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Sample records for clinical microbiology

  1. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

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    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  2. Clinical microbiology informatics.

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    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future.

  3. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

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    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  4. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

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    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  5. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

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    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future.

  6. Clinical microbiology: Should microbiology be a clinical or a laboratory speciality?

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    Bhattacharya Sanjay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical microbiology is a specific combination of knowledge, attitude and practice aimed at direct clinical involvement in infectious disease management using the core principles of medical microbiology and clinical medicine. In this article certain areas in microbiology, where a more proactive approach could make a significant difference in clinical outcome has been delineated. The article reiterates the role of a medical microbiologist in a hospital setting. The practices described are the norm in well-organized hospitals. These areas include management of positive blood cultures, management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs, hospital infection control and public health microbiology, development of hospital and community anti-infective policy, organization of clinical-microbiological meetings and provision of emergency out-of-hours service. The implementation of this clinical approach and increased engagement with direct patient care would require changes in existing training structure and working patterns of medical and technical staffs in microbiology.

  7. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

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    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  8. Clinical Microbiology Reviews: Genesis of a Journal

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    Morello, Josephine A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1986 planning for a new ASM review journal, Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR), began. CMR would publish articles primarily of interest to persons concerned with pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, and control of human and veterinary pathogens. The first issue was published in January 1988, with quarterly publication since then. The journal quickly became successful in terms of subscribers and impact on the field, earning a strong national and international reputation. The a...

  9. Proteomics boosts translational and clinical microbiology.

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    Del Chierico, F; Petrucca, A; Vernocchi, P; Bracaglia, G; Fiscarelli, E; Bernaschi, P; Muraca, M; Urbani, A; Putignani, L

    2014-01-31

    The application of proteomics to translational and clinical microbiology is one of the most advanced frontiers in the management and control of infectious diseases and in the understanding of complex microbial systems within human fluids and districts. This new approach aims at providing, by dedicated bioinformatic pipelines, a thorough description of pathogen proteomes and their interactions within the context of human host ecosystems, revolutionizing the vision of infectious diseases in biomedicine and approaching new viewpoints in both diagnostic and clinical management of the patient. Indeed, in the last few years, many laboratories have matured a series of advanced proteomic applications, aiming at providing individual proteome charts of pathogens, with respect to their morph and/or cell life stages, antimicrobial or antimycotic resistance profiling, epidemiological dispersion. Herein, we aim at reviewing the current state-of-the-art on proteomic protocols designed and set-up for translational and diagnostic microbiological purposes, from axenic pathogens' characterization to microbiota ecosystems' full description. The final goal is to describe applications of the most common MALDI-TOF MS platforms to advanced diagnostic issues related to emerging infections, increasing of fastidious bacteria, and generation of patient-tailored phylotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.

  10. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

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    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  11. [The newly certified 105 Japanese medical technologists in clinical microbiology].

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    Kumasaka, Kazunari

    2002-05-01

    Interest in quality assurance(QA) in clinical laboratories in Japan has increased over the past 30 years. We have however been lagging behind countries such as the USA, Canada and the UK in QA of clinical microbiology. The main problem of QA in Japan is human resources. There are only about 400 laboratory physicians certified by the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM). Almost no academics in microbiology are interested in QA and they mostly lack clinical competence. There is a small number of faculty positions, and promotions are mostly based on research productivity while medical graduates are increasingly drawn to bench work for basic, short-term research. The Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology (JSCM) was established in 1990 in order to promote the development of clinical microbiology and its relevant fields in Japan. And 2001 was a milestone in sustained efforts of the JSLM to initiate qualifying examinations of medical technologists(MT) in clinical microbiology. 105 MT in clinical microbiology were newly certified by the Joint Committee of JSCM, JSLM, Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) and College of Clinical Pathology of Japan(CCPJ). The certified MTs have appropriate educational background and are well motivated. With good on-the-job training, they are expected to perform effectively various tasks, including laboratory management. Recent radical changes in the health care delivery system have also had serious implications on laboratory services and QA of microbiological tests. The primary goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to provide accurate diagnostic testing and high-quality service at a low cost for its customers. It is believed that the Joint Committee and the newly certified MTs will contribute to narrowing the gap between Japan and other countries in clinical microbiology.

  12. Developments and Clinical Applications in Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology

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    T. Schuurman (Timothy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDiagnostic Microbiology probably started in the late 17th century when the Dutch scientist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek made microorganisms visible for the first time. Since then, 3 major revolutions have taken place, all of which had a major impact on the field of clinical microbiology.

  13. Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology.

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    Kwong, J C; McCallum, N; Sintchenko, V; Howden, B P

    2015-04-01

    Genomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology.The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology.Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in public health laboratories, reference laboratories, and hospital infection control-affiliated laboratories.As WGS represents the pinnacle for strain characterisation and epidemiological analyses, it is likely to replace traditional typing methods, resistance gene detection and other sequence-based investigations (e.g., 16S rDNA PCR) in the near future.Although genomic technologies are rapidly evolving, widespread implementation in clinical and public health microbiology laboratories is limited by the need for effective semi-automated pipelines, standardised quality control and data interpretation, bioinformatics expertise, and infrastructure.

  14. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

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    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  15. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

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    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis.

  16. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

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    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  17. [A historical view of the specialty of clinical microbiology].

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    Pérez, Evelio Perea; Álvarez, Rogelio Martín

    2010-10-01

    Clinical microbiology today is a well established specialty in Spain whose development has necessarily been linked to improvements in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Over time, clinical, teaching, and research structures have been organized around these diseases. In addition, a scientific society for specialists in infectious diseases (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica) has been set up, which in turn, publishes the journal ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS Y MICROBIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA, and organizes congresses, meetings, working groups and a quality control program, etc. Clinical microbiologists will continue to be needed to meet future challenges (identification of new pathogenic microorganisms, methodological changes, diagnostic quality and speed, nosocomial infections, the development of antimicrobial resistance, etc.), which constitute a well-defined area of knowledge specific to our specialty.

  18. Clinical and microbiological effects of the initial periodontal therapy

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    Predin Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, primarily caused by Gram-negative microorganisms. Thus, the primary objective of cause-related initial periodontal therapy is disruption and removal of the subgingival biofilm. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of the initial therapy in patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Methods. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were included in the study. As a part of the clinical assessment undertaken prior to the initial therapy, as well as one month and three months post-therapy, plaque index, gingival index, papilla bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. Microbiological testing was performed prior to the initial therapy and three months after therapy. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Results. All clinical parameters were significantly reduced after therapy. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was reduced by 22.5%, which was a statistically significant decrease compared to the baseline. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis and Prevotella intermedia tended to decrease after therapy; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. The results of the present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of the initial periodontal therapy on both the clinical and microbiological parameters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  19. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience.

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    Church, D L; Hall, P

    1999-11-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  20. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

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    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  1. Basic Concepts of Microarrays and Potential Applications in Clinical Microbiology

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    Miller, Melissa B.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The introduction of in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, led by real-time PCR, into the clinical microbiology laboratory has transformed the laboratory detection of viruses and select bacterial pathogens. However, the progression of the molecular diagnostic revolution currently relies on the ability to efficiently and accurately offer multiplex detection and characterization for a variety of infectious disease pathogens. Microarray analysis has the capability to offer robu...

  2. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis

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    Lucia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, the clinical features, underlying diseases and clinical outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis were investigated. In addition, a molecular analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolated from these patients was performed. Methods A prospective study of 62 cases of patients with cryptococcal infection was conducted at the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiás Dr. Anuar Auad from 2009-2010. Cryptococcal meningitis cases were diagnosed by direct examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample culture. The profiling of these patients was assessed. The CSF samples were submitted to India ink preparation and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. neoformans was identified by the production of urease, a positive phenoloxidase test and assimilation of carbohydrates. C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates were distinguished by growth on L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium, and molecular analysis was conducted via PCR fingerprinting reactions using M13 and (GACA4 primers. Results From the 62 patients with cryptococcosis, 71 isolates of CSF were obtained; 67 (94.4% isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii/VNI, and 4 (5.6% were identified as C. gattii/VGII. Of these patients, 53 had an HIV diagnosis. The incidence of cryptococcosis was higher among patients 20-40 years of age, with 74.2% of the cases reported in males. Cryptococcus-related mortality was noted in 48.4% of the patients, and the symptoms were altered sensorium, headache, fever and stiff neck. Conclusions The high morbidity and mortality observed among patients with cryptococcosis demonstrate the importance of obtaining information regarding the epidemiological profile and clinical course of the disease in the State of Goiás, Brazil.

  3. Clinical and microbiologic features of dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis.

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    Wladis, Edward J; Shinder, Roman; LeFebvre, Daniel R; Sokol, Jason A; Boyce, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, and large case series of this clinical entity have been reported. This study was undertaken to identify a larger cohort of patients with this ailment, with the intent of defining its clinical and microbiologic features. Case logs from four institutions were reviewed to identify patients that suffered from dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis. A retrospective chart review was then performed to identify clinical features, management strategies, microbiologic features, and outcomes. A dedicated statistical software package was utilized to identify correlations between these variables. 13 patients (7 females, 6 males; mean age = 57.2 years, range = 7-89 years) were identified. One patient carried a diagnosis of immunosuppressive disease. All patients underwent emergent surgical drainage and received intravenous antibiotics. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction was found to be the underlying etiology in nine cases (69.2%), whereas four patients suffered from specific causes of their obstructions. An average of 1.07 organisms/patient (standard deviation = 0.49 organisms/patient) were recovered from microbiologic cultures, and Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of cultured organisms. All patients experienced either stable or improved vision upon discharge. The relationships between a specific etiology and the possibility of vision loss or the number of organisms cultured, between the number of organisms cultured and vision loss, and immunosuppression and vision loss or the number of organisms cultured were all not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis most commonly occurs in adult patients who do not carry immunosuppressive diagnoses and suffer from primary obstructions. Multiple microbiologic species may cause this problem, although Gram-positive organisms are most common. With appropriate management, stable or improved vision

  4. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

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    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents.

  5. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: A clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment

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    Amita Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

  6. Clinical microbiology quality assurance program: a Taiwan experience.

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    Tsai, W C; Wu, J L; Luh, K T

    1995-05-01

    Quality assurance programs have been established during the last two decades in developed countries to promote high quality performance in clinical laboratories. In Taiwan, such a program for clinical microbiology laboratories has been in place since July 1987. It has been supported by the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and was set up by the authors. The manpower status, facilities and equipment, and performance of clinical laboratories were investigated during the first year and standards of laboratory quality were recommended. Since then, under a continuing education program, we have conducted seminars, symposia, workshops, short-courses or panel discussions approximately 4 times a year. There have been about 150 participants per session and they have come from local hospitals (primary care hospitals), regional hospitals (secondary care hospitals) and medical centers (tertiary care hospitals). Proficiency test specimens or external unknown specimens were sent to all the laboratories twice a year and approximately 3 specimens were used each time for the evaluation of each laboratory's diagnostic capability and quality of service. Results indicated that there were tremendous improvements in the quality of laboratory performance. At the same time, several laboratory manuals describing the methods of quality control of clinical specimens, test procedures, media and reagents, personnel management and a compilation of reports etc. were published as guidelines of basic requirements for each level of the laboratories. For local hospital laboratories in remote areas, several regional hospitals or medical centers with high quality laboratories were selected to serve as back-ups. Our evaluation has shown that the performance and quality of service provided by most clinical microbiology laboratories in Taiwan have now reached nearly the level of those found in the so-called "developed countries".

  7. Effect of staff attitudes on quality in clinical microbiology services.

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    Pitt, Sarah J; Sands, Richard L

    2002-01-01

    Technical quality of the work of clinical pathology laboratories is monitored regularly by both internal and external sources. Among the factors that might affect quality, laboratory staff attitudes are rarely considered. In this study, the psychological concepts of 'job satisfaction' and 'climate' are measured among microbiology biomedical scientists in the United Kingdom. A self-report questionnaire was developed and distributed (between November 1998 and February 1999) to biomedical scientists in 161 microbiology laboratories throughout the UK From 2415 questionnaires distributed, 931 replies were received--a response rate of 39%. A separate set of questions covering customer service and participation in internal and external quality assurance schemes was sent to laboratory managers. Biomedical scientists reported lower job satisfaction than did medical technologists in a previous study in the USA. Perception of climate was influenced by several demographic factors, the most important of which being the size of the laboratory. Optimal number of staff in a department was found to be less than 30. Aggregation of climate scores from members of the same department showed that a positive laboratory climate was important for good performance in internal and external measures of technical quality. For the best service, laboratory climate must be supported by a staff perception that the department is committed to enhancing quality--a climate for laboratory quality.

  8. [Authorized Qualifications of Staff Conducting Examinations in the Field of Clinical Microbiology].

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    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increase in healthcare-associated infections, appearance of highly resistant bacteria, and that of emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases, it is necessary for the skills of clinical microbiological technologists and the associated technology to be improved. Technologist in Microbiology (4,717 certified) and Specialist in Microbiology (58 certified) are authorized qualifications in the field of examination for clinical microbiology, with a history of 60 years, and Clinical Microbiological Technologist (670 certified) and Infection Control Microbiological Technologist (ICMT) (528 certified) are necessary qualifications to become a member of an infection control team. As problems to be resolved, clarifying the relationships among the authorized qualifications, reconsidering the fairness of evaluating written examinations, and further consideration of the administration method for an increasing number of examinees need to be tackled.

  9. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic considerations observed around dental implants

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    Fabiana Amaral Chiapinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periimplantitis is characterized by the inflammation of the soft tissues, bleeding, and suppuration, as well as rapid bone loss around dental implants that are in function. The lesion is associated with the presence of subgingival plaque, which contains a wide variety of Gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. Objective: This review aimed to expose some clinical, microbiological and radiographic characteristics found in periodontal tissues and around dental implants. Literature review: Despite the anatomical differences between the periodontium and the tissues around implants, several studies have indicated some similarities, such as the production of inflammatory mediators and active microbiota. Conclusion: Regular maintenance and daily plaque control may be important factors in the long-term maintenance of implant-supported prostheses.

  10. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

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    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and others can result in periodontal destruction and possibly correlate with disease severity. Data from controlled studies show high prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and Tr. denticola which represent the red complex (coexistence of these three species in patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Parallel investigation of probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL with the microbiological testing may give a confirmation of relation between subgingival pathogenic bacteria and severity of periodontitis.

  11. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Longitudinal clinical data and prospective clinical and microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Abbas, F; Arief, EM; Armand, S; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    2000-01-01

    Background, aims: In order to investigate the role of various putative clinical and microbiological risk markers, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived of regular dental care. In 1987 all inhabitants in the age range 15-25 years living in a village with approximately 2000

  12. Gram-negative osteomyelitis: clinical and microbiological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing interest in the study of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB infections, very little information on osteomyelitis caused by GNB is available in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To assess clinical and microbiological features of 101 cases of osteomyelitis caused by GNB alone, between January 2007 and January 2009, in a reference center for the treatment of high complexity traumas in the city of São Paulo. RESULTS: Most patients were men (63%, with median age of 42 years, affected by chronic osteomyelitis (43% or acute osteomyelitis associated to open fractures (32%, the majority on the lower limbs (71%. The patients were treated with antibiotics as inpatients for 40 days (median and for 99 days (median in outpatient settings. After 6 months follow-up, the clinical remission rate was around 60%, relapse 19%, amputation 7%, and death 5%. Nine percent of cases were lost to follow-up. A total of 121 GNB was isolated from 101 clinical samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacter sp. (25%, Acinetobacter baumannii (21% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%. Susceptibility to carbapenems was about 100% for Enterobacter sp., 75% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 60% for Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: Osteomyelitis caused by GNB remains a serious therapeutic challenge, especially when associated to nonfermenting bacteria. We emphasize the need to consider these agents in diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis, so that an ideal antimicrobial treatment can be administered since the very beginning of the therapy.

  13. Current and past strategies for bacterial culture in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome.

  14. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  15. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  16. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  17. Clinical and microbiological effects of commercially available dentifrice containing amine fluoride: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inability of the normal adult population to perform adequate tooth brushing has led to the search for chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve plaque control. This 6 month, single center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a dentifrice containing only amine fluoride (AF as the active ingredient on gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided in three groups: Group 1 - placebo toothpaste, Group 2 - AF containing toothpaste, and Group 3 - triclosan containing toothpaste with polymer and fluoride. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and the plaque index and microbiological counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by a questionnaire. Results: AF containing toothpaste showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to triclosan containing toothpaste. Conclusions: AF containing toothpaste may be a useful formulation for chemical plaque control agent and improvement in plaque and gingival status and add to the list of various therapeutic agents used for maintenance of gingival health.

  18. The role of the clinical laboratory in the future of health care: lean microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj; Novak-Weekley, Susan

    2014-06-01

    This commentary will introduce lean concepts into the clinical microbiology laboratory. The practice of lean in the clinical microbiology laboratory can remove waste, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Lean, Six Sigma, and other such management initiatives are useful tools and can provide dividends but must be accompanied by organizational leadership commitment to sustaining the lean culture in the laboratory setting and providing resources and time to work through the process.

  19. Impact of medical microbiology : A clinical and financial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    To be able to provide cost-effective healthcare, it is important to evaluate the impact of interventions. This thesis looked at interventions performed by the Department of Medical Microbiology at the University Medical Center Groningen. This department plays an important role in infection managemen

  20. Exposure to ceftobiprole is associated with microbiological eradication and clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A E; Punt, N; Mouton, J W

    2014-05-01

    The percentage of the dosing interval that the non-protein-bound plasma concentration is above the MIC (%fT>MIC) for cephalosporins has been shown to correlate with microbiological outcomes in preclinical studies. However, clinical data are scarce. Using data from a randomized double-blind phase 3 clinical trial, we explored the relationship of ceftobiprole exposure with microbiological and clinical outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The individual ceftobiprole exposure was determined for different pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices using individual pharmacokinetic data and a previously published population model. The MICs used in the analysis were the highest MICs for any bacterium cultured at baseline or the end of treatment (EOT). Outcomes were microbiological cure at EOT and clinical cure at test of cure (TOC). Multiple logistic regression (MLR) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were applied to determine the relationships among exposure, patient characteristics, and outcomes. MLR indicated that the %fT>MIC of ceftobiprole was the best predictor for both microbiological eradication and clinical cure. CART analysis showed a breakpoint value of 51.1% (n = 159; P = 0.0024) for clinical cure, whereas it was 62.2% (n = 251; P ceftobiprole. The %fT>MIC required to result in a favorable clinical outcome is >51% of the dosing interval, which is in line with the values found for microbiological eradication, the comparator ceftazidime, and preclinical models.

  1. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs. The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic partnership between clinical microbiologists and intensive care specialists, which is essential for this model of patient care have been emphasized. The article includes discussions on a variety of common clinical-microbiological problems faced in the ICUs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, blood stream infections, skin and soft tissue infection, UTI, infection control, besides antibiotic management.

  2. Comparison of clinical diagnosis and microbiological test results in vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, M; Bayram, A; Kocoglu, M E; Gocmen, A; Eksi, F

    2005-01-01

    Lower genital tract infections continue to be a problem due to the fact that the clinical diagnosis is usually inadequate, and subsequent care is suboptimal. This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of clinical diagnosis by comparing it with microbiologic test results, and to determine the causative agents of vaginal infections. Sixty-seven nonpregnant women (18-45 years of age) with the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection were enrolled in the study. Patients were not included if they had a history of vaginal infection during the previous three-month period or intrauterine device. The clinical diagnosis was based on the combinations of symptoms, direct observation of wet mount, homogeneous discharge, vaginal pH > 4.5, and detection of the amine odor after exposure of vaginal secretions to 10% KOH. Vaginal samples were taken with two cotton swabs, one was used for pH determination, and the second was utilized for microbiological tests. Gram staining and cultures with Sabouraud agar and chocolate agar were performed for microbiological diagnosis, and the results were compared. The clinical diagnoses included 26 (38.8%) candidiasis, 18 (26.8%) bacterial vaginosis, three (4.5%) trichomoniasis, and 20 (29.9%) mixed vaginal infections. Of the 26 patients with clinical diagnoses of candidiasis, 12 (46.1%) revealed Candiada albicans, nine (34.6) patients revealed microorganisms other than candida species, and five (19.2%) patients had no growth. Five (27.8%) bacterial vaginosis patients revealed Gardnarella vaginalis and 12 patients (66.6%) did not grow any microorganism. The overall rate of accurate clinical diagnoses confirmed by microbiological test results was 43.2%. Seventeen (43.6) of the 39 microbiological test results correlated with clinical diagnosis, and no growth was observed in 28 (41.8%) cultures. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of vaginal infection is inadequate and should be confirmed with microbiological testing if the resources

  3. Exposure to ceftobiprole is associated with microbiological eradication and clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.E.; Punt, N.; Mouton, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of the dosing interval that the non-protein-bound plasma concentration is above the MIC (%fT>MIC) for cephalosporins has been shown to correlate with microbiological outcomes in preclinical studies. However, clinical data are scarce. Using data from a randomized double-blind phase

  4. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Clinical and microbiological baseline data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Armand, S; Abbas, F; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    1998-01-01

    At present, several risk factors for the initiation and progression of periodontitis have been identified. In order to investigate the role of various potential clinical and microbiological risk factors and indicators, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived from regular de

  5. Clostridium difficile in Crete, Greece: epidemiology, microbiology and clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonis, G; Vardakas, K Z; Tansarli, G S; Dimopoulou, D; Papadimitriou, G; Kofteridis, D P; Maraki, S; Karanika, M; Falagas, M E

    2016-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology and microbiology of Clostridium difficile and the characteristics of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Crete in three groups of hospitalized patients with diarrhoea: group 1 [positive culture and positive toxin by enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]; group 2 (positive culture, negative toxin); group 3 (negative culture, negative toxin). Patients in group 1 were designated as those with definitive CDI (20 patients for whom data was available) and matched with cases in group 2 (40 patients) and group 3 (40 patients). C. difficile grew from 6% (263/4379) of stool specimens; 14·4% of these had positive EIA, of which 3% were resistant to metronidazole. Three isolates had decreased vancomycin susceptibility. Patients in groups 1 and 2 received more antibiotics (P = 0·03) and had more infectious episodes (P = 0·03) than patients in group 3 prior to diarrhoea. Antibiotic administration for C. difficile did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Mortality was similar in all three groups (10%, 12·5% and 5%, P = 0·49). CDI frequency was low in the University Hospital of Crete and isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  6. Interactive tele-education applied to a distant clinical microbiology specialization university course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazzi, Denise B; Rossi, Flávia; Wen, Chao L

    2011-09-01

    The microbiology laboratory provides a strategic support for infectious disease diagnosis and also alerts the medical community about bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The microbiologists' training is a challenge in Brazil, a country with an extensive territory, a diverse population, and disparity of resource allocation. The aim of this study was to implement an interactive tele-educational course in clinical microbiology to reach distant laboratory workers and to improve their professional skills. The course scientific content was defined according to competences associated, distributed in 560 h, with laboratory practices (knowledge matrix-contextual education). The 11-module course structure comprised 70% distance learning, 22% on campus (integrated modules), and 8% monographs. The group included 7 physicians and 21 microbiologists from 20 different Brazilian cities. The time flexibility and location were the two main reasons for student participation, thus decreasing absences to the workplace, different from the traditional teaching methodologies. The group performance was measured by monthly evaluations, and 1 year postcourse, the researcher visited their workplace. There was significant improvement in microbiological practices performed before compared with after group participation. Therefore, 76.9% of laboratory practices were modified because of the knowledge acquired in the course. Students showed behavioral changes in relation to performance in infection control as well as on the dissemination of their knowledge. This specialization course using distance education did not compromise the quality. This educational methodology represents an alternative to teach clinical microbiology to laboratory workers from remote hospitals, as a nationwide continuing educational strategy.

  7. A Webinar Case Study by a Clinical Microbiologist to Microbiology and Physiology Students: An Integrative Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara D. Davis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a webinar format to connect to an off-site clinical microbiologist, we presented an interdisciplinary and interactive case study to undergraduate microbiology and anatomy and physiology students. After an introduction to pathophysiology and microbiology, the clinical microbiologist’s case study provided students with a unique look at real life problems. Our goal was to have students appreciate the interrelationship between microbiology and physiology, and to apply their knowledge of microbiology and physiology to solve the case study. The webinar format facilitated the delivery of the integrative learning experience to multiple classes and the off-site clinical microbiologist simultaneously. Students and faculty in both anatomy and physiology and microbiology undergraduate lectures and laboratory sessions can benefit from this approach.

  8. Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP): Is It Value-Added for Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Susan E; Miller, Melissa B; Hindler, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) recently published their Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP [https://www.cms.gov/regulations-and-guidance/legislation/CLIA/Individualized_Quality_Control_Plan_IQCP.html]), which will be the only option for quality control (QC) starting in January 2016 if laboratories choose not to perform Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) [U.S. Statutes at Large 81(1967):533] default QC. Laboratories will no longer be able to use "equivalent QC" (EQC) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards alone for quality control of their microbiology systems. The implementation of IQCP in clinical microbiology laboratories will most certainly be an added burden, the benefits of which are currently unknown.

  9. [Publication rates of Turkish medical specialty and doctorate theses on Medical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases disciplines in international journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2014-04-01

    Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer

  10. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  11. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties.

  12. Pericoronitis: a reappraisal of its clinical and microbiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, D W; Tal, O; Sela, M N; Shteyer, A

    1985-07-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease of the operculum overlying an erupting or semi-impacted tooth. It manifests itself mainly in late adolescence and young adulthood and nearly always occurs around the lower third molar. The distinctive location, age, clinical picture, and link with predisposing factors warranted a reappraisal of pericoronitis and its etiology. Spirochetes and fusobacteria proved prevalent at all stages of the disease. The presence of these microbacteria may provide a clue as to the late appearance, particular location, and singular clinical picture of pericoronitis. The fact that spirochetes and fusobacteria are also found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and have been associated with alveolar osteitis, indicates a possible relationship between these disorders and pericoronitis.

  13. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-09-09

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample.

  14. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  15. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  16. Clinical and microbiological characterization of Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care hospital in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Danfeng; Peng Yibing; Zhang Lihua; Jiang Cen; Wang Xuefeng; Mao Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade,Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant nosocomial infection,yet little has been reported from China.This study aimed to characterize the clinical and microbiological features of CDI from a hospital in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CDI seen between December 2010 and March 2013 were included in this study,of which clinical data were retrospectively collected.The microbiological features of corresponding isolates were analyzed including genotype by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST),antimicrobial susceptibility,toxin production,sporulation capacity,biofilm formation,and motility.Results Ninety-four cases of CDI were included during this study period,12 of whom were severe cases.By reviewing the clinical data,all patients were treated empirically with proton pump inhibitor or antibiotics or both,and they were distributed widely across various wards,most frequently to the digestive ward (28/94,29.79%).Comparing the severe with mild cases,no significant differences were found in the basic epidemiological data or the microbiological features.Among the 94 isolates,31 were toxin A-negative toxin B-positive all genotyped as ST37.They generated fewer toxins and spores,as well as similar amounts of biofilm and motility percentages,but exhibited highest drug resistance to cephalosporins,quinolones,macrolide-lincosamide and streptogramin (MLSB),and tetracycline.Conclusions No specific clinical genotype or microbiological features were found in severe cases; antimicrobial resistance could be the primary reason for epidemic strains leading to the dissemination and persistence of CDI.

  17. Clinical and microbiologic features of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infections detected by DNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D N; Echeverria, P.; Sethabutr, O.; Pitarangsi, C; Leksomboon, U; Blacklow, N R; Rowe, B.; R. Gross; Cross, J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine the clinical and microbiologic features of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) infections, we investigated 410 children with diarrhea and 410 control children without diarrhea who were seen at Children's Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from January to June 1985. Shigella spp. were isolated from 96 (23%) and EIEC were isolated from 17 (4%) of 410 children with diarrhea and from 12 (3%) and 6 (1%) of 410 control children, respectively. The isolation rates of both patho...

  18. Problem-oriented clinical microbiology and infection. 2nd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Humphreys; William, L. Irving [Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    This medical textbook is problem-based, in line with current medical teaching, and covers 70 clinical cases. This second edition has been updated to include new material on AIDS/HIV, emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new viral pathogens such as SARS. Sections are headed; Skin and mucous membranes; Respiratory tract; Gastrointestinal system which includes a case study entitled: Bob, a 55-year-old retired coal miner with abdominal pain; Genito-urinary system; Central nervous system; Systemic infections; Pregnancy and the neonate; and Miscellaneous. 29 ills., 125 photos.

  19. Pathogenesis, microbiological and clinical aspects of oral candidiasis (candidosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, P; Berek, Z; Nagy, G; Kamotsay, K; Rozgonyi, F

    2001-01-01

    The clinical significance of the oral candidiasis (either as independent disorder, or as a part of another disease) is increasing with time. The diagnosis and local treatment of the oral candidiasis may not be satisfactory, this disorder cannot be eliminated without the correct diagnosis and management of the underlying disease. At the same time, some disorders, such as Candida induced leukoplakia, may significantly enhance tumor development. Fungal infection of the mouth is often the initial sign of several immunodeficiency diseases. It is, therefore, very important to clarify the background of a fungal infection, since this may be critical regarding the prognosis.

  20. [Microbiological monitoring of oral fluid of clinically healthy children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoukina, A M; Mikhaĭlova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Alekseeva, Iu A; Zhmakin, I A; Andreeva, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents qualitative and quantitative parameters of microbiocenosis of oral fluid and feces of clinically healthy children in different age groups. In most of the cases compensated disbiotic changes were found, which were characterized by reduction in the number of indigenous microflora (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and increase of representatives of opportunistic pathogens (Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Candida). Microecological changes in different gastrointestinal biotopes are closely interrelated. Saliva may be considered as a specimen of integral fluid of human environment and can be used for complex assessment of the state of gastrointestinal tract microflora.

  1. Nontyphoid salmonella infection: microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Wang, Yue; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2013-06-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella is the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Most nontyphoid Salmonella infection is limited to uncomplicated gastroenteritis that seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, invasive infections, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis, may occur and require antimicrobial therapy. Continuous genetic and genomic evolution in Salmonella leading to increased virulence and resistance to multiple drugs are of significant public health concern. Two major changes in the epidemiology of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Europe and in the USA occurred in the second half of the 20(th) century: the emergence of foodborne human infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteriditis and by multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. In the 21(st) century, a worsening situation is the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in nontyphoid Salmonella. Clinical isolates showing carbapenem resistance also have been identified. Although antimicrobial therapy is usually not indicated for uncomplicated Salmonella gastroenteritis, recent studies indicated that a short-course ceftriaxone therapy (3-5 days) for patients with severe gastroenteritis would lead to a faster clinical recovery. Continuous surveillance of Salmonella in both humans and animals is mandatory. A better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella may help in the devising of better interventional strategies to reduce the spread of resistant Salmonella between humans and reservoirs along the food chain.

  2. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

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    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  3. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  4. Clinical, Microbiological and Hematological Findings in Ovine Subclinical Mastitis

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    Daniela Marina Mot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its richness in nutrients, milk represents a complete and balanced food that can be prepared from many other important products in human nutrition. But milk is also a medium of culture for numerous microorganisms. Although milk possesses antimicrobial mechanisms, in many cases it can be contaminated by endogenous or exogenous sources. This microorganism contamination of sheep milk and finished products depreciate its qualitative and produce severe food poisoning to consumers. In this study aimed a bacteriological control of five samples of milk haphazardly collected from six particular herds of sheep in the western part of the country. In parallel was carried out a clinical examination of the animal, insisting on mammary gland and examination of blood samples collected from the same animals. In laboratory was performed a bacteriological examination of milk samples and leucogram on blood samples. The identified bacterial species in milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium. Although it started from the idea that the animals were healthy, it was still identified in more than half of the subjects examined subclinical mammary gland infections.

  5. Yeast identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory: phenotypical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydiere, A M; Guinet, R; Boiron, P

    2001-02-01

    Emerging yeast pathogens are favoured by increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients and by certain current medical practices. These yeasts differ in their antifungal drug susceptibilities, and rapid species identification is imperative. A large variety of methods have been developed with the aim of facilitating rapid, accurate yeast identification. Significant recent commercial introductions have included species-specific direct enzymatic colour tests, differential chromogenic isolation plates, direct immunological tests, and enhanced manual and automated biochemical and enzymatic panels. Chromogenic isolation media demonstrate better detection rates of yeasts in mixed cultures than traditional media, and allow the direct identification of Candida albicans by means of colony colour. Comparative evaluation of rapid methods for C. albicans identification, including the germ tube test, shows that chromogenic media may be economically advantageous. Accurate tests for single species include the Bichrolatex Albicans and Krusei Color tests, both immunologically based, as well as the Remel Rapid Trehalose Assimilation Broth for C. glabrata. Among broad-spectrum tests, the RapID Yeast Plus system gives same-day identification of clinical yeasts, but performance depends on inoculum density and geographic isolate source. The API 20 C AUX system is considered a reference method, but newer systems such as Auxacolor and Fungichrom are as accurate and are more convenient. Among automated systems, the ID 32 C strip, the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card and the Vitek 2 ID-YST system correctly identify >93% of common yeasts, but the ID-YST is the most accurate with uncommon yeasts, including C. dubliniensis. Spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy offer potential advantages for the future. Overall, the advantages of rapid yeast identification methods include relative simplicity and low cost. For all rapid methods, meticulous, standardized

  6. Rapid enzyme analysis as a diagnostic tool for wound infection: Comparison between clinical judgment, microbiological analysis, and enzyme analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis-Arkes, Miriam H.E.; Haalboom, Marieke; Palen, van der Job; Heinzle, Andrea; Sigi, Eva; Guebitz, Georg; Beuk, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, diagnosis of wound infection is based on the classical clinical signs of infection. When infection is suspected, wounds are often swabbed for microbiological culturing. These methods are not accurate (clinical judgment in chronic wounds) or provide results after several days (w

  7. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed.

