WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical magnetic resonance

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance in clinical cardiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas; Kumar; Rodrigo; Bagur

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, cardiac magnetic resonance(CMR) has transformed from a research tool to a widely used diagnostic method in clinical cardiology. This method can now make useful, unique contributions to the work-up of patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. Advantages of CMR, compared to other imaging methods, include very high resolution imaging with a spatial resolution up to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm in plane, a large array of different imaging sequences to provide in vivo tissue characterization, and radiationfree imaging. The present manuscript highlights the relevance of CMR in the current clinical practice and new perspectives in cardiology.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinically-definite multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T instrument. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an abnormality in 90% of patients. In four patients, no lesions were demonstrated. The number, size and site of the lesions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the patients' clinical status and other variables. The Kurtzke disability status scale score increased in patients with corpus callosum atrophy, brainstem and basal ganglia lesions, and correlated with the total number of lesions. No correlation was shown between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and disease duration, age, sex or pattern-reversal visual-evoked potentials. The variety of magnetic resonance images that could be obtained in patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis is highlighted. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy: basic methodology and clinical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been limited for a long time, mainly due to its low sensitivity. However, with the advent of clinical MR systems with higher magnetic field strengths such as 3 Tesla, the development of better coils, and the design of optimized ra

  4. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Alwatban, A Z W

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a ...

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical application in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides a non-invasive method of studying metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) defines neuro chemistry on a regional basis by acquiring a radiofrequency signal with chemical shift from one or many voxels or volumes previously selected on MRI. The tissue's chemical environment determines the frequency of a metabolite peak in an MRS spectrum. Candidates for MRS include: 1H, 31P, 13C, 23Na, 7Li, 19F, 14N, 15N, 17O, 39K The most commonly studied nuclei are 1H and 31P. This lecture is focused on Proton (1H) Spectroscopy. Proton MRS can be added on to conventional MR imaging protocols. It can be used to serially monitor biochemical changes in tumors, stroke, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, infections, and neurodegenerative diseases.The MR spectra do not come labeled with diagnoses. They require interpretation and should always be correlated with the MR images before making a final diagnosis. As a general rule, the single voxel, short TE technique is used to make the initial diagnosis, because the signal-to-noise is high and all metabolites are represented. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are used to further characterize different regions of a mass and to assess brain parenchyma around or adjacent to the mass. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are also used to assess response to therapy and to search for tumor recurrence. Each metabolite appears at a specific ppm, and each one reflects specific cellular and biochemical processes

  6. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  7. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwatban, Adnan Z.W

    2002-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  8. Magnetic resonance urography. Part 2 - clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR urography is a new, modern modality for evaluation of various urological abnormalities. MR urography provides both morphological and functional information. The method is clinically useful in the evaluation of the collecting system, variants and congenital abnormalities of the kidney, tumors and inflammatory diseases, hematuria. Correlation is made with MDCT urography. MR urography is particularly beneficial in pediatrics and pregnant patients. It can be useful in patients with renal insufficiency, and if contra indications to conventional radiological examination are considered. The role of MRU in patients for the preoperative assessment and the follow-up after renal transplantation is emerging. Nephrogenic system fibrosis have been discussed as potential risk to gadolinium contrast enhanced MR urography. MR urography is promising diagnostic method in a wide spectrum of pathological conditions affecting the urinary tract. It is highly informative and overcomes a lot of limitations of the other imaging modalities

  9. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  10. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yong Du; Hanfeng Yang; Yayong Huang; Jun Meng; Dongmei Xiao

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available,the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization.In clinical practice,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer,the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location,size,and extent,while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness.This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI)for aiding prostate cancer management.

  12. Clinical magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratai, Eva-Maria; Gilberto González, R

    2016-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive imaging technique that can easily be added to the conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Using MRS one can directly compare spectra from pathologic or abnormal tissue and normal tissue. Metabolic changes arising from pathology that can be visualized by MRS may not be apparent from anatomy that can be visualized by conventional MR imaging. In addition, metabolic changes may precede anatomic changes. Thus, MRS is used for diagnostics, to observe disease progression, monitor therapeutic treatments, and to understand the pathogenesis of diseases. MRS may have an important impact on patient management. The purpose of this chapter is to provide practical guidance in the clinical application of MRS of the brain. This chapter provides an overview of MRS-detectable metabolites and their significance. In addition some specific current clinical applications of MRS will be discussed, including brain tumors, inborn errors of metabolism, leukodystrophies, ischemia, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. The chapter concludes with technical considerations and challenges of clinical MRS. PMID:27432661

  13. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)has been widely used in basic research in the past decade, and more clinically in recent years.Unlike conventional MRI that demonstrates the anatomy and morphology of the brain, fMRI provides the functional information of the brain, including neuronal activation, perfusion, diffusion, metabolism,and fiber connection. Since the publication of the pioneer study by Ogawa et al1 in 1990, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) technique has been adopted by neuroscientists and psychologists in research into the mechanisms of motion, vision,hearing, language, memory, and functions of the brain. Soon after, clinical studies with BOLD technique were conducted in some fields like surgery (surgical planning). In China, however, basic and clinical studies on fMRI in the early years were limited by the shortage of funding, difficulty in integrating personnel of different disciplines from different institutions, and long-term use of MR scanners. In recent years, the studies on fMRI in this country have been flourishing as the conditions are greatly improved, and the number of published papers has increased because more and more radiologists and clinicians are involved.

  14. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P. [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: centro@cerebroecoluna.com.br; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Neurologicas; Andrade, Almir F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Neurocirurgia da Emergencia

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  15. Clinical software VIII for magnetic resonance imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Satoru; Takeo, Kazuhiro [Medical Applications Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the latest techniques of MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) and the brain attack diagnosis protocol which are now effectively utilized in the Shimadzu-Marconi MAGNEX ECLIPSE MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system (1.5 tesla type) and the MAGNEX POLARIS MRI system (1.0 tesla type). As for the latest techniques for MRA, this report refers to the SLINKY (sliding interleaved ky) technique, which provides high-resolution images over a wide range in the direction of slice, without using contrast agent, and to the iPass technique which enables highly reliable CE-MRA (contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography), through easy and simple operation. Also reported are the techniques of diffusion imaging and perfusion imaging, utilized for stroke assessment. (author)

  16. Radiofrequency solutions in clinical high field magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreychenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) benefit from the sensitivity gain at high field (≥7T). However, high field brings also certain challenges associated with growing frequency and spectral dispersion. Frequency growth results in degraded performance of large volume radiofrequency

  17. Fractal frontiers in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: towards clinical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captur, Gabriella; Karperien, Audrey L; Li, Chunming; Zemrak, Filip; Tobon-Gomez, Catalina; Gao, Xuexin; Bluemke, David A; Elliott, Perry M; Petersen, Steffen E; Moon, James C

    2015-01-01

    Many of the structures and parameters that are detected, measured and reported in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have at least some properties that are fractal, meaning complex and self-similar at different scales. To date however, there has been little use of fractal geometry in CMR; by comparison, many more applications of fractal analysis have been published in MR imaging of the brain.This review explains the fundamental principles of fractal geometry, places the fractal dimension into a meaningful context within the realms of Euclidean and topological space, and defines its role in digital image processing. It summarises the basic mathematics, highlights strengths and potential limitations of its application to biomedical imaging, shows key current examples and suggests a simple route for its successful clinical implementation by the CMR community.By simplifying some of the more abstract concepts of deterministic fractals, this review invites CMR scientists (clinicians, technologists, physicists) to experiment with fractal analysis as a means of developing the next generation of intelligent quantitative cardiac imaging tools.

  18. Clinical anatomy of the canine brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Edmund J; Mackillop, Edward; Robertson, Ian D; Hudson, Lola C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce an magnetic resonsnce (MR) image atlas of clinically relevant brain anatomy and to relate this neuroanatomy to clinical signs. The brain of a large mixed breed dog was imaged in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T MR unit and the following pulse sequences: Turbo (fast) spin echo (TSE) T2, T1, and T2- weighted spatial and chemical shift-encoded excitation sequence. Relevant neuroanatomic structures were identified using anatomic texts, sectioned cadaver heads, and previously published atlases. Major subdivisions of the brain were mapped and the neurologic signs of lesions in these divisions were described. TSE T2-weighted images were found to be the most useful for identifying clinically relevant neuroanatomy. Relating clinical signs to morphology as seen on MR will assist veterinarians to better understand clinically relevant neuroanatomy in MR images. PMID:18418990

  19. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to improve how we understand, teach, and assess clinical reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Costanzo, M.; Artino, A.R.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Holmboe, E.; Roy, M.J.; Schuwirth, L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is essential to the practice of medicine. There have been many advances in the understanding of clinical reasoning and its assessment, yet current approaches have a number of important limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is promising because it permits invest

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in radial head fractures: most associated injuries are not clinically relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kaas; R.P. van Riet; J.L. Turkenburg; J.P.A.M. Vroemen; C.N. van Dijk; D. Eygendaal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent studies report that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows a high incidence of associated injuries in patients with a radial head fracture. This retrospective study describes the clinical relevance of these injuries. Materials and methods: Forty patients with 42 radial head fractu

  1. Loop radiofrequency coils for clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 7 TESLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraff, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    To date, the 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner remains a pure research system and there is still a long way ahead till full clinical integration. Key challenges are the absence of a body transmit radiofrequency (RF) coil as well as of dedicated RF coils in general, short RF wavelengths of

  2. Carbon-13 magnetic resonance chemical shift additivity relationships of clinically used furocoumarins and furchromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of various clinically used furocoumarins and furochromones have been studied. The assignments of carbon chemical shift values were based on the theory of chemical shift, additivity rules, SFORD spectra and model compounds. (author)

  3. Clinical safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL infusion pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehn, Felix E.; Wood, Christopher P.; Watson, Robert E.; Hunt, Christopher H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Mauck, William D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Anesthesiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Burke, Michelle M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Patients with implanted SynchroMed spinal infusion pumps (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) routinely undergo magnetic resonance imaging at our institution. In August 2008, Medtronic issued an urgent medical device correction report regarding several pumps. Because of the rare potential ''for a delay in the return of proper drug infusion'' and ''for a delay in the logging of motor stall events,'' ''a patient's pump must be interrogated after MRI exposure in order to confirm proper pump functionality.'' This is particularly important in patients receiving intrathecal baclofen, for whom a delay in return of proper pump infusion could lead to life-threatening baclofen withdrawal syndrome. The objective of this report is to present our experience and protocol of performing magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL pumps. We retrospectively reviewed records of 86 patients with implanted SynchroMed EL spinal infusion pumps who underwent 112 examinations on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners from September 1, 1998 to July 7, 2004. No SynchroMed EL pumps were damaged by magnetic resonance imaging, and the programmable settings remained unchanged in all patients. Our data suggest that SynchroMed EL pump malfunction is indeed rare after routine clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging examinations. However, based on the Medtronic correction report, we perform pump interrogation before and after imaging. (orig.)

  4. Clinical safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL infusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with implanted SynchroMed spinal infusion pumps (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) routinely undergo magnetic resonance imaging at our institution. In August 2008, Medtronic issued an urgent medical device correction report regarding several pumps. Because of the rare potential ''for a delay in the return of proper drug infusion'' and ''for a delay in the logging of motor stall events,'' ''a patient's pump must be interrogated after MRI exposure in order to confirm proper pump functionality.'' This is particularly important in patients receiving intrathecal baclofen, for whom a delay in return of proper pump infusion could lead to life-threatening baclofen withdrawal syndrome. The objective of this report is to present our experience and protocol of performing magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL pumps. We retrospectively reviewed records of 86 patients with implanted SynchroMed EL spinal infusion pumps who underwent 112 examinations on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners from September 1, 1998 to July 7, 2004. No SynchroMed EL pumps were damaged by magnetic resonance imaging, and the programmable settings remained unchanged in all patients. Our data suggest that SynchroMed EL pump malfunction is indeed rare after routine clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging examinations. However, based on the Medtronic correction report, we perform pump interrogation before and after imaging. (orig.)

