welding, and constitutional liquation.

  20. Determination of the Microbiological Quality of Some Dairy Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    ALİŞARLI, Mustafa; SANCAK, Yakup Can; Akkaya, Levent; ELİBOL, Cihangir

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the microbiological qualities of cream pastries and puddings obtained from five different confectioneries in Van. A total of 175 samples, consisting of 100 pudding samples (sütlaç 25, keşkül 30, supangile 25, kazandibi 20) and 75 cream pastries (butter-cream 25, chocolate-cream 25, fruit-cream 25), were analysed. The drop plate technique was used to determine the numbers of total anaerobic bacteria, enterobactericeae, lactobacilli, pseudomonas and yeasts...