  8. Angular cheilitis in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a clinical and microbiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, K A; Samaranayake, L P; Peiris, J S

    1991-04-01

    The relative importance of various factors in the pathogenesis of angular cheilitis in a population of Sri Lankan adults was studied. Forty-nine patients with cheilitis were examined clinically and microbiologically. Only 5 of 49 patients were full denture wearers. The clinical presentation of the lesions could be categorized as mild (Type I), moderate (Type II) or severe (Type III) and the duration of the lesions ranged from 1 month to more than 4 yr. Hematologic investigations revealed 18 patients with low hemoglobin 8 of whom had hypochromic, microcytic anaemia. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from 59% of the lesions; Candida spp. in 24 patients and Staph. aureus in 11 patients. A significant positive relationship between commissural leukoplakia and an infective etiology of angles was noted. This study confirms the multifactorial etiology of angular cheilitis while highlighting the varied clinical presentation of the lesions in an Asian population.

  9. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Somabhai Katara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  10. A Clinical Microbiological Study of Corneal Ulcer Patients at Western Gujarat, India

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    Nilesh Dhanjibhai Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  11. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somabhai Katara, Rajesh; Dhanjibhai Patel, Nilesh; Sinha, Mala

    2013-07-13

    Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40%) patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26%) corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14%) corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%)), followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%)), and blunt trauma (3, (11%)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%)), followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%)). Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  12. Clinical Relevance of the Advanced Microbiologic and Biochemical Investigations in Periodontal Diagnosis: A Critical Analysis

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    Vishakha Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to periodontal diagnosis, including advanced microbiologic, biochemical, and genetic tests, have been shown to provide the clinician with the information not available by traditional means. The purpose of a diagnostic test is to confirm, exclude, classify, or monitor disease to guide treatment. Their clinical value depends on whether the information they provide leads to improved patient outcomes. This can be assessed by randomized trials, which compare patient outcomes from the new diagnostic test versus the old test strategy. Being nonmandatory for marketing approval, such trials are not always feasible because of large sample sizes requirements. So, many diagnostic tests enter the practice without being critically analysed for any additional benefits. Effective diagnosis is just as essential as the selection of effective treatments for the success of periodontal therapy. So, the current paper aims to focus on the practical utility of this rapidly emerging plethora of periodontal diagnostic tools, emphasizing the critical issues surrounding the clinical application of microbiologic and biochemical investigations, employed for periodontal diagnosis.

  13. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of definite infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Reza; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammadhossien; Zandi, Hengameh; Firoozabadi, Ali Dehghani; Tavakkoli Banizi, Neda; Kahtooie, Foroozandeh Qasemi; Banaei, Mehdi; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial infection of heart valves and its endothelial lining which is considered as a life-threatening disorder. This study evaluated the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of IE at the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients diagnosed with definite IE on the basis of Duke’s criteria hospitalized for one year in the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran, from January 2015 to December 2015. Demographic information, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings, and also trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) of each patient were recorded and assessed. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients under study was 45±16 years with most of the afflicted patients (60%) being male. Most cases (70%) of IE were observed in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The most common clinical sign (80%) was fever. TEE was positive for all (100%) patients, and vegetation was seen in all patients. The nosocomial mortality rate was zero. However, 14 (70%) patients underwent surgical treatment. The valves afflicted with IE were: the mitral valve (40%), the aortic valve (35%), and the tricuspid valve (25%), respectively. 4 patients (20%) had a positive history of IE. Blood culture test was positive only in 1 case and the isolated microorganism belonged to the viridans group streptococci. Conclusion: Despite the one-year high prevalence of IE in this study, the nosocomial mortality rate was not high and was reported to be nil under surgical and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:28149706

  14. Functions and activities of the Area Committee on Microbiology of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, J A

    1991-01-01

    The Area Committee on Microbiology of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has responsibility for the development of guidelines and standards in the field of clinical microbiology. Through the consensus process, representatives from government, industry, and professional societies have developed standards on antibacterial susceptibility testing (M2, M7, and M11), antimycobacterial susceptibility testing (M24), quality assurance on commercially prepared microbiological culture media (M22), evaluation of production lots of dehydrated Mueller-Hinton agar (M6), and preparation and testing of fetal bovine serum for use as cell culture growth supplement (M25) and guidelines on bactericidal tests (M26), protection of laboratory workers from infections transmitted by blood, body fluids, and tissue (M29), blood film examination for parasites (M15), and development of in vitro susceptibility testing criteria and quality control parameters (M23). PMID:2070343

  15. Microbiological profile and clinical outcome of severe foot ulcers of diabetic inpatients

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    Marivaldo Loyola Aragão(

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the microbiological profile and clinical outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers of inpatients of a tertiary university hospital, at Ceara, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical charts data of all diabetic inpatients of the Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Walter Cantídio University Hospital (Federal University of Ceará, admitted from January, 2006 to June, 2007 for severe foot ulcers (minimum of grade 2 of Wagner`s classification, which were refractory to ambulatory treatment. Clinical data from each patient were recorded (sex, age, diabetes duration, and comorbidities as well as microbiological characteristics of foot ulcers and surgical (amputations material. Results: We identified 17 diabetic patients, all type 2, aged 58.11 ± 10.8 years and 12.4 ± 8.4 years of disease, 58.8% male. Of ulcers, 41.1% were grade 2; 35.2% grade 3; 11.7% grade 4 and 11.7% grade 5 of Wagner; 64.7% with less than 3 months of evolution. Debridement was performed in 82.3% of patients and amputation in 47%; osteomyelitis was identified in 47% of cases. All patients started empiric antibiotic therapy, where ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was the most used scheme (76.5%. Cultures were negative in 12.5% of the patients. In the positive ones, the most prevalent bacterial pathogens detected in the culture materials were: S. aureus (57.1%; S. viridans (28.7%; P. aeruginosas (28.7%; M. morganii (28.7%. The majority (75% of isolated S. aureus were methicillin-resistant, but were sensitive to vacomicin. Conclusion: We observed the presence of polymicrobial flora with a large number of multiresistant pathogens and high prevalence of osteomyelitis and amputations in diabetic patients with severe ulcers, neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease.

  16. Osteoarticular infections in Belgian children: a survey of clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmont, Quentin; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to report the pathogens which were found most frequently to be responsible for osteo-articular infections in infants and children in Belgium, and to propose an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy applicable before identification of the responsible pathogen. Clinical presentation, imaging and blood biology are also reviewed and analysed. Fifty-six cases of osteo-articular infections (acute/subacute osteomyelitis, osteo-arthritis, septic arthritis, spondylodiscitis, sacro-iliitis) treated between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on clinical, biological, microbiological and radiological data. Septic arthritis, acute osteomyelitis, septic osteoarthritis and sacro-iliitis often have a loud clinical (fever, pain, inflammatory signs) and biological presentation. Subacute osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis are almost asymptomatic, but for functional impairment. The responsible pathogen was isolated in 38% of the cases. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus, followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus A and B, Kingella Kingae, and Haemophilus. None of them were resistant to usual antibiotics. Functional impairment is the only constant symptom of osteo-articular infections. Other clinical and biological symptoms may be absent, making diagnosis often difficult. We recommend oxacillin (> 5 years) or a combination of oxacillin with cefotaxime (< 5 years) in the empirical treatment of osteo-articular infection, and a total of 4 weeks of treatment.

  17. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: A pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Bruins (Marjan); G. Ruijs (G.); M.J.H.M. Wolfhagen; P. Bloembergen (Peter); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available to

  18. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections Before and After Implementation of a Universal Varicella Vaccine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julie; Bidet, Philippe; Tapiéro, Bruce; Rallu, Fabien; Minodier, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stephane; Bingen, Edouard; Ovetchkine, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the varicella vaccine to the routine immunization schedule, we have observed a 70% reduction in the rate of varicella-associated invasive group A streptococcal infections (IGASI). In the mean time, the clinical presentation of IGASI and microbiological characteristics of GAS strains have changed significantly.

  19. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

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    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  20. A case of clinical and microbiological failure of azithromycin therapy in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi despite low azithromycin MIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, Abi; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Rupali, Priscilla

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in many developing countries. Due to resistance to multiple first line drugs, azithromycin has evolved as an important drug in the treatment of typhoid. While therapy with azithromycin is highly effective, no clinically validated mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) break points or disc diffusion cutoff guidelines are available so far. We describe an Indian adult with clinical and microbiological failure to azithromycin despite low azithromycin MIC.

  1. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and ...

  2. [Proposal for improving EQA programs in clinical microbiology by the Japanese Association of Medical Technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Kazuhisa

    2005-04-01

    External quality assessment (EQA) programs have been conducted by the Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) since 1989. The nationwide EQA programs have provided feedback for improving clinical tests quality in individual laboratories. The participating laboratories have been expected to process the survey samples according to their usual practice for patient specimens. However, many problems relating to the EQA programs in clinical microbiology have been raised. Dishonesty in the responses, survey samples being handled in a manner that improves assessment results, surveys depending on volunteers because of time and cost limitations were some of the initial problems. In addition, the criteria used to evaluate the results were poorly understood, so that neither examiners not participants were clear as to how the evaluation worked. And finally, the nationwide EQA programs can detect only gross errors and use invalid methods for evaluating routine performances. They have been measuring only a few steps in specimens processing. To assess overall laboratory competence, other methods are needed. It is time to reform the JAMT nationwide EQA program to initiate real proficiency testing and to this end it is necessary to increase collaboration between JAMT and the regional associations of medical technologists, so that the improved testing program can be properly administered.

  3. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  4. Continuous infusion of porcine factor VIII: stability, microbiological safety and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, D M; Gorman, P O; Kasper, C K; Mannucci, P M; Santagostino, E; Hay, C R M

    2002-01-01

    Porcine factor VIII (pFVIII) is an effective haemostatic treatment for bleeding in selected patients with FVIII inhibitors. Its use is sometimes associated with a transient fall in platelet count and transfusion reactions, the risk of which may be related to the rate of administration. Theoretical considerations suggest that the administration of pFVIII by continuous infusion should be effective, and could have pharmacokinetic advantages that lead to an improvement in the side-effect profile. The results of a retrospective survey of continuous infusion of pFVIII with respect to clinical safety and efficacy are reported. Porcine FVIII stability and microbiological studies are included. It is concluded that pFVIII given by continuous infusion is safe and effective. The risk of transfusion reactions and fall in platelet count appears to be reduced, compared with bolus administration. Stability studies showed that pFVIII activity declined at room temperature, most rapidly in the dilute solution (5-10 U mL(-1)). More concentrated mixtures showed acceptable stability for up to 24 h using a variety of infusion devices. Various concentrations of pFVIII did not support the growth of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. These observations suggest that the porcine factor is suitable for continuous infusion (CI).

  5. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

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    Jaclyn Arquiette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE. We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four bacterial classifications from each sample. Sixty-five surveys were completed. Forty-five (69% individuals used a filter. Fifteen respondents reported diarrhea in their home in the last 30 days; this incidence was higher in homes not using a filter. Thirty-three paired water samples and surveys were available. Twenty-eight samples (85% demonstrated bacterial growth. A control sample was obtained from the local river, the principal water source; number and bacterial colony types were innumerable within 24 hours. Access to clean water, the use of filters, and other treatment methods differed within a geographically proximal region. Although the majority of the water samples failed to achieve bacterial eradication, water filters may sufficiently reduce bacterial coliform counts to levels below infectious inoculation. Clay water filters may be sustainable water treatment measures in resource poor settings.

  6. Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Danikuu Francis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale, urban northern Ghana. Methods Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT- PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods. Results Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months. Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22% and wasting (19% were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P P = 0.02. Conclusion Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.

  7. Enterococcus: review of its physiology, pathogenesis, diseases and the challenges it poses for clinical microbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John VU; John CARVALHO

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterococcus is composed of 38 species,the most important of which are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium-both human intestinal colonizers.Hospitals within the United States and around the world commonly isolate these bacteria because they are a cause of bacteremia,urinary tract infections (UTIs),endocarditis,wound infections,meningitis,intraabdominal and pelvic infections,and nosocomial and iatrogenic infections.Given the ubiquity of enterococci within the human population,it is important for laboratories to be able to distinguish these agents within hospitalized patients from other bacterial genera and also differentiate different species within the Enterococcus genus as well as different strains within each species.Unfortunately,the enterococci are emerging as serious pathogens in both the developed world,where surveillance needs to be improved and speciation procedures are inadequate or cumbersome,and in developing nations,which lack the trained hospital personnel or funding to sufficiently identify enterococci to the genus or species level.This review explores the Enterococcus genus and highlights some of the concerns for national and international clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. [Microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum (a clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikova, E D; Titova, G P; Kartavenko, V I; Sokolov, V A; Shabanov, A K; Men'shikov, D D

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy of gram-stained impression smears is used for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms in the wound. The shin tissues of patient P. with suspected gas gangrene of lower extremity soft tissues were microscopically found to have gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that were morphologically similar to C. bifermentans that were identified as C. septicum on cultural diagnosis. The pathogenic C. septicum strain spores were likely to be formed in the macroorganism upon exposure of the pathogen to a patient's defense factors and to a package of therapeutic measures. Microbiological data should be used only in combination with clinical and instrumental findings and the results of other laboratory studies when the optimal technology is chosen to treat gas infection. By keeping in mind that there may be clostridial gangrene in the patients and the experience of clinicians and bacteriologists may be insufficient in diagnosing this pathology, it is necessary to strengthen the training of physicians in the diagnosis of this pathology.

  9. Clinical and microbiological characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Choi, Won Suk; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection is increasing, which might be associated with high morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients with limited therapeutic options. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and microbiological features of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii bacteraemia. The medical records of 28 adult patients with this bacteraemia admitted to Korea University Guro Hospital, from January 2005 through December 2010, were reviewed. Using the 28 bloodstream isolates, we intended to detect genes encoding carbapenemases, and investigate the inoculum effect on each of the antimicrobial agents rifampicin, imipenem, colistin and tigecycline. With one blood isolate from a patient with pneumonia, rifampicin-inducible resistance was examined using the experimental mouse pneumonia model. Out of 28 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii bloodstream infections (BIs), the most common primary focus was the central venous catheter (35.7 %) and then the lung (32.1 %). The 30 day overall mortality was 53.6 %; in most cases (80 %) the patients died within 10 days after the onset of the bacteraemia. By univariate analysis, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy (73.3 vs 30.8 %, P = 0.02), mechanical ventilation (53.3 vs 15.4 %, P = 0.04) and a high Pitt bacteraemia score (4.9±1.9 vs 2.2±1.2, P<0.01) were statistically significant risk factors for mortality, while only a high Pitt bacteraemia score (odds ratio 2.6; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-6.5) was independently associated with 30 day mortality by multivariate analysis. All 28 isolates had the bla(OXA-51)-like gene with upstream ISAbaI, 2 of which additionally had the bla(OXA-58)-like gene and the bla(OXA-23)-like gene. Inoculum effect and rifampicin inducible resistance were not detected. Considering the rapid progression to death in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii BIs, early empirical antibiotic therapy would be warranted based on the local

  10. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: a pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

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    Bloembergen Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making.

  11. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi F; Tarsia P; Mantero M; Morlacchi LC; Piffer F

    2013-01-01

    Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Metho...

  12. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the clinical microbiology laboratory: comparison of conventional and molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Pelt (Cindy); C.M. Verduin (Cees); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B. Tummler; C. Segonds; F. Reubsaet; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situat

  13. Clinical and microbiological features of HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis in Vietnamese adults.

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    M Estee Torok

    Full Text Available METHODS: The aim of this prospective, observational cohort study was to determine the clinical and microbiological features, outcome, and baseline variables predictive of death, in Vietnamese adults with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM. 58 patients were admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City and underwent routine clinical and laboratory assessments. Treatment was with standard antituberculous therapy and adjunctive dexamethasone; antiretroviral therapy was not routinely available. Patients were followed up until the end of TB treatment or death. RESULTS: The median symptom duration was 11 days (range 2-90 days, 21.8% had a past history of TB, and 41.4% had severe (grade 3 TBM. The median CD4 count was 32 cells/mm(3. CSF findings were as follows: median leucocyte count 438 x 10(9cells/l (63% neutrophils, 69% smear positive and 87.9% culture positive. TB drug resistance rates were high (13% mono-resistance 32.6% poly-resistance 8.7% multidrug resistance. 17% patients developed further AIDS-defining illnesses. 67.2% died (median time to death 20 days. Three baseline variables were predictive of death by multivariate analysis: increased TBM grade [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.76, p = 0.02], lower serum sodium (AHR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98, p = 0.002 and decreased CSF lymphocyte percentage (AHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99, p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-associated TBM is devastating disease with a dismal prognosis. CSF findings included CSF neutrophil predominance, high rates of smear and culture positivity, and high rates of antituberculous drug resistance. Three baseline variables were independently associated with death: increased TBM grade; low serum sodium and decreased CSF lymphocyte percentage.

  14. Standard requirement of a microbiological quality control program for the manufacture of human mesenchymal stem cells for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Patricia; Clares, Beatriz; Bermejo, Maria; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat

    2014-05-15

    The manufacturing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as cell-based products for clinical use should be performed with appropriate controls that ensure its safety and quality. The use of hMSCs in cell therapy has increased considerably in the past few years. In line with this, the assessment and management of contamination risks by microbial agents that could affect the quality of cells and the safety of patients have to be considered. It is necessary to implant a quality control program (QCP) covering the entire procedure of the ex vivo expansion, from the source of cells, starting materials, and reagents, such as intermediate products, to the final cellular medicine. We defined a QCP to detect microbiological contamination during manufacturing of autologous hMSCs for clinical application. The methods used include sterility test, Gram stain, detection of mycoplasma, endotoxin assay, and microbiological monitoring in process according to the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and each analytical technique was validated in accordance with three different cell cultures. Results showed no microbiological contamination in any phases of the cultures, meeting all the acceptance criteria for sterility test, detection of mycoplasma and endotoxin, and environmental and staff monitoring. Each analytical technique was validated demonstrating the sensitivity, limit of detection, and robustness of the method. The quality and safety of MSCs must be controlled to ensure their final use in patients. The evaluation of the proposed QCP revealed satisfactory results in order to standardize this procedure for clinical use of cells.

  15. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1).

  16. [Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia: about 200 episodes. Clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, O; Ben Hadj Hassen, S; Kaabia, N; Limam, S; Hadj Amor, M; Ben Fatma, L; Landolsi, A; Hochlef, M; Letaief, A; Boukadida, J; Ben Ahmed, S

    2008-05-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy suppresses the haematopoietic system, febrile neutropenia is the most serious haematological toxicity associated with the risk of life-threatening infections. We present a retrospective study of 200 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 128 patients treated in department of medical oncology. The aim of this study was to determinate the clinical, therapeutic and evolutive characteristics in patients treated essentially for solid tumors. Among these patients, 72% of them have at least two episodes, the median age was 34 years with extremes six and 75 years. It has been noticed that 26.3% of patients have diabetes, the dominate neoplasm was solid tumors in 79.7%, 65% of patients have received preventive colony-stimulating factors, 83% have received preventive buccal disinfection with antifungic. The median duration of hospitalisation was 12 days, the median delay of febrile neutropenia was 10 days with extremes two and 31 days, median duration of febrile neutropenia was 5.45 days with extremes one and 24 days. Among these cases, 9.45% of them have nadir zero, 68% of patients have clinical documented infections, ORL in 47% of cases. According to the study, 12% of cases have documented microbiological fever, the sites was urinary in 33% of cases, blood in 33% of cases, derm in 30% of cases. The microbe was staphylococcus negative coagulase in 37.5% essentially in blood and derm, the Escherichia coli in 20.8% essentially in urinary and blood. First line antibiotherapy was cefotaxim associated with amikacine in 93.5%, second line antibiotherapy was association of imipenam and amikacine in 82% of cases. Among these cases,7% of them have received anti-staphylococcus, and antifungic treatment in 50% of cases. The thermic defervescence was obtained in median delay of 2.8 days. We have noted nine deaths (22% of cases). Recent surveys indicate that neutropenia remains a prevalent problem associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. The colony

  17. Non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease: a clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic investigation

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    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.

  18. [Recommendations for implementing the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in the clinical microbiology laboratory: bacteriology and serology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, María Dolores; Aguiar, Juan Manuel; Cercenado, Emilia; de Ory, Fernando; de la Rosa, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard specifies the management and technical requirements that clinical microbiology laboratories must meet to achieve optimal quality when performing microbiological analyses. With implementation of this standard, a laboratory can receive the accreditation and formal recognition of an authorized body, certifying that it is apt for performing an assay or group of assays. In Spain, laboratories that apply these standards can be accredited by the Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC, Spanish accreditation body). The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinical microbiology laboratory specialists with the UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard through a practical approach focussed on bacteriology and serology studies. We briefly define the scope and specify the requisites required for managing the quality of the procedures and processes involved in performing tests on human specimens, for document control, and for management of instruments and equipment, personnel, information systems, supply systems, and external services. Lastly, evaluation approaches are indicated to achieve continuing improvement of the processes carried out and the services the laboratory provides.

  19. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  20. The Effect of Locally Delivered Doxycycline in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis. A Clinical and Microbiological Cohort Study

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    Ioannis Ioannou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered doxycycline as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment with the use of an ultrasonic device compared to scaling and root planing using hand instruments, by means of clinical and microbiological criteria.Material and Methods: Thirty three patients with chronic periodontitis participated in this cohort study and were divided into two groups. Patients in control group received scaling and root planing using hand instruments, whereas patients in control group received ultrasonic debridement and 8.8% doxycycline gel was applied after initial therapy and at 3 months at preselected sites. Clinical recordings concerning probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and gingival bleeding index were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months after baseline. Subgingival samples were analysed using the “checkerboard” DNA-DNA hybridisation technique for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola.Results: Both treatments resulted in significant improvement in all clinical recordings. Six months after the treatment a statistically significant decrease was observed for Porphyromonas gingivalis in both of groups and Treponema denticola in the control group (P < 0.05. No inter-group differences were observed (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Both treatment modalities provided comparable clinical and microbiological results in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  1. Clinical, Epidemiological and Microbiological Study of Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Units with Mechanical Ventilation Related Pneumonia

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    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical ventilation related pneumonia is a very current issue due to its frequency, severity and etiologic and therapeutic implications. Objective: To characterize, from a clinical, epidemiological and microbiological point of view, patients with ventilation related pneumonia who are admitted to intensive care units. Methods: Descriptive case series study, conducted from January 2007 to December 2009, at the Laboratory of Microbiology and intensive care units of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General Hospital in Cienfuegos.  We analyzed the following variables: service that remitted patients, age, sex, cause of admission to intensive care unit, discharge status, microbiological results, isolated microorganisms, antimicrobial disks tested and antimicrobial resistance in vitro. Results: mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units was observed mainly in male patients over 65 years old (43.1% with multiple trauma (20.9%; 20.9% were patients with cerebrovascular disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated organism in all units (41.4%, except in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. It also reported a high mortality rate and in vitro resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most isolated germen in cases of mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units` patients. It affected mainly patients with multiple trauma and cerebrovascular disease.

  2. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and localized juvenile periodontitis. Clinical, microbiologic and histologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christersson, L A

    1993-01-01

    The present studies examined Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and its role in localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). The distribution of the bacteria was studied in healthy normals, patients with adult periodontitis, diabetics, and those with LJP. Over 95% of the LJP patients harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans, whereas only 17% of healthy subjects, 21% of adult periodontitis patients, and 5% of diabetics were positive. All members of a LJP family harboring the organism yielded isolates of the same biotype and serotype. The transmission of the bacteria was studied after transfer of the bacteria, with periodontal probes from infected to healthy gingival sites, within the oral cavity of LJP patients. Newly colonized gingival sites, 50% of those involved, became free of A. actinomycetemcomitans after only 3 weeks. A purposely forceful inoculation contributed to a more predictable colonization (89%), but only prolonged the colonization with one week. Treatment of LJP lesions with scaling and root planing resulted in minimal clinical and microbiological changes during a 16 week follow-up period. However, gingival curettage and modified Widman flap surgery suppressed A. actinomycetemcomitans in 75% and 89% of the sites, and resulted in resolution of periodontal pocket depth and gain in attachment level. Gingival tissue specimens, from 35 LJP sites, 3 control sites, and one monkey biopsy, were studied to verify the hypothesis of gingival infiltration of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Bacteria were identified immunohistologically with rabbit antisera serospecific to the three A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Positive staining was observed in the tissue from all but one LJP patient. Twenty-eight (80%) lesions were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans antigens in the gingival connective tissue, often with antigens located both between and within cells. The specimen from a culture positive control demonstrated no signs of invasion, similar to the monkey specimen

  3. Microbiological Characteristics and Clinical Features of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobing; Li, Xuebin; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of symptomatic CIED infections are not well described. The present study included patients with CIED infections in China, and their pocket tissues were collected for clinical microbiological determination. A total of 219 patients with CIED infections were investigated; of these patients, 145 (66.2%) were positive for CIED infection in pocket tissue cultures and 24 (11.0%) were positive in both blood and pocket tissue cultures. Patients with recurrent infections and patients with systemic infections tended to have higher rates of positive cultures from pocket tissue. In addition, patients with lung diseases were more likely to have early CIED infections than late CIED infections, while patients with liver diseases were more susceptible to systemic infections than local infections. Staphylococcus species were the most common cause of CIED infections; coagulase-negative staphylococci was the predominant type (accounting for 45.2% in all cases and 68.3% in culture-positive cases). None of the Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin, linezolid or vancomycin. Gram-negative bacilli accounted for 9.1% of all cases and 13.8% of culture-positive cases. Significant differences in the distribution of different pathogens were identified between primary infections and recurrent infections, between local infections and systemic infections, and between early infections and late infections. Our data describe the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of CIED infections, and provide evidence for advisory guidelines on the management of CIED infections in China.

  4. Peritonsillar abscess: clinical aspects of microbiology, risk factors, and the association with parapharyngeal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers

    2017-03-01

    development, but that FN can act as pathogen in severe acute tonsillitis. Future studies of patients with FN-positive acute tonsillitis focusing on the optimal methods (clinical characteristics, culture, polymerase chain reaction, or other) for diagnosis and whether antibiotics (and which) can reduce symptoms and avoid complications are warranted. Until further studies are undertaken, we recommend clinicians to have increased focus on acute tonsillitis patients aged 15-24 years with regards to symptoms and findings suggestive of incipient peritonsillar involvement. We have conducted a number of studies with novel findings: 1. FN is a significant and prevalent pathogen in PTA. 2. Bacteremia during abscess tonsillectomy is no more prevalent than during elective tonsillectomy. 3. The development of anti-FN antibodies in FN-positive PTA patients. We have used novel approaches as principles to suggest pathogenic significance of candidate microorganisms: 1. Comparative microbiology between PTA patients and "normal tonsils". 2. Measurements indicating larger inflammatory response compared to clinically equivalent infection.

  5. Clinical application of a rapid microbiological test based on capillary zone electrophoresis to assess local skin infection

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    Szeliga Jacek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic clinical problem associated with infection treatment is the fact that classic, commonly and routinely used isolation and identification methods are based on long-term processes of a phenotypic analysis of microorganisms. Consequently sometimes, especially in small centres, rapid implementation of antibacterial treatment becomes delayed. The work presents the initial results of rapid microbiological identification based on an original method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. The study involved the analysis of 78 biological samples from post-operative wounds and trophic ulcers. Results The attempt was made to identify individual bacterial species based on characteristic features of electropherograms achieved. Finally, G(+ cocci type bacteria and different G(- rods were identified with sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions Based on the clinical trials using an electrophoretic technique in the field of microbiological diagnostics of infected exudate from a post-operative wound it can be concluded that it is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for initial identification of infectious pathogens.

  6. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

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    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher′s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  7. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients.

  8. Lack of effect of shorter turnaround time of microbiological procedures on clinical outcomes : a randomised controlled trial among hospitalised patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M; Oord, H; Bloembergen, P; Wolfhagen, M; Casparie, A; Degener, J; Ruijs, G

    2005-01-01

    Shortening the turnaround time of microbiological procedures was associated with an improved clinical outcome in two studies performed in the USA. To study the clinical impact of a shortened turnaround time in a northwest European setting in which an automated system was used for bacterial identific

  9. WGS Analysis and Interpretation in Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Laboratories: What Are the Requirements and How Do Existing Tools Compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Wyres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the field of clinical and public health microbiology, and in the last few years numerous case studies have demonstrated successful applications in this context. Among other considerations, a lack of user-friendly data analysis and interpretation tools has been frequently cited as a major barrier to routine use of these techniques. Here we consider the requirements of microbiology laboratories for the analysis, clinical interpretation and management of bacterial whole-genome sequence (WGS data. Then we discuss relevant, existing WGS analysis tools. We highlight many essential and useful features that are represented among existing tools, but find that no single tool fulfils all of the necessary requirements. We conclude that to fully realise the potential of WGS analyses for clinical and public health microbiology laboratories of all scales, we will need to develop tools specifically with the needs of these laboratories in mind.

  10. Use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases related to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Sukrama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of infections relative to the oral cavity is rapidly expanding, similar to our overall understanding of how infectious diseases impact our daily lives. The complexity of the flora within the oral cavity is quite unique and often makes diagnosis difficult; however, it is becoming more apparent that accurate diagnostic testing is important from the standpoint of focusing appropriate therapy on pathogens within this crucial body site, and avoiding overuse of antimicrobial agents in settings of infection where they have no demonstrated benefit.Infections of the oral mucosa, teeth (caries and root canal infections and their supporting structures (periodontitis, dento-alveolar abscess are polymicrobial, although usually associated with a characteristic microbiota linked to the site of infection. However, identification of the relevant oral pathogens is not commonly undertaken in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories due to lack of expertise in handling fastidious oral microbes and interpretation of the findings. When specimens from oral diseases are processed, they are frequently reported as ‘mixed oral flora’. This type of reporting is unhelpful both to clinicians and to epidemiologists collating data for disease and anti-microbial susceptibility trends. This probably reflects the lack of input by experts in oral microbiology into general guidelines for processing and reporting samples from the oral cavity. Although there is a general consensus within the dental and maxillo-facial surgery community on the role of the major pathogens for many types of infection, there is controversy on the role of some species, first line anti-microbial agents and their associated breakpoints. Furthermore, there is poor uptake and understanding of microbiology diagnostic services by the dental profession, inappropriate specimens and misinterpretation of culture results.

  11. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of one-stage full-mouth disinfection: a short-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cortelli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients seem to adhere better to short-term periodontal treatment schemes. Besides, time-reduced treatments are more cost-effective. However, the degree of benefits related to this type of treatment still requires additional investigations. AIM: The present short-term study evaluated clinical and microbiological outcomes, from baseline to 3-months, of chronic periodontitis subjects treated by the one-stage full-mouth disinfection protocol. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixteen chronic periodontitis subjects (mean-age 49.87 ± 8.22 who met inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. A calibrated examiner measured whole-mouth plaque and gingival indices, periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level at baseline and at 3-months. Subgingival samples were also collected from the 5 most diseased periodontal sites to determine total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis and S. oralis by real time qPCR. Periodontal treatment consisted of full-mouth manual debridement plus wide intraoral use of chlorhexidine in gel and solution. Additionally, after debridement, individuals rinsed 0.12% chlorhexidine at home twice a day for the following 2 months. Data monitored were compared by paired Student-t test (p<0.05. RESULT: Statistical analysis revealed that, in general, one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment provided significant clinical and microbiological improvements at 3-months. Total bacterial load showed one of the most pronounced reductions from baseline to 3-months (p=0.0001. Also, subgingival levels P. gingivalis and S. oralis reduced overtime. CONCLUSION: After a short period of monitoring, chronic periodontitis subjects showed clinical and microbial improvements following one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment.