  5. Term and Preterm Children with Cerebral Palsy: Etiology, Clinic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Adın, Sait; Aslan, Mehmet; DOĞAN, Metin; Yakıncı, Cengiz; Alkan, Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a frequent neurologic disease of term and preterm neonates. The disorder has various causes and the etiology, clinical manifestations and radiological screening findings are different in term and preterms. Thirty six preterm and 66 term CP patients aged between 6 months-16 years were evaluated in this study and were compared according to their etiology, clinical manifestation and cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imagıng (MRI) findings statistically. Material and Met...

  6. Clinical Presentation and Magnetic Resonance Findings in Sellar Tuberculomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Bonifacio-Delgadillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Importance. Sellar tuberculomas are extremely rare lesions with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The tuberculous infection of the pituitary gland and sellar region is characterized by the presence of an acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and may occur in the absence of systemic tuberculosis. The diagnosis is difficult prior to the surgery. An adequate diagnostic and antituberculous drugs usually result in a good outcome. Clinical Presentation. We report four cases of sellar tuberculoma, 3/1 female/male, age range: 50–57 years. All patients had visual disturbances and low levels of cortisol. Conclusion. The clinical diagnosis of sellar tuberculoma is a challenge and should be suspected when a sellar lesion shows abnormal enhancement pattern and stalk involvement, and absence of signal suppression in FLAIR.

  7. Primary lateral sclerosis : clinical, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers-Upmeijer, J; de Jager, AEJ; Hew, JM; Snoek, JW; van Weerden, TW

    2001-01-01

    Objective-To describe the clinical, neurophysiological, and MRI findings in 10 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). Results-The course of the disease was very slowly progressive. Spasticity due to upper motor neuron dysfunction was the most prominent sign, but EMG showed slight lower motor

  8. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  9. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 8 MB) Also available in Other Language versions . Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  10. Magnetic resonance angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . ...

  11. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: techniques, clinical indications, and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R E; Eustace, S J

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews developments in both pulse sequence design and gradient technology that facilitate rapid imaging of the whole body. It discusses its application in patients with bone marrow neoplasms, including metastases, lymphoma, and myeloma and emphasizes the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with known vertebral lesions to detect other bone lesions that are easier to biopsy. It outlines possible applications in well-defined clinical situations, including pregnancy and unknown primary tumor.

  12. Clinical Outcome of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Additional Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Gi-Won; Yi, Mi Suk; Lee, Byoung Kil; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of additional breast lesions identified with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 153 patients who underwent breast MRI between July 2006 and March 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-three patients (21.6&) were recommended for second-look ultrasound (US) for further characterization of additional lesions detected on breast MRI and these patients constituted our study ...

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Gutberlet Matthias; Lurz Philipp; Fuernau Georg; de Waha Suzanne; Eitel Ingo; Desch Steffen; Schuler Gerhard; Thiele Holger

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a variety of parameters potentially suited as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction such as infarct size, myocardial salvage, microvascular obstruction or left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. The present article reviews each of these parameters with regard to the pathophysiological basis, practical aspects, validity, reliability and its relative value (strengths and limitations) as compared to competit...

  14. Swimming of a Microrobot Actuated by a Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Frederck P.; Zhou, David; Lalande, Viviane; Vonthron, Manuel; Martel, Sylvain

    2010-11-01

    A miniature robot was designed to achieve fish-like locomotion when actuated by the imaging coils of a clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. The wireless fish robot is composed of a ferromagnetic head, a flexible tail and a float. In an aquarium placed in the MRI, the robot is set into a swimming motion by an alternating transverse linear magnetic gradient. The influence of tail length, forcing frequency and forcing magnitude on the swimming velocity and flapping amplitude are investigated. Moreover, by using a combination of simultaneous magnetic gradients, the fish can reach superior swimming speeds than can be achieved by simply "pulling" on the fish with a magnetic field. Upon further miniaturization, the propulsion principle devised here could be used to navigate a micro surgical robot or a drug delivery system. A great advantage of this system is that no energy storage, motor or control system need to be carried by the robot, allowing great miniaturization possibilities.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings in a miniature Schnauzer with hypodipsic hypernatremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-month-old miniature Schnauzer presented with hypernatremia and clinical signs of vomiting, diarrhea, inappetence, and lethargy. The dog did not consume water on its own. Hypernatremia and the related clinical signs were resolved by fluid administration. Endocrinological investigations and urinalysis excluded the possibility of diabetes insipidus and hyperaldosteronism. Therefore, the dog was diagnosed with hypodipsic hypernatremia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain structures. On the basis of these findings, congenital brain malformation associated with failure of the osmoreceptor system was suspected. (author)

  16. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography in sickle cell disease: clinical significance and realibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandeel, A.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Mansoura Univ. Hospital (Egypt); Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ohene-Frempong, K. [Div. of Hematology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and conventional angiograms of 21 patients with known sickle cell disease, who underwent a total of 50 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies. MRA and conventional angiography were assessed separately for evidence of stenosis or occulusion. Follow up MRI/MRA studies were also assessed for evidence of progression, regression or stability of the disease in these patients. In the carotid circulation, MRA made the correct diagnosis in 85% of the vessels evaluated with a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 94%. MRA was also found to show evidence of disease progression, more often than did MRI or the clinical condition of the patients. (orig.)

  17. Physiological and technical limitations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) - consequences for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the most common noninvasive technique in functional neuroanatomy. The capabilities and limitations of the method will be discussed based on a short review of the current knowledge about the neurovascular relationship. The focus of this article is on current methodical and technical problems regarding fMRI-based detection and localization of neuronal activity. Main error sources and their influence on the reliability and validity of fMRI-methods are presented. Appropriate solution strategies will be proposed and evaluated. Finally, the clinical relevance of MR-based diagnostic methods are discussed. (orig.)

  18. [Neuromuscular dynamic scapular winging: Clinical, electromyographic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Guérini, Henri; Roren, Alexandra; Zauderer, Jennifer; Vuillemin, Valérie; Seror, Paul; Ouaknine, Michaël; Palazzo, Clémence; Bourdet, Christopher; Pluot, Étienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2015-12-01

    Dyskinesia of the scapula is a clinical diagnosis and includes all disorders affecting scapula positioning and movement whatever its etiology. Scapular winging is a subtype of scapular dyskinesia due to a dynamic prominence of the medial border of the scapula (DSW) secondary to neuromuscular imbalance in the scapulothoracic stabilizer muscles. The two most common causes of DSW are microtraumatic or idiopathic lesions of the long thoracic nerve (that innerves the serratus anterior) or the accessory nerve (that innerves the trapezius). Diagnosis of DSW is clinical and electromyographic. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be of interest to distinguish lesion secondary to a long thoracic nerve from accessory nerve and to rule out scapular dyskinesia related to other shoulder disorders. Causal neuromuscular lesion diagnosis in DSW is challenging. Clinical examinations, combined with scapular MRI, could help to their specific diagnosis, determining their stage, ruling out differential diagnosis and thus give raise to more targeted treatment. PMID:26433832

  19. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. I. The kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.

  20. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  1. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  3. Relationship between clinical findings of temporomandibular disorders and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and clinical findings of patients having symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, and to consider the possibility to grasp the internal derangement of the TMJ from clinical findings. Subjects were 80 patients who visited to ask orthodontic treatment 16 males and 64 females. The average age was 22 years and 4 months. We performed a investigation of both their previous and present illness. In addition, to decide the correct condition concerning the internal derangement of the TMJ, patients were given MRI examinations (G. E. medical system Signa 1.5 Tesla) before orthodontic treatment. Results were as follows: The three symptoms of temporomandibular disorders-noise, pain, and abnormal mandibular movement, were not related to constant disk displacement. It seemed difficult to infer and obtain the diagnosis of the condition of internal derangement of the TMJ only from clinical findings. In a dental clinics having no medical imaging instrument such as MRI, it was, however, considered that the following items will make it possible to define the condition of internal derangements of the TMJ from clinical findings. As to respects concerning clinical findings, it is necessary to consider the previous illness as well as present illness. TMJ noise indicates a higher relationship to the disk displacement in MRI findings. The temporomandibular joint with plural symptoms indicated a higher incidence of disk displacement examined by MR Imaging than that with a single symptom. (author)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  5. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T as a Clinical Tool in Patients with Intracranial Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van; Skagerberg, G.; Olsrud, J.; Fransson, P.; Larsson, E.M. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Neurosurgery

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T as a clinical tool in the preoperative evaluation of patients with intracranial tumors. High magnetic field strength such as 3T is of benefit for fMRI because signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity to susceptibility changes are field-strength-dependent. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with tumors close to eloquent sensorimotor or language areas were studied. Motor, sensory, and two language paradigms (word generation, rhyming) were used; their effectiveness was determined as the percentage of patients in whom the functional area of interest was activated. Activation maps were calculated and their quality rated as high, adequate, or insufficient. The influence of fMRI on the neurosurgical decision regarding operability, surgical approach, and extent of the resection, was assessed. Results: Paradigm effectiveness was 90% for motor and 95% for sensory stimulation, and varied from 79% to 95% for word generation and rhyming in combination. Ninety percent of the activation maps held high or adequate quality. fMRI proved useful: in the decision to operate (9 patients), in the surgical approach (13 patients), and in extent of the resection (12 patients). Conclusion: fMRI at 3T is a clinically applicable tool in the work-up of patients with intracranial tumors.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Renography Findings and Their Clinical Associations in Nephropathia Epidemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, A.; Ryymin, P.; Dastidar, P.; Huhtala, H.; Mustonen, J. [Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland). Depts. of Radiology and Medicine

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, with magnetic resonance renography (MRR), the dynamics of renal function in patients with nephropathia epidemica (NE) and to correlate the findings with the clinical course of NE. Material and Methods: MRR was performed on 20 hospitalized NE patients during the acute phase of the disease. A repeat MRR study was done 5-8 months later. Primary and repeat MRR studies were compared and functional findings evaluated. Results: The uptake slope of the contrast enhancement curve was abnormal in the primary study in 14 patients, maximum level of enhancement in 11, decreasing slope of contrast enhancement curve in 14, and signal drop at time in 10 patients when the primary and repeat studies were compared. The greater change in the uptake slope of contrast enhancement, maximum level of enhancement, decreasing slope of enhancement, and signal drop at time between primary and repeat MRR studies evinced a mild association with the severity of clinical renal insufficiency and fluid volume overload. Conclusion: Measurable functional MRR findings were recorded in 14/20 NE patients. The severity of the findings was mildly associated with the degree of clinical renal insufficiency and fluid volume overload.

  7. Clinical use of gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng KT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth T Cheng1, Hannah Y Cheng2, Kam Leung31Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Freelance Technical Writer, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing neurological diseases. The appropriate use of a suitable MRI contrast agent or contrast pharmaceutical is essential for CE-MRI to produce desirable diagnostic images. Currently, there are seven contrast agents (CAs or pharmaceuticals approved for clinical imaging of the central nervous system (CNS in the US, Europe, or Japan. All of the clinically approved CAs are water-soluble gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs which do not penetrate the CNS blood–brain barrier (BBB. These agents are used for imaging CNS areas without a BBB, or various pathologies, such as tumors and infection that break down the BBB and allow CAs to enter into the surrounding parenchyma. Clinically, GBCAs are most useful for detecting primary and secondary cerebral neoplastic lesions. Among these CNS GBCAs, gadobutrol (Gd-BT-DO3A, Gadovist™ is a neutral, nonionic, macrocyclic compound that showed promising results from clinical trials of CNS imaging. In comparison with other GBCAs, Gd-BT-DO3A has relatively high in vitro kinetic stability and r1 relaxivity. Gd-BT-DO3A has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in 2011 for CNS imaging. A review of available literature shows that Gd-BT-DO3A exhibits similar safety and clinical efficacy profiles to other GBCAs. Gd-BT-DO3A has the distinguishing feature that it is the only clinical agent commercially available in a formulation of 1.0 M concentration with a relatively higher in vitro T1 shortening per unit volume than other clinical GBCAs which are only

  8. The diagnosis of silicone breast-implant rupture: clinical findings compared with findings at magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P; Kjøller, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of clinical examination in the evaluation of breast-implant integrity, using the diagnosis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the "gold standard." Fifty-five women with 109 implants underwent a breast examination either just before or shortly after...