  12. Effect of controlled-release PeriochipTM on clinical and microbiological parameters in patients of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological effectiveness of Periochip TM as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with SRP alone in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This randomized, split mouth, 3-month clinical and microbiological trial included 30 sites in 15 patients aged 30-50 years diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. In each patient, two bilateral pockets probing 5-7 mm were randomly assigned to test and control groups. The test group received SRP plus Periochip TM , whereas the control group received SRP alone. Clinical indices and anaerobic culture analysis was done at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months interval. Total bacterial count and analysis of four major periodontopathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn was done. Results: Significant improvement was obtained in all clinical variables in the test group as compared to the control group over the study period. Total colony counts were significantly reduced in the test group as compared to control over the period of time. At baseline Aa was recovered from 4 test group sites and 5 control group sites, Pg from 15 test group and 14 control group sites, Pi from 5 test group and 2 control group sites, Fn from 7 test and 7 control group sites. At 3 months, Aa was recovered from 1 test group and 4 control group sites, Pg from 4 test group and 8 control group sites, Pi from 1 test group and 1 control group site, Fn from 3 test and 4 control group sites. Conclusion: Periochip TM placement as an adjunct to SRP, showed promising results, when compared to SRP alone. Healthy microflora can be maintained for a longer period of time and delay in the repopulation by periodontopathic microorganisms was observed.

  13. Staffing for infectious diseases, clinical microbiology and infection control in hospitals in 2015: results of an ESCMID member survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Y; Nir-Paz, R; Pulcini, C; Cookson, B; Beović, B; Tacconelli, E; Nathwani, D; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, R; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Hell, M; Saenz, H; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess the current status of infectious diseases (ID), clinical microbiology (CM) and infection control (IC) staffing in hospitals and to analyse modifiers of staffing levels. We conducted an Internet-based survey of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases members and affiliates, collecting data on hospital characteristics, ID management infrastructure, ID/IC-related activities and the ratio of physicians per 100 hospital beds. Regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with the physician-bed ratio. Five hundred sixty-seven hospital responses were collected between April and June 2015 from 61 countries, 81.2% (384/473) from Europe. A specialized inpatient ward for ID patients was reported in 58.4% (317/543) of hospitals. Rates of antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASP) and surveillance activities in survey hospitals were high, ranging from 88% to 90% for local antibiotic guidelines and 70% to 82% for programmes monitoring hospital-acquired infections. The median ID/CM/IC physician per 100 hospital beds ratio was 1.12 (interquartile range 0.56-2.13). In hospitals performing basic ASP and IC (including local antibiotic guidelines and monitoring device-related or surgical site infections), the ratio was 1.21 (interquartile range 0.57-2.14). Factors independently associated with higher ratios included compliance with European Union of Medical Specialists standards, smaller hospital size, tertiary-care institution, presence of a travel clinic, beds dedicated to ID and a CM unit. More than half of respondents estimated that additional staffing is needed for appropriate IC or ID management. No standard of physician staffing for ID/CM/IC in hospitals is available. A ratio of 1.21/100 beds will serve as an informed point of reference enabling ASP and infection surveillance.

  14. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, Ayman

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To identify the risk factors for, and to report the microbiological findings and clinical outcomes of, severe microbial keratitis (MK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all cases of presumed MK admitted to a tertiary referral center over a 2-year period (September 2001 to August 2003). Data recorded included demographic data, details relating to possible risk factors, results of microbiological studies, clinical findings at presentation, and clinical and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety patients were admitted with a diagnosis of presumed MK during the study period. The mean age of patients was 45 +\\/- 32 years, and the male to female ratio was 47:43 (52.2%:47.7%). Predisposing risk factors for MK included contact lens wear (37; 41.1%), anterior segment disease (19; 21.1%), ocular trauma (13; 14.4%), systemic disease (5; 5.6%), and previous ocular surgery (1; 1.1%). Cultured organisms included gram-negative bacteria (17; 51.5%), gram-positive bacteria (11, 33.3%), acanthamoeba (2; 6.1%), and fungi (1; 3%). Visual acuity improved significantly after treatment [mean best-corrected visual acuity (+\\/-standard deviation) at presentation: 0.76 (+\\/-0.11); mean best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up: 0.24 (+\\/-0.07); P < 0.001]. Secondary surgical procedures were required in 18 (20%) cases, and these included punctal cautery (1; 1.1%), tissue glue repair of corneal perforation (2; 2.2%), tarsorrhaphy (9; 9.9%), Botulinum toxin-induced ptosis (1; 1.1%), penetrating keratoplasty (3; 3.3%), and evisceration (2; 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contact lens wear remains a significant risk factor for severe MK. MK remains a threat to vision and to the eye, but the majority of cases respond to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  16. ASSOCIATION OF THE BONE LOSS WITH MAIN CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Dosseva-Panova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature data have reported that certain Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria from the subgingival environment are important etiological agents of chronic periodontal disease. Based on published criteria identifying periodontal pathogens, major evidences has been shown for: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia; moderate evidences for: Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus /Micromonas/ micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum, Campylobacter rectus, and spirochetes (Treponema denticola. Microbiological data has been suggested by several studies as a useful indicator of disease progression, selection of an adjunctive antimicrobial administration, healing assessment and disease recurrence. The results of this study demonstrate statistically significant correlation between periodontal attachment loss and the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Peptostreptococcus (Micromonas micros in deep periodontal pockets of severe chronic periodontitis patients.

  17. A Prospective Study on the Clinical and Microbiological Spectrum of Endophthalmitis in a Specific Region in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Hamoudi, Hassan; Friis-Møller, Alice;

    2016-01-01

    clinically examined before, during and after surgical intervention for endophthalmitis. RESULTS: Fifty eyes with endophthalmitis were included. Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery (post-cataract), anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) intravitreal injections (post-injection) and cases...... of endogenous endophthalmitis were responsible for 40, 28 and 18% of all cases, respectively. There was no difference in the microbiological spectrum in post-cataract patients and post-injection patients, but patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis presented statistically significantly more frequently...... with hypopyon and fibrin in the anterior chamber. Between 20 and 25% of post-cataract and post-injection endophthalmitis patients developed a surgical complication after primary surgical intervention for endophthalmitis, and this was statistically significantly associated with a poor visual outcome...

  18. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  19. Clinical and microbiological features of dientamoebiasis in patients suspected of suffering from a parasitic gastrointestinal illness: A comparison of Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia lamblia infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Vandenberg; R. Peek; H. Souayah; A. Dediste; M. Buset; R. Scheen; P. Retore; G. Zissis; T. van Gool

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical and microbiological features of Dientomoeba fragilis and Giordia lamblia infected patients, and to analyze the genetic variation of D. fragilis strains. Methods: For a period of two years, all stool samples collected from patients suspected of having a parasitic

  20. Emerging Rapid Resistance Testing Methods for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Their Potential Impact on Patient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical and multidrug resistance, especially ESBL and carbapenemase expressing Enterobacteriaceae, is globally spreading. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve therapeutic success by calculated antibiotic therapy. Consequently, rapid antibiotic resistance testing is essential. Various molecular and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been introduced in diagnostic microbiology to speed up the providing of reliable resistance data. PCR- and sequencing-based approaches are the most expensive but the most frequently applied modes of testing, suitable for the detection of resistance genes even from primary material. Next generation sequencing, based either on assessment of allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms or on the detection of nonubiquitous resistance mechanisms might allow for sequence-based bacterial resistance testing comparable to viral resistance testing on the long term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, based on specific binding of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, provides a less expensive molecular bridging technique. It is particularly useful for detection of resistance mechanisms based on mutations in ribosomal RNA. Approaches based on MALDI-TOF-MS, alone or in combination with molecular techniques, like PCR/electrospray ionization MS or minisequencing provide the fastest resistance results from pure colonies or even primary samples with a growing number of protocols. This review details the various approaches of rapid resistance testing, their pros and cons, and their potential use for the diagnostic laboratory.

  1. Infections on the rise: Raoultella spp., clinical and microbiological findings from a retrospective study, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, Matteo; Almeida, André; Cardoso, Catarina; Cruz, Cristiano Silva; Machado, Catarina; Vesza, Zsófia; Tosatto, Valentina; Maia, Dionísio; Cardoso, Sara; Pinto, Margarida; Moura, Rita Barata; Garcia, Teresa; Guerreiro, António Sousa

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory data over 5 years in a tertiary centre to assess clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Raoultella spp. infection. Raoultella spp. were deemed responsible for clinical infections in 57 patients (R. planticola, n = 32 and R. ornithinolytica, n = 25). The most prevalent diagnoses for R. planticola were cystitis (50%; n = 16) followed by bacteraemia and pneumonia (9.4%; n = 3); for R. ornithinolytica, cystitis (36%; n = 9) followed by pneumonia (24%; n = 6). Immunodeficiency was present in 18 patients (56.3%) with R. planticola and in 16 patients (64%) with R. ornithinolytica infection. Of these, 55.6% and 37.5% had diabetes and 27.8% and 18.% were solid organ transplant recipients, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Mortality of infections with R. planticola (n = 5; 15.6%) was higher than for R. ornithinolytica (n = 2; 8.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant.

  2. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from clinical specimens during routine veterinary microbiological examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubeir, I E M El; Kanbar, T; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Akineden, O; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

    2007-03-31

    Methicillin/oxacillin resistance of 10 S. intermedius strains was investigated by conventional and molecular methods. The strains tested had been isolated in Germany during routine veterinary microbiological examinations of specimens from a small animal clinic between May and September 2005. Epidemiological relationships of the strains were studied by macrorestriction analysis of their chromosomal DNA using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Species identity of the 10 S. intermedius strains was confirmed by conventional methods and by PCR mediated amplification of S. intermedius specific segments of thermonuclease encoding gene nuc. As controls, four methicillin/oxacillin resistant S. intermedius (MRSI) strains obtained from specimens sent by four veterinarians and three selected methicillin/oxacillin sensitive S. intermedius (MSSI), also obtained from the small animal clinic, were tested. The 10 strains, representing approximately 6% of all S. intermedius isolated from the clinic throughout the time period mentioned above, and the four MRSI obtained from veterinarians, were methicillin/oxacillin and penicillin resistant using disk diffusion tests and could be cultivated on oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB). Both resistances could be confirmed by multiplex PCR detecting the resistance genes mecA and blaZ. The three MSSI were methicillin/oxacillin sensitive in all tests. Epidemiological investigation by macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that all 10 MRSI strains obtained from the clinic and the four MRSI strains obtained from veterinarians, in contrast to the three MSSI strains, represent identical or closely related bacterial clones possibly indicating a cross-infection of the animals in the clinic and the distribution of a single MRSI clone in the pet population.

  4. The clinical and microbiological profile of the diabetic hand: A retrospective study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth Raveendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyogenic Infections of the hand in diabetes are largely a tropical entity and published material in the area are rather meagre. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study on the pattern of hand infections and involves the microbiological profile of 39 cases of diabetes hand-related infections admitted to the hospital between the years 2004 and 2010. Results: This study included 39 patients, among whom 23 (59% had necrotizing fasciitis (NF, and 16 (9-abscess and 7-tenosynovitis had nonnecrotizing infection. Among 25 culture positive patients, polymicrobial infections were isolated in 13 (52% patients, a single organism was isolated in 9 (36% and 3 (12% had sterile cultures. Out of the 41 different bacterial isolates, 51.12% were Gram-negative and 48.78% were Gram-positive. Patients with NF had a higher mean glycated hemoglobin (10.83 ± 2.59 vs. 8.64 ± 1.8%, P = 0.020, when compared to the nonnecrotizing group. Patients with NF also had more polymicrobial infections (P = 0.017, and a longer duration of hospitalization when compared to patients without NF (21.8 ± 9.96 vs. 12.7 ± 14.5 days, P = 0.021. Seven (17.94% patients required amputation of the affected digits of which six (15.38% had NF. Conclusion: Patients with poor glycemic control, polymicrobial infection, delay in presentation, and a prior surgical intervention at another medical center was associated with more severe necrotizing infections. The duration of hospitalization and amputation rates was greater among patients with NF.

  5. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  6. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  7. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the diagnostic guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crobach, M J T; Planche, T; Eckert, C; Barbut, F; Terveer, E M; Dekkers, O M; Wilcox, M H; Kuijper, E J

    2016-08-01

    In 2009 the first European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) guideline for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was launched. Since then newer tests for diagnosing CDI have become available, especially nucleic acid amplification tests. The main objectives of this update of the guidance document are to summarize the currently available evidence concerning laboratory diagnosis of CDI and to formulate and revise recommendations to optimize CDI testing. This update is essential to improve the diagnosis of CDI and to improve uniformity in CDI diagnosis for surveillance purposes among Europe. An electronic search for literature concerning the laboratory diagnosis of CDI was performed. Studies evaluating a commercial laboratory test compared to a reference test were also included in a meta-analysis. The commercial tests that were evaluated included enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting glutamate dehydrogenase, EIAs detecting toxins A and B and nucleic acid amplification tests. Recommendations were formulated by an executive committee, and the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence were graded using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. No single commercial test can be used as a stand-alone test for diagnosing CDI as a result of inadequate positive predictive values at low CDI prevalence. Therefore, the use of a two-step algorithm is recommended. Samples without free toxin detected by toxins A and B EIA but with positive glutamate dehydrogenase EIA, nucleic acid amplification test or toxigenic culture results need clinical evaluation to discern CDI from asymptomatic carriage.

  8. Literature Reference for Noroviruses (Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004. 42(10): 4679–4685)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for of solid, particulate, aerosol, and water samples. This method is an assay for detection and quantitation of norovirus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

  9. [Clinical-immunological and microbiological parallels in chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer of the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Neĭzberg, D M; Stiuf, I Iu

    2006-01-01

    Clinical, immunological and DNA diagnostic examinations of 101 patients with chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer have revealed similar features of immunological disorders of gastric and oral mucosa and the role of Helicobacter pylori.

  10. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads: an underestimated vehicle of bacteria and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia

    2013-09-16

    The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were also plated in different selective media with/without antibiotics before and after enrichment. The E. coli, other coliforms and Enterococcus recovered were characterized for antibiotic resistance profiles and clonality with phenotypic and genetic approaches. A high number of RTS presented poor microbiological quality (86%--aerobic mesophilic counts, 74%--coliforms, 4%--E. coli), despite the absence of screened pathogens. In addition, a high diversity of bacteria (species and clones) and antibiotic resistance backgrounds (phenotypes and genotypes) were observed, mostly with enrichment and antibiotic selective media. E. coli was detected in 13 samples (n=78; all types and 4 brands; phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D; none STEC) with resistance to tetracycline [72%; tet(A) and/or tet(B)], streptomycin (58%; aadA and/or strA-strB), sulfamethoxazole (50%; sul1 and/or sul2), trimethoprim (50%; dfrA1 or dfrA12), ampicillin (49%; blaTEM), nalidixic acid (36%), ciprofloxacin (5%) or chloramphenicol (3%; catA). E. coli clones, including the widespread group D/ST69, were detected in different samples from the same brand or different brands pointing out to a potential cross-contamination. Other clinically relevant resistance genes were detected in 2 Raoultella

  11. Nationwide study of haemolytic uraemic syndrome : clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, EJ; Robins-Browne, RM; O'Loughlin, EV; Bennett-Wood, [No Value; Bourke, J; Henning, P; Hogg, GG; Knight, J; Powell, H; Redmond, D

    2001-01-01

    Aims-To establish the incidence and aetiology of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in Australia and compare clinical and microbial characteristics of sporadic and outbreak cases. Methods-National active surveillance through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit with monthly case notification f

  12. Literature Reference for Entamoeba histolytica (Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2005. 43(11): 5491–5497)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples. The method is a real-time PCR assay that targets the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Entamoeba histolytica.

  13. Clinical and microbiologic effects of chemical versus mechanical cleansing in professional supportive implant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strooker, H; Rohn, S; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cleansing properties of mechanical supportive care for dental implants with the use of an etching gel. Sixteen patients underwent a 5-month clinical trial with monthly recalls. These patients, wearing maxillary complete dentures and mandibular overdent

  14. Zirconia dental implants : a clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic evaluation up to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, Felix; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Cune, Marco S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical performance of zirconia endosseous implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partially edentulous patients with adequate bone volume to fit yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) implants at least 3.5 mm wide and 8.0 mm long were included. Full-mouth

  15. STUDY OF CLINICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF TB : HIV CO - INFECTION

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    Chakradhar Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Tuberculosis, a major public health problem in most of the developing countries is posing a still bigger threat with the epidemic of HIV and association has been termed as “cursed duet”. There is significant difference in the clinical profile of tuberculosis in HIV infected compared to immunocompetent host. So prompt diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in HIV infected will improve the morbidity and mortality associated with dual infection. So the objective of the study was to determine the clinical profile of TB in HIV infected in relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred patients with HIV infection and having symptoms of tuberculosis admitted in the medical wards in Government General Hospital, Guntur were studied. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on clinical evaluation, sputum smears, bacteriological and biochemical examination of body fluids, histopathological studies and radiological studies. CD4 T cell counts were done in all patients. RESULTS : 51% had only pulmonary tuberculosis, 43% had only extrapulmonary involvement while 6% had disseminated disease. Sputum positivity was seen in 27.45% of pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest X - ray findings were mixed and varied with infiltrative lesions seen in 83.33% and fibrocavitatory lesions in 11.11%. 55.55% of infiltrative lesions were seen in mid and lower zones. Mean CD4 counts in this study was 133.78 ± 75 cells/μL . Most of the patients with extra pulmonary TB and disseminated TB had CD 200 cells/μL. CONCLUSION : Tuberculosis has a varied clinical presentation in patients with HIV infection. Sputum negative TB, extrapulmonary TB and disseminated TB were common when CD4 < 200 cells/μL and chest X - ray findings were atypical when CD4 < 200 cells/μL. KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis; HIV infection; Clinical profile of tuberculosis .

  16. Econazole-polycarbophil, a new delivery system for topical therapy: microbiological and clinical results on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneri, P M; Corsello, S; Masellis, G; Salvatori, M; Cammarata, E; Roccasalva, L S; Mangiafico, A; Tempera, G

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the addition of a bioadhesive polymer to econazole, which increases the duration of the active drug at the site of infection, leads to a greater frequency of negative culture after treatment and probably reduces the recurrence rate of vaginal candidiasis.180 women with vaginal candidiasis were treated with 150 mg vaginal ovules econazole nitrate with (group A) or without (group B) polycarbophil. After 3 days of treatment the negative culture of Candida albicans reached 98.6% in group A and 84.8% in B group, while the overall persistence (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis) was 5.6% and 30%, respectively. During a 60-day follow-up, only one case out of 85 (1.2%) in group A reported recurrence while in group B there were 6 out of 63 (9.5%) recurrences. We conclude that, since the women were treated with the same amount of econazole, the better clinical and microbiological results can be attributed to polycarbophil, as confirmed by a significant reduction of recurrences.

  17. Clinical and microbiological impact of human bocavirus on children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Levent Bekir; Hotomi, Muneki; Ogami, Masashi; Yamauchi, Kazuma; Shimada, Jun; Billal, Dewan Sakhawat; Ishiguro, Nobuhisa; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2009-11-01

    Human Bocavirus (HBoV) as a newly discovered parvovirus has been commonly detected in respiratory tract infections. However, its role in acute otitis media (AOM) has not been well studied. We examined HBoV in Japanese children with AOM and evaluated the virus prevalence together with clinical manifestations and bacterial findings. Overall, 222 nasopharyngeal swabs and 176 middle ear fluids (MEF) samples were collected from 222 children with AOM (median age, 19 months) between May 2006 and April 2007. HBoV detection was performed by PCR and bacterial isolation by standard culture methods. HBoV was found in the nasopharyngeal aspirates of 14 children (6.3%) and in the MEF of six children (2.7%). When HBoV detection results were evaluated with clinical characteristics of children, resolution time of AOM was significantly longer (p=0.04), and rate of fever symptom was also higher in HBoV-positive group (p=0.04). Furthermore, we found positive correlation between detection of HBoV and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the MEF (p=0.004). Nevertheless, nasopharyngeal proportion of S. pneumoniae was similar between virus positive and negative groups. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae was detected as a single pathogen in all MEF of HBoV-positive cases but one, while it presents mixed with other pathogenic bacteria in nasopharynx. In conclusion, HBoV may worsen the clinical symptoms and prolong the clinical outcome of AOM in pediatric population. Finally, HBoV may prime the secondary bacterial infection in the middle ear in favor of S. pneumoniae.

  18. [The clinical picture and specific microbiological features of acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A I; Kunel'skaya, N L; Gurov, A B; Elchueva, Z G; Sokolov, S S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the spectrum of bacterial pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute otitis media under present conditions and to elucidate the relationship between the pathogen species and the clinical course of the inflammatory process in the middle ear. A total of 60 patients of either sex at the age varying from 18 to 64 patients were available for the examination. All of them complained of ear pain, purulent discharge from the ears, hearing impairment, and general weakness. The following methods were employed: the analysis of the patients' complaints and their medical histories, visualexamination of the ENT organs, tonal threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and the analysis of secretion from the tympanic cavity using the real-time PCR technique. The study has demonstrated some regular patterns of the clinical manifestations of the disease depending on its causative agent. Specifically, it turned out that acute otitis media associated with the infection by Streptоcoccus pneumoniae is characterized by the more reactive clinical symptoms and the greater amount of complications compared with acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae that is largely a subclinical pathology. However, the latter condition more frequently leads to chronization of the pathological process.

  19. Microbiological Profile of Adenoid Hypertrophy Correlates to Clinical Diagnosis in Children

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    Anita Szalmás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adenoid hypertrophy is a common condition in childhood, which may be associated with recurring acute otitis media (RAOM, otitis media with effusion (OME, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. These different clinical characteristics have some clinical overlap; however, they might be explained by distinct immunologic and infectious profiles and result in various histopathologic findings of adenoid specimens. Methods. A total of 59 children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy were studied. Three series of identical adenoid specimens were processed to hematoxylin-eosin (H.E. and Gram staining and to respiratory virus specific real-time PCR, respectively. Results. According to the clinical characteristics, patients were recruited into three groups: RAOM (. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 21 cases, while at least one of the studied respiratory viruses was detected in 52 specimens. RAOM cases were significantly associated with biofilm existence (. In contrast, OME group was characterized by the absence of bacterial biofilm and by normal mucosa. Showing a statistically significant correlation, all OME cases were positive for human bocavirus (HBoV, . Conclusions. Bacterial biofilms might contribute to the damage of respiratory epithelium and recurring acute infections resulting in RAOM. In OME cases persisting respiratory viruses, mainly HBoV, can cause subsequent lymphoid hyperplasia leading to ventilation disorders and impaired immunoreactivity of the middle ear cleft.

  20. Validation of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory exemplifies general key challenges in setting clinical breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Courvalin, Patrice; Böttger, Erik C

    2014-07-01

    This study critically evaluated the new European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines on the basis of a large set of disk diffusion diameters determined for clinical isolates. We report several paradigmatic problems that illustrate key issues in the selection of clinical susceptibility breakpoints, which are of general importance not only for EUCAST but for all guidelines systems, i.e., (i) the need for species-specific determinations of clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoffs (ECOFFs), (ii) problems arising from pooling data from various sources, and (iii) the importance of the antibiotic disk content for separating non-wild-type and wild-type populations.

  1. Clinical, microbiological and pathological findings of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three Australian Possum species.

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    Carolyn R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, with endemicity predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and south-eastern Australia. The mode of transmission and the environmental reservoir(s of the bacterium and remain elusive. Real-time PCR investigations have detected M. ulcerans DNA in a variety of Australian environmental samples, including the faeces of native possums with and without clinical evidence of infection. This report seeks to expand on previously published findings by the authors' investigative group with regards to clinical and subclinical disease in selected wild possum species in BU-endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven clinical cases of M. ulcerans infection in free-ranging possums from southeastern Australia were identified retrospectively and prospectively between 1998-2011. Common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus, a common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula and a mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami were included in the clinically affected cohort. Most clinically apparent cases were adults with solitary or multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions, generally confined to the face, limbs and/or tail. The disease was minor and self-limiting in the case of both Trichosurus spp. possums. In contrast, many of the common ringtail possums had cutaneous disease involving disparate anatomical sites, and in four cases there was evidence of systemic disease at post mortem examination. Where tested using real-time PCR targeted at IS2404, animals typically had significant levels of M. ulcerans DNA throughout the gut and/or faeces. A further 12 possums without cutaneous lesions were found to have PCR-positive gut contents and/or faeces (subclinical cases, and in one of these the organism was cultured from liver tissue. Comparisons were made between clinically and subclinically affected possums, and 61 PCR-negative, non-affected individuals

  2. Clinical and microbiological effects of controlled-release locally delivered minocycline in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A A; Kornman, K S; Newbold, D A; Manwell, M A

    1994-11-01

    The clinical efficacy of minocycline in a subgingival local delivery system was evaluated alone (M) or as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (M + SRP), in comparison to scaling and root planing (SRP) or to no subgingival treatment (NoTx) in adult periodontitis. Fifty-one adult patients with > or = 7 mm periodontal pockets demonstrating the presence by culture of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (P(i)), or Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) were randomized into one of the above 4 treatment groups. All sites > or = 5 mm in the most diseased quadrant in each patient received the therapy. Other quadrants were not treated. All patients received standardized oral hygiene instructions at the beginning of the study. At 0, 1, 3 and 6 months following therapy the 7 mm experimental sites were evaluated for selected periodontal pathogens by DNA probe analysis. At these same time points, the plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding on probing were evaluated as well as probing depth and relative clinical attachment level which were assessed by means of an automated probe. Probing depth reduction with M + SRP was significantly greater than all other groups at one month and significantly greater than NoTx and SRP at 3 months. There were no differences in probing depth reduction among groups at 6 months. At 6 months the gain in clinical attachment level was significantly greater for SRP than for either the NoTx or M groups. The prevalence of Pg decreased significantly in the M and M + SRP groups at one month.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Clinical and microbiological effects of a subantimicrobial dose of oral doxycycline on periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S E; Hwang, S Y; Jeong, M; Lee, Y; Lee, E R; Park, Y W; Ahn, J S; Kim, S; Seo, K

    2016-02-01

    Doxycycline is regarded as an effective treatment for periodontal inflammation. In humans, it has been shown that the long-term administration of a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) does not induce antimicrobial effects on the subgingival microflora and furthermore does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of oral administration of SDD on normal periodontal microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility in dogs. Experimental periodontitis was induced in 12 experimental dogs using a silk and wire-twisted ligature for 60 days. After the periodontitis induction period, the ligature was removed, and dental cleaning (subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling) was performed. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an SDD group with six dogs receiving 2 mg/kg PO once daily and a control group with six dogs receiving a placebo. At weeks 0, 4 and 8, clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. After the clinical assessments, subgingival plaque was sampled and then cultured in an anaerobic system for one week, and the total anaerobes, Porphyromonas spp., Bacteroides spp. and Pasteurella spp. counts were investigated. Using the agar dilution method, the minimum bactericidal concentration of doxycycline was evaluated and the resistance for doxycycline was monitored during this experimental phase. The clinical periodontal status of the SDD group was significantly improved compared to the control group (P  0.05), and antibacterial resistance was not established in the SDD group during the experimental periods (P <0.05). These results suggest that the once daily oral regimen of 2 mg/kg of doxycycline could serve as a SDD in dogs.

  4. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

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    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  5. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in north and south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggar, Axana; Nerlich, Andreas; Kumar, Rajesh; Abraham, Vinod J; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N; Ray, Pallab; Dhanda, Vanita; Joshua, John Melbin Jose; Mehra, Narinder; Bergmann, Rene; Chhatwal, G Singh; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2012-05-01

    The lack of epidemiologic data on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in many developing countries is concerning, as S. pyogenes infections are commonly endemic in these areas. Here we present the results of the first prospective surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in India. Fifty-four patients with invasive S. pyogenes infections were prospectively enrolled at two study sites, one in the north and one in the south of India. Sterile-site isolates were collected, and clinical information was documented using a standardized questionnaire. Available acute-phase sera were tested for their ability to inhibit superantigens produced by the patient's own isolate using a cell-based neutralizing assay. The most common clinical presentations were bacteremia without focus (30%), pneumonia (28%), and cellulitis (17%). Only two cases of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and no cases of necrotizing fasciitis were identified. Characterization of the isolates revealed great heterogeneity, with 32 different emm subtypes and 29 different superantigen gene profiles being represented among the 49 sterile-site isolates. Analyses of acute-phase sera showed that only 20% of the cases in the north cohort had superantigen-neutralizing activity in their sera, whereas 50% of the cases from the south site had neutralizing activity. The results demonstrate that there are important differences in both clinical presentation and strain characteristics between invasive S. pyogenes infections in India and invasive S. pyogenes infections in Western countries. The findings underscore the importance of epidemiologic studies on streptococcal infections in India and have direct implications for current vaccine developments.

  6. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

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    Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection.A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood, and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae.Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1% patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5% patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021.We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of

  7. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil

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    Maria Tereza Freitas Tenório

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We observed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of several stages of bloodstream infections (BSI, as well as the mortality attributed to it in a tertiary hospital in the northeast of Brazil (in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. A prospective cohort of 143 patients who had at least one positive blood culture was enrolled in the study. Their clinical evolution was followed up for 30 days from October 2005 to December 2006. The relation among the qualitative variables was verified through Chi-square test. The significance level was 5%. The statistical package adopted was SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Up to the thirtieth day, 30.1% of the patients presented bacteremia and 69.9% developed sepsis.Among these, 20.3% developed severe sepsis and 10.5% septic shock. The mortality attributed to it was 37.8%. In bacteremia, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock conditions, mortality rates were 9.3%, 50%, 65.5%, and 84.6%, respectively. Respiratory (32.2% and urinary (14% sources and the ones related to central venous catheter (14% were prevalent. In the wards 55.12% of the cases developed sepsis, whereas in the intensive care units, the rate was 87.69% (p < 0.05. Chronic renal failure, diabetes melitus, and neuropathy were present in 21.7%, 26.6%, and 29.4% of the cases, respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.9%, Staphylococcus aureus (21%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14% were the most present microorganism in the sample. The high morbidity and mortality rates in this study are attributed to the lack of knowledge on BSI characteristics and on instituted protocols for detection and treatment in early stages.

  8. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Clinical Microbiology at Hopital Principal de Dakar, Senegal (West Africa.

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    Cheikh I Lo

    Full Text Available Our team in Europe has developed the routine clinical laboratory identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS. To evaluate the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in tropical Africa in collaboration with local teams, we installed an apparatus in the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal, performed routine identification of isolates, and confirmed or completed their identification in France. In the case of discordance or a lack of identification, molecular biology was performed. Overall, 153/191 (80.1% and 174/191 (91.1% isolates yielded an accurate and concordant identification for the species and genus, respectively, with the 2 different MALDI-TOF MSs in Dakar and Marseille. The 10 most common bacteria, representing 94.2% of all bacteria routinely identified in the laboratory in Dakar (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were accurately identified with the MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar. The most frequent misidentification in Dakar was at the species level for Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was inaccurately identified as Achromobacter denitrificans, and the bacteria absent from the database, such as Exiguobacterium aurientacum or Kytococcus schroeteri, could not be identified. A few difficulties were observed with MALDI-TOF MS for Bacillus sp. or oral streptococci. 16S rRNA sequencing identified a novel bacterium, "Necropsobacter massiliensis." The robust identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS in Dakar and Marseille demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a first-line tool in clinical microbiology laboratories in tropical countries.

  9. Secrets from the microbiome: molecular biology meets microbiology meets histopathology...meets clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Caroline; Quirke, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The microbiome is the collective term used to describe the bacteria, viruses, fungi and archaea that reside on and in the human body. The majority of these organisms are found within the large bowel. Mounting evidence suggests that changes in the microbiome may be associated with the development of colorectal cancer, a disease which affects 1.3 million people a year worldwide. Using colorectal cancer as an example, this article presents the inter-specialty collaborative approach to microbiome research and discusses the key role that clinical biochemistry is likely to play.

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of Clinical Microbiological Examination%临床微生物检验质量影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时芳芳

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze the main influencing factors of the quality of clinical microbiological examination,and to propose the corresponding countermeasures.Methods The factors affecting the quality of microbiological examination were analyzed from four aspects:the quality of the specimen,the human factor,the operation standard and other factors.ResultsThe clinical microbiological examination should be colected and transported samples,improve the quality of personnel,standard test operation method,strengthen the laboratory other quality control,improve the quality of inspection.ConclusionThere are many factors that affect the quality of clinical microbiological examination,the need to strengthen the attention,from the fundamental measures to improve the level of inspection and quality.%目的:分析临床微生物检验质量的主要影响因素,并提出相应对策。方法从标本质量、人员因素、操作规范及其他因素四方面分析微生物检验质量影响因素,总结质控对策。结果临床微生物检验应正确采集和运送标本,全面提高人员素质,规范检验操作方法,加强实验室其他质控,提高检验质量。结论影响临床微生物检验质量的因素较多,需加强重视,从根本采取措施,提高检验水平与质量。

  11. PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS IN CORONARY ATHEROMA AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE – A CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

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    Col S K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that hea rt disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of gram negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. AIMS : The present study intends to investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease by evaluating periodontal status, association between the periodontal plaque and coronary atheromatous plaques for presence of P.ging ivalis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study was designed with 07 patients who had underwent coronary endarterectomy for CVD and 28 controls . The periodontal examination for cases was performed one day before vascular surgery and t he controls we re clinically examined. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The atheromatous plaque sample collected during endarterectomy and the Intraoral plaque samples were subjected to PCR for identification of P.gingivalis. The presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in coronary atheromatous plaques and subgingival plaque samples of the same patients was confirmed by this study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Means and proportions for personal characters, major risk factors and c linical parameters were calculated for both the groups. The significance of any difference in means was tested by using “Students t test”, and the significance of any difference in proportions was tested by using Dunn - Sidak Adjusted p Value. RESULTS : D uring the microbial analysis of plaque samples by PCR in group A it was seen that Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100 % of the samples . Microbial analysis of endarterectomy samples by PCR in group A shows that Porphyromonas

  12. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

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    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947 while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seconds and tranferred to tubes containing 5 ml of thioglicolate broth. Microorganisms were isolated on blood agar and CVE an agar after incubation under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC, for 10 days. The identification of the isolates was based on their morphological, cellular and biochemical features. Results: 91.40% shows gingivitis while 70.97% presented mild gingivitis. Only 8.6% didn’t presented gingivitis. It was verified that the most of children presented mild gengivitis and was had some periodontopathogens. Conclusion: The gingivitis deteriored with age and only F. nucleatum was related with the deterioration of gengival status.

  13. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-acquired recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W H; Kao, C Y; Yang, D C; Tseng, C C; Wu, A B; Teng, C H; Wang, M C; Wu, J J

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) and whether it is attributable to reinfection with a new strain or relapse with the primary infecting strain is of considerable importance. Because previous studies regarding community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae RUTI are inconclusive, we undertook this study to evaluate the characteristics of the host and the bacterial agent K. pneumoniae in RUTI. A prospective study was designed, using consecutive patients diagnosed with community-acquired K. pneumoniae-related UTI from January 2007 to December 2009. Of the total 468 consecutive episodes, we found 7 patients with RUTI. All the patients with RUTI were elderly (median, 74 years), with diabetes (100 %, 7 out of 7). Clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from the same patients with RUTI revealed identical genomic fingerprints, indicating that K. pneumoniae UTI relapsed despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. The antimicrobial resistance, growth curve and biofilm formation of the recurrent isolates did not change. K. pneumoniae strains causing RUTI had more adhesion and invasiveness than the colonization strains (p recurrent strains with the community-acquired UTI strains, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significant (100 % vs 53.7 %, p = 0.03) in the RUTI group. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae strains might be able to persist within the urinary tract despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, and the greater adhesion and invasiveness in the recurrent strains may play an important role in recurrent infections.

  14. Effectiveness of sub gingival irrigation of an indigenous 1% curcumin solution on clinical and microbiological parameters in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthima N. V. S. Gottumukkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 1% curcumin (CU solution and compare it with conventional irrigant i.e., 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate and a positive control (saline as an adjunct to thorough scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with non-adjacent probing pocket depths (PPDs ≥5mm were randomly assigned to CHX, CU and positive control irrigation groups and subjected to randomized single blinded clinical control trial. The clinical parameters bleeding on probing, redness, plaque index, PPD and microbiological parameter N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA test were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months interval. Results: At 1 month evaluation, CU group showed better results compared with the other groups. However, by the end of the study period CHX group showed the best results with as light recurrence in the CU group. The results of BANA test showed similar results for both CU and CHX group throughout the study period. Conclusion: The results of this study show a mild to moderate beneficiary effect of CU irrigation when used as an adjunct to Scaling and root planing. Further studies may be required using varied concentrations of the drug to improve the substantivity of the drug and also to prevent early re-colonization of periodontal pathogens.

  15. Bacteremia in previously healthy children in emergency departments: clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, B; Hernandez-Bou, S; Garcia-Garcia, J J; Mintegi, S

    2015-03-01

    A blood culture (BC) is frequently requested in both patients with a suspected occult bacteremia/invasive infection as well as those with certain focal infections. Few data are available on the characteristics of patients in whom a bacteremia is identified in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). A prospective multicenter registry was established by the Spanish Pediatric Emergency Society. Epidemiological data, complementary test results, clinical management, and final outcome were recorded. Data from the first three years of the registry were analyzed. A true bacterial pathogen grew in 932 of 65,169 BCs collected [1.43 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.51 %], with 711 of them collected in patients without previously known bacteremia risk factors. Among them, 335 (47.1 %) were younger than 1 year old and 467 (65.7 %) had a normal Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT) on admission. Overall, the most frequently isolated bacterial species was Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.3 %; 47.6 % among patients with an altered PAT). The main pathogens were Escherichia coli (40.3 %) and S. agalactiae (35.7 %) among patients younger than 3 months, S. pneumoniae among patients 3-60 months old (40.0 %), and S. aureus (31.9 %) among patients over 60 months of age. Neisseria meningitidis was the leading cause of sepsis in patients older than 3 months. Eight patients died; none of them had a pneumococcal bacteremia and all had abnormal PAT findings on admission. S. pneumoniae is the main cause of bacteremia in patients without bacteremia risk factors who attended Spanish PEDs. Age and general appearance influence the frequency of each bacterial species. General appearance also influences the associated mortality.

  16. Will Regulatory and Financial Considerations Dampen Innovation in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Peter H; Miller, Melissa B

    2016-02-02

    Over a million prosthetic joints are placed in patients in the United States annually. Of those that fail, 25% will be due to infection, with an estimated cost approaching 1 billion dollars. Despite the clinical and economic importance of these infections, the techniques for their detection are relatively insensitive. An innovative method for detecting these infections by using blood culture bottles (BCB) to culture specimens of periprosthetic tissue (PPT) was described in a recent article [T. N. Peel, et al., mBio 7(1):e01776-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.01776-15]. There are two potential stumbling blocks to the widespread implementation of this innovation. First, the FDA judges such an application of BCB as an "off-label use" and as such, a laboratory-developed test (LDT). LDTs are coming under greater scrutiny by the FDA and may require extensive, costly validation studies in laboratories that adopt this methodology. Second, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has established a Hospital Acquired Condition Reduction Act under which institutions performing in the lowest quartile forfeit 1% of their Medicare reimbursement. Hospital-acquired infections are an important component of this quality metric. Although prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates are not currently a hospital quality metric, given their cost and increasing frequency, it is reasonable to expect that they may become one. Will those with financial oversight allow an innovative technique that will require an expensive validation and may put the institution at risk for loss of CMS reimbursement?

  17. Porphyromonas endodontalis in chronic periodontitis: a clinical and microbiological cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have shown the presence of Porphyromonas endodontalis in chronic periodontitis associated with periapical lesions, the occurrence of this pathogen in diseased periodontal sites without periapical lesions has been poorly investigated.The aims of this study were to quantify P. endodontalis in patients with chronic periodontitis without periapical lesions, to evaluate the potential correlation of P. endodontalis with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, and to evaluate the ability of periodontal treatment to reduce these pathogens.Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were selected by recording clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD, and bleeding on probing (BOP. Subgingival samples from 30 diseased nonadjacent sites (CAL ≥ 5 mm, PD between 5 and 7 mm and positive BOP and 30 healthy nonadjacent sites (PD ≤ 3 mm and negative BOP were collected and subjected to microbial analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR The variables of age, PD, CAL and BOP of all individuals were analyzed using the paired t-test (GrapPad Prism5®. Data of bacteria quantification were subjected to a normality test (D'Agostino-Pearson Test. For bacterial correlation analysis, the Spearman correlation was used.Our results showed that diseased sites had significantly higher levels of P. endodontalis compared to healthy sites, similar to the results obtained for P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. The numbers of all bacterial species were reduced significantly after mechanical periodontal treatment. P. endodontalis was significantly correlated with the presence of T. forsythia and P. gingivalis in the diseased group.Our results suggest that there is a high prevalence of P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia in periodontitis sites and that mechanical periodontal treatment is effective at reducing the pathogens studied.

  18. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasi F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Methods: Forty eligible patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB were randomized to receive cefditoren 200 mg twice a day for 5 days (n = 20 or levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days (n = 20.Results: The inflammatory parameters which were significantly reduced at test-of-cure with respect to visit 1 were Krebs von den Lundgen-6 (KL-6 and interleukin-6. KL-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 19 ± 11 UI/mL to 6 ± 8 UI/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 19 ± 13 UI/mL to 8 ± 10 UI/mL, P = 0.006 and levofloxacin (from 19 ± 10 UI/mL to 5 ± 5 UI/mL, P = 0.000 arms. Similarly, interleukin-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 13.35 ± 16.41 pg/mL to 3 ± 4.7 pg/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 15.90 ± 19.54 pg/mL to 4.13 ± 6.42 pg/mL, P = 0.015 and levofloxacin (from 10.80 ± 12.55 pg/mL to 1.87 ± 1.16 pg/mL, P = 0.003 arms. At the end of treatment (test-of-cure, 6–9 days after drug initiation, the clinical success rate in the overall study population was 78%; the clinical cure rate was 80% in the cefditoren arm and 75% in the levofloxacin arm. Globally, bacteriological eradication at test-of-cure was obtained in 85% of the overall study population. Both treatments were well tolerated.Conclusion: Cefditoren represents a valid option in the treatment of mild to moderately severe cases of AECB in the outpatient care setting. Moreover, the use of this cephalosporin is associated with a significant

  19. Clinical, serological, microbiological, and outcome study of 200 cases of short duration fever without prior exposure to antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna K Satpathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Short duration fever is a very common presenting symptom of infections which are mostly self-limiting and do not require any antibiotics. Most of these patients presenting to primary care centers are exhibited antibiotics irrationally without any investigation results. Antibiotics are not a panacea for all fevers. This title was chosen to discourage the usual practice of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in short duration self-limiting fevers, increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. This study was conceived and designed after The Lancet in 2010 reported the emergence of resistant New Delhi strain of metallo-beta-lactamase 1 Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae from India, Pakistan, and the UK due to irrational use of antibiotics. Moreover, there are very scanty literature reports on "Short duration Fevers." This study is likely to advocate rational scientific approach to the management of short duration fever. Objectives: This study was conducted to (a arrive at a definite diagnosis and formulate various etiologies of short duration fever in this tertiary care hospital, (b rational use of specific antibodies when indicated, and (c study the outcome of therapy. Materials and Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study comprising 200 fresh consecutive inpatients of fever of <2 weeks duration who has not been exposed to any antibiotic prior to hospitalization between July 2012 and September 2014. They were subjected to clinical, microbiological, and serological studies and other specific studies when indicated. Results: Common etiology for fever was found to be nonspecific viral fever (45%, which did not need antibiotics, then dengue fever (26.5%, enteric fever (7%, and malaria with Plasmodium vivax (4% predominance. Conclusion: Clinicians needs to restrict to indiscriminate use of antibiotics in any febrile patients to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance. More number of similar studies need to be

  20. Clinical and Microbiologic Analysis of the Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) phenotype among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) blood isolates can reach 38%. hVISA bacteremia is known to be associated with vancomycin treatment failure, including persistent bacteremia. We conducted this study to evaluate risk factors for 12-week mortality in patients with hVISA bacteremia through a detailed clinical and microbiological analysis of a prospective cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteremia. All isolates were collected on the first day of bacteremia and subjected to population analysis profiling for hVISA detection, genotyping, and PCR analysis for 39 virulence factors. Of 382 patient with MRSA bacteremia, 121 (32%) had hVISA bacteremia. Deceased patients were more likely to have hematologic malignancy (P = 0.033), ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (P = 0.007), and a higher Pitt bacteremia score (P = 0.010) than surviving patients. The sequence type 239 (ST239) clonal type and definitive linezolid treatment were associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.061 and 0.072, respectively), but a high vancomycin MIC (≥2 mg/liter) was not associated with increased mortality (P = 0.368). In a multivariate analysis, ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 6.85) and a high Pitt bacteremia score (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.48) were independent risk factors for mortality. Hematologic malignancy was associated with a trend toward increased mortality (P = 0.094), and ST239 was associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.095). Our study suggests that ST239 hVISA is a possible predictor of survival in hVISA bacteremia. PMID:25845875

  1. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Heteroresistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus from Bloodstream Infections in a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Morgado, Priscylla Guimarães Migueres; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Damasco, Andreia Paredes; Nouér, Simone Aranha; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed clinical and microbiological characteristics of heteroresistant (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in a Brazilian teaching hospital, between 2011 and 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution method and SCCmec was detected by PCR. Isolates with a vancomycin MIC ≥ 2mg/L were cultured on BHI agar with 3, 4 or 6 mg/L (BHIa3, BHIa4 or BHIa6) of vancomycin and BHIa4 with casein (BHIa4ca). Macromethod Etest® and Etest® Glicopeptides Resistance Detection were also used. VISA and hVISA isolates were confirmed by the population analysis profile then typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Medical data from the patients were obtained from their medical records. Among 110 consecutive isolates, 31 (28%) were MRSA and carried the SCCmec type II (15 isolates) or IV (16 isolates). Vancomycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. MRSA isolates had increased non-susceptibility to daptomycin (p = 0.0003). Six (5%) isolates were VISA, four of which were MRSA, three SCCmec type II/USA100/ST5 and one type IV/USA800/ST3192. One MRSA SCCmec II isolate grew on agar BHIa3, BHIa4 and BHIa4ca, and it was confirmed as hVISA. Among the six VISA isolates, five (83%) grew on BHIa3 and three (50%) on BHI4ca. Four of the six VISA isolates and the one hVISA isolate were from patients who had undergone dialysis. Thus, a possible dissemination of the SCCmec II/USA100/ST5 lineage may have occurred in the hospital comprising the VISA, hVISA and daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus Brazilian isolates from health care associated bloodstream infections. PMID:27575698

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Based on Data Collected by a Network of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to STIs that are widespread yet often asymptomatic and to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of these infections in Italy, in 2009 the "Centro Operativo AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di SanitÁ", in collaboration with the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI, Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani), launched the sentinel STIs surveillance system based on a network of 13 clinical microbiology laboratories.The main objective of the surveillance was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections among individuals attending microbiology laboratories in Italy.

  3. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews).

  4. 临床微生物检验质量控制研究%The Research on Quality Control of Clinical Microbiology Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静杰

    2015-01-01

    在人类生存环境中,有较多的微生物种类,而且很多泛耐药菌和多重耐药菌,可对感染性疾病在治疗时产生一定的阻碍作用,加强控制微生物的检验质量,并针对存在的问题提出相应的改进措施,积极推动临床医学的发展,本文主要对微生物的质量控制进行相关研究。%There is a diversity of microbiology in the living environments of human beings,and many Pan-resistant strains and multi-drug resistant bacteria exert a negative influence on treatment of infectious disease. Strengthen the quality control of microbiology test and put forward approaches to solve the existing problems in order to facilitate developments of clinical medicine science. This paper is mainly about the research on quality control of microbiology.

  5. Microbiological quality and quality control of purified water and ultrapure dialysis fluids for online hemodiafiltration in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, E Lars; Visser, Linda; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; van der Weerd, Neelke C; Mazairac, Albert H A; van Jaarsveld, Brigit C; Koopman, Marion G; Vos, Pieter; Feith, Geert W; Kremer Hovinga, Ton K; van Hamersvelt, Henk W; Wauters, Inge M; Bots, Michiel L; Nubé, Menso J; Ter Wee, Piet M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Grooteman, Muriel P C

    2009-09-01

    During online hemodiafiltration, patients are directly infused with sterile substitution solutions to maintain fluid balance. Adequate water treatment and a well-organized quality control process are essential to provide non-pyrogenic fluids with consistent optimal quality. We sought to assess water quality, the water treatment system, and the methods for surveillance of microbiological water quality in 10 Dutch dialysis centers that routinely treat patients with hemodiafiltration. Microbiological monitoring results (micro-organisms and endotoxins) were collected over a 1-year period representing 11,258 hemodiafiltration sessions covering 97 patients. In all centers, water purification was based on a reverse osmosis module in combination with a second reverse osmosis and/or an electrodeionizer. All centers regularly and routinely monitored the microbiological purity of the dialysis water with adequate analytical methods but with variable monitoring frequency. Microbiological assessments were compliant with reference quality levels in 3923 of 3961 samples. Our study suggests that non-pyrogenic substitution fluids can be produced online for a prolonged period of time. It is likely that the current Dutch Quality of Care Guideline has contributed to high-quality water treatment and a well-organized control process.

  6. Community-onset Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in Taiwan: clinical features of the disease and associated microbiological characteristics of isolates from pneumonia and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-onset pneumonia in Asian countries and South Africa. We investigated the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae causing community-onset pneumonia, and the associated microbiological features between K. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia and those from the nasopharynx in Taiwan. This study was conducted at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital during July, 2012 to February, 2014. The clinical characteristics in patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were analyzed. K. pneumoniae isolates from the nasopharynx of adults attending otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinics were collected to compare their microbiological features with those from pneumonia. Capsular genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and multilocus sequence type (MLST) were determined among these strains. Ninety-one patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled. We found a high mortality (29.7%) among these patients. Capsular types K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57 accounted for ∼70% of the K. pneumoniae isolates causing pneumonia, and ∼70% of all the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from the nasopharynx of patients in outpatient clinics. The MLST profiles further demonstrated the genetic relatedness between most pneumonia isolates and those from the nasopharynx. In conclusion, our results show that community-onset pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae was associated with high mortality and could have a reservoir in the nasopharynx. To tackle this high-mortality disease, the distribution of capsular types in the nasopharynx might have implications for future vaccine development.

  7. How to optimise the yield of forensic and clinical post-mortem microbiology with an adequate sampling: a proposal for standardisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, A; Cohen, M C; Lucena, J; Van de Voorde, W; Angelini, A; Ziyade, N; Saegeman, V

    2015-05-01

    Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is an important tool in forensic pathology, helping to determine the cause and manner of death, especially in difficult scenarios such as sudden unexpected death (SD). Currently, there is a lack of standardization of PMM sampling throughout Europe. We present recommendations elaborated by a panel of European experts aimed to standardize microbiological sampling in the most frequent forensic and clinical post-mortem situations. A network of forensic microbiologists, pathologists and physicians from Spain, England, Belgium, Italy and Turkey shaped a flexible protocol providing minimal requirements for PMM sampling at four practical scenarios: SD, bioterrorism, tissue and cell transplantation (TCT) and paleomicrobiology. Biosafety recommendations were also included. SD was categorized into four subgroups according to the age of the deceased and circumstances at autopsy: (1) included SD in infancy and childhood (0-16 years); (2) corresponded to SD in the young (17-35 years); (3) comprised SD at any age with clinical symptoms; and (4) included traumatic/iatrogenic SD. For each subgroup, a minimum set of samples and general recommendations for microbiological analyses were established. Sampling recommendations for main bioterrorism scenarios were provided. In the TCT setting, the Belgian sampling protocol was presented as an example. Finally, regarding paleomicrobiology, the sampling selection for different types of human remains was reviewed. This proposal for standardization in the sampling constitutes the first step towards a consensus in PMM procedures. In addition, the protocol flexibility to adapt the sampling to the clinical scenario and specific forensic findings adds a cost-benefit value.

  8. 临床微生物检验质量保证和改进策略分析%Clinical microbiological quality assurance and improvement strategy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许航

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the quality assurance and improvement strategies in clinical microbiology.Methods:Selected 200 cases of patients during the period from 2014 April to 2015 April in this hospital and accepted clinical microbiology.Count the results are not accurate or the wrong number of cases,the number of complaints and satisfaction of medical service.Re-sults:The microbiological examination of patients,the accuracy rate of service satisfaction of Observation group are higher than the control group,the complaint rate is lower than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:In the process of clinical microbiological implementation total quality assurance and improvement strategies can reduce the error results,improve the inspection accura-cy,avoid misdiagnosis,misdiagnosis,improve patient satisfaction on medical service,is worth the clinical promotion.%目的:探讨临床微生物检验质量保证和改进策略。方法:选取2014年4月~2015年4月之间于我院和对口联系医院就诊并接受临床微生物检验的患者200例,统计其检验结果不准确或出错的例数,投诉人数以及对医疗服务的满意度。结果:观察组患者的微生物学检验结果准确率、对医院服务的满意度均高于对照组,患者的投诉率低于对照组(P <0.05)。结论:在进行临床微生物检验的过程中实施全面的质量保证与改进策略能够减少错误结果,提高检验准确率,避免发生误诊、漏诊,提高患者对医疗服务的满意度,值得临床推广。

  9. Endodontic microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the "most" resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This article gives an insight of the microbiology involved in endodontic pathology and discusses its role in our treatment procedure. Information from original reviews listed in PubMed, published from 1995 to 2010, has been mainly included in this review.

  10. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  11. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to clarify observations. RESULTS: Four medical laboratory technicians, for example, representative of end users of the app...

  12. Forensic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  13. Effects of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Clinical Response, Microbiological Profile, and Glycemic Control in Malaysian Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mukhtar Buzinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group, were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups (P>0.05 and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously.

  14. Real life turnaround time of blood cultures in the clinical microbiology laboratory: results of the first Italian survey, May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Arena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Blood culture (BC results are essential to guide antimicrobial chemotherapy for patients with sepsis. However, BC is a time-consuming exam, which can take several days. Reducing BCs turn around time (TAT could impact on multiple outcome parameters and TAT monitoring is an important tool for measurement of microbiology laboratory performance. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of BC TATs among Italian microbiology laboratories. Materials and methods: Five laboratories collected and recorded, for a month period, date and time of the BC processing events. Cumulative TATs were analysed using the GraphPad software. Results: Participating laboratories reported data from 302 sepsis episodes. The median time from when the BC system produced a positive signal until Gram-stain results were reported was 7.6 hours. A rapid molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was performed in 26.5% of BCs. Mean TAT for identification report was significantly lower when a molecular approach was adopted (12 vs. 28.7 hours, P<0.001. Similarly, results of the molecular AST were obtained more than 24 hours in advance compared with phenotypic AST (mean 13.2 vs. 47.6, P<0.001. TATs from BC positivity of laboratories opened 7 days/week were not significantly lower than those of laboratories opened 6 days/week. Conclusions: BC is a time-consuming exam, however, molecular identification and AST methods can drastically reduce time to results. The lack of difference between TATs observed for laboratories working 7 days/week and 6 days/week, coupled with a high rate of BCs turning positive during the night enable to conclude that the most urgent measure to reduce TATs is the expansion of laboratory regular duty hours.

  15. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  16. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  17. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  18. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  19. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  20. 医学微生物学检验同临床沟通的重要性分析%Analyze the Importance of Medical Microbiology Examination with Clinical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析微生物学检验和临床之间的联系。方法对2012~2013年我院的7名微生物学检验人员来进行研究分析,探讨临床和微生物学之间的联系,加强双方的沟通交流。结果实施微生物学检验与临床沟通对策后,临床对于检验质量及时反馈率为80.8%,高于交流前的34.6%;临床医师对于检验结果判读的失误率为3.8%,较交流前的15.4%有所降低(P<0.05)。结论临床和微生物学检验之间的交流有助于更加准确的进行检验,提供高质量的检验结果,为临床诊断和治疗提供参考,所以微生物学检验与临床之间多沟通和交流非常重要。%Objective To study the relationship between microbiology examination and clinical communication. Methods Analysis of 7 microbiological in our hospital from 2012 to 2013, to explore the relationship between clinical and microbiological, strengthen bilateral communication. Results The implementation of microbiological and clinical communication countermeasures, clinical test for the quality feedback rate was 80.8%, significantly higher than before (34.6%), clinicians to test results interpretation error rate was 3.8%, compared with the exchange before (15.4%) was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Communication between clinical and microbiological examination can contribute to more accurate test, provides the high quality of the test results and the reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment, so it is very important to microbiological and clinical communication.

  1. 临床微生物检验中质量控制措施及影响因素分析%Analysis of quality control measures and effect factors in clinical microbiological exam-ination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷立升

    2015-01-01

    In the growth of human survival environment,the mi-crobial species is complexity and diversity,and some multiple an-tibiotic resistant strains has seriously hindered the effective diag-nosis and treatment of infectious diseases.Therefore,we should strengthen the clinical microbiological quality control and improve the clinical test results to promote the development of clinical medicine actively.In this paper,the problems of clinical microbi-ological examination and discussed firstly,and then put forward the control measures.Through the discussion of this thesis,we provide useful reference information for clinical microbiology test.%人类生长的环境中,微生物种类复杂多样,多重耐药菌的存在严重阻碍了感染性疾病的有效诊断与治疗。因此,加强临床微生物检验的质控,提高临床检验结果,能够积极推动临床医学的发展。本文首先对临床微生物检验存在的问题进行讨论,然后提出控制措施。通过本文的讨论,为临床微生物检验提供有用的借鉴信息。

  2. Impact of Timing and Dosage of a Fluoroquinolone Treatment on the Microbiological, Pathological, and Clinical Outcomes of Calves Challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; Ferran, Aude A.; Assié, Sébastien; Cassard, Hervé; El Garch, Farid; Schneider, Marc; Woerhlé, Frédérique; Pacalin, Diane; Delverdier, Maxence; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Meyer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.107 CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in four groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON), 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2–4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2), 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35–39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10). In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5–4 and 5.5–6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24 h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia. PMID:26973615

  3. Impact of timing and dosage of a fluoroquinolone treatment on the microbiological, pathological and clinical outcomes of calves challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eLhermie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an early and low inoculum-adjusted marbofloxacin treatment was evaluated on microbiological and clinical outcomes in calves infected with 4.107 CFU of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Twenty-two calves were included based on their rectal temperature rise in the 10 h after challenge and allocated in 4 groups, receiving a single intramuscular injection of saline (CON, 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin 2-4 h after inclusion (early treatment, E2, 2 or 10 mg/kg marbofloxacin 35-39 h after inclusion (late treatments, L2, L10. In CON calves, M. haemolytica DNA loads in bronchoalveolar lavages continuously increased from inclusion to day 4, and were associated with persistent respiratory clinical signs and lung lesions. At times of early and late treatments, M. haemolytica loads ranged within 3.5-4 and 5.5-6 log10 DNA copies/mL, respectively. Early 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin treatment led to rapid and total elimination of bacteria in all calves. The late treatments induced a reduction of bacterial loads, but 3 of 6 L2 and 1 of 6 L10 calves were still positive for M. haemolytica at day 4. Except for CON calves, all animals exhibited clinical improvement within 24h after treatment. However, early 2 mg/kg treatment was more efficacious to prevent pulmonary lesions, as indicated by the reduction of the extension and severity of gross lesions and by the histopathological scores. These results demonstrated for the first time that a reduced antibiotic regimen given at an early stage of the disease and targeting a low bacterial load could be efficacious in a natural bovine model of pneumonia.

  4. Performances of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for rapid identification of bacteria in routine clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Damien; Grare, Marion; Prere, Marie-Françoise; Segonds, Christine; Marty, Nicole; Oswald, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Rapid and cost-effective matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based systems will replace conventional phenotypic methods for routine identification of bacteria. We report here the first evaluation of the new MALDI-TOF MS-based Vitek MS system in a large clinical microbiology laboratory. This system uses an original spectrum classifier algorithm and a specific database designed for the identification of clinically relevant species. We have tested 767 routine clinical isolates representative of 50 genera and 124 species. Vitek MS-based identifications were performed by means of a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step and compared with reference identifications obtained mainly with the VITEK2 phenotypic system; if the identifications were discordant, molecular techniques provided reference identifications. The Vitek MS system provided 96.2% correct identifications to the species level (86.7%), to the genus level (8.2%), or within a range of species belonging to different genera (1.3%). Conversely, 1.3% of isolates were misidentified and 2.5% were unidentified, partly because the species was not included in the database; a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.8% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. The Vitek MS system is a simple, convenient, and accurate method for routine bacterial identification with a single deposit, considering the high bacterial diversity studied and as evidenced by the low prevalence of species without correct identification. In addition to a second deposit in uncommon cases, expanding the spectral database is expected to further enhance performances.

  5. Marginal ditching and staining as a predictor of secondary caries around amalgam restorations: a clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, E A; Joyston-Bechal, S; Beighton, D

    1995-05-01

    Caries at the margins of restorations is difficult to diagnose. In particular, the relevance of both marginal ditching and staining around amalgam restorations is unclear. This clinical study questions the relevance of marginal ditching and color change to the level of infection of the dentin beneath the margins of amalgam restorations. Clinically visible sites (330) on the tooth/restoration margin were selected on 175 teeth. The enamel adjacent to each site was noted as stained (a grey discoloration) or stain-free. One hundred and seventy-eight sites were clinically intact, 83 sites had narrow ditches (ditches were present (> 0.4 mm). Twenty sites with frankly carious lesions were also included. Plaque was sampled at the tooth-restoration margin, and the dentin was sampled at the enamel-dentin junction below each site. Samples were vortexed, diluted, and cultured for total anaerobic counts, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and yeasts. Plaque samples showed that margins with wide ditches (> 0.4 mm) harbored significantly more bacteria, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli than did clinically intact margins and margins with narrow ditches. There were no significant differences in the degree of infection of the dentin beneath clinically intact restorations and those with narrow ditches, but samples associated with wide ditches and carious lesions yielded significantly more bacteria, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli. The color of the enamel adjacent to the sample site was irrelevant to the level of infection of the dentin beneath the filling margin, provided a frankly carious lesion was not present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  7. [Consensus on antimicrobial sensitivity tests in gram-positive cocci. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Predari, S C; Corso, A; Lopardo, H; Casellas, J M; Bantar, C; Couto, E; Galas, M; Goldberg, M; Gutkind, G; Kovensky Pupko, J; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Pasterán, F; Radice, M; Soloaga, R

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is mainly performed in Argentina by disk diffusion method, following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. We worked out new recommendations for the reporting and interpretation of this test when dealing with gram-positive cocci, in accordance to local trends and epidemiology. General considerations for performing the diffusion assay, quality control, and an update on susceptibility testing for gram-positive cocci are reported in this first document. The present update should be considered as a group of recommendations summarized by Argentinean experts and as the result of a consensus meeting coordinated by the Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (Asociación Argentina de Microbiología). Experts in antimicrobial agents were convened in order to prepare this final document. These recommendations take into account local needs, affordability and availability to be used in current practice, tending to contribute to the correct antimicrobial treatment election, according to the particular microorganism and the infection sites.

  8. Clinical microbiology of Coxiella burnetii and relevant aspects for the diagnosis and control of the zoonotic disease Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik I J; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Rebel, Johanna M L

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Since its first recognition as a disease in the 1930s, the knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased. This review summarizes the current knowledge on C. burnetii and Q fever, its pathogenesis, diagnosis and control. C. burnetii is a bacterium which naturally replicates inside human or animal host cells. The clinical presentation of Q fever varies per host species. C. burnetii infection in animals is mainly asymptomatic except for pregnant ruminants in which abortions and stillbirth can occur. In humans, the disease is also mainly asymptomatic, but clinical presentations include acute and chronic Q fever and the post-Q fever fatigue syndrome. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever in animals and excretion of C. burnetii in infected animals is crucial in understanding the transmission routes and risks of human infection. Our studies indicated that infected pregnant animals only excrete C. burnetii during and after parturition, independent of abortion, and that C. burnetii phase specific serology can be a useful tool in the early detection of infection. Domestic ruminants are the main reservoir for human Q fever, which has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. In outbreaks, epidemiological source identification can only be refined by genotypic analysis of the strains involved. To control outbreaks and Q fever in domestic ruminants, vaccination with a phase 1 vaccine is effective. Future challenges are to identify factors for virulence, host susceptibility and protection.

  9. The characteristic of unqualified specimens in clinical microbiology laboratory and its solution measures%临床微生物培养不合格标本的特点及解决对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹秀云; 陈建魁; 曾利军; 于农; 宋世平; 左向华; 金欣; 王淼

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析临床微生物检验标本中不合格标本产生的原因及其解决措施,以便为临床提供更有价值的结果.方法 统计该院2011年住院患者送检的微生物培养不合格标本的数量分布,并分析其中的原因.结果 全年24 006份微生物培养标本中,不合格标本数为311 份,不合格率为1.3%.微生物室不合格标本的主要类型是痰液、尿液、大便等.不合格的原因,标本留取质量不合格(59.2%)、申请信息不全或错误(19.3%)、容器使用错误(6.1%)等.结论加强微生物检验分析前的质量控制,加强与临床的联系与及时沟通,针对不合格标本发生原因定期向临床医护人员进行宣传、培训,减少不合格标本的发生;使其认识到合格的标本是整个检验质量的保证.%Objective To analyze the causes of the unqualified specimens in clinical microbiological laboratory and its solution methods, so as to provide more valuable results for the physician. Methods The quantity and the distribution of unqualified microbiological specimens of hospitalized patients in 2011 were calculated and analyzed. Results The number of unqualified specimens was 311 among the 24 006 samples in the year of 2011 unqualified rate was 1. 3%. The main types of unqualified specimens were sputum,urine and stool. The main reasons were inferior quality(59. 2%) , incomplete application or incorrect information(19. 3%) and the wrong container(6. 1%). Conclusion The preanalytical quality control should be strengthened in the microbiological laboratory. Timely discussion and communication should be made between the clinical workers(including physicians and nurses) and the microbiological laboratory staff. Microbiological laboratory technicians should train clinical medical workers to reduce the incidence of unqualified specimens on a regular basis,make them aware that qualified specimens was the basis of correct microbiological identification and drug sensitive tests.