  9. Dental magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing distribution and utilization of digital volume tomography (DVT) extend the spectrum of clinical dental imaging. Additional diagnostic value, however, comes along with an increasing amount of radiation. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging is a radiation free imaging technique. Furthermore, it offers a high soft tissue contrast. Morphological and numerical dental anomalies, differentiation of periapical lesions and exclusion of complications of dental diseases are field of applications for dental MRI. In addition, detection of caries and periodontal lesions and injury of inferior alveolar nerve are promising application areas in the future.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics and liver diseases: Recent advances and future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amathieu, Roland; Triba, Mohamed Nawfal; Goossens, Corentine; Bouchemal, Nadia; Nahon, Pierre; Savarin, Philippe; Le Moyec, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is defined as the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification. It is an "omics" technique that is situated downstream of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Metabolomics is recognized as a promising technique in the field of systems biology for the evaluation of global metabolic changes. During the last decade, metabolomics approaches have become widely used in the study of liver diseases for the detection of early biomarkers and altered metabolic pathways. It is a powerful technique to improve our pathophysiological knowledge of various liver diseases. It can be a useful tool to help clinicians in the diagnostic process especially to distinguish malignant and non-malignant liver disease as well as to determine the etiology or severity of the liver disease. It can also assess therapeutic response or predict drug induced liver injury. Nevertheless, the usefulness of metabolomics is often not understood by clinicians, especially the concept of metabolomics profiling or fingerprinting. In the present work, after a concise description of the different techniques and processes used in metabolomics, we will review the main research on this subject by focusing specifically on in vitro proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomics approaches in human studies. We will first consider the clinical point of view enlighten physicians on this new approach and emphasis its future use in clinical "routine".

  11. Clinical, laboratory, psychiatric and magnetic resonance findings in patients with Sydenham chorea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustino, Patricia C.; Terreri, Maria Teresa R.A.; Rocha, Antonio J. da; Zappitelli, Marcelo C.; Lederman, Henrique M.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics, psychiatric manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children and adolescents with Sydenham chorea (SyC). The imaging examination was repeated 1 year after the acute phase of SyC. There were 19 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years and a predominance of females (79%);68% had generalized chorea and 53% moderate chorea. SyC presented as an isolated manifestation in 74%. No association between SyC and obsessive-compulsive disorder was found. Mental health problems were present in 45% of the patients. MRI analysis revealed persistent alterations in the caudate nucleus in three patients (16%), who presented recurrent episodes of chorea during the study. In one patient, MRI revealed the presence of nodular heteropathy close to the caudate nucleus region. We conclude that attention problems can be associated with acute clinical features of SyC and persistent alterations in the basal nuclei, evidenced by MRI, can be found in some patients who tend to suffer prolonged attacks and a greater number of recurrences. (orig.)

  12. An update on clinical applications of hepatospecific contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging of liver parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuga, M; De Gaetano, A M; Guerra, A; Infante, A; Iezzi, R; Spinelli, I; Siciliano, M; Grieco, A; Rapaccini, G L; Gasbarrini, A; Pompili, M; Bonomo, L

    2016-06-01

    Hepatobiliary-specific contrast agents are now widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver parenchyma. As extracellular fluid agents, they provide informations regarding lesion vascularity and their use in the hepatobiliary or delayed phase (DPI), and give additional data regarding hepatocyte presence and function. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature about MRI using hepatobiliary-specific contrast agents and to discuss benefits and limits of their clinical applications. Since November 2008, hepatobiliary contrast agents were routinely employed in our Institution for the characterization of equivocal liver lesions detected by other imaging modalities, and for the evaluation of hepatic nodules in liver cirrhosis. The informations provided are particularly relevant for the detection of metastases, for the differentiation between focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), and for the detection and differentiation between dysplastic nodules (DNs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the cirrhotic liver. The role in the cirrhosis grading and the quantification of liver function is still controversial. Finally, their biliary excretion allows evaluation of anatomy and function of the biliary tree. According to our and reported data, hepatobiliary contrast agents are able to improve liver lesions detection and characterization; their introduction in clinical practice has improved MRI diagnostic efficacy/accuracy, allowing to decrease the number of invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27383300

  13. Phased array magnetic resonance imaging for staging clinically localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borre, Michael; Langkilde, Niels Christian; Wolf, Hans [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Urology; Lundorf, Erik [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Center of MRI; Marcussen, Niels [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Inst. of Pathology

    2005-09-01

    Patients suffering from intra-capsular prostate cancer (T1-2, N0, M0) are potential candidates for curative treatment by radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Curative intended therapy is frequently associated with substantial side effects, which makes accuracy of preoperative staging important. However, up to 40% of the patients with clinically localized disease turn out to be under-staged and should not have been subjected to curative surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the value of preoperative phased array MRI staging in patients who are candidates for radical prostatectomy. Ninety-five potential candidates for radical prostatectomy suspected of suffering from clinical prostate cancer underwent pre-diagnostic and pre-operative staging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results were compared with the postoperative pathological findings including evidence of extra-capsular extension (ECE) of the tumor. The MRI results were not taken into consideration when staging the patients preoperatively or offering treatment. Radical prostatectomy was performed within a few weeks after MRI. In 48 patients the diagnostic biopsy did not detect carcinoma but benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BPH), while 9 patients had T3 disease. Thirty-eight patients had clinically localized prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy. In 16 cases (42%) ECE was postoperatively proven by the pathologist, while only 22 (58%) of the patients suffered from true localized prostate cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI detecting ECE were 24% and 86% respectively, while the positive and negative predictive value of MRI with regard to ECE were only 57% and 61% respectively. Phased array MRI did not in its present form provide the necessary accuracy in preoperative staging in clinically localized prostate cancer patients.

  14. Clinical response of quetiapine in rapid cycling manic bipolar patients and lactate level changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dajung J Kim; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung J; Choi, Taeyoung; Lee, Byungchol; Kim, Jieun E.; Lee, Joonsun S.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between quetiapine’s effect on the improvement of mood symptoms in bipolar patients and brain metabolite level changes as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Rapid cycling bipolar patients in the manic state were recruited and treated with quetiapine for 12 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new examination technique used in diagnostic medicine. Its use has increased notably during the last few years in Finland, too. The biological effects of electromagnetic fields used in MRI are quite different from the effects of x-rays. This report introduces the physics and the techniques of MRI; the biological effects of magnetic fields and the hazards associated with the use of MRI systems are briefly discussed. The major national and international recommendations are summarized, too. Furthermore, a description is given how safety aspects are considered in Finnish MRI units. Finally, recommendations are given to restrict the exposure caused by MRI and to ensure the safe use of MRI. Diagnostic applications and clinical or economic aspects fall outside the scope of this report. (orig.)

  16. Current technological advances in magnetic resonance with critical impact for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2013-12-01

    The last 5 years of technological advances with major impact on clinical magnetic resonance (MR) are discussed, with greater emphasis on those that are most recent. These developments have already had a critical positive effect on clinical diagnosis and therapy and presage continued rapid improvements for the next 5 years. This review begins with a discussion of 2 topics that encompass the breadth of MR, in terms of anatomic applications, contrast media, and MR angiography. Subsequently, innovations are discussed by anatomic category, picking the areas with the greatest development, starting with the brain, moving forward to the liver and kidney, and concluding with the musculoskeletal system, breast, and prostate. Two final topics are then considered, which will likely, with time, become independent major fields in their own right, interventional MR and MR positron emission tomography (PET).The next decade will bring a new generation of MR contrast media, with research focused on substantial improvements (>100-fold) in relaxivity (contrast effect), thus providing greater efficacy, safety, and tissue targeting. Magnetic resonance angiography will see major advances because of the use of compressed sensing, in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, with movement away from nondynamic imaging. The breadth of available techniques and tissue contrast has greatly expanded in brain imaging, benefiting both from the introduction of new basic categories of imaging techniques, such as readout-segmented echo planar imaging and 3D fast spin echo imaging with variable flip angles, and from new refinements specific to anatomic areas, such as double inversion recovery and MP2RAGE. Liver imaging has benefited from the development of techniques to easily and rapidly assess lipid, and will see, overall, a marked improvement in the next 5 years from new techniques on the verge of clinical introduction, such as controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration

  17. The reporting of observational clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging studies: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Guo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies involving clinical participants is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. METHODS: We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409-14. We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. RESULTS: A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%. Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92% and for between-subject group modeling (97%, none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%. Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3% and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%. Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22% and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  19. Clinical usefulness of cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the clinical usefulness of cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) from aspects of image quality and cardiac function. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the myocardium was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with AF than those with normal sinus rhythm. Two radiologists who did not know any patient's information evaluated the image quality visually by marking method on a scale of 12 points. There was no difference of image quality between the two groups. The standard deviation of R-R interval was significantly (r=-0.92, p<0.001) correlated with the S/N ratio in myocardium. Consequently, it was not favorable to estimate visually cardiac cine MR image in patients with AF, when standard deviation of R-R interval was large. The left ventricular (LV) end diastolic, end systolic and stroke volumes and ejection fraction were closely (r=0.82∼0.95, p<0.05∼0.001) correlated between MR imaging and M-mode echocardiography, respectively. The ability to detect left side valvular regurgitation was almost equal in both MR imaging and color Doppler echocardiography. This result was coincided to previous papers in patients with normal sinus rhythm. In conclusion, cine mode MR imaging was also useful to analyze cardiac function and detect valvular regurgitation in patients with AF. (author)

  20. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Margariti, Persefoni N.; Astrakas, Loukas; Kosta, Paraskevi [Medical School University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Ioannina (Greece); Karali, Aikaterini; Alfandaki, Sapfo; Siamopoulou, Antigoni [University of Ioannina, Department of Child Health, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the study was to define clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Forty-six patients, aged 2.08-36.7 years, with JIA (oligoartitular 18, polyarticular 17, systemic type 11) were examined with standard plain and contrast-enhanced sequences. Of 88 TMJs examined, an abnormal condyle was observed in 32%, flattened articular eminence in 27%, flattened articular disk in 17%, intra-articular fluid in 10%, enhancing pannus in 45% and restricted condylar motion in 9%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that for abnormal condyle and flattened articular eminence, independent predictors were type of JIA (P < 0.015), age at onset (P < 0.038), and duration of disease activity (P < 0.001). Plots of the logistic regression models showed that TMJ involvement approached certainty for systemic sooner than for the other JIA types. Pannus was present with probability >0.5 when the disease started before 4 years of age. In conclusion, the systemic type of JIA, young age at onset and long duration of activity are risk factors for TMJ damage. MRI of the TMJ should be performed in patients who are less than 4 years of age at the onset of JIA, and in those with the systemic type, whatever the age of onset. (orig.)

  1. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts clinical worsening in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freed Benjamin H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE occurs at the right ventricular (RV insertion point (RVIP in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH and has been shown to correlate with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR derived RV indices. However, the prognostic role of RVIP-LGE and other CMR-derived parameters of RV function are not well established. Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of contrast-enhanced CMR in patients with PH. Methods RV size, ejection fraction (RVEF, and the presence of RVIP-LGE were determined in 58 patients with PH referred for CMR. All patients underwent right heart catheterization, exercise testing, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP evaluation; results of which were included in the final analysis if performed within 4 months of the CMR study. Patients were followed for the primary endpoint of time to clinical worsening (death, decompensated right ventricular heart failure, initiation of prostacyclin, or lung transplantation. Results Overall, 40/58 (69% of patients had RVIP-LGE. Patients with RVIP- LGE had larger right ventricular volume index, lower RVEF, and higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP, all p Conclusions The presence of RVIP-LGE in patients with PH is a marker for more advanced disease and poor prognosis. In addition, this study reveals for the first time that CMR-derived RVEF is an independent non-invasive imaging predictor of adverse outcomes in this patient population.

  2. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it. PMID:27618106

  3. Clinical Significance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow in Patients with Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; ZHANG Xiaohui; NIU Jinliang

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia, the femoral and pelvic marrow were evaluated by using MRI with a T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) method and a short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) technique.Normal bone marrow examination was performed with coronal T1-weighted MRI of pelvis and femurs, and showed persistent red marrow. There was a bright signal of fatty marrow in the femoral epiphyses and apophyses. MRI pattern of bone marrow in the 54 cases of acute leukemia showed abnormal signal patterns of femoral and pelvic marrow: (1) grade Ⅰ ( n= 4 ) , ( 2 ) grade Ⅱ (n=11), (3) grade Ⅲ (n=8), (4)grade Ⅳ (n=17), and (5) graded Ⅴ (n=14). Leukemic cells had infiltration onseted by red marrow in adult patients with leukemia. The marrow of femur had infiltration from diaphysis to epiphysis, and to femoral head and greater trochanter. The lower grades(grade Ⅳ, Ⅴ ) of leukemic marrow supported the diagnosis of AML in MRI, which achieved higher complete remission. The adult patients with ALL had higher grades (grade I - Ⅲ ) in MRI. Our findings indicated that MRI of femoral marrow is an important tool for accurate diagnosis and management of patients with leukemia that may function as an adjunct to bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The pattern of MRI in patients with newly diagnosed leukemia predicted the prognosis and CR of leukemia.

  4. Clinical Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Management of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC, also termed primary, induction, or preoperative chemotherapy, is traditionally used to downstage inoperable breast cancer. In recent years it has been increasingly used for patients who have operable cancers in order to facilitate breast-conserving surgery, achieve better cosmetic outcome, and improve prognosis by reaching pathologic complete response (pCR. Many studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can assess residual tumor size after NAC, and that provides critical information for planning of the optimal surgery. NAC also allows for timely adjustment of administered drugs based on response, so ineffective regimens could be terminated early to spare patients from unnecessary toxicity while allowing other effective regimens to work sooner. This review article summarizes the clinical application of MRI during NAC. The use of different MR imaging methods, including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, proton MR spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted MRI, to monitor and evaluate the NAC response, as well as how changes of parameters measured at an early time after initiation of a drug regimen can predict final treatment outcome, are reviewed. MRI has been proven a valuable tool and will continue to provide important information facilitating individualized image-guided treatment and personalized management for breast cancer patients undergoing NAC.

  5. Clinical study on magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts and cerebrovascular high-risk group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hironaka, Masatoshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed in 32 patients with recent lacunar stroke. T2-weighted images showed ischemic lesions more clearly than T1-weighted images. Sixty-six percent of 32 patients had periventricular lesions. Eighty-four percent had subcortical white matter lesions. Sixty-nine percent had lesions in basal ganglia. Twenty-eight percent had lesions in brainstem. Periventricular lesions were revealed symmetrically. On the other hand, lesions in other areas were not detected symmetrically. Severe periventricular lesions on MRI were similar to those of Binswanger's disease. Patients with severe periventricular lesions had often hypertension. Moreover, two of them had dementia. Twenty-three patients with transient ischemic attack had less remarkable lesions than patients with lacunar stroke. Thirty-seven patients with a history of cerebrovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus) had severer lesions compared with normal controls. Sixty-one percent of controls, who had no cerebrovascular symptoms and signs, had MRI lesions. These results suggest that MRI is useful for detection of cerebral ischemic lesions with no associated clinical symptoms or signs. (author).

  6. Clinical observation of metal artifacts on magnetic resonance images of oral and maxillofacial regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Takeishi, Hiroshi; Uesugi, Yasuo; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We assessed the effect of metal materials used in prosthodontics on the clarity of clinical magnetic resonance (MR) images of the oral and maxillofacial regions in 37 patients. Excluded were patients who had undergone surgery in either region, patients with deciduous teeth, patients with a space-occupying lesion, i.e., an inflammatory change or a malignant process, and patients for whom images were affected by motion artifacts. The patients had all undergone orthopantomography, though none received dental treatment in the period between the MR imaging and orthopantomography study. T1- and T2- weighted axial images were used. There were no apparent differences between T1- and T2- weighted images in artifacts caused by metal prosthodontics, whereas artifacts caused by metal crowns were severe in comparison to those caused by metal inlays. In the lateral and apex portions of the tongue, when more than four crowns were present, artifacts had a marked influence on the image, and diagnosis could not be made. Moreover, in the upper and lower alveolus, the presence of two crowns had a similar effect, precluding diagnosis. However, in the antrum, mandibular body, and mental regions, metal artifacts had less of an effect on the images compared to that of metal artifacts in the alveolus region. (author)

  7. Clinical study on magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts and cerebrovascular high-risk group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed in 32 patients with recent lacunar stroke. T2-weighted images showed ischemic lesions more clearly than T1-weighted images. Sixty-six percent of 32 patients had periventricular lesions. Eighty-four percent had subcortical white matter lesions. Sixty-nine percent had lesions in basal ganglia. Twenty-eight percent had lesions in brainstem. Periventricular lesions were revealed symmetrically. On the other hand, lesions in other areas were not detected symmetrically. Severe periventricular lesions on MRI were similar to those of Binswanger's disease. Patients with severe periventricular lesions had often hypertension. Moreover, two of them had dementia. Twenty-three patients with transient ischemic attack had less remarkable lesions than patients with lacunar stroke. Thirty-seven patients with a history of cerebrovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus) had severer lesions compared with normal controls. Sixty-one percent of controls, who had no cerebrovascular symptoms and signs, had MRI lesions. These results suggest that MRI is useful for detection of cerebral ischemic lesions with no associated clinical symptoms or signs. (author)

  8. Knee dislocations: a magnetic resonance imaging study correlated with clinical and operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Kimmie L. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, HB6, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parker, Richard D. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopaedics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Our objectives were to determine retrospectively the prevalence, patients' demographics, mechanism of injury, combination of torn ligaments, associated intra-articular and extra-articular injuries, fractures, bone bruises, femoral-tibial alignment and neurovascular complications of knee dislocations as evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. From 17,698 consecutive knee examinations by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over a 6-year period, 20 patients with knee dislocations were identified. The medical records of these patients were subsequently reviewed for relevant clinical history, management and operative findings. The prevalence of knee dislocations was 0.11% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.06-0.16]. There were 16 male patients and four female patients, with ages ranging from 15 years to 76 years (mean 31 years). Fifteen patients had low-velocity injuries (75%), of which 11 were amateur sports related and four were from falls. Four patients (20%) had suffered high-velocity trauma (motor vehicle accidents). One patient had no history available. Anatomic alignment was present at imaging in 16 patients (80%). Eighteen patients had three-ligament tears, two had four-ligament tears. The four-ligament tears occurred with low-velocity injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were torn in every patient; the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) was torn in 50%, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 60%. Intra-articular injuries included meniscal tears (five in four patients), fractures (eight in seven patients), bone bruises (15 patients), and patellar retinaculum tears (eight partial, two complete). The most common extra-articular injury was a complete biceps femoris tendon tear (five, 25%). There were two popliteal tendon tears and one iliotibial band tear. One patient had received a vascular injury following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and had been treated prior to undergoing MRI. Bone bruises

  9. Clinical, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Treatment Features in Orbital Cavernous Hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rövşen Nesirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and treatment features in cases of orbital cavernous hemangioma. Materials and Methods: TThe records of 32 patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma operated in the Department of Ophthalmology at Ankara University School of Medicine from June 1998 to April 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Twenty-three patients were female and 9 patients were male. The mean age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 62 years. In MRI of 21 patients, all tumors were isointense to muscle in T1A-weighted images, hyperintense to muscle in T2A-weighted images, and demonstrated heterogeneous contrast enhancement. The tumor was intraconal in 13 patients, superomedial in 3 patients, superotemporal in 3 patients, and inferomedial in 2 patients. In all patients, orbitotomy was performed and the orbital mass was totally removed in one piece. The endoscopic approach used was as follows; upper temporal in 13 patients, inferior temporal in 10, upper nasal in 8, and transnasal orbitotomy in 1 patient. In all patients, no residual/recurrent mass was found after surgery. In eighteen patients, visual acuity remained the same before and after surgery. In fourteen patients, mean visual acuity at first month after surgery increased to 0.10±0.14 logMAR, while mean visual acuity before surgery was 0.25±0.21 LogMAR (p<0.01. Conclusion: In patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by clinical and radiological findings. Anterior orbitotomy through a skin incision was used in most patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma in this series. Significant improvement in visual acuity and examination findings were observed after surgery in patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 105-110

  10. The diagnosis of silicone breast-implant rupture: clinical findings compared with findings at magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P; Kjøller, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of clinical examination in the evaluation of breast-implant integrity, using the diagnosis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the "gold standard." Fifty-five women with 109 implants underwent a breast examination either just before or shortly after...... an MRI examination. Twenty-four of 109 implants were clinically diagnosed with possible rupture or rupture. Eighteen of the 24 implants were ruptured according to the MRI examination (75%). Eighty-five implants were clinically classified as intact, and 43 of these were actually ruptured at MRI (51...... to identify implant rupture, neither the sensitivity nor the specificity is acceptable....

  11. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate. Technique and clinical applications; Multiparametrische Magnetresonanztomografie der Prostata. Technik und klinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franiel, Tobias [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie CCM

    2011-07-15

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) includes 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These new MRI techniques are increasingly being used to supplement conventional T 2 and T 1-weighted MR sequences in prostate imaging. The first part of this review outlines each of these techniques, the most important diagnostic parameters, and the pathophysiological background. The characteristic features of prostate cancer and noncancerous prostate tissue as depicted with each of the three techniques are presented. The second, clinical part outlines the diagnostic applications of the three MRI techniques for the early detection and localization of prostate cancer, staging, and the identification of recurrent cancer and discusses the most recent publications in this field. The review concludes with a look at emerging clinical applications such as the evaluation of biological aggressiveness and tumor volume. (orig.)

  12. Involvement of the central nervous system in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, I E; Waddy, H M; Kermode, A G; Murray, N M; Thomas, P K

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 30 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) minor clinical evidence of CNS involvement was found in five. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 and revealed abnormalities consistent with demyelination in nine patients aged less than 50 years and abnormalities in five aged 50 years or over. Measurements of central motor conduction time (CMCT) were obtained in 18 and showed unilateral or bilateral abnormalities in s...

  13. Updating magnetic resonance imaging of small bowel: Imaging protocols and clinical indications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Zhu; Jian-Rong Xu; Hong-Xia Gong; Yan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    High soft tissue contrast resolution,acquisition of multi-planar images and the possibility to obtain functional information make magnetic resonance an interesting imaging technique to evaluate the small bowel disease.The absence of ionizing radiation is an important feature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations because inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD) are studied most frequently,which are prevalent among children and young adults.MRI,using modern equipment and a rigorous technical approach,can offer detailed morphologic information and functional data on the small bowel.This article discusses the MRI protocols for small bowel and the MR imaging findings of small bowel diseases,such as CD and small bowel neoplasms.

  14. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. II. The heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Nadja M.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2014-07-01

    One third of all deaths worldwide in 2008 were caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and the incidence of CVD related deaths rises ever more. Thus, improved imaging techniques and modalities are needed for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is a minimally invasive technique that is increasingly important due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, its high soft tissue contrast and its ability of functional and quantitative imaging. It is widely accepted as the gold standard of cardiac functional analysis. In the short period of small animal MRI, remarkable progress has been achieved concerning new, fast imaging schemes as well as purpose-built equipment. Dedicated small animal scanners allow for tapping the full potential of recently developed animal models of cardiac disease. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques and applications in small animals at ultra-high fields (UHF).

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection...