  10. In vitro activity and microbiological efficacy of tedizolid (TR-700) against Gram-positive clinical isolates from a phase 2 study of oral tedizolid phosphate (TR-701) in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, Philippe; Bien, Paul; Deanda, Carisa; Pillar, Chris M; Bartizal, Ken

    2012-09-01

    Tedizolid (TR-700, formerly torezolid) is the active moiety of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a next-generation oxazolidinone, with high potency against Gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A recently completed randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial evaluated 200, 300, or 400 mg of oral tedizolid phosphate once daily for 5 to 7 days in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. This report examines the in vitro activity of tedizolid and Zyvox (linezolid) against Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline and describes the microbiological and clinical efficacy of tedizolid. Of 196 isolates tested, 81.6% were S. aureus, and of these, 76% were MRSA. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of tedizolid against both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were 0.25 μg/ml, compared with a MIC(50) of 1 μg/ml and MIC(90) of 2 μg/ml for linezolid. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7), viridans group streptococci (n = 15), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 3), the MICs ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid and from 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for linezolid. The microbiological eradication rates at the test-of-cure visit (7 to 14 days posttreatment) in the microbiologically evaluable population (n = 133) were similar in all treatment groups, with overall eradication rates of 97.7% for all pathogens, 97.9% for MRSA, and 95.7% for MSSA. The clinical cure rates for MRSA and MSSA infections were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively, across all dose groups. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of tedizolid against pathogenic Gram-positive cocci, including MRSA, and its 4-fold-greater potency in comparison with linezolid. All dosages of tedizolid phosphate showed excellent microbiological and clinical efficacy against MRSA and MSSA.

  11. Clinical and microbiological observational study on AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a hospital of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Baral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available regarding AmpC β-lactamase (ABL-producing Enterobacteriaceae compared to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria. Since ABL-producing organisms are often resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, therapeutic options against these pathogens are limited. Among 230 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 64 (27.8% were found to produce ABL in our study. Escherichia coli (83.9% was a predominant pathogen, followed by Citrobacter freundii (5.2%. A significant proportion of ABL-producing isolates (81.3% were found to be multidrug resistant against commonly used antibiotics. Univariate analysis showed that prior history of taking antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 5.278; confidence interval [CI], 2.838-9.817; p < 0.001 and being inpatients (OR, 4.587; CI, 2.132-9.9; p < 0.001 were associated with ABL positivity. Regular antimicrobial resistance surveillance for ABL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is warranted for proper antimicrobial treatment strategy and policy making due to ABL-positive infections.

  12. The clinical, pathological and microbiological outcome of an Escherichia coli O2:K1 infection in avian pneumovirus infected turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; Pensaert, M

    2001-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Escherichia coli infection in avian pneumovirus (APV)-infected turkeys. One group of 2-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) and two groups of 3-week-old conventional (CON) turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with virulent APV subtype A alone, with E. coli O2:K1 alone or with both agents at varying intervals (1, 3, 5 or 7 days) between the two inoculations. The birds were followed clinically and examined for macroscopic lesions at necropsy. Titres of APV were determined in the turbinates, trachea, lungs and air sacs. The number of E. coli O2:K1were assessed in the turbinates, trachea, lungs, air sacs, liver and heart. In both SPF and CON turkeys, dual infection resulted in an increased morbidity and a higher incidence of gross lesions compared to the groups given single infections, especially with a time interval between APV and E. coli inoculations of 3 and 5 days. APV was isolated from the respiratory tract of all APV-infected groups between 3 and 7 days post inoculation. E. coli O2:K1 was isolated only from turkeys that received a dual infection. It was recovered from the turbinates, trachea, lungs, heart and liver. These results show that APV may act as a primary agent predisposing to E. coli colonization and invasion.

  13. A large survey among European trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious disease on training systems and training adequacy: identifying the gaps and suggesting improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Ong, D S Y; Martin-Quiros, A; Skevaki, C; Cortez, J; Dedić, K; Maraolo, A E; Dušek, D; Maver, P J; Sanguinetti, M; Tacconelli, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform a survey among European clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious disease (ID) trainees on training satisfaction, training tools, and competency assessment. An online, anonymous survey in the English language was carried out between April and July 2015. There were 25 questions: seven in a 5-point Likert scale (1: worst scenario, 5: best scenario) and the remainder as closed multiple-choice questions in five areas (satisfaction, adequacy, system, mentorship, and evaluation of training). Included were 419 respondents (215 CM, 159 ID, and 45 combined CM/ID) from 31 European countries [mean age (standard deviation) 32.4 (5.3) years, 65.9 % women]. Regarding satisfaction on the training scheme, CM and ID scored 3.6 (0.9) and 3.2 (1.0), respectively. These scores varied between countries, ranging from 2.5 (1.0) for Italian ID to 4.3 (0.8) for Danish CM trainees. The majority of respondents considered training in management and health economics inadequate and e-learning and continuing medical education programs insufficient. Many trainees (65.3 % of CM and 62.9 % of ID) would like to have more opportunities to spend a part of their training abroad and expected their mentor to be more involved in helping with future career plans (63.5 % of CM and 53.4 % of ID) and practical skills (53.0 % of CM and 61.2 % of ID). Two-thirds of the respondents across the specialties agreed that a European exam should be developed, but half of them thought it should not be made mandatory. This survey shows high heterogeneity in training conditions in European countries, identifies perceived gaps in training, and suggests areas for improvements.

  14. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  15. Clinical, Radiographic and Microbiological Evaluation of High Level Laser Therapy, a New Photodynamic Therapy Protocol, in Peri-Implantitis Treatment; a Pilot Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Endosseous implants are widely used to replace missing teeth but mucositis and peri-implantitis are the most frequent long-term complications related with dental implants. Removing all bacterial deposits on contaminated implant surface is very difficult due to implant surface morphology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of photodynamic therapy by using a new high level laser irradiation protocol associated with hydrogen peroxide in peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods. 10 patients affected by peri-implantitis were selected for this study. Medical history, photographic documentation, periodontal examination, and periapical radiographs were collected at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Microbiological analysis was performed with PCR Real Time. Each patient underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy and surgery combined with photodynamic therapy according to High Level Laser Therapy protocol. Results. All peri-implant pockets were treated successfully, without having any complication and not showing significant differences in results. All clinical parameters showed an improvement, with a decrease of Plaque Index (average decrease of 65%, range 23–86%, bleeding on probing (average decrease of 66%, range 26–80%, and probing depth (average decrease of 1,6 mm, range 0,46–2,6 mm. Periapical radiographs at 6 months after surgery showed a complete radiographic filling of peri-implant defect around implants treated. Results showed a decrease of total bacterial count and of all bacterial species, except for Eikenella corrodens, 6 months after surgery. Conclusion. Photodynamic therapy using HLLT appears to be a good adjunct to surgical treatment of peri-implantitis.

  16. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  17. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  18. 临床微生物检验的质量控制与改进策略研究%Research on quality control and improvement strategy of clinical microbiological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴幸

    2014-01-01

    在人类生存的环境中,微生物的种类繁多,一些多重耐药菌和泛耐药菌株能够对感染性疾病的有效诊治产生明显的阻碍作用,切实加强对临床微生物检验的质量控制,提出并实践改进策略,能够对临床医学产生积极的推动作用。文章以此为视角,首先对临床微生物检验中存在的问题进行了分析,讨论了质量控制的方式方法,最后从多个角度给出了临床微生物检验的若干改进策略。旨在通过本文的工作,为指导临床疾病的诊断与治疗提供可供借鉴的信息。%In the human survival environment, a wide variety of microbial species, some multiple antibiotic resistant strains and pan resistant strains can be effective in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases have side effect, strengthen the clinical microbiological quality control, practice improvement strategy is proposed, and have a positive effect on clinical medicine. From this perspective, analysis on the existence of clinical microbiology laboratory, discussesed the methods of quality control and some clinical microbiological improvement strategy. The purpose of this work, in need to provide reference information for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease.

  19. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  20. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  1. Imaging techniques in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, D C; Theriot, J A

    1998-06-01

    Recent advances in optical imaging have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the light microscope and its usefulness in microbiology research. Some of these advances include improved fluorescent probes, better cameras, new techniques such as confocal and deconvolution microscopy, and the use of computers in imaging and image analysis. These new technologies have now been applied to microbiological problems with resounding success.

  2. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described.

  3. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of 3% satranidazole gel as a local drug delivery system in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present clinical trial was designed to investigate the effectiveness of subgingivally delivered satranidazole (SZ gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Seventy subjects with probing depth (PD ≥5 mm were selected. Thirty-five subjects each were randomly assigned to SRP + placebo (Group 1 and SRP + SZ (Group 2. The clinical outcomes evaluated were plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level (CAL, and PD at baseline; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months interval. Furthermore, microbial analysis using polymerase chain reaction was done to estimate the number of sites harboring periodontopathogens. Results: Sixty four subjects were evaluated up to 6 months. At 6 months, the Group 2 resulted in greater mean reduction (4.10 mm in PD as compared to Group 1 (1.49 mm, and also a greater mean CAL gain (4.20 mm in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 (1.13 mm. These subjects also showed a significant reduction in the number of sites harboring periodontopathogens. Conclusion: The use of 3% SZ gel, when used as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in subjects with periodontitis, achieved better results than initial periodontal treatment alone.

  4. Application of MALDI-TOF MS in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples%MALDI-TOF MS在临床微生物样本直接检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 胡玢婕; 赵虎

    2015-01-01

    基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)是近年来发展起来的一项新兴的微生物鉴定技术,与传统的生化表型鉴定方法和分子生物学方法相比,MALDI-TOF MS具有操作简单、快速、准确和经济的特点。鉴于其对培养出的纯菌落鉴定的准确性和稳定性,MALDI-TOF MS也可被应用于临床样本的直接检测,包括阳性血培养瓶、中段尿、脑脊液等。本文主要就MALDI-TOF MS用于直接检测临床样本的原理、流程、鉴定效能及其研究进展等方面做一综述。%Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS),as a newly developed technology in recent years , is an easy, rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for microbial identification in clinical microbiology , compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology .Given the accuracy and reliability of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of microorganisms grown on solid medium , this technology might also be directly applied to some clinical microbiological samples , such as positive blood culture bottles , midstream urine , cerebrospinal fluid and so on .The goal of this review was to discuss the application of MALDI-TOF MS technology in direct identification of clinical microbiological samples , including the principles , protocols, performance and research progress .

  5. Executive summary of management of prosthetic joint infections. Clinical practice guidelines by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Javier; Cobo, Javier; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Benito, Natividad; Bori, Guillermo; Cabo, Javier; Corona, Pablo; Esteban, Jaime; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Murillo, Oscar; Palomino, Julián; Parra, Jorge; Pigrau, Carlos; Del Pozo, José Luis; Riera, Melchor; Rodríguez, Dolores; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Soriano, Alex; Del Toro, M Dolores; de la Torre, Basilio

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is expected to increase in the coming years. PJI has serious consequences for patients, and high costs for the health system. The complexity of these infections makes it necessary to organize the vast quantity of information published in the last several years. The indications for the choice of a given surgical strategy and the corresponding antimicrobial therapy are specifically reviewed. The authors selected clinically relevant questions and then reviewed the available literature in order to give recommendations according to a pre-determined level of scientific evidence. The more controversial aspects were debated, and the final composition was agreed at an ad hoc meeting. Before its final publication, the manuscript was made available online in order that all SEIMC members were able to read it and make comments and suggestions.

  6. Perfil clínico e microbiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana Clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Ribeiro de Figueiredo Leite

    2010-02-01

    ,2%, Cocos Gram-positivos (98,2%, além de bacilos Gram-positivos (99,3% e negativos (91,0%. As colpocitologias oncóticas mostraram presença muito escassa de lactobacilos, que estiveram presentes em apenas 8 citologias (2,9% do total de 273 exames realizados. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados do estudo não mostraram diferença em relação à literatura quanto aos sintomas referidos pelas mulheres, os critérios clínicos mais observados no diagnóstico, ou as espécies bacterianas demonstradas nas culturas de conteúdo vaginal. Os achados demonstram serem necessários novos estudos que melhor elucidem as inter-relações entre os achados microbiológicos e a expressão clínica da vaginose bacteriana. Registro do ensaio clínico: ISRCTN18987156PURPOSE: to study the clinical and microbiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis participating in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, which compared the vaginal use of preparations from red pepper tree and metronidazole for the treatment of genital discharge. METHODS: the study was conducted on a series of 277 women with bacterial vaginosis concomitantly diagnosed by the criteria of Amsel and Nugent, selected from a total of 462 recruited patients using the information obtained before intervention. Data were analyzed with the Epi-Info 3.32 software. In order to compare the outcomes frequencies between the intervention groups, the χ2 test was used and the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. The intention to treat analysis was performed. In addition to the determination of diagnostic parameters, the culture of vaginal content and a Papanicolaou cytology test were also performed. RESULTS: the most frequent clinical complaints were genital discharge, observed in 206 participants (74.4% and the fish odor of the vaginal secretion, which occurred in 68.6% of the cases (190 patients. Among the diagnostic clinical criteria, the presence of clue-cells was positive in 275 women (99.3%, the Whiff test, in 266

  7. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  8. Microbiology: a dangerous profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Mercè

    2007-09-01

    The history of science contains many cases of researchers who have died because of their professional activity. In the field of microbiology, some have died or have come close to death from infection by agents that were the subject of their research (Table 1). Infections that had a lethal outcome were usually accidental. Sometimes, however, researchers inoculated themselves with the pathogen or did not take preventive measures against the potential pathogen because they wanted to prove their hypotheses--or disprove someone else's--regarding the origin of the infection. Here is an overview of several episodes in the history of microbiology since the mid nineteenth century involving researchers or workers in fields related to microbiology who have become infected. They are considered here in their historical context to provide insights into some of the pillars of modern microbiology--The giants on whose shoulders several generations of microbiologists have stood to see further.

  9. Retrospective analysis of positive rates of different clinical samples under microbiological detection%回顾性分析比较不同临床标本微生物检验的阳性率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 郭清莲; 申及; 涂建成

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和分析该院临床标本微生物检验阳性率的流行病学分布现状.方法 回顾性统计分析并比较该院2008~2010年临床标本微生物分类检验阳性率.结果 除血培养标本外,此间其他临床标本微生物检验阳性率2009~2010年都低于2008~2009年.结论 要认真分析不同年度的临床微生物标本分类检验阳性率,寻找原因,从而为临床微生物检测及各个科室提供有价值信息,提高检验和诊断水平,也为指导治疗、观察疗效和判断预后提供有效帮助.%Objective To analyze and understand status of epidemiological distribution of all clinical specimens detected by microorganism examination in this hospital. Methods Retrospective statistics analysis was performed to understand the positive rate of different clinical samples under microbiological detection between 2008 and 2010. Results Except blood culture samples, the positive rates of all other types of clinical samples in 2009-2010 were lower than those in 2008- 2009. Conclusion To analyze the variation of positive rates of different clinical samples under microbiological detection could be helpful for acquiring much worthy clinical evidence and information for clinical sections , raising detection and diagnosis performance, guiding treatment , observing curative effect and judging prognosis.

  10. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories.

  11. [Evaluation of the status of patients with severe infection, criteria for intensive care unit admittance. Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine and Coronary Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, Pedro M; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Sánchez, Miguel; Torres, Antonio; Palomar, Mercedes; Fernández, Pedro; Miró, José M; Cisneros, José Miguel; Torres, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that early attention in patients with serious infections is associated with a better outcome. Assistance in intensive care units (ICU) can effectively provide this attention; hence patients should be admitted to the ICU as soon as possible, before clinical deterioration becomes irreversible. The objective of this article is to compile the recommendations for evaluating disease severity in patients with infections and describe the criteria for ICU admission, updating the criteria published 10 years ago. A literature review was carried out, compiling the opinions of experts from the Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC, Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC, Spanish Society for Intensive Medicine, Critical Care and Coronary Units) as well as the working groups for infections in critically ill patients (GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC). We describe the specific recommendations for ICU admission related to the most common infections affecting patients, who will potentially benefit from critical care. Assessment of the severity of the patient's condition to enable early intensive care is stressed.

  12. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  13. Clinical microbiological quality control in the existing problems and countermeasures%临床微生物检验中质量控制存在的问题与对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春雷; 白俊龙; 刘丽丽

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, microbial species in the human survival environment is extremely diverse, most of the generic drug resistant strains and drug-resistant bacteria can significantly hamper the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, to strengthen the quality control of clinical microbiological examination in time, puts forward improvement strategy, can effectively promote clinical medical research. In order to further explore the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease, provide scientific clinical information, the study of clinical microbiological quality control in the analysis of existing problems, and puts forward some countermeasures to improve.%近年来,微生物在人类生存环境中种类极为多样,大多数泛耐药菌株和耐药菌均能显著阻碍感染性疾病的治疗。因此,及时加强对临床微生物检验的质量控制并提出改进策略能够有效推进临床医学研究。为进一步探讨临床疾病的诊断和治疗方法,提供科学的临床信息,本次研究对临床微生物检验中质量控制存在的问题进行分析,同时对临床微生物检验存在的若干问题进行改进策略。

  14. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease....

  15. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.

  16. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs.

  17. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  18. Clinical and economic evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment to CHROMSal and Hektoen enteric agars to detect enteric Salmonella in a large regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Emshey, Diana; Lloyd, Tracie; Pitout, Johann

    2010-09-01

    Stool culture for enteric pathogens is one of the most labor-intensive clinical microbiology procedures. Direct plating of stool to BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment (Sel) to CHROMSal (Sel-CHROMSal) and Hektoen enteric agar (Sel-Hek) (PML Microbiologicals, Eugene, OR) to detect Salmonella were compared. The number of colony picks and biochemical/serotyping tests per plate was recorded. A cost comparison was done. Fifty-one of 2999 (1.7%) stools yielded Salmonella sp., and 80% of isolates grew on CHROMSal by 24 h. CHROMSal demonstrated much less false-positive growth compared to Sel-Hek (P < 0.0001), which reduced biochemical and serotyping tests by 85% and 20%, respectively. Sel-CHROMSal and CHROMSal versus Sel-Hek improved enteric Salmonella detection when compared to a true positive "gold standard" (i.e., recovery by any culture method) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% and 94.12%, 100% and 99.97%, 100% and 97.96%, and 100% and 99.90%, respectively. CHROMSal use would result in substantial cost and labor savings.

  19. 临床微生物实验室细菌分离接种技术的研究进展%Research progress on the bacterial inoculation techniques in clinical microbiology laboratories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬华; 葛平; 陈蓉; 徐蓉; 刘学杰

    2015-01-01

    近年来,自动化研究方兴未艾,出现了商品化的自动化、半自动化微生物接种仪,如Robobact system全自动微生物分离培养系统、EasySpiral Pro全自动螺旋接种仪以及PREVI Isola自动化微生物接种仪等。然而临床实践表明,目前尚没有比较理想的自动化接种仪,特别是能够准确定量接种的自动化仪器,致使现有商品化自动接种仪在临床实验室难以推广。同时,建立细菌培养定量检验方法,进一步统一和标准化操作程序,已成为临床微生物检验质量控制的发展趋势。基于伯努利原理和流体力学,国内学者设计研发的多通道自动化微生物接种仪,有望建立基于自动化接种技术的细菌培养定量检验方法。现就临床微生物实验室细菌分离接种技术的发展现状、趋势和研究进展进行综述。%In recent years , researches on the bacterial inoculation automation are booming .The commercialized automatic or semi-automatic microbial inoculation instruments are developing , such as, Robobact system , EasySpiral Pro and PREVI Isola.However, the experience of clinical application indicates that no instrument employed is satisfactory , let alone the accurate quantitative inoculation instrument , and they are hard to be popularized in clinical microbiology laboratories.Meanwhile, to develop a new method of accurate quantitative determination and to unify and standardize operating procedure , is the development tendency of quality control .Based on Bernoulli principle and fluid mechanics , a new-type instrument , called the multichannel microbial inoculation instument , is invented by Chinese scholars .It is hopeful to develop a new method for the quantitative determination for microbiology based on automatic technique .In this review, the research and development progress of bacterial inoculation technique in clinical microbiology laboratories are summarized.

  20. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  1. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  2. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  3. Analysis of existing problems and countermeasures of quality control testing in clinical microbiology%临床微生物检验中质量控制存在问题与应对措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣华

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析临床微生物检验中质量控制所存在的问题并探讨应对的措施。方法使用不同方法对同一痰标本进行检测,以验证合适的方法对微生物检验的重要性;通过对比医院执行严格质量管理前后的药敏试验结果准确性,探讨质量管理对微生物检验的切实效果和具体的质量管理措施。结果通过对比,痰培养和痰培养+痰涂片对同一痰标本的检验阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。医院执行严格质量管理前后的药敏试验结果准确性比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论质量控制管理对于微生物检验至关重要,一般管理存在标本采样不规范、检验方法与检验环境不合理、检验和临床沟通不畅等问题,可以通过严格培训、规范操作规程、加强检验与临床沟通等措施提升临床微生物检验的质量。%Objective To investigate the clinical microbiological testing in quality control problems and the meas-ures to deal with. Methods Using different methods for the same sputum samples for testing, to verify the importance of appropriate methods for microbiological examination;perform susceptibility test results accuracy through strict quality con-trol before and after comparison of my hospital to investigate the quality of the management of microbiological testing of prac-tical effects and specific quality management measures. Results By contrast, sputum culture and sputum culture + spu-tum smear-positive rate for the same sputum test had significant differences (P<0. 05). Hospital perform susceptibility test results accuracy strict quality control before and after contrast were significantly different (P<0. 05). Conclusions Qual-ity control and management is essential for microbiological testing, the general management is not standardized specimen sampling, testing methods unreasonable, testing and clinical issues such as poor communication, can improve the

  4. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists.

  5. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  6. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  7. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  8. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  9. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Watling

    2016-01-01

    The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent...

  10. Trends in wine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  11. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Watling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent to those developments it has been shown that microbial communities in metals extraction are more diverse than originally thought, and extremely robust and adaptable to different and variable environments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, exploiting hugely increased computing power and speed, have made it possible to describe not only which microorganisms are present in bioleaching systems, but also what physiological functions are being exercised. The body of knowledge being acquired through the application of molecular biology methods will be used increasingly to monitor microbial behaviour, optimise conditions for more appropriate microbiological activity and/or infer the “microbiological health” of bioreactors (tanks and heaps.

  12. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  13. Analysis on the Positive Rate of Microbiological Examination of Clinical Specimens%关于临床标本微生物检验的阳性率结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李从凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the positive rate of microbiological examination of different clinical microbiologists and pro-vide valuable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods 1 000 cases of specimens clinically examined in our hos-pital from January 2012 to January 2013 and from February 2013 to February 2014 were randomly selected with 500 cases in each period of time and divided by different specimen types and operated according to standardization, the positive rate was examined by automatic bacteria identification and drug-sensitivity analyzer made by BioMerieux company in France and statistically analyzed. Results The positive rates of microbiological specimen examination of respiratory tract, urine, wound secretion and blood culture were respectively 16.4%, 39.6% and 13.3% in the former period of time and 8.6%, 30.8% and 5.8% in the latter period of time, the difference was obvious (P0.05)and was not statistically signifi-cant. Conclusion The analysis of the positive rate of microbiological specimens in different periods of time can provide safe and effective disease information for clinical departments and further having a guiding effect on the clinical curative effect observation and prognosis effect.%目的 探讨不同临床微生物检验阳性率结果,为临床诊断与治疗提供有价值的依据. 方法 随机选取2012年1月—2013年1月以及2013年2月—2014年2月期间该院临床检验标本共计1 000份,两个时间段各500份,并根据标本类型不同进行分类,均根据标准化操作,用法国生物梅里埃公司生产的自动细菌鉴定药敏分析仪进行阳性率的检验,对阳性率结果进行统计分析. 结果 两个时间段内,呼吸道、尿液以及伤口分泌物、血培养标本微生物检验阳性率,2012年1月—2013年2月分别为16.4%、39.6%及13.3%;2013年2月—2014年2月呼吸道、 尿液以及伤口分泌物、血培养标本微生物检验阳性率分别为8.6%、30.8%及5.8%,

  14. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.

  15. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS in the microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernandes Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of microorganisms by the clinical microbiology laboratory is of crucial importance for optimal patients’ management and treatment. In general, bacterial identification by conventional methods requires 18-24 hours for colony isolation and at least 24 additional hours for species identification. New technologies in microbiology have focused on the rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections, since they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  16. The evolution of teaching and learning medical microbiology and infectious diseases at NUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M B; Chow, V T K

    2005-07-01

    Infectious diseases were rife during the early years of the Singapore Medical College, which was established in 1905. The current Department of Microbiology in the National University of Singapore (NUS) has its historical roots in the Departments of Bacteriology and Parasitology, which were established in 1925 and 1950 respectively. With the achievements since its inception, and with its present research focus on Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, it is poised to face the microbiological challenges of the 21st century. Over the decades, the structure of the medical microbiology course in NUS has modernised, culminating in the current emphasis on its practical utility in clinical practice. Coordinated by the Department of Microbiology, the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases module and the Immunology module both adopt integrated multidisciplinary approaches that aim to introduce students to the language and fundamental concepts in microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology.

  17. Perspective: microfluidic applications in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Trevors, Jack T

    2010-07-01

    The application of microfluidics technology to microbiology research is an excellent platform for the analysis of microorganisms and their nucleic acids. This technology combines engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and computing to control the devices. In this perspective we discuss how microfluidics can be applied to microbiological research and used in diagnostic applications. We also summarize advantages and limitations of this technology, as well as highlight some recent microbiological applications.

  18. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  19. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  20. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STAPHYLO- COCCAL INFECTIONS TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko S.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Overview summarizes the data of the domestic and for-eign literature about the prevalence and biological prop-erties of S. aureus. S. аureus enzymes of aggression andpathogenicity factors (capsular polysaccharides, differentextracellular protein substances (hemolysins, leuko-cidins, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, co-agulase etc. which disintegrate structural components ofconnective tissue and eukaryotic cells are described interms of improvement and enhancement of microbiologi-cal technologies. Detailed information about the prob-lem of Staphylococcus aureus multidrugresistance andmechanisms of methicillin resistance formation is given.The necessity of targeted monitoring of the biologicalproperties of S. aureus selected clinical isolates in orderto optimize detection of the pathogen aggressiveness isproved.

  2. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  3. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteu......Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  4. The microbiological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological risk in the first part of life is endowed with peculiar features when compared to the same risk in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to highlight these age-related traits. While pathogens harmful for neonates and infants have been reviewed, less attention has been paid to the role played by the infant gut as battle field between pathogens and protecting bacteria or between pathogens and the immune system. Immediately after birth a race for colonizing the gut begins; the main tool for neonates to select good bacteria is represented by mother's milk. Quite surprisingly, this milk carries potentially harmful bacteria, but antibodies, oligosaccharides and the whole breast milk composition provide a powerful selective tool. Nevertheless this selective action is deeply influenced by the type and/or time (i.e. premature) of delivery or in premature subjects; recent data also show that breast milk could have a different potential in selecting bacterial species. The hygienic conditions of parents and, more generally, of the surrounding environment play a role in the selection of the intestinal biota of infants. It is then possible to group neonates according to the composition of the microbiota. Results of ecological studies suggest that neonates with a different microbiota could have a different microbiological risk.

  5. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  6. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  7. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  8. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  9. Applications of molecular diagnostics techniques in clinical microbiology laboratory%分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长贵; 成军

    2013-01-01

    Applications of molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratory were introduced in the article,including nucleic acid hybridization,nucleic acid amplification,DNA sequencing,gene chips and mass spectrometry.Molecular diagnostic techniques provide major tools for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases,molecular epidemiology investigation,rapid identification of microbial pathogens and the study of the pathogenicity and antibiotics resistance.The application of these new technologies,as the complement of traditional culture methods,increases sensitivity,accuracy and diagnostic efficiency of assays.%主要介绍分子诊断技术在临床微生物学检验中的应用,内容包括核酸杂交、核酸扩增、DNA测序、基因芯片和质谱技术.分子诊断技术为感染病的快速诊断、分子流行病学调查、微生物的快速鉴定、病原菌的致病性和抗生素的耐受性研究等提供了重要的检测手段.这些新技术的应用,作为传统培养法的补充,提高了检测的灵敏度、准确性和诊断效率.

  10. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  11. Problem analysis and intervention in the clinical microbiology specimen collection%临床微生物标本采集中的问题分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴莉

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析临床微生物标本采集中存在的问题,探讨有效的干预措施,提高标本采集质量.方法:对微生物标本质量进行监测,分析标本不合格的原因,针对问题进行相应的干预.结果:标本采集过程中存在患者准备不足、标本污染、采集量不足、送检不及时、标本送检数量不合要求、暂存不当等问题,进行干预后,各类微生物标本不合格率明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:通过加强患者健康指导,完善标本采集手册,系统培训标本知识,落实标本采集的环节控制,加强科间联系等干预措施可提高标本送检质量.%Objectives: To analyze the existing problems in the clinical microbiology specimen collection, and to find out the effective intervention to improve the quality of specimen collection. Methods: We monitored microbiological specimen's quality, analyzed the reasons of the unqualified specimens and took corresponding measures. Results: There were many problems in the process of specimen collection, such as insufficient patient preparation, specimen contamination, inadequate collection quantity, untimely inspection, undesirable specimen quantity improper temporary storage, and so on. The failure rates of various microbial specimens decreased obviously after intervention and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: We could improve the quality of specimens through strengthening patients' health guidance, perfecting specimen collection manual, enhancing specimen knowledge systematic training, implementing the process control of specimen collection, and strengthening the bonds between departments.

  12. Study the quality control management of clinical microbiology inspect specimen collection%临床微生物检验标本质量控制管理实践及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰英; 王作艳; 王砚; 肖聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨医院临床微生物检验样本的质量控制管理模式及成效,提高病原学送检阳性检出率及标本合格率。方法查找微生物检验标本的采样质量不合格原因,制定质量控制评价标准及考核管理措施,开展系列专题培训、理论考试、现场操作考核、评比奖励等活动,对比干预措施实施前后采样质量变化,评判采样质量控制管理效果。结果规范管理后送检标本不合格率由22.46%下降至8.10%;病原学检出阳性率由21.93%提高到28.09%。结论通过对多个环节实施干预对策,可有效提高采样质量,为临床病原学准确诊断提供保障。%Objectives To establish the long-term beneficial mechanism which will control and manage the quality of specimen. the passing rate of specimen by adopting the measures of continuous quality improvement and standardizing the work flow of specimen collection is going to be improved.Methods We analyzed the reasons of the unqualified specimens,formulated the standard of assessable quality control,established the control measures by routine inspection and examination. We strengthened the realization of specimen collectors and improved the level of specimen collection operation by adopting many measures,such as held special training,theory test,operated assessment,appraisal, reward,and so on. We judged the effect of quality control management of specimen collection by comparing the quality of specimen with before.Results After the quality control management,the passing rate of specimen and the positive rate of etiology increased significantly. The quality control management of microbiology inspect specimen collection has been improved continued.Conclusion The long-term beneficial mechanism of quality control management of microbiology inspect specimen collection has been established and implemented. We could improve the quality of specimen collection through interventing multiple links. The

  13. Impact of Ramadan on Clinical and Microbiologic Parameters of Patients Seen at a Diarrheal Hospital in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1996–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Daniel T.; Sumon K. Das; Malek, M. A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A. S. G.; Edward T. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan is a month in the Islamic calendar when Muslims fast during daylight hours. We used data from the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country, to compare the etiology and clinical presentation of patients who presented with diarrhea during Ramadan to that of control periods, defined as the 30 days immediately before Ramadan. The proportion of infecting pathogens was lar...