  16. Clinical diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis: the role of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to summarize the diagnostic criteria recommended by the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis in 2001. The recommendations of another working group, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers Consensus Meeting, which met in Vancouver in 2001, concerning the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis are also presented in an effort to standardize the protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of these patients. (author)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Morris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medical point of care diagnostics. This great diversity is seeing exciting developments in magnetic resonance sensing technology published in application specific journals where they are often not seen by the wider sensor community. It is clear that there is enormous interest in magnetic resonance sensors which represents a significant growth area. The aim of this special edition of Sensors was to address the wide distribution of relevant articles by providing a forum to disseminate cutting edge research in this field in a single open source publication.[...

  18. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the extension of uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Masaru (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 62 patients with uterine cervical cancer and the preoperative MRI findings were compared with the pathological findings following surgery. The surgical stages of 62 patients were 2 at stage 0, 18 at stage Ia, 19 at stage Ib, 9 at stage IIa, 11 at stage IIb, 2 at stage IIIa, and 1 at stage IIIb. The MRI findings in the present study included: (1) the existence of a high intensity area (HIA) in the uterine cervix or minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue, (2) necrotic cavity, (3) pyometra, (4) irregular margin of the cervix, (5) parametrial invasion, (6) vaginal invasion, (7) bladder invasion, and (8) lymph node enlargement. No HIA was observed in any patient with stage 0 or stage Ia, in 8 patients with stage Ib, and in 2 patients with stage IIa, while all patients with cancer tissues greater than 10 mm in diameter had a HIA. In 39 patients in whom hysterectomy was undergone without conization, the findings of MRI correlated significantly (r=0.929, p<0.001) with the minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue by the pathological measurement. When the irregular margin of the cervix was regarded as a disruption of the cervical myo-metrium by cancer tissue, accuracy was 87%. Furthermore, the degrees of accuracy for parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion and bladder invasion were 92%, 90% and 94%, respectively. When lymphnodes greater than 15 mm in diameter were regarded as a positive in MRI, accuracy was 88%. The present results indicate that MRI is clinically effective in preoperatively evaluating the extension of uterine cervical cancer. (author).

  19. Magnetic resonance in neuroborreliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is commonly used in diagnosing infections of the central nervous system. The aim of the study is to evaluate central nervous system changes in neuroborreliosis patients. MR examinations were performed in 44 patients with clinical symptoms, epidemiology and laboratory tests results of neuroborreliosis. Abnormalities were detected in 22 patients. Most of them presented cortico-subcortical atrophy (86%). In 9 cases foci of increased signal in T2-weighted and FLAIR images were observed in white matter. They were single or multiple, located subcorticaly and paraventriculary. In 2 subjects areas of increased signal were found in the brain stem. Central nervous system abnormalities detected with MR are not specific for Lyme disease. They can suggest demyelinating lesions and/or gliosis observed in many nervous system disorders (SM, ADEM, lacunar infarcts). (author)

  20. Efficient isotropic magnetic resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, O. J. F.; Gay-Balmaz, P.

    2002-01-01

    We study experimentally and numerically a novel three-dimensional magnetic resonator structure with high isotropy. It is formed by crossed split-ring resonators and has a response independent of the illumination direction in a specific plane. The utilization of such elements to build a finite left-handed medium is discussed. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Reproducibility of small animal cine and scar cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 3.0 tesla system

    OpenAIRE

    Manka, Robert; Jahnke, Cosima; Hucko, Thomas; Dietrich, Thore; Gebker, Rolf; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Graf, Kristof; Paetsch, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the inter-study, inter-reader and intra-reader reproducibility of cardiac cine and scar imaging in rats using a clinical 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system. Methods Thirty-three adult rats (Sprague–Dawley) were imaged 24 hours after surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery using a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) equipped with a dedicated 70 mm solenoid receive-only coil. Left-ventricular (LV) volu...

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. PMID:27432660

  3. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31P, 13C, 1H (and possibly 19F and 23Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  4. Titanium luque SSI for rheumatoid spondylitis with myelopathy. Clinical results and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Mutsumi; Maruo, Soji; Tateishi, Hiroomi; Matsumoto, Manabu; Otsuka, Seiji; Yokoyama, Hiroshi [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Nineteen rheumatoid patients suffering from rheumatoid spondylitis with myelopathy were surgically treated using Luque segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI). We studied 7 cases of patients who underwent postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation after being treated with titanium Luque SSI. Titanium implants were imaged safely and there was no evidence of implant migration or local tissue heating effect. MRI also allowed postoperative cervical spine imaging without significant image distortion. This titanium Luque SSI method affords rigid fixation, allows early mobilization and MRI serial imaging in the patient`s lifelong medical care. (author).

  5. Clinical value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) for the evaluaton of patients with stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) is capable of identifying many more pathologic vascular lesions than CT and may shed more insight into the underlying pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease. This is a preliminary report on the evaluation with NMRI of some aspects of non-hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease over the past 2 and a half years. It is divided into three major categories for presentation although they are not mutually exclusive. (1) TIA and RIND; (2) Bilateral extracranial carotid occlusive disease; (3) Cerebral infarction, evolution, emboli and watershed. 48 refs.; 13 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Titanium luque SSI for rheumatoid spondylitis with myelopathy. Clinical results and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen rheumatoid patients suffering from rheumatoid spondylitis with myelopathy were surgically treated using Luque segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI). We studied 7 cases of patients who underwent postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation after being treated with titanium Luque SSI. Titanium implants were imaged safely and there was no evidence of implant migration or local tissue heating effect. MRI also allowed postoperative cervical spine imaging without significant image distortion. This titanium Luque SSI method affords rigid fixation, allows early mobilization and MRI serial imaging in the patient's lifelong medical care. (author)

  7. Clinical Value of Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging on Detection of Malignant Metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Zhen-sheng Liu; Xian-mao Du; Ling He; Jian Chen; Wei Wang; Fei Sun; Fang Du; Zhi-gang Luo; Zhen-long Xue; Yi Zhao; Chang-wu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the value of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) on detection of malignant metastasis.Methods Forty-six patients with malignant tumors underwent WB-DWI examinations between April 2007 and August 2007 in our hospital. Before WB-DWI examination, the primary cancers of all the patients were confirmed by pathology, and the TNM-stage was assessed with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). WB-DWl was performed using short TI inversion recovery echo-planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence. Abnormal high signal intensities on WB-DWI were considered as metastases. The results of WB-DWI were compared with other imaging modalities. For the assessment of the diagnostic capability of WB-DWl, WB-DWI were compared with CT for demonstrating mediastinal lymph node metastases and lung metastases, and with conventional MRI for demonstrating metastases in other locations.Results WB-DWI demonstrated 143 focuses, 14 of which were diagnosed to he benign lesions in routine imaging. The number of bone metastases depicted on WB-DWI and routine imaging was 85 and 86; lymph node metastases was 17 and 18; liver metastases was 14 and 14; lung metastases was 4 and 8; and brain metastases was 6 and 8, respectively. WB-DWI failed to detect 12 metastatic lesions including 3 osteoplastic bone metastases, 4 lung metastases, 3 mediastinal lymph node metastases, and 2 brain metastases. Four metastatic lesions including 2 deltopectoral lymph nodes and 2 rib metastases were detected with WB-DWI alone, all of which evolved greatly during clinical follow-up for more than 6 months. WB-DWI had higher detection rates for metastatic lesions in liver, bone, and lymph nodes than those in lung and brain (X2=30, P<0.001).Conclusions WB-DWI could detect most of metastatic lesions that were diagnosed with conventional MRI and CT. The limitations of WB-DWI might be had high false-positive rate and low efficiency in detecting mediastinal lymph node, brain, and

  8. Advances in magnetic resonance 10

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 10, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains three chapters that examine superoperators in magnetic resonance; ultrasonically modulated paramagnetic resonance; and the utility of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double-resonance (ENDOR) techniques for studying low-frequency modes of atomic fluctuations and their significance for understanding the mechanism of structural phase transitions in solids.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disk disease: clinical and pulse sequence considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modic, M.T.; Pavlicek, W.; Weinstein, M.A.; Boumphrey, F.; Ngo, F.; Hardy, R.; Duchesneau, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-five patients were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to determine what combination of operator-selectable controls would result in a thorough examination of the intervertebral disks. There were 20 normal subjects, 8 with degenerative lumbar disk disease, 27 with both degeneration and herniation, 5 with stenosis of the spinal canal, and 5 with disk space infection. Comparison with radiographs, high-resolution CT scans, and myelograms showed that MR was the most sensitive for identification of degeneration and disk space infection, separating the normal nucleus pulposus from the annulus and degenerated disk. Herniation, stenosis of the canal, and scarring can be identified as accurately with MR as with CT or myeolography.

  10. Clinical utility of magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI) for realtime guidance of deep hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Craciunescu, Oana I.; Maccarini, P. F.; Wyatt, Cory; Arunachalam, K.; Arabe, O.; Stakhursky, V.; Soher, B.; MacFall, J. R.; Li, Z.; Joines, William T.; Rangarao, S.; Cheng, K. S.; Das, S. K.; Martins, Carlos D.; Charles, Cecil; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Wong, T.; Jones, E.; Vujaskovic, Z.

    2009-02-01

    A critical need has emerged for volumetric thermometry to visualize 3D temperature distributions in real time during deep hyperthermia treatments used as an adjuvant to radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. For the current effort, magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI) is used to measure 2D temperature rise distributions in four cross sections of large extremity soft tissue sarcomas during hyperthermia treatments. Novel hardware and software techniques are described which improve the signal to noise ratio of MR images, minimize motion artifact from circulating coupling fluids, and provide accurate high resolution volumetric thermal dosimetry. For the first 10 extremity sarcoma patients, the mean difference between MRTI region of interest and adjacent interstitial point measurements during the period of steady state temperature was 0.85°C. With 1min temporal resolution of measurements in four image planes, this noninvasive MRTI approach has demonstrated its utility for accurate monitoring and realtime steering of heat into tumors at depth in the body.

  11. Postmortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to autopsy: preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, L; Kassarjian, A; Barish, M; Casserley, L; O'Brien, M; Andry, C; Eustace, S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cadavers as an adjunct to autopsy. Eight consecutive patients underwent both whole-body MRI and autopsy [either conventional (six), limited (one), or percutaneous (one)] within 24 hours of death. Comparison was made of major and minor abnormalities and predicted cause of death recorded by independent readers at both MRI and autopsy. Major discrepancies between the recorded primary cause of death at imaging and autopsy occurred in five (5) patients. These included a myocardial infarction found at autopsy alone, bowel infarction and portal venous gas found at MRI alone, and aortic dissection and occipital infarct found at MRI alone in a patient on whom only limited autopsy was performed. Postmortem MRI may represent a useful adjunct to autopsy, particularly in patients in whom autopsy is limited due to patient/family consent, inoculation risks, and ethnic doctrines.

  12. Feasibility of interactive magnetic resonance imaging of moving anatomy for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau; Sørensen, Thomas S; Berber, Yasmina;

    2014-01-01

    of electrodes during neurosurgery, the diagnostic value of this method is relatively unexplored. Purpose: To test an interactive slice-positioning system with respect to real-time MRI reconstruction for imaging of moving anatomical structures on two different scanner brands by using inexpensive computer......Background: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging with real-time reconstruction has been available for some time. The technique acquires and presents the MRI images to the operator the instant they are acquired. However, besides guiding purposes, like catheter tracking and placement...... hardware. Materials and methods: The MRI data were sampled using two acquisition schemes: a Cartesian sampling scheme and a radial sampling scheme based on the golden ratio. Four anatomical targets, which exhibit non-periodic movement, were identified and imaged: movement of the gastric ventricle emptying...