  14. 微生物检验在控制医院感染中的临床应用价值%The clinical value of investigation of microbiological examination in hospital infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚大鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application value of microbiological examination in hospital infection control. Methods:400 cases were selected from January 2011 to December 2013.They were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group with 200 cases in each.The control group were given routine treatment.The experimental group were given regular microbiological examination on the basis of the control group.When out of the hospital,the occurrences of infection of two groups were compared.Results:When the experimental group out of the hospital,6 cases(3%) were mild infection,2 cases(1%) were moderate infection,1 case(0.5%) was severe infection.The infection incidence rate was 4.5%,which was significantly lower than the infection incidence rate of control group.There was significant difference between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:At the same time of routine treatment,the hospital patients were given regular microbiological examination.It can effectively reduce the incidence rate of nosocomial infection of patients.It has important significance on the disease treatment and rehabilitation as well as the improvement of medical quality and living quality of patients.%目的:探讨微生物检验在控制医院感染中的临床应用价值。方法:2011年1月-2013年12月收治患者400例,随机平均分成两组,试验组与对照组,每组200例。对照组给予常规治疗,试验组在对照组的基础上定期进行微生物检验,比较两组出院时感染的发生情况。结果:试验组出院时,轻度感染6例(3.0%),中度感染2例(1.0%),重度感染1例(0.5%),感染发生率4.5%,明显低于对照组感染发生率,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:医院住院患者在常规治疗的同时定期进行微生物检验能够有效降低患者医院感染的发生率,对于疾病的治疗和康复以及患者就医质量和生活质量的提高具有重要意义。

  15. 临床微生物检验在医院感染控制的临床价值%The value of clinical microbiological examination for the hospital infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫莉梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to explore the hospital infection control situation of the value of clinical microbiological.Methods:We choose 308 cases of patients as the research objects,in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 in accordance with the principle of randomized patients divided into control group and experimental group 154 cases,respectively,the control of these patients were treated with routine infection control,the experimental group is on the basis of routine infection control in patients with clinical microorganism inspection,com-pared two groups of patients in hospital infection occurred in the process of hospital.Results:the patients in the treatment process of a mild infection in 4 patients,2 patients had moderate infection,1 case of patients with severe infection,the patient's infection rate was 4.55%, control group patients in the treatment of 9 cases of patients with mild infection in the process,5 patients had moderate infection,3 cases of patients with severe infection,the patient's infection rate was 11.03%,the experimental group infection rates significantly lower than the control group,significant difference statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion:combined with clinical microbiology in hospital in-fection control inspection can significantly reduce the incidence of infection,helps to ensure that the patient's treatment,promote patients recover,so as to improve medical quality and the quality of life,is worth popularization and application in clinic.%目的:探究在医院感染控制中临床微生物检验的临床应用价值情况。方法:选取2013年6月~2015年6月308例患者作为研究对象,按照随机分组原则将患者分为实验组和对照组分别154例,其中对照组患者采取常规的感染控制治疗,实验组患者则在常规的感染控制的基础上进行临床微生物检验,对比两组患者在医院就诊过程中的医院感染事件发生情况。结果:实验组患者在治疗过程中有4

  16. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  17. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  18. Executive summary of the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection: Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cueto, Marina; Aliaga, Luis; Alós, Juan-Ignacio; Canut, Andres; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Martínez, Jose Antonio; Mensa, Jose; Pintado, Vicente; Rodriguez-Pardo, Dolors; Yuste, Jose Ramon; Pigrau, Carles

    2016-12-22

    Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are uncomplicated infections occurring in young women. An extensive evaluation is not required in the majority of cases, and they can be safely managed as outpatients with oral antibiotics. Escherichia coli is by far the most common uropathogen, accounting for >80% of all cases. Other major clinical problems associated with UTI include asymptomatic bacteriuria, and patients with complicated UTI. Complicated UTIs are a heterogeneous group associated with conditions that increase the risk of acquiring infection or treatment failure. Distinguishing between complicated and uncomplicated UTI is important, as it influences the initial evaluation, choice, and duration of antimicrobial therapy. Diagnosis is especially challenging in the elderly and in patients with in-dwelling catheters. The increasing prevalence of resistant uropathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and other multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms further compromises treatment of both complicated and uncomplicated UTIs. The aim of these Clinical Guidelines is to provide a set of recommendations for improving the diagnosis and treatment of UTI.

  19. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitish Durga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease has been thought to be associated with several restricted members of the oral anaerobic species, such as black-pigmented Porphyromonas species and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, in the subgingival environment. Apart from bacteria, certain viruses and fungi that are associated with periodontal disease are also present in the subgingival plaque . Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover split-mouth design was performed. A total of 16 patients suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The study period of 18 days was divided into two time-intervals, i.e. baseline (0 days to 7 th day, with a washout period of 4 days followed by a second time interval of 7 days. The use of ozone and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX irrigation was randomized. Both the patient and the clinician evaluating the clinical parameters were blinded regarding the type of irrigation used. Results: The interpretation of clinical and microbial data is from baseline to 7 th day. A higher percentage of plaque index (12%, gingival index (29% and bleeding index (26% reduction was observed using ozone irrigation as compared to chlorhexidine. The percentile reduction of Aa (25% using ozone was appreciable as compared to no change in Aa occurrence using chlorhexidine. By using O 3 and chlorhexidine, there was no antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Tannerella forsythensis. The antifungal effect of ozone from baseline (37% to 7 th day (12.5% was pronounced during the study period, unlike CHX, which did not demonstrate any antifungal effect. Conclusion: Ozone may be considered as an alternative management strategy due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. Also, there is growing evidence that ozone can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent in both dentistry and medicine.

  20. Clinical and microbiological features of community-acquired and nosocomial bloodstream infections in the surgical department of a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) You; GUO Peng; YE Ying-jiang; WANG Hui; SHEN Zhan-long; WANG Qi; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSls) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery.This study aimed at elucidating the clinical characteristics of community-acquired BSls (CABs) and nosocomial BSls (nBSls) in patients admitted to the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Beijing,China.Methods This cross-sectional study compared 191 episodes of BSls in 4074 patients admitted to the surgical wards between January 2008 and December 2011.Cases of BSls were classified as CABs or nBSls,and the characteristics,relevant treatments,and outcomes of CABs and nBSls were compared.Results Of the 191 BSls,52 (27.2%) and 139 (72.8%) were CABs and nBSls,respectively.Eschedchia coli,coagulasenegative staphylococci,and Klebsiella spp,were the most frequently isolated microorganisms.There were significant differences between CABs and nBSls with respect to the use of hormonal drugs,ventilation,acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores,and prevalence of cancer (P <0.05).Empirical antibacterial therapy did not decrease the crude mortality,but multivariate analysis showed that high APACHE Ⅱ was independently associated with a risk of mortality (odds ratio =0.97,95% confidence interval:0.93-1.02 for APACHE Ⅱ).Conclusions We found significant differences in the clinical characteristics of surgical patients with CABs and nBSls.The outcome of patients seems to be related to high APACHE Ⅱ scores.

  1. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  2. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  3. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  4. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR VITAMIN B

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnoi Kapil*, , ,; Kataria Mahesh; Singhal Vipin; Gupta Deepika

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients added to foods are analyzed using various procedures depending on their nature and properties. The microbiological assays are better than chemical method because any suitable change in vitamin molecule which may not be detected by chemical method will be revealed by change in microbial activity. The microbiological assay of vitamins is based upon the comparison of the stimulation of growth of bacteria by measured concentration of vitamin with that produced by known concentratio...

  6. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of OXA-23- and OXA-143-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ICU patients at a teaching hospital, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francelli Cordeiro Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb is an important cause of nosocomial infections especially in intensive care units. This study aimed to assess clinical aspects and the genetic background of CRAb among ICU patients at a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods: 56 critically ill patients colonized or infected by CRAb, during ICU stay, were prospectively assessed. Based on imipenem MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL, 28 CRAB strains were screened for the presence of genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases and OXA-type β-lactamases. The blaOXA-type genes were characterized by PCR using primers targeting ISAba-1 or -3. Genetic diversity of blaOXA-positive strains was determined by ERIC-PCR analysis. Results: Patient's mean age (±SD was 61 (±15.1, and 58.9% were male. Eighty-percent of the patients presented risk factors for CRAb colonization, mainly invasive devices (87.5% and previous antibiotic therapy (77.6%. Thirty-three patients died during hospital stay (59.0%. Resistance to carbapenems was associated with a high prevalence of blaOXA-23 (51.2% and/or blaOXA-143 (18.6% genes. ERIC-PCR genotyping identified 10 clusters among OXA-producing CRAb. Three CRAb strains exhibited additional resistance to polymyxin B (MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL, whereas 10 CRAb strains showed tigecycline MICs > 2 µg/mL. Conclusions: In this study, clonally unrelated OXA-123- and OXA-143-producing A. baumannii strains in ICU patients were strongly correlated to colonization with infected patients being associated with a poor outcome.

  7. Analysis of problems and strategies in clinical microbiology specimen collection%临床微生物标本采集中存在的问题及策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元好; 金瑛; 刘文毅; 肖静

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the problems in the collection of clinical microbiology specimen and the improvement strategy.Methods Selected 9,562 cases of microbial samples collected from February 2013 ~2015 in our hospital in January, and analyzed the problems in the collection, and made the improvement strategy. At the same time, there were 5,021 microbial samples collected from the February 2013~2014 in January as a control group.The microbial samples collected from 4,541 cases of the ~2015 were collected from February 2014 to January, and compared with the control group, the incidence rate was compared between the two groups. Results The main problems in the collection of microbial samples were: the collection time was not required;the specimen is not in time;the sample collection and operation of the sample is lack of standardization;the nurse is not clear the specimen collection process.In the intervention group, the incidence of specimen collection was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusions There are a lot of problems in the collection of clinical microbiology specimen, and it is very important to develop the improvement measures and to help improve the quality of specimen collection.%目的:探究临床微生物标本采集工作中存在着的问题及应采取的改进策略。方法选取我院2013年2月至2015年1月采集的微生物标本9562例,对其采集工作中存在问题进行分析探究,并制定针对化的改进策略。与此同时,将2013年2月至2014年1月未实施干预措施采集的微生物标本5021例作为对照组;将2014年2月至2015年1月未实施干预措施后采集的微生物标本4541例作为干预组,对比两组标本采集问题发生率。结果微生物标本采集中主要问题为:采集时间不符要求;标本运送不及时;微生物标本采集操作缺乏规范性;护士长未明确标

  8. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  9. Infectious disease physicians rate microbiology services and practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, E J; Francis, D.; Peddecord, K M

    1996-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing emphasis on cost containment and quality improvement in clinical laboratory activities. Modifying those activities to enhance clinical relevance is one strategy that should be satisfying to both laboratory scientists and administrators. This guest commentary describes one approach to quality improvement--the use of user surveys to identify areas for improvement. As an initial attempt to define such areas in clinical diagnostic microbiology, infectious disease...

  10. Características clínico-microbiológicas de la meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis resistant to penicillin clinical and microbiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislado del líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con meningitis, así como describir y comparar las características clínicas y microbiológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución del padecimiento entre niños infectados con cepas sensibles y resistentes a la penicilina y la cefalosporina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y ocho niños con meningitis neumocócica fueron incluidos prospectivamente en el Programa Institucional de Vigilancia de las Infecciones Neumocócicas, durante el lapso 1994-1998. Los datos clínicos y de laboratorio se colectaron de cada expediente. RESULTADOS: Del total de niños, 63% era menor de dos años de edad, 28.9% mostró cepas insensibles a la penicilina, 18.4% tenía resistencia intermedia, y 10.5% tenía resistencia elevada. El 2.6% mostró también resistencia a la cefotaxima. La única característica (por la prueba exacta de Fisher asociada con la resistencia fue: enfermedad de base previa al proceso (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. To describe and compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome among children infected with strains either susceptible or resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 children with pneumococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled in the Institutional Surveillance Program for Pneumococcal Infections during 1994-1998. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by chart review. RESULTS: Of the 38 children, 24 (63% were less than 2 years of age, 11 (28.9% had drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, 18.4% had intermediate resistance, 10.5% high level resistance and 2.6% also showed high level resistance to cefotaxime. The only associated factors (by Fisher’s exact test associated to resistance were: previous use of antibiotics (p=0

  11. [Clinical, microbiological and immunological findings in peri-implantitis patients with bar-retained lower removable partial dentures, compared to a healthy control group (12-month-follow-up)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Christian; Forster, András; Antal, Márk; Nagy, Katalin

    2012-06-01

    Cause, treatment strategies and prognosis of peri-implantitis is not well understood. The aim of this study was to followup clinical, microbiological and immunological findings in individuals wearing bar-retained lower partial dentures with and without peri-implantitis, pre and post treatment. From the Tuebingen Implant Registry recall program 16 peri-implantitis patients were compared to 16 healthy individuals in a prospective, unblinded study. Peri-implantitis was treated with a single anti-inflammatory therapy according to the CIST protocol while the controls received professional implant cleaning. The following findings were recorded at four time points before treatment (T1) and 30, 90, 360 days post treatment (T2-T4): sulcular fluid flow rate, probing depth, plaque and bleeding index, implant stability (Periotest); sulcular concentrations of interleukin-1 beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 2, prostaglandin E2, and the sum score of five periodonto-pathogenic bacteria species by PCR (Hain Microldent test). Statistically significant differences between healthy and diseased implants were found for probing depth, bleeding on probing, bacterial load, and implant stability. For the first three, a significant decrease in severity was observed after treatment, but reached initial pre-treatment values within one year. No changes could be observed in the individuals without peri-implantitis. The results of the present study confirm marked differences in peri-implant findings between healthy and diseased sites. They demonstrate that a single anti-inflammatory intervention can initially--but not sustained--reduce probing depth, bleeding on probing, and the total bacterial load as evident from PCR diagnostics. Further immunological diagnostic measures do not seem to provide more information in the patients investigated.

  12. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

  13. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  14. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  15. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  16. 关于加强临床微生物检验分析前质量管理的探讨%On Strengthening the Management of the Quality of Clinical Microbiological Analysis Before

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper expounds the microbiological analysis before the problems of quality management ,and from the microbiological laboratory ,respectively for a-nalysis of quality control before the solution of the specific measures are put forward .%阐述了微生物检验分析前质量管理存在的问题,并从微生物实验室内、外分别对分析前质量管理提出了具体的解决措施。

  17. [Optimization of microbiological diagnosis of endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, Jalel

    2002-11-01

    The endocarditis stays a dangerous illness. The positive microbiological diagnosis has a precious contribution for a successful hold in charge of the patient. To optimise the microbiological diagnosis of the endocarditis, essentially it comes back to respect the maximum rules of good practice of the blood cultures and the microbiological cardiac valve exams. During the last decades, techniques of molecular biology came to remedy insufficiencies of the conventional microbiology. We arrange rich microbiological data to guide the therapist while waiting the current microbiological data of the patient.

  18. Clinical Microbiological Diagnostics 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. te Witt (René)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLife has changed since the Dutch botanist Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) revealed the diversity and ubiquity of the microbial world through the discovery of microscopy. Van Leeuwenhoek can be considered to be the fi rst genuine microbiologist. Microscopic evidence provided support

  19. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  20. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  1. 产KPC型碳青霉烯酶肠杆菌科细菌感染的临床和微生物学特点%Clinical and microbiological characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧; 彭国均; 张薇; 王海燕; 刘佳; 胡红焱

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the clinical and microbiological outcomes of infections caused by KPC -producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from our hospital from January to December of 2011. The blaKPC was identified by PCR and sequencing analysis. The MICs of carbapenems were determined using the CLSI broth dilution method. The clinical data of patients infectd with KPC carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were also reviewed. Results A total of 18 KPC-producing srains of Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in 2011, 15 of which were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, and 1 Enterobacteraerogenes. Beta-lactams were used in 90% of the patients, and carbapenems use in 70% of the patients prior to isolation of KPC-positive strains. All the KPC-positive isoltates were resistant to cepha-losporins and carbapenems. All the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, and 60% of the isolates were susceptible to amika-cin. After treatment, 7 (43. 8%) patients died. Conclusions The prevalence of KPC -producing Enterobacteriaceae infections warrants rigorous infection control measures to prevent the dissemination and appropriate antimicrobial use in clinical practice.%目的 研究分析产KPC型碳青霉烯酶肠杆菌科细菌感染的临床和微生物学特点.方法 收集2011年1-12月武警总医院18株产KPC酶的肠杆菌科细菌,使用PCR和测序的方法对菌株进行鉴定,用微量肉汤稀释法检测其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,并对产碳青霉烯酶肺炎克雷伯菌感染的病例临床资料进行调查分析.结果 2011年从临床送检的标本中,通过表型鉴定和PCR检测,共分离出产KPC型碳青霉烯酶细菌18株,其中肺炎克雷伯菌13株,大肠埃希菌4株,产气肠杆菌1株.90%患者在产KPC型碳青霉烯酶肠杆菌科细菌分离之前,使用过头孢菌素类(包括第二、三、四代头孢菌素)、头霉素、氨曲南和β内酰胺酶抑制剂复方制剂,70

  2. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  3. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  4. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  6. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  7. Microbiologic spectrum of acute and chronic dacryocystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram; Eshraghi; Parisa; Abdi; Mohammadreza; Akbari; Masoud; Aghsaei; Fard

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To report the microbiological spectrum of acute and chronic dacrocystitis.METHODS:Retrospective study on 100 patients who presented to the ophthalmic plastic clinic of a tertiary eye care center from May 2011 and April 2013 with acute and chronic dacryocystitis was reviewed for demographic and microbiological profile. The culture results and organisms isolated were recorded.RESULTS:Sixty patients had acute onset and the remaining 40 patients had chronic onset dacryocystitis.The female to male ratio was 1.78. The mean age of patients was 44 y. Gram-positive organisms were the most commonly isolated accounting for 54%, and the commonest species isolated was S. aureus in 26%.Percentage of gram positive cultures was higher in chronic dacryocystitis than acute ones(82% vs 48% of positive cultures; P =0.003). Also in culture positive acute dacryocystitis, gram negative species were found in 52%of eyes but only in 18% of chronic dacryocystitis.CONCLUSION:Gram negative bacteria, culture negative samples, unusual and more virulent organisms are more common in acute dacryocystitis than chronic ones. The results of this study have significant bearing on the treatment of patients with dacrocystitis.

  8. Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

    2000-05-01

    We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated.

  9. Microbiology research and education: essential for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Marc J

    2006-08-01

    Marc Struelens is Professor of Medical Microbiology at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Director of the Department of Microbiology, Erasme Hospital, and Head of the Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, ULB School of Public Health, in Brussels, Belgium. Professor Struelens's research focuses on the molecular epidemiology and control of nosocomial infections, and antimicrobial resistance. He has authored over 170 peer-reviewed articles and 20 book chapters. He has served as editor for ten international scientific journals. He is a member of several national and international advisory boards, European Union (EU)-supported research and public health networks, and has served as consultant to the WHO and EU. Professor Struelens is the Past-President of the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. He has chaired the European Study Group on Epidemiological Markers, and the Belgian Hospital Infection Control Society. He has been awarded the Prize of the Belgian Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology.

  10. Quando e como valorizar culturas de urina polimicrobianas no laboratório de microbiologia clínica When and how to enhance polymicrobial urine cultures at the laboratory of clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira Silveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Na maioria dos laboratórios de Microbiologia considera-se contaminação uma cultura de urina com mais de um morfotipo colonial, ignorando-se o desenvolvimento ou solicitando-se novo material. Raramente o isolado é considerado significativo. OBJETIVOS: Com a finalidade de estudar as infecções urinárias polimicrobianas, no período de agosto de 2003 a janeiro de 2004, na cidade de Tubarão, Santa Catarina, foram selecionadas 117 amostras de urina de pacientes internados no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, de ambos os sexos, com idades que variavam de 14 a 98 anos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma análise minuciosa dos prontuários dos pacientes. Procedeu-se o Gram da gota de urina não centrifugada e a cultura com alça calibrada de 1 ou 10 μl em ágar CLED (cistina-lactose deficiente em eletrólitos. Todas as culturas foram repetidas com nova coleta de urina com supervisão direta. Os clínicos aguardaram a segunda coleta (confirmatória para iniciar a antibioticoterapia. Descartaram-se os pacientes que iniciaram a antibioticoterapia imediatamente após a primeira coleta ou que estavam utilizando antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se o total de seis (12,8% culturas polimicrobianas confirmadas, em um universo de 47 amostras com crescimento bacteriano estudadas. Os resultados foram compatíveis com as indicações clínicas. CONCLUSÃO: É importante ressaltar a correlação entre os achados laboratoriais e as indicações clínicas dos pacientes. Recomenda-se avaliar criteriosamente isolados polimicrobianos em amostras de urina, sejam ambulatoriais ou hospitalares.INTRODUCTION: In most microbiology laboratories, a urine culture is regarded as contaminated when there is more than one colonial morphotype, thus either it is ignored or a new sample is requested. The isolate is rarely considered significant. OBJECTIVES: In order to study the polymicrobial urinary tract infections, 117 urine samples were selected from inpatients of

  11. Sputum microbiology predicts health status in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeken DCW

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dionne CW Braeken,1,2 Sarah Houben-Wilke,1 Dionne E Smid,1 Gernot GU Rohde,2 Jesse JC Drijkoningen,2 Emiel FM Wouters,1,2 Martijn A Spruit,1 Frits ME Franssen1,2 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the Netherlands; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: Spontaneous sputum production occurs in a subset of COPD patients; however, its clinical relevance has not been established. Differences in health status and clinical outcomes between patients with and without positive sputum cultures are unknown.Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and health status of spontaneous sputum producers with a positive culture (SC+ and negative culture (SC- with nonsputum producers (NP in a cohort of COPD patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: In total, 518 clinically stable patients with mild-to-very severe COPD were recruited (mean age: 64.1±9.1 years, 55.6% males, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 48.6%±20.0% predicted. Health status was measured using COPD Assessment Test, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Exercise capacity was measured using the 6-minute walking distance. Spontaneously expectorated sputum was cultured for microbiology.Results: Almost one-third of patients spontaneously produced sputum (n=164, 31.7%. Despite comparable lung function, SC+ reported more frequent exacerbations than NP (≥2 exacerbations <1 year: 43 [81.1%] vs 179 [50.6%], P<0.001. COPD Assessment Test total score and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire total score were significantly worse in SC+ than NP (23.9±6.1 vs 21.1±6.7, P=0.012; 3.1±1.0 vs 2.5±1.0, P=0.002; respectively. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D score was significantly higher in SC+ than NP (8.7±4.1 vs 7.2±4.3, P=0.046.Conclusion

  12. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  13. [The introduction of automation and systematization in the department of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, J

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Laboratory Medicine is considered to be the transmission subdivision of medical information. However, most of the information is provided from the subdivisions of clinical chemistry, hematology and immunology. Moreover, the information is slowly transferred from the subdivision of microbiology. The Department of Laboratory Medicine at Saga Medical School developed a flexible microbiological test & information system in 1998, called Dr. Fleming. However, many methods of operation, effects, and problems are associated with the standardization and introduction of such a system. Therefore, the ideas of leaders in the field of microbiology and infectious disease will be discussed before establishing this system.

  14. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics.

  15. Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As humans continue to travel further into space, microorganisms will accompany them. Thus, understanding how microorganisms can impact the crew, the spacecraft, and spacecraft systems is critical to enable future spaceflight exploration. To mitigate microbial risks during spaceflight, NASA relies heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. While these precautions minimize the proliferation of infectious agents, their presence cannot be completely eliminated. Microbiological contamination of vehicle systems can also be a key issue for long duration missions, as system deterioration and fouling have been previously observed in spacecraft. Current studies of the microbiomes of the crew and the International Space Station environment are providing a wealth of information and hold the potential to help refine microbiological requirements for NASA mission beyond low Earth orbit, as spaceflight environments and mission architectures rapidly evolve.

  16. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...... can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA...

  17. Exploiting molecular methods to explore endodontic infections: Part 1--current molecular technologies for microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2005-06-01

    Endodontic infections have been traditionally studied by culture-dependent methods. However, as with other areas of clinical microbiology, culture-based investigations are plagued by significant problems, including the probable involvement of viable but uncultivable micro-organisms with disease causation and inaccurate microbial identification. Innumerous molecular technologies have been used for microbiological diagnosis in clinical microbiology, but only recently some of these techniques have been applied in endodontic microbiology research. This paper intended to review the main molecular methods that have been used or have the potential to be used in the study of endodontic infections. Moreover, advantages and limitations of current molecular techniques when compared to conventional methods for microbial identification are also discussed.

  18. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  19. [Modified lateral condensation (microbiological analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome Musule, J L; Vázquez del Mercado, M A; Hernández, J L; Granillo, N E

    1989-05-01

    In order to ascertain the presence of endodontobacterial flora, an in vivo microbiological study on fifty human teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical bone destruction, is submitted. The study verifies elimination of bacteria through a technique for the preparation of root canals. Results of this research ratify the presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as the means to inhibit them. That will allow performing obturation under optimal conditions, thus increasing assurance of success in the endodontic therapy.

  20. Tools for microbiological risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, J; Nauta, M; Lindqvist, R.; Zwietering, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute ...

  1. Microbiological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    mediated changes in the littoral zone alter the metabolism and structure of epiphytic and surrounding phyto- planktonic communities (Godmaire and Planas 1986...cellulolytic and gelatinous utilizer bacteria increase (Bastardo 1979). 13. In stagnant and anaerobic bodies of water, the dominant types of anoxygenic...Macrophyte Decom- position on Growth Rate and Community Structure of Okefenokee Swamp Bacterio- plankton ," Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol 51, No

  2. International Journal of Food Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabella M.M.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Alves, M.A.O.; Almeida, P F

    2002-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 241– 248 Critical control points (CCPs) associated with Minas Frescal cheese (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh) processing in two dairy factories were determined using flow diagrams and microbiological tests for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of Listeria. A total of 218 samples were collected along the production line and environment. The CCPs identified were reception of raw milk, pasteurization, coagulation and...

  3. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  4. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velea Oana A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbiological current knowledge. Materials and Methods. Microbiological studies and clinical trials were selected from medical and dental journals, and studied thoroughly. Results. Plaque biofilm and prolonged hyperglycemia increase the risk of PD development in DM. These two features determine inflammatory reactions that end-up in tissue destruction and impaired healing responses. Few pathogens are considered highly prevalent periodontal pathogens, with destructive actions. Studies have shown that metabolic balance or lack of balance determines bacterial variations in diabetic patients with PD. Other results demonstrate the importance of microbial tests (especially PCR techniques as indicators for healing or disease progression. Conclusions. There aren’t many studies assessing the relationship between PD and DM from microbiological points of view. In light of increasing evidence, larger interventional studies are needed

  5. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordo B. A. Saeed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized the detection of DNA and RNA. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR is becoming the gold standard test for accurate, sensitive and fast diagnosis for a large range of infectious agents. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity, high throughout and quantification. RT-PCR assays have advanced the diagnostic abilities of clinical laboratories particularly microbiology and infectious diseases. In this review we would like to briefly discuss RT-PCR in diagnostic microbiology laboratory, beginning with a general introduction to RT-PCR and its principles, setting up an RT PCR, including multiplex systems and the avoidance and remediation of contamination issues. A segment of the review would be devoted to the application of RT-PCR in clinical practice concentrating on its role in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

  6. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY ESTIMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS’ ANTI-INFLAMMATORY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Ryba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with microbiological status of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis of medium severity. On the basis of clinical and microbiological data the analysis of different methods efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy was carried out. We studied antimicrobial effect of laser therapy, ozonotherapyandcombinations oflaser- ozonotherapyin comparison with influence ofchlorhexidine 0,2%. Combined laser and ozone influence on periodontium provided high antibacterial effect with increased local nonspecific resistance, and it extended remission term of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  7. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  8. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Laurent Guillier; Murielle Naïtali

    2015-01-01

    Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours) in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated w...

  9. Microbiology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Duccio; Serruto, Davide; Parkhill, Julian; Relman, David A; Donati, Claudio; Moxon, Richard; Falkow, Stanley; Rappuoli, Rino

    2008-06-01

    Genomics has revolutionized every aspect of microbiology. Now, 13 years after the first bacterial genome was sequenced, it is important to pause and consider what has changed in microbiology research as a consequence of genomics. In this article, we review the evolving field of bacterial typing and the genomic technologies that enable comparative analysis of multiple genomes and the metagenomes of complex microbial environments, and address the implications of the genomic era for the future of microbiology.

  10. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  12. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes.

  13. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  14. [Development of a record-keeping strategy for improvement of information retention in microbiological processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jaime Alberto; Cuartas, Mónica Cecilia; Molina, Olga Lucía; Restrepo, Ana Cristina; Maya, Claudia Yarely; Jaramillo, Sergio

    2004-09-01

    The improvement of microbiological information processing in clinical laboratories depends on retention of information concerning who, what, when, how, and why each process was performed, the implementation of quality control procedures, and finally, its evaluation. The four objectives to be addressed are as follows: (1) to improve the collection of information concerned with microbiological processes, (2) to evaluate results of implemented strategies, (3) to offer a model data base to be used in research projects, and (4) to propose an evaluation model for comparative studies. To do this, microbiological cultures were collected from hospitalized patients from June 1997 to June 2003. Data for the analytical matrix were obtained from lab requests, medical history and the microbiological data. Statistical analyses were performed in Epi-Info 6. The laboratory records for 46,072 microbiological cultures were analyzed. Completion levels in data collection were compared between years 1997 and 2003. Samples from 1997 and 2003 showed 11% and 99% of the request forms specifically requesting microbiological culture, 11% and 99% were completed in 1997 and 2003, respectively. For the same years, 9% and 85% specifically stated the time of the request. Ten percent and 68%, respectively, provided complete information. Zero and 83% respectively stated who had collected the sample. Zero and 77%, respectively, specified the time of sample collection. Forms containing all relevent microbiological data were most complete with 78% and 96%, respectively. A database with 44 variables related to microbiological processes was created. In conclusion, improvement of microbiological data processing depends not only on the method of collection and completion of recorded information, but also on constant quality control and evaluation.

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually-transmitted infection (2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando; Lepe, José Antonio; Otero, Luis; Blanco, María Antonia; Aznar, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute an important world-wide public health problem. The use of sensitive and specific laboratory methods for diagnosing this condition is crucial to reduce the transmission and sequelae of STI. The present review describes current microbiological methods for the diagnosis of STIs. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the pathogens most frequently involved in urethral and cervical infection. Culture continues to be the gold standard for diagnosing gonorrhea. Nucleic acid amplification assays are considered the new gold standard for C. trachomatis, although culture is till the most specific technique. Genital ulcers due to Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, or herpes simplex virus have little clinical and bacteriological correlation; therefore, it is essential to establish the microbiological diagnosis. Lesions present in the primary or secondary period of syphilis can be diagnosed by dark field microscopy. Serologic diagnosis for the remaining periods is based on non-treponemal tests associated with confirmatory treponemal tests. Cell culture is considered the gold standard for herpes simplex virus although molecular methods also have a sensitivity and specificity near 100%. Currently, microbiologic diagnosis of H. ducreyi and venereal lymphogranuloma is achieved with the use of molecular methods on samples obtained from the ulceration or lymph adenopathy. The diagnosis of genital warts in immunocompetent patients is based on clinical findings in most cases because the lesions are sufficiently characteristic. Culture is considered the reference method in Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

  16. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  17. Development of e-Juba, a preliminary proof of concept unmanned aerial vehicle designed to facilitate the transportation of microbiological test samples from remote rural clinics to National Health Laboratory Service laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, B; Muir, P; Boshielo, B T; Robertson, J

    2007-11-01

    For students and academics within the field of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, it is readily apparent what an enormous professional contribution Professor Hendrik Koornhof has made to this critically important specialty, not only in Africa, but worldwide. For those outside of the specialty, his contributions as a thoroughly decent person and role model are no less evident. What emerges in both spheres is his clear commitment to the welfare of others, as opposed to himself. His modesty and self-effacing nature have endeared Hendrik to many generations of students, peers and others who have indeed been privileged to have benefited from knowing him and working with him. In his 50 years with the South African Institute for Medical Research, and subsequently with the National Health Laboratory Service, Hendrik Koornhof has been the ideal academic, who is not as concerned about receiving financial rewards, recognition, etc. as about contributing to scientific knowledge. Many of his contributions have been in guiding others by his words and his deeds, and as a result he has been rewarded in seeing the accomplishments of his students, many of whom have gone on to achieve greatness in diverse fields, both locally and abroad. As we reflect in this festschrift on Hendrik's many achievements over 80 years, we thank him for more than just his research and teaching contributions over half a century with the South African Institute for Medical Research and the National Health Laboratory Service. We thank him for showing us what a privilege it is to work in the world of academia. Although we are not microbiologists, we thank him for having inspired us with the will to address problems of service delivery in the fight against microbiological diseases, which constitute the overwhelming bulk of the burden of disease in the developing world, both in Africa and further afield.

  18. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  19. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  20. [Quality control in microbiology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, A

    1977-01-01

    The microbiology quality control importance is emphasized and some particular problems that quality control presents in microbiology are also indicated. There are two types of microbiology quality control as well as for hematology and chemical chemistry: collective quality control, between more laboratories, and individual quality control, in the sphere of each laboratory. A.M.O.I. (Associazione Microbiologi Ospedalieri Italiani) and I.S.V.T. (Istituto Sieroterapico Vaccinogeno Toscano) Sclavo collaborating, have organized a collective quality control between laboratories of different hospitals during the year 1974 and 1975. The results of this control are reported. Although preliminary, they indicate practical importance of microbiology control. During 1975, in fact, the pathogens isolated have been in high percentage than 1976. At last, the future quality control's program aiming at methods's standardization and technical, methodical instructions is indicated.

  1. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MAXILLARY OSTEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Al. BONCHIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteitis is an inflammatory process localized accurately at maxillary bones. The microbiological exams of the biopsy punch fragments obtained by curettage of the post‐ extraction wound have evidenced the occurrence and the degree of severity of the inflammatory background of the lesion, giving the possibility to reconstruct the dynamics of the inflammatory process in osteitis. Evolution of the healing process could be followed on the biopsy punches taken over from patients who followed a correct treatment. The fragments taken over from patients were fixed for 24 hours in 10% neuter formol and processed according to the classic methodology, for their inclusion in paraffin blocks. The most important conclusions are that osteitis with nor‐ mal scarring evolution contains a very small number of bacilli and Gram positive cocci, while follow‐up of micro‐ organisms and cell elements in osteitis may serve as scien‐ tific methods for controlling the evolution toward healing of the inflammatory lesion.

  3. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  4. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.