  13. High Frequency Coils for Clinical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, John Thomas, Jr.

    To extend the inherent signal-to-noise (S/N) advantage of high field (4T+) NMR to clinical imaging and spectroscopy, a new approach to designing RF surface and volume coils is required. As coils approach wavelength dimensions, the performance of conventional lumped element (L,C) designs succumbs to: (1) non uniform current distributions resulting in decreased homogeneity, fill factor, and increased electric field losses, (2) decreased conductor skin depths resulting in increased ohmic losses, and (3) high inductance resulting in self resonance near or below the desired frequency of operation. At lower frequencies the phase change due to finite propagation velocity of transmit and receive signals on coil conductors is negligible. Therefore, the conventional design approach considers a DC (Biot-Savart) field only, for an unloaded (free-space) RF coil. This study recognizes and solves the problems of high field, clinical coil design. At higher radiofrequencies, the distributed nature of the coil and patient structure is considered in both circuit design and theory. Lumped elements are replaced by transmission line and cavity elements. Lumped element circuit theory is replaced by transmission line or transverse electromagnetic (TEM) theory. DC field analysis is replaced with fully time-dependent AC analysis for the coil and the human load. AC field losses and resultant heating in living tissues are investigated with regard to safety assurance for high frequency clinical coil design and application. By designing high frequency coils with the high frequency methods presented herein, desired B1 field characteristics are optimized, coil and patient losses are minimized, and self resonance is maximized. Clinical results obtained with these coils have verified for the first time the clear advantages of human NMR imaging and spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and above.

  14. Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance and evoked potentials data in a case of valproic-acid-related hyperammonemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantson, Philippe [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Intensive Care, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Neuroradiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Nassogne, Marie-Cecile [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Guerit, Jean-Michel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia increased to a toxic peak level at 411 {mu}mol/l 24 h after symptom onset, requiring VPA therapy discontinuation. Brain MR monitoring demonstrated early cytotoxic edema evolving into delayed vasogenic edema and final brain atrophy. Concomitantly to abnormalities within the brainstem on MR images, an increase in brainstem conduction at MEPs and clinical disturbance of brainstem reflexes were observed at the initial phase of the disease course. Later, the resolution of the MR and MEPs abnormalities paralleled the clinical recovery of the reflexes. (orig.)

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  16. Single spin magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  17. Colorectal neoplasm: Magnetic resonance colonography with fat enema-initial clinical experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess Magnetic resonance colonography with fat enema as a method for detection of colorectal neoplasm. METHODS: Consecutive twenty-two patients underwent MR colonography with fat enema before colonoscopy. T1-weighted three-dimensional fast spoiled gradientecho with inversion recovery sequence was acquired with the patient in the supine position before and 75 s after Gadopentetate Dimelumine administration. Where by, pre and post MR coronal images were obtained with a single breath hold for about 20 s to cover the entire colon. The quality of MR colonographs and patients' tolerance to fat contrast medium was investigated. Colorectal neoplasms identified by MR colonography were compared with those identified on colonoscopy and sensitivity of detecting the lesions was calculated accordingly. RESULTS: MR colonography with fat enema was well tolerated without sedation and analgesia. 120 out of 132 (90.9%) colonic segments were well distended and only 1 (0.8%) colonic segment was poor distension. After contrast enhancement scan, mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) value between the normal colonic wall and lumen was 18.5 ± 2.9 while mean CNR value between colorectal neoplasm and lumen was 20.2 ± 3.1. By Magnetic resonance colonography, 26 of 35 neoplasms (sensitivity 74.3%) were detected. However, sensitivity of MRC was 95.5% (21 of 22) for neoplasm larger than 10 mm and 55.6% (5 of 9) for 5-10 mm neoplasm. CONCLUSION: MR colonography with fat enema and T1-weighted three-dimensional fast spoiled gradientecho with inversion recovery sequence is feasible in detecting colorectal neoplasm larger than 10 mm.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces within the brain ( ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining very ...

  20. Resonant magnetic vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the complex angular momentum method, we provide a semiclassical analysis of electron scattering by a magnetic vortex of Aharonov-Bohm type. Regge poles of the S matrix are associated with surface waves orbiting around the vortex and supported by a magnetic field discontinuity. Rapid variations of sharp characteristic shapes can be observed on scattering cross sections. They correspond to quasibound states which are Breit-Wigner-type resonances associated with surface waves and which can be considered as quantum analogues of acoustic whispering-gallery modes. Such a resonant magnetic vortex could provide a different kind of artificial atom while the semiclassical approach developed here could be profitably extended in various areas of the physics of vortices

  1. Magnetic resonance of phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  5. A study of familial MELAS: Evaluation of A3243G mutation, clinical phenotype, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-monitored progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunnuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS syndrome are nonspecific and can easily be misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-based detection of lactate in the brain has been found to be of diagnostic help in MELAS syndrome, however, the issue of whether MRS features vary by stage remains unresolved. We assessed the causative mutation and radiological features of a family of MELAS. Four of the family members harbored the A3243G mutation, probably of maternal inheritance. However, the clinical phenotypic expression was different in these patients. MRS showed a lactate peak, decreased N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, which became more pronounced with progression of the disease, demonstrating that brain-MRS-based detection of lactate may be a suitable way to monitor the progression and treatment of MELAS.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of clinically stable late pregnancy bleeding: beyond ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MRI) and colour Doppler-ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of late pregnancy bleeding and to assess the accuracy of the different MR sequences in visualizing the origin of haemorrhage. 42 patients in the third trimester of pregnancy underwent to US and MRI for the evaluation of painless vaginal bleeding. Multiplanar HASTE, True Fisp, 3D T1 GRE and sagittal DWI sequences were acquired. Two radiologists, blinded to the results of US, reviewed each case, resolving by consensus any discrepancy. Reference standards were surgical and pathological findings. The reference standards identified 22 placenta previa, 11 placental abruptions (1 coincident with a placental chorioangioma), 1 thrombohaematoma and 1 fibroma with haemorrhagic degeneration. MRI identified correctly all these condition with an interobserver agreement of 0.955. DWI and T1 weighted sequences were statistically superior to Haste and True Fisp sequences in detecting the cause of bleeding (p <.001). US had 6 false negatives and 2 false positive results, its diagnostic accuracy resulting lower than MRI (p =.001). MRI accurately evaluates pregnancy bleeding with an excellent interobserver agreement and can grant new and additional data when US is negative. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of clinically stable late pregnancy bleeding: beyond ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselli, Gabriele; Gualdi, Gianfranco [Sapienza University, Radiology Dea Department, Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Brunelli, Roberto; Perrone, Giuseppina [Sapienza University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Parasassi, Tiziana [Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, National Research Council, Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    To compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MRI) and colour Doppler-ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of late pregnancy bleeding and to assess the accuracy of the different MR sequences in visualizing the origin of haemorrhage. 42 patients in the third trimester of pregnancy underwent to US and MRI for the evaluation of painless vaginal bleeding. Multiplanar HASTE, True Fisp, 3D T1 GRE and sagittal DWI sequences were acquired. Two radiologists, blinded to the results of US, reviewed each case, resolving by consensus any discrepancy. Reference standards were surgical and pathological findings. The reference standards identified 22 placenta previa, 11 placental abruptions (1 coincident with a placental chorioangioma), 1 thrombohaematoma and 1 fibroma with haemorrhagic degeneration. MRI identified correctly all these condition with an interobserver agreement of 0.955. DWI and T1 weighted sequences were statistically superior to Haste and True Fisp sequences in detecting the cause of bleeding (p <.001). US had 6 false negatives and 2 false positive results, its diagnostic accuracy resulting lower than MRI (p =.001). MRI accurately evaluates pregnancy bleeding with an excellent interobserver agreement and can grant new and additional data when US is negative. (orig.)

  8. Clinical application of sodium-23 nuclear magnetic resonance for measurement of red cell sodium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, S.; Kanashiro, M.; Hayashi, F. (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)) (and others)

    1989-01-01

    Red cell sodium (RBC-Na{sup +}) concentrations were measured using {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), without the destruction of erythrocyte membranes. Subjects were categorized into four groups: 20 normotensive subjects (NT group), 20 age-matched essential hypertensive patients (EHT group), 10 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA group), and 18 patients treated with digoxin (DIG group). Although RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations were similar between the NT group (6.14{plus minus}0.80 (Mean{plus minus}SD) mmol/1) and the EHT group (5.92{plus minus}0.99), they were significantly higher in both the PA group (7.55{plus minus}0.88, p<0.001) and the DIG group (8.43{plus minus}3.81, p<0.02). In the PA group, RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations decreased significantly after resection of the adenoma, and there was an inverse relationship between serum potassium and RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations (r=-0.65, p<0.01). In the DIG group, RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations tended to increase in proportion to serum digoxin levels (r=0.53, p<0.05). These results support the view that RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations are determined primarily by Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-pump activity of red cell membranes. This study showed also that Na{sup +} NMR is a useful method determining intracellular Na{sup +} concentrations. (author).

  9. Clinical comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in preoperative staging of primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Soichi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the preoperative staging in primary lung cancer, the findings of MRI were compared with those of computed tomography (CT) in 71 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma (5), squamous cell carcinoma (20), large cell carcinoma (5), small cell carcinoma (3), or cystadenocarcinoma (2). There was no difference between MRI and CT in diagnosing T factors. However, MRI tended to overestimate the diagnosis of N factors and CT tended to underestimate it for adenocarcinoma, although there was no difference between the imaging modalities for squamous cell carcinoma. In diagnosing metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes of squamous cell carcinoma, MRI was comparable in sensitivity to CT. However, the sensitivity of MRI was 10% higher than that of CT for hilar lymph nodes of squamous cell carcinoma and mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes of adenocarcinoma. Accuracy of MRI was equal to that of CT. Calcified lymph nodes were misinterpreted as enlarged lymph nodes on MRI. MRI is difficult to perform in patients with arrhythmia and respiratory disturbance because of longer imaging time. It may, however, become a promising tool for qualitative diagnosis of metastatic cancer. (N.K.).

  10. Anatomical Variations of Cystic Ducts in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawagi, Radha; Sundar, Shyam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Raghuwanshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anatomical variations of cystic duct (CD) are frequently unrecognized. It is important to be aware of these variations prior to any surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic intervention procedures. Objectives. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the imaging features of CD and its variants using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and document their prevalence in our population. Materials and Methods. This study included 198 patients who underwent MRCP due to different indications. Images were evaluated in picture archiving communication system (PACS) and variations of CD were documented. Results. Normal lateral insertion of CD at middle third of common hepatic duct was seen in 51% of cases. Medial insertion was seen in 16% of cases, of which 4% were low medial insertions. Low insertion of CD was noted in 9% of cases. Parallel course of CD was present in 7.5% of cases. High insertion was noted in 6% and short CD in 1% of cases. In 1 case, CD was draining into right hepatic duct. Congenital cystic dilation of CD was noted in one case with evidence of type IV choledochal cyst. Conclusion. Cystic duct variations are common and MRCP is an optimal imaging modality for demonstration of cystic duct anatomy. PMID:27313891

  11. Symptomatic Chiari malformation in adults: a new classification based on magnetic resonance imaging with clinical and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, P K; Awad, I A; Little, J R; Hahn, J F

    1991-05-01

    Thirty-five consecutive adults with Chiari malformation and progressive symptoms underwent surgical treatment at a single institution over a 3-year period. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after surgery. Images of the craniovertebral junction confirmed tonsillar herniation in all cases and allowed the definition of two anatomically distinct categories of the Chiari malformation in this age group. Twenty of the 35 patients had concomitant syringomyelia and were classified as Type A. The remaining 15 patients had evidence of frank herniation of the brain stem below the foramen magnum without evidence of syringomyelia and were labeled Type B. Type A patients had a predominant central cord symptomatology; Type B patients exhibited signs and symptoms of brain stem or cerebellar compression. The principal surgical procedure consisted of decompression of the foramen magnum, opening of the fourth ventricular outlet, and plugging of the obex. Significant improvement in preoperative symptoms and signs was observed in 9 of the 20 patients (45%) with syringomyelia (Type A), as compared to 13 of the 15 patients (87%) without syringomyelia (Type B). Postoperative reduction in syrinx volume was observed in 11 of the 20 patients with syringomyelia, including all 9 patients with excellent results. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed a classification of the adult Chiari malformation in adults based on objective anatomic criteria, with clinical and prognostic relevance. The presence of syringomyelia implies a less favorable response to surgical intervention. PMID:1876240

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging flow void changes after cerebrospinal fluid shunt in post-traumatic hydrocephalus: clinical correlations and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Miscusi, Massimo; Formisano, Rita; Peschillo, Simone; Polli, Filippo M; Melone, Antonio; Martini, Stefano; Paolini, Sergio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the flow-void in the cerebral aqueduct of patients with post-traumatic hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation could concur the right diagnosis and have a prognostic value. We analysed prospectively 28 patients after a severe head injury (GCSclinical suspicion of post-traumatic hydrocephalus and a fast flow-void signal in the cerebral acqueduct on T2-weighted and proton density MRI. Twenty-two patients were shunted (n=19) or revised (n=3). Six patients were followed-up without surgery. Twenty out of 22 shunted patients (91%) showed variable reduction of the fast flow-void. Eighteen of the operated patients (82%) presented a significant clinical improvement at 6-month follow-up. All patients (n=2) who had no change of the fast flow-void after surgery did not clinically improve. The six non-shunted patients did not present any clinical or radiological improvement. In head-injured patients, fast flow-void in the cerebral aqueduct is diagnostic for post-traumatic hydrocephalus and its reduction after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is correlated with a neurological improvement. In already shunted patients, a persistent fast flow-void is associated with a lack of or very slow clinical improvement and it should be considered indicative of under-drainage.