  5. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  6. [Information on nosocomial infections in hospitals without microbiological laboratories: effective data utilization through outsourcing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikata, Rie; Hosoi, Susumu; Tsuruoka, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    To implement hospital-acquired infection control, sharing information, including the most recent data, is vital. With the current crisis in community healthcare and a subsequent lack of hospital laboratories, increasing numbers of clinical tests, unprofitable microbiological tests in particular, have been outsourced. At present, most medium- and small-scale hospitals in Japan do not conduct microbiological testing themselves, and so the outsourcing of these tests is essential for the promotion of infection control, including the provision of data on microbial detection. Our hospital, a central and the only general hospital with 160 beds in our area, usually outsources microbiological testing. With the aim of enhancing infection prevention and other clinical support services and promoting hospital infection control, were developing a system, led by the Department of Inspection, to provide appropriate information on nosocomial infections in collaboration with other departments within the hospital and partner organizations.

  7. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  8. Microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jelena; Borović, Branka; Velebit, Branko; Lakićević, Brankica; Baltić, Tatjana; Mitrović, Radmila; Milijašević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanically separated meat is often contaminated with microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat samples from June 2011 to December 2012. Microbiological testing included Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and the number of aerobic bacteria. In 5.26% of the samples the presence of Salmonella species was revealed, whereas 22.95% and 4.92% of the mechanically separated poultry meat samples were incompliant in reg...

  9. Evaluation of local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roobal Behal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of experimental local-drug delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric (gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with the effect achieved using SRP alone by assessing their respective effects on plaque, gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing pocket depth, relative attachment levels and trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex " microorganisms, namely, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphvromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic localized or generalized periodontitis with pocket depth of 5 to 7 mm were selected in a split-mouth study design. Control sites received SRP alone, while experimental sites received SRP plus experimental material (2% whole turmeric gel. Plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, probing pocket depth (PPD, relative attachment loss (RAL, microbiological study of collected plaque sample for trypsin-like activity of "red complex" by BAPNA assay were the parameters recorded on day 0, 30 days and 45 days. Results: Both groups demonstrated statistically significant reduction in PI, GI, SBI, PPD; and gain in RAL. Significant reduction in the trypsin-like enzyme activity of "red complex" (BAPNA values was observed for both the groups when compared to the baseline activity. Greater reduction was seen in all the parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: The experimental local drug-delivery system containing 2% whole turmeric gel can be effectively used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing and is more effective than scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of periodontal pockets.

  10. Molecular diagnostics in medical microbiology: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Clinical microbiology is clearly on the move, and various new diagnostic technologies have been introduced into laboratory practice over the past few decades. However, Henri D Isenberg recently stated that molecular biology techniques promised to revolutionise the diagnosis of infectious disease, but that, to date, this promise is still in its infancy. Molecular diagnostics have now surpassed these early stages and have definitely reached puberty. Currently, a second generation of automated molecular approaches is already within the microbiologists' reach. Quantitative amplification tests in combination with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related methodologies will pave the way to further enhancement of innovative microbial detection and identification.

  11. [Current views on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jing; Qin, Tian; Deng, Aihua; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has generated many branches during the development for more than 90 years. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) improves SNR by using the interaction between tested materials and the surface of rough metal, as to quickly get higher sensitivity and precision spectroscopy without sample pretreatment. This article describes the characteristic and classification of SERS, and updates the theory and clinical application of SERS. It also summarizes the present status and progress of SERS in various disciplines and illustrates the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the application for SERS in microbiology.

  12. Clinical, Epidemiological and Microbiological Study of Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Units with Mechanical Ventilation Related Pneumonia Estudio clínico, epidemiológico y microbiológico de pacientes con neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica ingresados en salas de cuidados intensivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical ventilation related pneumonia is a very current issue due to its frequency, severity and etiologic and therapeutic implications. Objective: To characterize, from a clinical, epidemiological and microbiological point of view, patients with ventilation related pneumonia who are admitted to intensive care units. Methods: Descriptive case series study, conducted from January 2007 to December 2009, at the Laboratory of Microbiology and intensive care units of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General Hospital in Cienfuegos.  We analyzed the following variables: service that remitted patients, age, sex, cause of admission to intensive care unit, discharge status, microbiological results, isolated microorganisms, antimicrobial disks tested and antimicrobial resistance in vitro. Results: mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units was observed mainly in male patients over 65 years old (43.1% with multiple trauma (20.9%; 20.9% were patients with cerebrovascular disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated organism in all units (41.4%, except in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. It also reported a high mortality rate and in vitro resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most isolated germen in cases of mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units` patients. It affected mainly patients with multiple trauma and cerebrovascular disease.

    Fundamento: la neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica constituye un tema de actualidad por su frecuencia, gravedad e implicaciones etiológicas y terapéuticas. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica, epidemiológica y  microbiológicamente a pacientes con neumonía asociada al ventilador en las salas de cuidados intensivos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de

  13. Evaluación clínica, microbio lógica e inmuológica de la ozonoterapia en pacientes con bolsas periodontales moderadas-severas Clinical, microbiological and inmunological evaluation of the ozone's therapy in patients with moderate-severe periodontal pockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ripollés de Ramón

    2004-04-01

    hallazgos.INTRODUCTION. In recent years, important progress has be en made in the knowledge of periodontal disease, from a multifactorial etiology, the responsable microbiology, the local inmunological response as also multiple aspects related to its epidemiology, etiology and its evolution. Given a greater knowledge in thsese fields new techniques (pharmacological products and apparatus are being developed to treat and detain the periodontal disease and preserve dental health. OBJECTIVES. Analyse the periodontal response from a clinical, microbiological and immunological point of view of a population with moderate-severe periodontal pockets and its comparison with the scraping and smoothing periodontal technique. METHOD AND MATlRIAL. A total of 72 cuadrants with at least more than four teeth in each cuadrant and more than 6mm.pocket depth probe were studied in a population of 43 average age. Toestablish comparison between both groups a cross mouth study has been done, in which half were treated with ozone and the rest with scraping technique. The variable results were evaluated: clinical, microbiological and immunological response with descriptive estadistic analysis and ANOVA. CONCLUSION: We can say that the periodontal treatment with ozone produces estadisticaly significant reduction in the amount of index gingival bleeding, in the microbiological periodontal parameters as also in the immunological patterns of IL1b y TNF-alfa, however there is no variation in relation to the level periodon tal insertion and the depth of the periodontal pocket that requires a periodontal technique of scraping.

  14. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial hetero

  15. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  16. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  17. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  18. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  19. Use of Shadowing-Based Learning in an Allied Health Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. Lowrey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Students in an undergraduate microbiology course for health professions majors perform a shadowing-based learning exercise for their course project. Students accomplish this by shadowing a health care professional of their choice, specifically incorporating basic microbiological concept themes into their observations. These concept themes include the biological nature, health effects, detection, and control of microorganisms. Upon completion of the shadowing experience, students present a concise report, which is graded on how well the students connect course scientific concepts with actual clinical practice.

  20. Impact of CLSI Breakpoint Changes on Microbiology Laboratories and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Emily L; Johnson, J Kristie

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the MIC breakpoints for many beta-lactam antibiotics to enhance detection of known resistance amongEnterobacteriaceae The decision to implement these new breakpoints, including the changes announced in both 2010 and 2014, can have a significant impact on both microbiology laboratories and antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this commentary, we discuss the changes and how implementation of these updated CLSI breakpoints requires partnership between antimicrobial stewardship programs and the microbiology laboratory, including data on the impact that the changes had on antibiotic usage at our own institution.

  1. Estudio microbiológico de la periimplantitis: Presentación de 9 casos clínicos Microbiological study of the peri-implantitis: presentation of 9 clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quinteros Borgarello

    2000-12-01

    .Objective: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process affecting the tissues around an osseointegrated implant in function, resulting in loss of supporting bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subgingival microbiota at dental implants associated with peri-implantitis treated in our service. A total of 16 implants of 9 patients were studied. In all cases implants were under functional conditions. Materials and Methods: We studied 16 peri-implantitis in 9 patients; in each patient subgingival bacterial samples were obtained using paper-points or inflammatory soft tissue, and subjected to microbiological analysis by culture. Each site was sample by serting paper points into the sulcus around the implant with peri-implantitis, in 14 implants, or by inflammatory soft tissue, in other 2 implants. Then the samples were grown in brain heart infusion broth. Results: We found Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in one sample, Prevotella oralis, in one sample, Peptostreptococcus, in one sample, and Stomatococcus, in 3 samples. In 9 samples were impossible to found one predominant bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined. Antibacterial activity of amoxicillin-clavulanate was significantly higher than with other antimicrobials tested like amoxicillin or metronidazole. Conclusions: This study found that microbiota associated with periimplantitis are Stomatococcus, Prevotella oralis, Peptostreptococcus and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the sampIes. Possible risk factors of peri-implantitis were hydroxyapatite, dental implants of 3,25 mm of diameter or distal position of implants in maxillary prosthetic superstructure.

  2. Guidelines to implement quality management systems in microbiology laboratories for tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentino, W; Rodríguez, G; Saldías, M; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    Human tissues for implants are a biomedical product that is being used more frequently by many medical disciplines. There are infections in the patients related to the implanted tissues. The early detection of infections transmitted by blood and the microbiological study of tissues before their clinical use are strategies in tissue banks to prevent these situations. This work sought to contribute to establish the bases for the operation of a laboratory applied to the microbiological quality control of tissues. Based on classical microbiological principles, we defined the operation of microbiological control and tissues sterilization since 2003. We determine lists of acceptable microorganisms for every tissue, criteria for the interpretation of results, and a diagnostic algorithm of microbiological quality. We observed that the circumstances of donor death can be a determinant of the quality. The environment and the operator should be investigated as probable sources of contamination in outbreaks. The criteria of work based on a solid methodology must help to avoid the transmission of infections between donor and recipient. This is a critical point in the quality management of a tissue bank.

  3. Comparison of PCR/Electron Spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for Active Surveillance of Organisms Contaminating High-Use Surfaces in a Burn Intensive Care Unit, an Orthopedic Ward and Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Enterobacter spp., Streptococcus spp. (68% viridans group), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii -calcoaceticus complex; the proportions of these...Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii on computer interface surfaces of hospital wards and association with clinical isolates. BMC Infect Dis 2009, 9...Cursino MR, Sinto S: Environmental contamination by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

  4. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  5. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  6. Microbiological quality of milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work microbiological acceptability has been determined for 802 samples of consume milk and dairy products produced in Križevci region, by 11 producers from northwest Croatia. From the total number of analysed samples the requirements for microbiological acceptability did not fulfilled 147 (18.33% samples: 42.86% goat’s milk, 36.36% fruit yoghurt, 20.51% consume milk, 33.33% sweet cream, 31.51% sour cream, 26.77% soft (fresh cheeses, 20% cheese spreads, 15% semi-hard cheeses, 2.63% butters, 1.72% processed cheese, and 1.16% yoghurts. The main reasons for microbiological not-acceptability of the samples were higher number of enterobacteriae, yeast and moulds, higher number of total bacteria, E. coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. In the same samples Streptococcus faecalis, S. pyogenes and Pseudomonas were found.

  7. 77 FR 16126 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid... the Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee (Microbiology Devices Panel.... VI. Risks to Health After considering the information discussed by the Microbiology Devices...

  8. [Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2016-02-08

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre.

  9. Manual de microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  10. [Quality in microbiology: contribution of the physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracheboud, Dominique; Chuard, Christian

    2007-10-10

    It is not always easy to choose the right microbiology test to order. Which pathogens to look for? What is the best-fitted method: microscopy, culture, tests for antigens, antibodies, genes or toxins? How to sample and transport the specimen? This article brings some answers to the questions the physician often asks when prescribing microbiology exams on stools, deep respiratory tract secretions, blood and wounds. By selecting the appropriate tests and respecting the guidelines for sampling and transporting specimens, the physician greatly contributes to the quality of results.

  11. Models and microbiology: Pasteur and the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James G

    2003-01-01

    Louis Pasteur developed a model of the body as a culture vessel in the late 1870s as an explanation of both natural and acquired immunity, and other investigators quickly applied the model in the explanation of other microbiological phenomena, principally the tissue tropism seen in the normal and the pathological flora. This paper will argue that although Pasteur quickly abandoned the model, it persisted as an explanation of tissue tropism for nearly 70 years, structuring the interpretation of data by and guiding the research of a diverse group of microbiological researchers.

  12. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  13. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  14. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting... entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The purpose of the public meeting is to provide...; product and packaging characteristics that affect microbial growth and risk of infection;...

  15. A Comparative Review of Four Photographic Atlases for Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Tobiason

    2011-01-01

    Review of: four photographic atlases for microbiology, including:A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory, Fourth Edition; Michael J. Leboffe and Burton E. Pierce; (2011) . Morton Publishing Company, Englewood, CO. 256 pages. Microbiology: A Photographic Atlas for the Laboratory ; Steven K. Alexander and Dennis Strete; (2001) . Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. 193 pages. Microbiology Perspectives: A Photographic Survey of the Microbial World , Second Edition; ...

  16. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and a...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device that... (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of...

  18. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations.

  19. Institute of Microbiology moves to new premises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The CAS Institute of Microbiology, which is originally located in northeast Beijing's Zhongguancun, a suburb northwest to the downtown, has recently moved to its new buildings in the northern suburbs of Beijing, where most of the CAS institutes in life sciences and geosciences in Beijing area herd together.

  20. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia...

  1. Is water in dental units microbiologically safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Michałkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water supplied to the dental units must be of sufficient quality. The article presents the results of the microbiological analysis of cold municipal water which flows into a patient’s disposable mouthwash cup, and demineralized water which flows through a waterline into the tool panel of a dental unit from the tank placed in the water group. Material and Methods: In order to assess the degree of purity (impurities of water used in dental units, 2 series of microbiological tests were carried out in 6 dental surgeries from April to June, 2013. The water samples for microbiological testing were collected into sterile microbiological bottles in accordance with the current methodology. The water for the tests was collected from a sterile cup-filling tap (municipal water and from an air/water syringe (demineralized water. The bacteria were cultured according to the Polish Standards – PN-EN ISO 6222, PN-EN ISO 9308-1, and PN-EN ISO 16266. Results: In the tested samples of water numerous psychrophilic bacteria (max 29 100 CFU/ml and mesophilic bacteria (max 24 700 CFU/ml, including single coliforms, were found. Conclusions: The results show that water delivered to a dental unit should be periodically tested bacteriologically and in terms of physical and chemical properties. Water systems of dental units should also be periodically disinfected to eliminate bacteria and biofilm. Med Pr 2015;66(6:763–770

  2. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  3. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  4. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of meth

  5. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion a

  6. Microbiological quality of pediatric oral liquid formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josep Cabañas Poy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral administration of drugs to the pediatric population involves the extemporaneous preparation of liquid formulations. These formulations have studies on their physicochemical stability, but they often lack microbiological studies. The objective of this study is to check the microbiological quality of five oral liquid formulations prepared with different excipients, which represent five major combinations, in two conditions: kept unopened until the day of the test, and in a multi-dose vial opened daily. The formulations were prepared according to standard operating procedures. Half of each batch was packaged in vials that remained closed until the day of testing, and the other half in a single container which was opened daily. Both the vials and the containers had been previously sterilized. Microbiological tests were performed weekly during the first month of the study, and then every two weeks, until the expiration date. The microbiological quality of oral liquid formulations is determined by the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia. The conclusion was that none of the formulations prepared that were packaged in sterilized containers became contaminated, either in unopened vials or in multi-dose containers when they were opened daily

  7. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  8. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E. Kaiser

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended for faculty teaching microbiology and other biological science courses, and is applicable to both the classroom and the laboratory. Concept maps are graphical tools for presenting knowledge concepts and the relationship between these concepts in a graphical, hierarchical fashion. Cross-links are further used to illustrate the relationships between the various segments of the concept map.

  9. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Kaiser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended for faculty teaching microbiology and other biological science courses, and is applicable to both the classroom and the laboratory. Concept maps are graphical tools for presenting knowledge concepts and the relationship between these concepts in a graphical, hierarchical fashion. Cross-links are further used to illustrate the relationships between the various segments of the concept map.

  10. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  11. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  12. Clinical microbiology laboratory should pay attention to the changes in CLSI document M100%临床微生物学实验室应关注CLSI文件M100变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长贵; 陈民钧

    2012-01-01

    本文主要介绍美国临床和实验室标准协会(CLSI)抗菌药物敏感性试验解释标准M100近年来的变化和更新情况,内容包括:(1)解释标准和注释的变化;(2)不常见分离菌或苛养菌药敏试验;(3)附录及其他变化.并对有关变化作简要评述.%Recent major changes and updates of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) document M100 for performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were introduced in the article,which include changes of interpretive criteria and comments,antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria,changes of appendixes and others,Brief comments were made for these changes.

  13. The Microbiology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Emtestam, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Although the clinical presentation of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is strongly reminiscent of bacterial infection, the role of bacteria remains controversial. Studies have isolated an array of different bacterial specimens as well as biofilm formation in lesional HS skin. Consistent findings of Gram-positive cocci and -rods including Staphylococus aureus, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Corynebacterium species (spp) in deep tissue samples have been demonstrated in HS. Although efficacy of antibiotics, i.e., rifampicin, clindamycin or tetracycline may support a microbial role in disease pathogenesis, the most often isolated bacterial specimens are commensal bacteria (CoNS).

  14. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  15. Towards the innovation for microbiology curriculum change: students' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rumpa; Das, Shukla; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2012-08-01

    For a medical curriculum to be an effective means of learning for today's students, it has to be designed with knowledge of their priorities, needs and abilities. This can be best achieved by inviting students' view-point during curriculum planning. The present study thus elicits opinion of the medical students through a randomly issued set of questionnaires, towards the present microbiology curriculum in order to quantitate from their view-point, the weakness as well as the strengths of the existing curriculum. Their evaluation reveals that they welcome new techniques like problem-based learning but at the same time emphasise the need to integrate what is taught in close association with clinical circumstance. Hence it is important to understand the minds and needs of our students before implementing the syllabus content across to the consumers.

  16. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of fungal keratitis%单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂与视神经病变预后的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮百木; 齐坤英; 穆红梅; 张千帆

    2013-01-01

    目的评估单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂(Monosialotetera-hexosyl ganglioside GM1)与视神经病变预后的相关性。方法采用回顾性病例对照研究,收集首次发病的视神经病变患者143例196眼的临床资料,将可能影响研究对象视力预后的因素:性别、年龄、疾病类别、治疗前(矫正)视力、治疗前发病时间、是否接受GM1治疗为协变量;疗效、首次视力提高的时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力为因变量,用多元Logistic回归分析探讨GM 1对视神经病变视力预后的影响。结果单因素分析:GM1与视神经病变的疗效、首次视力提高时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力关联有统计学意义,其 P 值、OR、95% CI 分别为(P =00.00,OR =03.13,95% CI :01.70-05.78;P =00.01, OR =03.91,95% CI :02.19-06.98;P =00.00,OR =03.50,95% CI :01.96-06.25)。多因素分析:调整其他混杂因素后,GM1与视神经病变的疗效、首次视力提高时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力显示有明显的促进作用。其调整OR 值,95% CI 分别为(OR =03.11,95% CI :01.59-06.06;OR =04.24,95% CI :02.24,08.05;OR =03.08,95% CI :01.41-06.71)。结论 GM1对视神经疾病的视力恢复有明显促进作用,有助于获得较好的视力预后。%Objective To explore the features of clinic-epidemiological and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis . Methods Three hundred and fifteen patients of different ages having provisional diagnosis of suppurative corneal ulceration were registered for the study . Data were collected through history and slit lamp xamination . Corneal scraping was performed . A portion of each scraping were examined by direct microscopy . Another portion were inoculated directly on to solid culture media . Results Among corneal scraping from 315 patients , the fungus grew in 116 (36 .8% ) . The

  17. Microbiologic structure of diffuse peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ermetov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 99 patients with diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis (DP were examined. There were 64 (64.6% males and 35 (35.4% females, an average age was 44.07±19.15 (±SD, range - 15-83 years. Systemic inflammatory reaction manifesting in clinic of DP and abdominal sepsis were provoked first of all by Klebsiella spp. (20, 20.2% and Ваcteroides fragilis (24, 24.2% possessing the greatest virulence compared with other intestinal bacteria. Exudates of the died patients differed from the survived ones by prevalence of gram-negative microflora (60.6% in association with gram-positive microflora (24.2% and anaerobes (48.5%. Though specific weight of these microorganisms was higher by 3.07, 1.45 and 2.46 times from survived patients.

  18. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed.

  19. Douglas Weibel: using microfluidics for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Christen

    2010-07-16

    The ubiquity of microorganisms is unparalleled in any other known organism. These creatures surround our outsides and colonize our insides, a fact that has been known for centuries. However, despite their prevalence and long study, many of their characteristics still remain largely unexplained, including how proteins organize within microbial cells and how microbes interact with each other and with their environments. Many of the techniques used to study microorganisms are nearly as old as the knowledge of microorganisms themselves. Seeking new ways to look at microbiology, Douglas Weibel, Ph.D., an assistant professor of biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, turned to chemistry. He and his colleagues are using novel microfluidic methods to develop new ways to culture bacteria and small molecules to control the function of proteins in vivo. By combining chemistry with microbiology, Weibel and his team hope to shine new light on this old field.

  20. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STAPHYLO- COCCAL INFECTIONS TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarenko S. V.,

    2013-01-01

    Overview summarizes the data of the domestic and for-eign literature about the prevalence and biological prop-erties of S. aureus. S. аureus enzymes of aggression andpathogenicity factors (capsular polysaccharides, differentextracellular protein substances (hemolysins, leuko-cidins), phospholipase, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, co-agulase etc.) which disintegrate structural components ofconnective tissue and eukaryotic cells are described interms of improvement and enhancement of microbiologi-...

  2. The microbiology of arable soil surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Whilst much is known about the physics and erosion of soil surfaces on a millimetre scale, little is known about the associated microbiology, particularly in temperate arable systems. The vast majority of research regarding microbial interactions at soil surfaces has concerned microbiotic crusts. However, such surface crusts take many years to form and then only in relatively undisturbed soil systems. Arable soil surfaces are subject to relatively extreme environmental conditio...

  3. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, Anna Pavlovna; Khudyakova, L. I.; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  4. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  5. Cefotaxime stability during in vitro microbiological testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchbanks, C R; Yost, R L; White, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Cefotaxime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin which is metabolized or degraded to less active or inactive metabolites by serum esterases, elevated temperatures, or a pH outside of its stability range. Cefotaxime instability during in vitro microbiological susceptibility tests may lead to an underestimation of the antibacterial activity of the compound. Cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime solutions were studied under MIC and serum inhibitory titer testing conditions. Cefotaxime concentrations, a...

  6. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    ,D. 1999. Understanding marine microbes- Trends and future directions. In: ?Ocean Science : Trends and future directions? (Ed.) B.L.K.Somayajulu. Indian National Science Academy and Akademia Books International, New Delhi. 12 Pp.151-175. Connon,S.A. and S... Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated...

  7. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  8. A review of landfill microbiology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.; Reynolds, P.; Blakey, N.C.

    1995-05-01

    In May 1994 the DTI through ETSU commissioned WRc to undertake a comprehensive review of the landfill microbiology programme to date. The review has attempted to identify remaining gaps in knowledge which are most likely to find application in controlling the production of gas from landfills, and concludes with a list of recommendations for specific landfill process research which is likely to facilitate and optimise energy recovery from landfill. (UK)

  9. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as coconut balls. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. For microbiological tests 10 samples of coconut balls were used. The total count of bacteria in coconut ball samples ranged from 3.00 to 3.74 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 2.95 log CFU.g-1, the number of coliforms bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 2.70 log CFU.g-1, the number of microscopic filamentous fungi ranged from 2.00 to 2.60 log CFU.g-1. From microscopic fungi was isolated genera Penicillium. Zero numbers of yeasts and staphylococci and the absence of cells Salmonella sp. were found in this samples. Not all samples of coconut ball samples from private production were accordance with Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak republic just indicates number of coliforms bacteria (103 and microscopic fungi (102. Only three samples were accordance with CA, SR in number of microscopic filamentous fungi. The water activity in samples ranged from 0.821 to 0.885.

  12. Microbiological safety of household membrane water filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Qing; Lou, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Zhu, Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Waterborne pathogens outbreaks are major reasons of diarrhea disease worldwide. Detecting and monitoring emerging waterborne pathogens (EWPs) is important for drinking water microbiological safety. The microbiological safety of household water hollow fiber membrane filter which is the end of drinking water treatment process was studied with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and real-time PCR method. The effect of the flow rate, idle time and washing fashion were investigated. Among the selected filters from three manufacturers, only the PVDF membrane water filter (Brand B) could achieve a good water purification criteria. Brand A was found a certain degree of EWPs in its effluent. The lowest bacteria-removing efficiency of the PVC membrane water filter was found Brand C. Our study showed that the microorganisms could reach up to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the 16s rDNA could reach up to 10(6) copies ml(-1) in the initial filtrate of Brand C. More species and amounts of EWPs were detected in the washing water. These results suggested that the popular household membrane filters might cause microbiological risks at certain circumstances such as the shock load of EWPs and leakage of the membranes in the case of abnormal source water or poor membrane filter quality.

  13. [Microbiological diagnosis of imported malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrús, Diego; Carranza, Cristina; Manuel Ramos, José; Carlos Rodríguez, Juan; Rubio, José Miguel; Subirats, Mercedes; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnosis of malaria is based on the combined and sequential use of rapid antigen detection tests (RDT) of Plasmodium and subsequent visualization of the parasite stained with Giemsa solution in a thin and thick blood smears. If an expert microscopist is not available, should always be a sensitive RDT to rule out infection by Plasmodium falciparum, output the result immediately and prepare thick smears (air dried) and thin extensions (fixed with methanol) for subsequent staining and review by an expert microscopist. The RDT should be used as an initial screening test, but should not replace microscopy techniques, which should be done in parallel. The diagnosis of malaria should be performed immediately after clinical suspicion. The delay in laboratory diagnosis (greater than 3 hours) should not prevent the initiation of empirical antimalarial treatment if the probability of malaria is high. If the first microscopic examination and RDT are negative, they must be repeated daily in patients with high suspicion. If suspicion remains after three negative results must be sought the opinion of an tropical diseases expert. Genomic amplification methods (PCR) are useful as confirmation of microscopic diagnosis, to characterize mixed infections undetectable by other methods, and to diagnose asymptomatic infections with submicroscopic parasitaemia.

  14. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  16. Impact of CLSI Breakpoint Changes on Microbiology Laboratories and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the MIC breakpoints for many beta-lactam antibiotics to enhance detection of known resistance among Enterobacteriaceae. The decision to implement these new breakpoints, including the changes announced in both 2010 and 2014, can have a significant impact on both microbiology laboratories and antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this commentary, we discuss the changes and how implementation of these updated CLSI breakpoin...

  17. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Schmidt; Holger Jentsch; Catalina-Suzana Stingu; Ulrich Sack

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed...

  18. [20-year experience with laserofluorescent diagnostics in clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, M T; Pashkov, E P; Bykov, A S; Gun'ko, V I; Popov, S N; Ivanchenko, O N; Rodionov, A D; Gizatullin, R M

    2011-01-01

    Results of rapid laser-assisted identification of microorganisms for diagnostics of microbial processes based on auto-fluorescence effect in bacteria-containing materials are summarized. It is proposed to use the auto-fluorescence technique for express diagnostics of pyoinflammatory diseases, evaluation of microflora conditions (eubiosis, dysbiosis) and sensitivity to antibiotics, monitoring and prognostication, assessment of the quality of antibiotic therapy. Priority in the development of this medical technology for laserofluorescent diagnostics and its practical application is protected by 15 patents.

  19. Tuberculous otitis media with facial paralysis: microbiological and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mosca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease affecting various organs and tissues even if the lung is the most commonly involved site.A case of tuberculous otitis media in a patient who had no history of tuberculosis is herewith presented with the aim of increasing the awareness of this disease whose diagnosis is often delayed because either of the rarity of this pathologic condition or of its usually indolent course.

  20. Candida ciferrii: clinical and microbiological features of an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gentile, L; Bouchara, J P; Cimon, B; Chabasse, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors report six cases of toenail onyxis due to an unusual yeast species, Candida ciferrii. For half of these cases, direct microscopical examination showed the presence of blastospores and pseudo-to-true mycelium, demonstrating the parasitic transition of the fungus. In light of the literature and of their own experience, the authors suggest that C. ciferrii could be an etiological agent of onychomycosis, particularly for elderly patients with extensive trophic disorders.

  1. Susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents: applications to clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelaifia, S; Drancourt, M

    2012-09-01

    We herein review the state of knowledge regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents, including some new molecules. Indeed, some archaea colonizing the human microbiota have been implicated in diseases such as periodontopathy. Archaea are characterized by their broad-spectrum resistance to antimicrobial agents. In particular, their cell wall lacks peptidoglycan, making them resistant to antimicrobial agents interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Archaea are, however, susceptible to the protein synthesis inhibitor fusidic acid and imidazole derivatives. Also, squalamine, an antimicrobial agent acting on the cell wall, proved effective against human methanogenic archaea. In vitro susceptibility data could be used to design protocols for the decontamination of complex microbiota and the selective isolation of archaea in anaerobic culture.

  2. [Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosch, S; Fogolín, N; Azzaroni, E; Pairetti, N; Dana, L; Minacori, H; Tita, I; Redona, M; Gribaudo, G

    2006-01-01

    Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal--no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected--changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5% VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  3. Clinical and microbiological features of bacteremia with Streptococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trell, Kristina; Nilson, Bo; Petersson, Ann-Cathrine; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus equi (SE) rarely causes human infections. We identified 18 SE isolates from blood cultures. The focus of infection was unknown (n = 5), arthritis (n = 3), catheter-related (n = 2), pneumonia (n = 2), or other (n = 6). There were no fatalities. Several patients had animal contacts but there were no indications of clonal outbreaks.

  4. MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jenne Mimica

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for microbial identification are often very laborious and time consuming. A new mass spectrometry based technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF, has been described as a rapid, practical and low-cost method for this purpose. In this article, primary and possible future applications of this tool are briefly discussed.

  5. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  6. A Comparative Review of Four Photographic Atlases for Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Tobiason

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: four photographic atlases for microbiology, including:A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory, Fourth Edition; Michael J. Leboffe and Burton E. Pierce; (2011 . Morton Publishing Company, Englewood, CO. 256 pages. Microbiology: A Photographic Atlas for the Laboratory ; Steven K. Alexander and Dennis Strete; (2001 . Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. 193 pages. Microbiology Perspectives: A Photographic Survey of the Microbial World , Second Edition; George Wistreich; (2007 . Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. 232 pages.and ASM’s MicrobeLibrary Atlas.

  7. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  8. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative co

  9. Doença periodontal em portadoras de valvopatia durante a gravidez: estudo clínico e microbiológico Enfermedad periodontal en portadoras de valvopatía durante la gravidez: estudio clínico y microbiológico Periodontal disease in pregnant patients with rheumatic valvular disease: clinical and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Samuel Ávila

    2011-04-01

    disease during pregnancy of women with rheumatic valve disease imply infective endocarditis risks and higher rate of preterm birth and low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: To study the periodontal disease rate of women with rheumatic valve disease during pregnancy. METHODS: We studied 140 pregnant women who included 70 patients with rheumatic valve disease and 70 healthy women. The periodontal examination included: 1 periodontal clinical exam regard the follow variables: a probing depth; b gingival margin; c clinical attachment level; d bleeding on probing; e plaque index and f gingival index; and 2 microbiological test was performed in samples serum and gingival crevicular fluid and considered positive controls to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsithia e Aggregobacter actinomycetemcomitans. RESULTS: Age and parity were similar between groups; as single or combined the mitral valve disease was prevalent among the rheumatic valve lesion in 45 (32.1% e 20 (28.5% cases, respectively. Among the periodontal variables gingival margin (p=0.01 and plaque index (p=0.04 were different between groups. The periodontal disease was identified in 20 (14,3% pregnant women, seven (10% of them were patients with valve rheumatic disease and the remain 13 (18,6% were healthy women, its percentual was not different between groups (p=0,147. Microbiological analyses of oral samples showed higher percentual of P. gingivalis in healthy pregnant women (p=0.004. CONCLUSION: The clinical and microbiological study during pregnancy showed comparable incidence of periodontal disease between women with rheumatic valve disease and healthy women.

  10. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan.

  11. New Approach for Setting a Management Criterion in Microbiological Monitoring Using Rapid Microbiological Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Noe; Tanaka, Makoto; Gotoda, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    The application of rapid microbiological methods (RMM) to bacterial monitoring in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes is now a key topic, since timely microbiological data are critical for product release, continuous process improvement and quality control. An automated, highly sensitive detection system has been developed which can measure the amount of ATP in a sample in 2 h with one hundredfold more sensitive than the conventional ATP method. One of the major subjects for adoption and implementation of RMM is how to set the criterion value for practical microbial control. This value was conventionally been set by experimental rule and indicated as the number of colonies counted after incubation in a particular medium. We have adopted a new approach to set a criterion value which enables assessment in whether the status of the object is normal or not. By setting this criterion value, it is possible to conduct the microbiological control with the intended probability of false-positive and false-negative. In this approach the probability distribution model of the measurement value of each object in a normal status has been established by performing repetitive measurement of each object. We have suggested and verified the probability distribution form of the ATP measurement value using measurement data of the standard bacterial solution of Staphylococcus aureus. The theoretical value of the model was in good agreement with the actual measured value. The results suggest it is possible to set an applicable management criterion value using this model and to conduct new microbiological monitoring using RMM.