  13. Clinical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in coronary heart disease: The CE-MARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sculpher Mark

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several investigations are currently available to establish the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Of these, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR offers the greatest information from a single test, allowing the assessment of myocardial function, perfusion, viability and coronary artery anatomy. However, data from large scale studies that prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-parametric CMR for the detection of CHD in unselected populations are lacking, and there are few data on the performance of CMR compared with current diagnostic tests, its prognostic value and cost-effectiveness. Methods/design This is a prospective diagnostic accuracy cohort study of 750 patients referred to a cardiologist with suspected CHD. Exercise tolerance testing (ETT will be preformed if patients are physically able. Recruited patients will then undergo CMR and single photon emission tomography (SPECT followed in all patients by invasive X-ray coronary angiography. The order of the CMR and SPECT tests will be randomised. The CMR study will comprise rest and adenosine stress perfusion, cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement and whole-heart MR coronary angiography. SPECT will use a gated stress/rest protocol. The primary objective of the study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CMR in detecting significant coronary stenosis, as defined by X-ray coronary angiography. Secondary objectives include an assessment of the prognostic value of CMR imaging, a comparison of its diagnostic accuracy against SPECT and ETT, and an assessment of cost-effectiveness. Discussion The CE-MARC study is a prospective, diagnostic accuracy cohort study of 750 patients assessing the performance of a multi-parametric CMR study in detecting CHD using invasive X-ray coronary angiography as the reference standard and comparing it with ETT and SPECT. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77246133

  14. Clinical significance of periventricular high intensity lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, vascular dementia (VD, 31 cases), senile dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT, 36 cases) and mixed type dementia (14 cases) were studied by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnosis of dementia was made according to DSM-III and Hachinski's ischemic score. The areas of periventricular high intensity lesions (PVH) and those of brain parenchyma were measured by digitizer which was connected to a computer. The PVH score was obtained by dividing the areas of PVH by those of brain parenchyma at the level of the body of the lateral ventricle. A multiple variable analysis was applied to the PVH scores and risk factors for dementia using Hayashi's quantification method I. The multiple correlation coefficient between the PVH and the risk factors was 0.685. The most significant correlation was found between Hachinski's ischemic score and the PVH score (partial correlation coefficient: 0.58). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and the PVH score (0.25), as well as between the Hasegawa dementia score and the PVH score (0.24). Using the student T test, it was shown that the large PVH group was significantly correlated to poor ADL, whereas the small PVH group was not. The large PVH group in VD showed lower Hasegawa score than the small PVH group. On the other hand, there was no such correlation in DAT. PVH with prolongation of T2 could exist in various pathological states irrespective of their causes. Diffuse PVH tended to be frequently observed in VD together with poor ADL. It was therefore thought that brain ischemia was the main cause of PVH. (author)

  15. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  16. Clinical application of magnetic resonance angiography for coronary arteries. Correlation with conventional angiography and evaluation of imaging time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitatori, Toshiaki; Hanaoka, Hideto; Yoshino, Ayako [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the coronary arteries is a particularly difficult task because of the small size of the vessels and cardio-respiratory motion. The authors describe a method of performing of ultrafast MRA of the coronary arteries with a standard MR system and body coil. Each image was obtained within a single breath hold by `segmented Turbo FLASH` sequences using an electro-cardiography gate. Clinical application was performed in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, and a comparison was made with conventional coronary angiography. The imaging time was shortened significantly by our methods. The diagnosis was made by at least two different images to avoid false positives. The results indicated a good correlation between MRA and conventional angiography. (author).

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  18. Analysis of clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging of posttraumatic diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the relationship between posttraumatic diabetes insipidus (DI) onset and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the last 5 years, 13 survivors of head injury were diagnosed with DI. We divided them into 2 groups, early and delayed, by DI onset. The early group consisted of 5 patients diagnosed with DI within 12 hours of injury. The delayed group consisted of 8 diagnosed after 12 hours or more. We analyzed differences between groups for factors such as Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge, DI duration, intracranial pressure (ICP) when diagnosed with DI, maximum ICP during observation, and MRI findings. In the early group, mean onset of DI was about 40 hours earlier than that in the delayed group, 7±2 vs. 47±19 hours, p<0.05. No significant differences were seen between groups for GCS, ISS, or GOS. Although no significant difference was seen in ICP, barbiturate therapy was needed in 7 cases, craniotomy in 4, and hypothermia therapy in 5 to control ICP in the delayed group. Barbiturate therapy was needed in only 2 cases and no indications were seen for craniotomy or hypothermia therapy in the early group. All cases in the delayed group recovered from DI within 3 weeks, but 3 in the early group were diagnosed with permanent DI and 1 needed antidiuretic hormone (ADH) during 75 days. All of the early group was recognized to have hypothalamic injury and diffuse axonal injury in MRI, but none in the delayed group was recognized for these MRI findings. In the delayed group, the high-intensity signal of the posterior pituitary gland in T1 weighted MRI, thought to represent the granule of ADH, disappeared in the early period and reappeared gradually after recovery from DI, but this signal did not reappear in the early group. We therefore conducted that the crucial cause of posttraumatic DI in the early group is direct hypothalamic injury, perhaps due to diffuse axonal injury, and that in the delayed group, secondary

  19. Analysis of clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging of posttraumatic diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tetsuya; Kohno, Masanobu; Iwai, Atsushi; Abe, Yoshio; Ikeuchi, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshiharu [Osaka Prefectural General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the relationship between posttraumatic diabetes insipidus (DI) onset and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the last 5 years, 13 survivors of head injury were diagnosed with DI. We divided them into 2 groups, early and delayed, by DI onset. The early group consisted of 5 patients diagnosed with DI within 12 hours of injury. The delayed group consisted of 8 diagnosed after 12 hours or more. We analyzed differences between groups for factors such as Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge, DI duration, intracranial pressure (ICP) when diagnosed with DI, maximum ICP during observation, and MRI findings. In the early group, mean onset of DI was about 40 hours earlier than that in the delayed group, 7{+-}2 vs. 47{+-}19 hours, p<0.05. No significant differences were seen between groups for GCS, ISS, or GOS. Although no significant difference was seen in ICP, barbiturate therapy was needed in 7 cases, craniotomy in 4, and hypothermia therapy in 5 to control ICP in the delayed group. Barbiturate therapy was needed in only 2 cases and no indications were seen for craniotomy or hypothermia therapy in the early group. All cases in the delayed group recovered from DI within 3 weeks, but 3 in the early group were diagnosed with permanent DI and 1 needed antidiuretic hormone (ADH) during 75 days. All of the early group was recognized to have hypothalamic injury and diffuse axonal injury in MRI, but none in the delayed group was recognized for these MRI findings. In the delayed group, the high-intensity signal of the posterior pituitary gland in T1 weighted MRI, thought to represent the granule of ADH, disappeared in the early period and reappeared gradually after recovery from DI, but this signal did not reappear in the early group. We therefore conducted that the crucial cause of posttraumatic DI in the early group is direct hypothalamic injury, perhaps due to diffuse axonal injury, and that in the delayed group, secondary

  20. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging is comprehensive, well structured, and well written. The material is current and well referenced. The illustrations are good and complement the text well. The overall quality of publication is above average. The greatest attribute of the book is its readability. The author demonstrates ample skill in making complex subjects, such as MR physics and imaging of cerebral hemorrhage, easy to understand. The book closes with a detailed atlas on the anatomic appearance of the brain on MR images in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Duodenoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syms, Richard R A; Young, Ian R; Wadsworth, Christopher A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Rea, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A side-viewing duodenoscope capable of both optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The instrument is constructed from MR-compatible materials and combines a coherent fiber bundle for optical imaging, an irrigation channel and a side-opening biopsy channel for the passage of catheter tools with a tip saddle coil for radio-frequency signal reception. The receiver coil is magnetically coupled to an internal pickup coil to provide intrinsic safety. Impedance matching is achieved using a mechanically variable mutual inductance, and active decoupling by PIN-diode switching. (1)H MRI of phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver specimens was carried out at 1.5 T. An MRI field-of-view appropriate for use during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was obtained, with limited artefacts, and a signal-to-noise ratio advantage over a surface array coil was demonstrated. PMID:23807423

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging by visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated functional magnetic resonance images obtained in 8 healthy subjects in response to visual stimulation using a conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging system with multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging. Activation in the visual cortex was clearly demonstrated by the multi-slice experiment with a task-related change in signal intensity. In addition to the primary visual cortex, other areas were also activated by a complicated visual task. Multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging offers high temporal resolution and allows the three-dimensional analysis of brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a useful noninvasive method of mapping brain function. (author)

  3. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  4. Advances in magnetic resonance 11

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 11, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the principles and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization, with emphasis on molecular motions and collisions, intermolecular couplings, and chemical interactions. Subsequent chapters focus on the assessment of a proposed broadband decoupling method and studies of time-domain (or Fourier transform) multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance.

  5. Evaluation of carcinoma cervix using magnetic resonance imaging: correlation with clinical FIGO staging and impact on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate carcinoma of the cervix using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), correlate with clinical approach of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system and to study the impact of MRI findings on patient management. Pathologically confirmed, 75 cases of carcinoma cervix referred to our institute from April 2007 to March 2008 were prospectively studied. Clinical FIGO stage was assigned to each patient by gynaecologists blinded to MRI findings. MRI stage (based on FIGO and TNM) was allotted by radiologists blinded to clinicopathological details. For patients who were operated, histopathological stage was taken as gold standard. For patients who were not operated, gynaecologists decided on a gold standard stage based on all available clinical and imaging data. MR staging was correlated with FIGO staging, with focus on significant alterations in treatment strategy caused due to MRI findings. MRI staging had an accuracy of 89.3% (67/75), while clinical FIGO staging had 61.3% (46/75) accuracy. MRI staging and FIGO staging concurred in 65.6% of the patients and differed in 34.4% of the patients. In about 30.6% (23/75) of the patients, there were relevant additional MRI findings not suspected clinically. The common significant MRI findings were detection of pelvic lymphadenopathy and clinically unsuspected bowel/bladder invasion. The management protocol was significantly altered in 86.9% (20/23) of the patients with additional MRI findings constituting 26.6% (20/75) of the total population. MRI is highly accurate in evaluating carcinoma of the cervix. MRI findings significantly altered therapeutic decisions in 26.6% of the patients. MRI should be considered prior to treatment planning in every patient.