  12. Microbiological estimate of parodontitis laser therapy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, F. M.; Akbarova, Ju. A.; Bajenov, L. G.; Arslanbekov, T. U.

    1995-04-01

    In this work was carried out microbiological estimate the efficiency of ultraviolet and He-Ne laser radiation at the treatment of parodontitis. 90 persons was investigated with parodontitis of middle serious diagnosis. The optimal regimes of ultraviolet radiation influence on various micro-organisms discharged from pathologic tooth pocket (PTP) were determined. On the base of specils microflora composition study and data of microbic PTP dissemination owe may conclude that the complex He- Ne and ultraviolet laser radiation show the most pronounced antimicrobic effect.

  13. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.

  14. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  15. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  16. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  17. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  18. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  19. Microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhusudhan; Yanti Muslikan; Nabilah Ismail; Adil Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the microbiological aetiology of acute dacryocystitis presented to the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan in 5 years duration from 2005 until 2010. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who were clinically diagnosed as acute dacryocystitis from 2005 until 2010 to determine the regional microbiological pattern. The age, gender, predisposing factors, intravenous antibiotics and their microbiological results of discharge from punctal expression were collected. The laboratory procedures were in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: There were 23 patients admitted to the eye ward during study period. Females (n=17) outnumbered males (n=6). Majority of isolates were Gram-positive bacteria (n=10, 43.4%) followed by Gram-negative isolates (n=2, 12.9%). The most predominant isolates were Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumonia) (21.7%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (13.0%). Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was the commonest gram positive organism identified in our study. 47.8% patients showed resistant to initial empirical treatment.

  20. [Contribution of microbiology to an effective control of healthcare-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcs, István; Kovács, Aranka; Antmann, Katalin; Becker, Anita; Domján, Gyula

    2011-03-13

    An effective control of healthcare-associated infections is not realized without an intensive participation of microbiologic activities. Authors present the model of a centre for healthcare-associated infection control established in 2008 at Semmelweis University. The new model of the surveillance system is based on diagnostic and experimental microbiologic data. Clinical and epidemiological microbiologic examinations are performed in the same laboratory using identical methods, and the results are continually compared. Reports consist of two functional parts; namely list of pathogens isolated and antibiotic sensitivity patterns for clinicians and messages especially for epidemiologists including abbreviated information on bacteria of nosocomial importance. Rapid detection of the most important pathogens both from clinical samples and from those obtained for detecting nasal carriage is carried out by a sensitive and specific method of an automated real time PCR. Biotyping of isolates by detailed biochemical substrate spectrum, genotyping by ready-to-use kits depending on polymorphism of repetitive DNA sequences, and cluster analysis of data are used for up-to-date survey of nosocomial situation. Statistical analysis of reports is performed by the multifactorial software OSIRIS Epidemiology.

  1. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  2. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  3. Empirical antibiotic treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with microbiologically-documented biliary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Fabio Chistolini; Francis Sietchiping-Nzepa; Giuseppe de Roberto; Antonio Morelli

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with empiric antimicrobial monotherapy (piperacillin/tazobactam, of which no data are available in such specific circumstances) in microbiologically-documented infections in patients with benign and malignant conditions of the biliary tract.METHODS: Twenty-three patients, 10 with benign and 13 with malignant conditions affecting the biliary tree and microbiologically-documented infections were recruited and the efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy was assessed.RESULTS: The two groups featured similar demographic and clinical data. Overall, the infective episodes were most due to Gram negative agents, more than 60% of such episodes (mostly in malignant conditions) were preceded by invasive instrumental maneuvers. Empirical antibiotic therapy with a single agent (piperacillin/tazobactam) was effective in more than 80% of cases. No deaths were reported following infections.CONCLUSION: An empiric therapeutic approach with piperacillin/tazobactam is highly effective in biliary tract infections due to benign or malignant conditions.

  4. Microbiological aspects of public health planning and preparedness for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Gilad, J; Chand, M; Brown, C; Shetty, N; Morris, G; Green, J; Jenkins, C; Ling, C; McLauchlin, J; Harrison, T; Goddard, N; Brown, K; Bolton, F J; Zambon, M

    2012-12-01

    Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years.

  5. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica.

  6. Microbiological analysis of dried goose carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kamber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological studies on chicken meat and carcasses are well documented, but very few studies exist on goose meat and carcasses. Therefore, in this study, dried goose carcass samples were collected from the local households in Kars/Turkey and microbiologically analyzed in terms of public health risks. The total mesophilic viable count was found to be 6.58 (mean log10 CFU g-1 (100%. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was 4.85 (92.8%. Coliform bacteria was counted at the numbers of 2.98 (67.8%, while it was 3.95 (91.1% for the enterococci, 0.42 (26.7% for the clostridia, 0.04 (3.5% for the Clostridium perfringens, and 0.41 (12.5% for the coagulase positive staphylococci. The numbers of mould and yeast were 0.93 (25% and 4.81 (94.6%, respectively. Salmonellae and Bacillus cereus could not be isolated in the samples. The results indicate that the dried goose meat samples had poor hygienic quality, contained some of the pathogen microorganisms that are likely to pose a potential health risk.

  7. 2009 Applied and Environmental Microbiology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Dubilier

    2009-07-12

    The topic of the 2009 Gordon Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology is: From Single Cells to the Environment. The Conference will present and discuss cutting-edge research on applied and environmental microbiology with a focus on understanding interactions between microorganisms and the environment at levels ranging from single cells to complex communities. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics such as single cell techniques (including genomics, imaging, and NanoSIMS), microbial diversity at scales ranging from clonal to global, environmental 'meta-omics', biodegradation and bioremediation, metal - microbe interactions, animal microbiomes and symbioses. The Conference will bring together investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with extensive discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an ideal setting for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas, brainstorm and discuss cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  8. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECYCLED PAPER TISSUES

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    K. Imandel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the microbiological safety of sanitary tissues made of recycled scrap papers in Iran, random samples were taken for one year with the cooperation of the Iranian Standard and Industrial Research Institute (Karaj unit, of 44 types of sanitary tissues, two samples of each type including tissues, toilet papers and dippers as well as a control sample and their probable contamination with microbiological elements (bacterial & fungal were assessed using proper ordinary and specific culture environments while also performing confirmation tests. Considering all aspects of this study including easy identification, high precision, simplicity of application, economic justification and observation of better results, the method which applies ringer 1/4 solution as the thinner environment was preferable to the saline peptone water solution. No contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E.coli bacteria was observed, but the excessive contamination with the mesophillic bacteria was confirmed. Among the 27 samples tested with the ringer 1/4 method, 8 cases (29.6% were excessively contaminated with the mesophillic bacteria and one case (3.7% with fungi. Meanwhile, out of the 43 samples that were tested with the saline peptone water solution, there was no excessive contamination with mesophillic bacteria and only one case (2.3% of fungal contamination was observed.

  9. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  10. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  11. Recent publications in medical microbiology and immunology: a retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, H W; Cinatl, J

    2012-02-01

    A look back is done to some clinical and basic research activities recently published in medical microbiology and immunology. The review covers clinical experiences and in vitro experiments to understand the emergency, pathogenicity, epidemic spread, and vaccine-based prevention of avian and swine-origin flu. Some new developments and concepts in diagnosis, (molecular) epidemiology, and therapy of AIDS, viral hepatitis C, and herpesvirus-associated diseases are outlined. Regulation of immune system has been discussed in a special issue 2010 including some aspects of CNS affections (measles). Mycobacterial infection and its prevention by modern recombinant vaccines have reached new interest, as well as new concepts of vaccination and prophylaxis against several other bacteria. Adaptation to host niches enables immune escape (example brucella) and determines virulence (example N. meningitidis). Chlamydia pneumoniae, previously considered to trigger atherosclerosis, is hypothetically associated to Alzheimer disease, while CMV, another putative trigger of atherosclerosis, gains evidence of oncomodulation in CNS tumor diseases. In terms of globalization, exotic virus infections are increasingly imported from southern countries.

  12. Microbiological features of Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, C H; Coelho, C; Salazar, F; Contreras, A; Slots, J; Pacheco, J J

    1999-09-01

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patients exhibit hyperkeratosis palmo-plantaris and severe periodontitis. The syndrome is an autosomal recessive trait, but the mechanism of periodontal destruction is not known. This report presents the clinical and microbiological features of an 11-year old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Clinical examination included conventional periodontal measurements and radiographic analysis. In samples from 3 deep periodontal lesions, the occurrence of major suspected periodontopathic bacteria was determined by selective and non-selective culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification, and the presence of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus by a nested-PCR detection method. 10 of 22 available teeth demonstrated severe periodontal breakdown. Major cultivable bacteria included Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (3.4% of total isolates), Prevotella nigrescens (16.4%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14.3%) and Peptostreptococcus micros (10.6%). A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. nigrescens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Eikenella corrodens were identified by PCR analysis. The patient's non-affected parents and older brother revealed several periodontal pathogens but not A. actinomycetemcomitans. The viral examination demonstrated cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus in the subgingival sample of the Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patient. The father and brother yielded subgingival cytomegalovirus but not Epstein-Barr type 1 virus. We hypothesize that human herpesviruses in concert with A. actinomycetemcomitans play important rôles in the development of Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome periodontitis.

  13. The next generation of microbiological testing of poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiological testing of food products is a common practice of food processors to ensure compliance with food safety criteria. Sampling on its own is of limited value, but when applied regularly at different stages of the food chain, microbiology testing can be an integral part of a quality contr...

  14. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews so

  15. 21 CFR 211.113 - Control of microbiological contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of microbiological contamination. 211.113... Process Controls § 211.113 Control of microbiological contamination. (a) Appropriate written procedures... contamination of drug products purporting to be sterile, shall be established and followed. Such...

  16. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  17. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  18. [Microbiological control of sterilized canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, I

    1977-01-01

    Biologic investigation was carried out in 1974 and 1975 of a total of 1,393, tins of sterilized canned fish belonging to 14 assortments. The tins were kept in a thermostat at 37 degrees C for 70 days, and the bacteriologically seeded material was cultured at 37 degrees C for 10 days for the presence of mesophylic bacteria, and at 56 degrees C for 5 days for the presence of thermophylic bacteria. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the results obtained: 1. Thermostat storing of tins for 5--6 day-and-night periods at 37 degrees C makes it possible to detect all tins that are nonsterile. 2. Culturing of seeded material under the specified conditions makes it possible to establish the presence of residual microflora in the tins of fish. 3. Both procedures referred to could successfully meet the requirements of the modern production of sterilized canned fish and of the microbiologic control.

  19. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  20. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  1. Addressing PCR Biases in Environmental Microbiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Rita; Székely, Anna; Révész, Sára; Márialigeti, Károly

    Each step of a molecular environmental microbiology study is prone to errors, though the qualitative and quantitative biases of PCR amplification could result in the most serious biases. One has to be aware of this fact, and well-characterized PCR biases have to be avoided by using target-optimized PCR protocols. The most important tasks are primer and thermal profile optimization. We have shown that primer mismatches, even in the case of universal primers, can cause almost complete missing of common taxa from clone libraries, for example. Similarly high annealing temperatures can drastically distort community composition of the sample in the PCR product. Strategies of primer selection and PCR thermal profile design are discussed in detail.

  2. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

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    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  3. Maximizing the usefulness of food microbiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T A

    1997-01-01

    Funding for food microbiology research often follows disease outbreaks: botulism from vacuum-packed white-fish chubs, listeriosis from soft cheeses, or illness due to Salmonella Enteritidis or Escherichia coli. As a consequence of research, detection, identification, and subtyping methods improve, and more is learned about pathogenicity and virulence. Research also explores the organisms' capacity to multiply or survive in food and to be killed by established or novel processes. However, rarely is there a critical overview of progress or trustworthy statements of generally agreed-on facts. That information is not maintained in a form that can readily be used by regulatory departments and the food industry to ensure a safe food supply. A centralized system is urgently needed that is accessible electronically and carries information in a standardized format on the essential properties of the organisms, including pathogenicity, methods of detection, enumeration and identification, alternative prevention and control methods, and growth and survival characteristics.

  4. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  5. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  6. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production.

  7. Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark from 2010 to 2014 using data from the Danish microbiology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Steffen; Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Hanne Merete; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjaer; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Prag, Jørgen

    2016-12-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark and estimation of the incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia was described using data from the nationwide Danish microbiology database (MiBa). All microbiological reports on any Fusobacterium species in Denmark were extracted for a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014 from MiBa and from the local department of clinical microbiology. The overall incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia from 2010 to 2014 was 2.8 cases per million/year vs 9.4 in the age group 15-24 years. F. necrophorum was rare in blood cultures from children and middle-aged patients and then raised again. However, 48 of 232 cases of Fusobacterium bacteraemia were not identified to species level, so the incidences of F. necrophorum bacteraemia may be underestimated in our study. F. necrophorum was found in throat swabs in the age group between 13 and 40 years and in otitis media in children below 2 years in those departments which performed anaerobic culture. The incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia found was comparable to earlier reported figures for Lemierre's syndrome. Fusobacterium bacteraemia should always be identified to species level.

  8. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  9. Candiduria in catheterized intensive care unit patients : Emerging microbiological trends

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    Manisha Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI as a result of Candida spp. is becoming increasingly common in hospitalized setting. Clinicians face dilemma in differentiating colonization from true infection and whether to treat candiduria or not. The objective of the present study was to look into the significance of candiduria in catheterized patients admitted in the ICUs and perform microbiological characterization of yeasts to guide treatment protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive isolates of Candida spp. from the urine sample of 70 catheterized patients admitted in the ICU were collected and stocked for further characterization. A proforma was maintained containing demographic and clinical details. Blood cultures were obtained from all these 70 patients and processed. Species identification of yeasts was done on VITEK. Results: Candiduria was more common at extremes of age. The mean duration of catheter days was 11.1 ± 6 days. Other associated risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and antibiotic usage were seen in 38% and 100% of our study group. Concomitant candidemia was seen in 4.3% of cases. Non-albicans Candida spp. (71.4% emerged as the predominant pathogen causing nosocomial UTI. Conclusion: The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients, especially in the presence of diabetes and antibiotic usage. Non-albicans Candida spp. are replacing Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. Hence, we believe that surveillance for nosocomial candiduria should be carried out in hospitalized patients.

  10. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL PATTERN AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRENDS OF FUNGAL KERATITIS IN NORTH INDIA

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    Yusuf Rizvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Spectrum of fungal keratitis continues to change with geographical location and season. Microbiological and epidemiological data provide guidelines to the treating physician facilitating chances of successful treatment. PURPOSE To report microbiologic and epidemiologic profile of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis treated at a tertiary centre in North India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN All cases reporting directly or referred to the OPD of Eye Department of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, India, diagnosed and treated as fungal keratitis during a 3-year period between March 2012 and Feb 2015. METHODS Retrospective analysis of clinical and microbiological data of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical course and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS All patients were residents of 11 adjoining districts of Northern India. Of the 119 patients, 76 (63.8% were males (male: female ratio 1.79:1. 81(68% patients were in young productive age group of 20-45 years. 87 (73% were rural based. Ocular trauma with vegetative material, especially sugarcane leaf or dust falling in eyes were the chief precipitating factors; n = 89 (74.7%. Microbiologically Fusarium was the predominant isolate, 64 cases (53.7%, followed by Aspergillus 34(28.6% and Candida 11(9.2%. 2 cases of Alternaria and Curvularia and solitary cases of Acremonium and Scedosporium were reported. 4 strains remained unidentified. Mode of injury had a causal relation with fungal aetiology. Majority of Fusarium infections were caused by vegetative injuries 39(61%. Of these, 15(23.4% were attributed to sugarcane leaves. Soil/dust fall in eye or Surma application were responsible for bulk of Aspergillus infections; 21(61.7%. Candida infections were sporadic with a higher presenting age (Mean av 51.2 years and a frequent association with topical steroid usage, (8 of 11 cases. Aspergillus infections were predominant

  12. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

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    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  13. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ginny

    2016-03-01

    Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  14. A Review of Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications, 2nd ed.; Colin Munn; (2011. Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. Paperback, 364 pages. ISBN 9780815365174.

  15. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hoffman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format.

  16. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies

  17. [The new microbiological hazards in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciezyńska, Halina; Maćkiw, Elzbieta; Maka, Łukasz; Pawłowska, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the new microbiological hazards in food. For protecting human health, nowadays food safety authorities face with many challenges, that years ago were largely unheard. In 2011 verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 has been isolated in Germany. Strain came from fenugreek sprouts originated from Egypt. It was characterized by unique features such as presence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli genes (aatA, aggR, aap, aggA, aggC) and resistance to most antibiotics. In Poland only three cases of disease caused by O104:H4 strain have been reported. Another emergence pathogen in Poland is Yersinia enterocolitica 08, biotype 1B. It is the most pathogenic bioserotype recently isolated in the USA only. Food-borne is commonly associated with raw or undercooked pork. The source of Yersinia spp. may be also milk and water. The presence ofbotulinum neurotoxins in food is not new, but still an important issue because of their high toxicity to human. Botulinum neurotoxins are high-molecular thermolabile proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. Based on their antigenic properties, botulin neurotoxins are divided into seven types A-G, however only types A, B, E and F are toxic to humans and some animals. Increasing risk associated with food results from antimicrobial resistance eg. extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae. Until recently strains ESBL+ were isolated in hospitals, however during last years they have been isolated from healthy humans, animals and food of animal origin. Increasingly common microbiological hazard in food is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although prevalence of this pathogen in food is not high, the thread comes from difficulties of treating of infections caused by MRSA. The occurrence of food-borne in humans may also be associated with presence of viruses in food and water. The carrier

  18. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  20. Microbiological and rheological studies on Portuguese kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Pintado, Manuela E.; Silva, J. A. Lopes da; Fernandes, Paulo B.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Hogg, Tim A.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the data presented in this paper was included in a poster entitled Studies on kefir grains: microbiological characterization, biomass increase rate, and rheology of the polysaccharide produced, which was presented at the Prof. Nicolau van Uden Portuguese Symposium of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology – First Symposium on Yeasts, February 1993, Luso, Portugal. The native bacteria and yeasts present in Portuguese kefir grains stored under four distinct sets of environmenta...

  1. Bioterrorism and biodefence research: changing the focus of microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald M

    2003-10-01

    Fear that terrorists can use biological agents as weapons of mass destruction is significantly impacting the conduct of microbiological research. Abundant new funds are available for biodefence research, and many researchers are racing to enter the field. There are some concerns, however, that a large emphasis on this issue could skew the microbiology research agenda. Furthermore, new responsibilities for safely conducting research with biothreat agents and concern that information might be misused could drive some researchers away from the field.

  2. DNA technologies: what's next applied to microbiology research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T; Masson, L

    2010-10-01

    This perspective discusses current DNA technologies used in basic and applied microbiology research and speculates on possible new future technologies. DNA remains one of the most fascinating molecules known to humans and will continue to revolutionize many areas ranging from medicine, food and forensics to robotics and new industrial bioproducts/biofuel from waste materials. What's next with DNA is not always obvious, but history shows the international microbiology research community will readily adopt it.

  3. Call for the international adoption of microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurek, Kristen N; Adam, Heather J; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2006-09-01

    The use of current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute levofloxacin breakpoints for assessing fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is inadequate for detecting isolates possessing first-step parC mutations. Consequently, the risk for development of fluoroquinolone resistance is greatly underestimated. Adopting microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and S. pneumoniae, where parC mutations are rare in susceptible isolates, more accurately describes the emergence of resistance and may help to prevent a number of future fluoroquinolone treatment failures. Additionally, we propose that the use of a second fluoroquinolone marker, such as ciprofloxacin, offers the best prediction for detecting an isolate possessing a first-step parC mutation.

  4. What is a microbiologist? A survey exploring the microbiology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Verran, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Microbiology has a long tradition of making inspirational, world-changing discovery. Microbiology now plays essential roles in many disciplines, leading to some microbiologists raising concern over the apparent loss of identity. An electronic survey was undertaken to capture the scientific identity (based on scientific discipline) of people for whom microbiology forms a part of their profession, in addition to information regarding their first degree (title, country and year in which the degree was completed) and the sector in which they currently work. A total of 447 responses were collected, representing 52 countries from which they gained their first degree. Biology was the most common first degree title (of 32 titles provided), while microbiologist was the most common scientific identity (of 26 identities provided). The data collected in this study gives a snapshot of the multidisciplinarity, specialism and evolving nature of the microbiology academic workforce. While the most common scientific identity chosen in this study was that of a microbiologist, it appears that the microbiological workforce is contributed to by a range of different disciplines, highlighting the cross-cutting, multidisciplined and essential role microbiology has within scientific endeavour. Perhaps, we should be less concerned with labels, and celebrate the success with which our discipline has delivered.

  5. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  6. Bioprospecting of Moringa (Moringaceae: Microbiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide array of functions. Some of these have been subsequently exploited by humans for their beneficial role in a diverse array of applications. However, out of 750,000 species available on earth, only 1 to 10 % is being potentially used. Moringa is one such genus belonging to the family of Moringaceae, a monotypic family of single genera with around 33 species. Most of these species have not been explored fully despite the enormous bioactivity reports concerning various potentials such as: cardiac and circulatory stimulants; anti-tumor; antipyretic; antiepileptic; anti-inflammatory; antiulcer; antispasmodic; diuretic antihypertensive; cholesterol lowering; antioxidant; antidiabetic; hepato protective; antibacterial and antifungal activities. They are claimed to treat different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. Surprisingly, some of the species have been reported to be extinct from the face of earth before their exploration and exploitation for economic benefits. This review focuses on the bio-prospects of Moringa particularly on relatively little explored area of their microbiological applications.

  7. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  9. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Vallejo-Labrada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes, and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure. By using a two-proportion z-test, the difference was statistically significant (p>0.05 and demonstrates that, in spite of the aseptic pattern used in the cast post collection and laboratory procedures, some cast posts arrive contaminated at the consulting office. The disinfection process worked out in a high percentage and demonstrated that the sterilization by autoclaving eliminated completely the pathogenic microbiota without affecting the cast post shape and integrity that could compromise their final fitting.

  10. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  11. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  12. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  13. Human Safety in Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117

  14. [Genomics and functional genomics in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Functional genomics is changing our understanding of biology and changing our approach to biological research. It brings about concerted, high-throughput genetics with analyses of gene transcripts, proteins, and metabolites to answer the ultimate question posed by all genome-sequencing projects: what is the biological function of each and every gene? Functional genomics is stimulating a change in the research paradigm away from the analysis of single genes, proteins, or metabolites towards the analysis of each of these parameters on a global scale. By identifying and measuring several, if not the entire, molecular group of actors that take part in a given biological process, functional genomics offers the panorama of obtaining a truly holistic representation of life. Functional genomics methods are defined by high-throughput methods which are, not necessarily hypothesis-dependent. They offer insights into mRNA expression, protein expression, protein localization, and protein interactions and may cast light on the flow of information within signaling pathways. At its beginning, biology involved observing nature and experimenting on its isolated parts. Genomic research now generates new types of complex observational data derived from nature. This review describes the tools that are currently being used for functional genomics work and considers the impact that this new discipline on microbiology research.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  16. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Garces, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes), and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure. By using a two-proportion z-test, the difference was statistically significant (p > 0.05) and demonstrates that, in spite of the aseptic pattern used in the cast post collection and laboratory procedures, some cast posts arrive contaminated at the consulting office. The disinfection process worked out in a high percentage and demonstrated that the sterilization by autoclaving eliminated completely the pathogenic microbiota without affecting the cast post shape and integrity that could compromise their final fitting.

  17. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  18. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cell Count (SCC among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.

  19. Use of Case Studies to Introduce Undergraduate Students to Principles of Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Monica A.; Sumner, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Mock outbreaks of infectious disease offer the ability to introduce principles of food microbiology, ecology, and epidemiology to undergraduate students using an inquiry driven process. Students were presented with an epidemiological case study detailing patient history, clinical presentation, and foods recently consumed. The students then had to…

  20. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  1. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

    1997-12-01

    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was

  2. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  3. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  4. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  5. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y microbiológica del brote de diarrea asociado a Clostridium difficile, ocurrido en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, 2008-2009 Epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic description of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2012-09-01

    ías (1-90 días. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con metronidazol o vancomicina. La letalidad asociada directamente a EDACD fue del 7%. Discusión: se describe un brote de EDACD en un hospital nacional de 700 camas, el cual fue observado con mayor frecuencia en adultos mayores (>65 años, con largas estancias hospitalarias, con múltiples patologías asociadas, quienes habían recibido varios antibióticos por periodos prolongados, principalmente cefotaxima, fluoroquinolonas o clindamicina. Con las medidas médico - sanitarias implementadas, se logró disminuir su incidencia en un 75%, en el transcurso de 8 mesesBackground: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the world. Recently there was an outbreak of CDAD in the San Juan de Dios Hospital, San José -Costa Rica; a tertiary care center with 700 beds. This study analyses the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of the inpatients with CDAD treated from November 2008 to June 2009. Population and methods: A CDAD case was defined as a patient with diarrhea and with positive ELISA for C. difficile A toxin in feces. An analysis of the annual incidence of CDAD from 2004 to 2008, and the monthly incidence in 2009 at HSJD was made, as well as a retrospective and observational study of 112 medical records for patients diagnosed with CDAD treated at this hospital, from November 15, 2008 to June 15, 2009. The analysis of the data was made using descriptive statistics and measures of association. Results: The incidence of CDAD increased significantly since the end of 2008 and reached its maximum peak in April 2009, when sanitary measures were implemented. They reduced by 75% the number of patients with CDAD in 8 months. Of the 112 medical records reviewed, 63 (56% were men. The mean age was 65.33 years, 103 (92% patients developed the disease while hospitalized; the mean period of hospitalization was 18.6 days. Only 9% did not suffer from

  6. Executive summary. Management of influenza infection in solid-organ transplant recipients: consensus statement of the Group for the Study of Infection in Transplant Recipients (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) and the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Medrano, Francisco; Cordero, Elisa; Gavaldá, Joan; Cruzado, Josep M; Marcos, M Ángeles; Pérez-Romero, Pilar; Sabé, Nuria; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel Ángel; Delgado, Juan Francisco; Cabral, Evelyn; Carratalá, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at greater risk than the general population for complications and mortality from influenza infection. We have conducted a systematic review to assess the management and prevention of influenza infection in SOT recipients. Recommendations are provided about the procurement of organs from donors with influenza infection. We highlight the importance of the possibility of influenza infection in any SOT recipient presenting upper or lower respiratory symptoms, including pneumonia. The importance of early antiviral treatment of SOT recipients with suspected or confirmed influenza infection and the necessity of annual influenza vaccination are emphasized. The microbiological techniques for diagnosis of influenza infection are reviewed. Guidelines for the use of antiviral prophylaxis are provided. Recommendations for household contacts of SOT recipients with influenza infection and health care workers are also included. Antiviral dose adjustment guidelines are presented for cases of impaired renal function and for pediatric populations.

  7. The ongoing revolution of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for microbiology reaches tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Bécaye; Lo, Cheikh Ibrahima; Samb-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou Wague; Sow, Kowry; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Diemé, Yaya; Chatellier, Sonia; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) represents a revolution in routine pathogen identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. A MALDI-TOF MS was introduced to tropical Africa in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal) and used for routine pathogen identification. Using MS, 2,429 bacteria and fungi isolated from patients were directly assayed, leading to the identification of 2,082 bacteria (85.7%) and 206 fungi (8.5%) at the species level, 109 bacteria (4.5%) at the genus level, and 16 bacteria (0.75%) at the family level. Sixteen isolates remained unidentified (0.75%). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent species (25.8%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%). MALDI-TOF MS has also enabled the detection of rare bacteria and fungi. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for the identification of bacterial and fungal species involved in infectious diseases in tropical Africa.

  8. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Journal of Medical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Kalai; Silver, Lynn L; Tatke, Gorakh

    2015-12-01

    In the last 70 years, we have seen a radical change in our perception and understanding of the microbial world. During this period, we learned from Woese and Fox there exists a third kingdom called 'Archea' based on the phylogenetic studies of the 16S rRNA that revolutionized microbiology (Woese & Fox, 1977; Woese et al., 1978). Furthermore, we were forced to reckon with the fact that Koch and Pasteur's way of growing cells in test-tubes or flasks planktonically does not necessarily translate to the real-life scenario of bacterial lifestyle, where they prefer to live and function as a closely knit microbial community called biofilm. Thanks are due to Costerton, who led the crusade on the concept of biofilms and expanded its scope of inquiry, which forced scientists and clinicians worldwide to rethink how we evaluate and apply the data. Then progressively, disbelief turned into belief, and now it is universally accepted that the micro-organisms hobnob with the members of their community to communicate and coordinate their behaviour, especially in regard to growth patterns and virulence traits via signalling molecules. Just when we thought that we were losing the battle against bacteria, antimicrobials were discovered. We then witnessed the rise and fall of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Due to space and choice limitation, we will focus on the three areas that caused this major paradigm shift (i) antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) biofilm and (iii) quorum sensing (QS), and how the Journal of Medical Microbiology played a major role in advancing the shift.

  9. [The history of commensalism: a contemporary history of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2014-01-01

    Commensalism is a biological association between two species, with one species, the commensal, getting an advantage, whereas the other one, the host, gets no advantage neither disadvantage. This concept is theorized in the 1860's by Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden. Van Beneden is a physician in the 1850's, nevertheless, he is well known as a zoologist. The concept of commensalism developed by Van Beneden is employed in many scientific fields, not only in zoology, but also, in microbiology. Although the use of a possible play of the commensal bacterial microflora is exposed at the end of the 19th century, it is only during the second part of the 20th century that this way is studied. Commensalism in animal microbiology is studied first and then it is studied in human. The aim of this article is to present the history of commensalism as a main part of the history of microbiology.

  10. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of milk according to the seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasons have a major influence on milk production, especially when animals are exposed to climatic variations. This situation is very common in Brazil and further investigation is needed to understand the losses caused by oscillations in milk constituents. The aim was to evaluate how seasonality can affect the physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw milk in Ivaiporã region, state of Paraná, Brazil. In this research, the milk from properties in northern Paraná was evaluated during 24 months for lactose, protein, fat, total solids, total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The regional rainfall and average temperature recorded at each station were analyzed for determination of Thermal Comfort Index and evaluation of heat stress. This study concluded that seasonality have influence on microbiological and physicochemical quality of milk in Ivaiporã region, with higher percentages of solids in the fall and inferior microbiological quality in the spring.

  11. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  12. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  13. [Proposal for microbiological criteria for the control of cheese spreads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, E C; Rivas, M

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen lots of processed cheese and processed cheese spread were analyzed. Results obtained for the yeasts and molds count (RHL) and the total coliforms count (RCT) were 88.9% inferior to 100 per gram, in the 90 subsamples studied. The fecal coliforms count (RCF) and the S. aureus count were, respectively, 96.6% and 94.4% inferior to 10 per gram, for the same subsamples. Taking into account the format presented by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the results of our survey, a three class plan is proposed for the following microbiological tests: RHL (n = 5, c = 2, m = 100, M = 1000); RCT (n = 5, c = 2, m = 100, M = 1000); RCF (n = 5, c = 2, m = 10, M = 100); and S. aureus count (n = 5, c = 1, m = 100, M = 1000). Therefore, applying these microbiological specifications, 4 lots (22.2%) would be rejected.

  14. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  15. Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Daniel Y C

    2002-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home.

  16. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  17. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  18. [Microbiological quality of seaside sands: a beach in Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Cataldo, Claudia; Di Girolamo, Irene

    2002-01-01

    This study is focused on the microbiological quality of a sandy beach in the coastal area around Rome, Italy. The microbiological surveys were carried out on the sands collected both on the beach and on the waterline. A low-concentration of faecal bacteria (streptococci outnumbered Escherichia coli) and a constant rate of staphylococci were detected over the sampling period. Significant statistical correlations were calculated between yeasts and moulds, Escherichia coli and streptococci, streptococci and sulfite-reducing clostridium spores. This survey's data could be a baseline for future studies.

  19. Short Videos to Enhance Student Learning in Microbiological Laboratory Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual understan......This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual...

  20. Laboratorio Clínico de Microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Muñoz Criado, Santiago; Arce Arce, José Javier

    2010-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: Tema 1. La Microbiología Clínica. Historia y situación actual; Tema 2. Organización del Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica; Tema 3. El diagnóstico microbiológico e ITU; Tema 4. Infecciones gastrointestinales (Primera parte, Segunda parte); Tema 5. Sepsis y bacteriemia; Tema 6. Infecciones osteoartículares y cutáneas e infecciones del sistema nervioso central; Tema 7. Infecciones respiratoria (Primera parte, Segunda parte); Tema 8. Infecciones por micobacteria (Prime...