  6. Estimation of the extent of local prostate cancer spread according to magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kazymov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the extent of local tumor spread is a main goal in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC. The value of this criterion is that its clinical stage plays a key role in choosing a treatment policy. Overestimation of the clinical stage of cancer leads to the fact that specialists refuse radical and its underestimation gives rise to its recurrence. Our trial defined criteria for the diagnostic efficiency of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 150 PC patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. The findings were as follows: the diagnostic sensitivity of the method in determining the spread of the cancer beyond the organ was 76.8 %; its diagnostic specificity and accuracy were 80.2 and 78.7 %, respectively. The positive predictive value in detecting the extra-organ spread of the tumor was equal to 76.8 %; the negative predictive value was 80.2 %. A prognostic classification of a risk for locally advanced PS has been developed using the independent clinical and MRI signs found.

  7. Advances in magnetic resonance 6

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 6 focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of applying magnetic resonance methods to various problems in physical chemistry, emphasizing the different aspects of the exegesis of these problems. This book discusses the gas phase magnetic resonance of electronically excited molecules; techniques for observing excited electronic states; NMR studies in liquids at high pressure; and effect of pressure on self-diffusion in liquids. The nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of organic free radicals; measurement of proton coupling constants by NMR; an

  8. Hyperpolarized Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) technology has enabled a new paradigm for renal imaging investigations. It allows standard magnetic resonance imaging complementary renal metabolic and functional fingerprints within seconds without the use of ionizing radiation....... Increasing evidence supports its utility in preclinical research in which the real-time interrogation of metabolic turnover can aid the physiological and pathophysiological metabolic and functional effects in ex vivo and in vivo models. The method has already been translated to humans, although the clinical...

  9. Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate undifferentiated arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2005-01-01

    A high sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory and destructive changes in inflammatory joint diseases makes magnetic resonance imaging potentially useful for assigning specific diagnoses, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in arthritides, that remain undifferentiated after...... conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographic examinations. With recent data as the starting point, the present paper describes the current knowledge on magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated arthritis....

  10. The Value of Neurosurgical and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Clinically Integrated Neuroanatomy Modules: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…

  11. Intervertebral disc disease in dogs - Part 2: Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological findings in 74 surgically treated dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.C.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Bergknut, N.; Gahrmann, Ninke; Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intervertebral disc (IVD) disease and IVD degeneration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical severity of IVD herniation (IVDH), determined with a neurological grading system, with findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology

  12. Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results of Arthroscopic Repair of Intratendinous Partial-thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xiao; Guo-Qing Cui

    2015-01-01

    Background:Partial-thickness rotator cufftears (PTRCTs) are being diagnosed more often because of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Compared with articular and bursal side tears,there have been few studies about evaluating the clinical and structural outcomes after intratendinous tear repair.Methods:From 2008 to 2012,33 consecutive patients with intratendinous PTRCTs underwent arthroscopic repair.All of them were retrospectively evaluated.The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and constant scores were evaluated before operation and at the final follow-up.Postoperative cuff integrity was determined using MRI according to Sugaya's classification.Results:At the 2-year follow-up,the average UCLA score increased from 16.7 ± 1.9 to 32.5 ± 3.5,and the constant score increased from 66.2 ± 10.5 to 92.4 ± 6.9 (P < 0.001).Twenty seven patients received follow-up MRI examinations at an average of 15.2 months after surgery.Of these 27 patients,22 (81.5%) had a healed tendon,and five patients had partial tears.There was no association between functional and anatomic results.Conclusions:For intratendinous PTRCT,clinical outcomes and tendon healing showed good results at a minimum 2-year after arthroscopic repair.

  13. Assessment of sub-clinical acute cellular rejection after heart transplantation: comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieghoff, Christian; Hildebrand, Lysann; Grothoff, Matthias; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Luecke, Christian; Andres, Claudia; Nitzsche, Stefan; Riese, Franziska; Gutberlet, Matthias [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Barten, Markus J.; Strueber, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Comparing the diagnostic value of multi-sequential cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for sub-clinical cardiac allograft rejection. One hundred and forty-six examinations in 73 patients (mean age 53 ± 12 years, 58 men) were performed using a 1.5 Tesla system and compared to EMB. Examinations included a STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequence for calculation of edema ratio (ER), a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence for assessment of global relative enhancement (gRE), and inversion-recovery sequences to visualize late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Histological grade ≥1B was considered relevant rejection. One hundred and twenty-seven (127/146 = 87 %) EMBs demonstrated no or mild signs of rejection (grades ≤1A) and 19/146 (13 %) a relevant rejection (grade ≥1B). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values were as follows: ER: 63 %, 78 %, 30 %, and 93 %; gRE: 63 %, 70 %, 24 %, and 93 %; LGE: 68 %, 36 %, 13 %, and 87 %; with the combination of ER and gRE with at least one out of two positive: 84 %, 57 %, 23 %, and 96 %. ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.724 for ER and 0.659 for gRE. CMR parameters for myocarditis are useful to detect sub-clinical acute cellular rejection after heart transplantation. Comparable results to myocarditis can be achieved with a combination of parameters. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics and clinical relevance of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Makoto; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suwa, Kenichiro; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saitoh, Takeji; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is considerably frequent in autopsy, but the early identification is clinically difficult. Recent advantages in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) enabled to detect myocardial fibrotic scar as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We aimed to examine the prevalence and distribution of LGE in patients with SSc, and associate them with clinical features, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac function. Forty patients with SSc (58 ± 14 years-old, 35 females, limited/diffuse 25/15, disease duration 106 ± 113 months) underwent serological tests, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and CMR. Seven patients (17.5 %) showed LGE in 26 segments of left ventricle (LV). LGE distributed mainly in the basal to mid inter-ventricular septum and the right ventricular (RV) insertion points, but involved all the myocardial regions. More patients with LGE showed NYHA functional class II and more (71 vs. 21 %, p 125 pg/ml). When cardiac involvement of SSc was defined as low LVEF, ECG abnormalities or high NT-proBNP, the sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of LGE were 36, 92, 71 and 72 %, respectively. We could clarify the prevalence and distribution of LGE in Japanese patients with SSc. The presence of LGE was associated with cardiac symptom, conduction disturbance and impaired LV/RV contraction.

  15. Characteristics and clinical relevance of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Makoto; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suwa, Kenichiro; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saitoh, Takeji; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is considerably frequent in autopsy, but the early identification is clinically difficult. Recent advantages in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) enabled to detect myocardial fibrotic scar as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We aimed to examine the prevalence and distribution of LGE in patients with SSc, and associate them with clinical features, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac function. Forty patients with SSc (58 ± 14 years-old, 35 females, limited/diffuse 25/15, disease duration 106 ± 113 months) underwent serological tests, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and CMR. Seven patients (17.5 %) showed LGE in 26 segments of left ventricle (LV). LGE distributed mainly in the basal to mid inter-ventricular septum and the right ventricular (RV) insertion points, but involved all the myocardial regions. More patients with LGE showed NYHA functional class II and more (71 vs. 21 %, p 125 pg/ml). When cardiac involvement of SSc was defined as low LVEF, ECG abnormalities or high NT-proBNP, the sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of LGE were 36, 92, 71 and 72 %, respectively. We could clarify the prevalence and distribution of LGE in Japanese patients with SSc. The presence of LGE was associated with cardiac symptom, conduction disturbance and impaired LV/RV contraction. PMID:24996373

  16. Non-uniformity of Clinical Head, Head and Neck, and Body Coils in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nazarpoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Signal intensity uniformity in a magnetic resonance (MR image indicates how well the MR imaging (MRI system represents an object. One of the major sources of image non-uniformity in high-field MRI scanners is inhomogeneity of radio-frequency coil. The aim of this study was to investigate non-uniformity in head, head and neck, and body coils and compare the obtained results to determine the best clinical coil for future clinical application. Materials and Methods A phantom was designed to investigate the non-uniformity of coils. All evaluations were carried out using a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. T1-weighted inversion recovery sequence (linear phase encoding and turbo fast low angle shot (TurboFLASH images were used to find non-uniformity in the clinical coils. For testing the uniformity of coils, signal intensity profiles in parts of the coronal image of phantom were measured over X and Y axes. Results The results showed that body coil was the most uniform coil of all; in addition, the head and neck coil was more uniform than the head coil. The results also indicated that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the head and neck coil was higher than the head and body coils. Moreover, SNR of the head coil was higher than that of the body coil. Conclusion In order to accurately find or apply an image signal intensity for measuring organ blood flow or perfusion, coil non-uniformity corrections are required.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging tracking of ferumoxytol-labeled human neural stem cells: studies leading to clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutova, Margarita; Frank, Joseph A; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Gilchrist, Megan M; Annala, Alexander J; Metz, Marianne Z; Abramyants, Yelena; Herrmann, Kelsey A; Ghoda, Lucy Y; Najbauer, Joseph; Brown, Christine E; Blanchard, M Suzette; Lesniak, Maciej S; Kim, Seung U; Barish, Michael E; Aboody, Karen S; Moats, Rex A

    2013-10-01

    Numerous stem cell-based therapies are currently under clinical investigation, including the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles to target therapeutic agents to invasive brain tumors. The ability to monitor the time course, migration, and distribution of stem cells following transplantation into patients would provide critical information for optimizing treatment regimens. No effective cell-tracking methodology has yet garnered clinical acceptance. A highly promising noninvasive method for monitoring NSCs and potentially other cell types in vivo involves preloading them with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) to enable cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here the preclinical studies that led to U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for first-in-human investigational use of ferumoxytol to label NSCs prior to transplantation into brain tumor patients, followed by surveillance serial MRI. A combination of heparin, protamine sulfate, and ferumoxytol (HPF) was used to label the NSCs. HPF labeling did not affect cell viability, growth kinetics, or tumor tropism in vitro, and it enabled MRI visualization of NSC distribution within orthotopic glioma xenografts. MRI revealed dynamic in vivo NSC distribution at multiple time points following intracerebral or intravenous injection into glioma-bearing mice that correlated with histological analysis. Preclinical safety/toxicity studies of intracerebrally administered HPF-labeled NSCs in mice were also performed, and they showed no significant clinical or behavioral changes, no neuronal or systemic toxicities, and no abnormal accumulation of iron in the liver or spleen. These studies support the clinical use of ferumoxytol labeling of cells for post-transplant MRI visualization and tracking.

  18. Reproducibility of small animal cine and scar cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 3.0 tesla system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the inter-study, inter-reader and intra-reader reproducibility of cardiac cine and scar imaging in rats using a clinical 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system. Thirty-three adult rats (Sprague–Dawley) were imaged 24 hours after surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery using a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) equipped with a dedicated 70 mm solenoid receive-only coil. Left-ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, ejection fraction and amount of myocardial scar tissue were measured. Intra-and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed in all animals. In addition, repeat MR exams were performed in 6 randomly chosen rats within 24 hours to assess inter-study reproducibility. The MR imaging protocol was successfully completed in 32 (97%) animals. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated high intra-reader reproducibility (mean bias%: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), -1.7%; LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), -2.2%; LV ejection fraction (LVEF), 1.0%; LV mass, -2.7%; and scar mass, -1.2%) and high inter-reader reproducibility (mean bias%: LVEDV, 3.3%; LVESV, 6.2%; LVEF, -4.8%; LV mass, -1.9%; and scar mass, -1.8%). In addition, a high inter-study reproducibility was found (mean bias%: LVEDV, 0.1%; LVESV, -1.8%; LVEF, 1.0%; LV mass, -4.6%; and scar mass, -6.2%). Cardiac MR imaging of rats yielded highly reproducible measurements of cardiac volumes/function and myocardial infarct size on a clinical 3.0 Tesla MR scanner system. Consequently, more widely available high field clinical MR scanners can be employed for small animal imaging of the heart e.g. when aiming at serial assessments during therapeutic intervention studies

  19. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for pre-treatment local staging of prostate cancer: A Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Finelli, Antonio; Morash, Chris; Morgan, Scott C.; Power, Nicholas; Schieda, Nichola; Haider, Masoom A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The utility of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of prostate cancer is controversial. Due to the success of multiparametric MRI in cancer localization, there is renewed interested in MRI (± functional sequences) for local staging. Guidance on pre-treatment local staging of prostate cancer by MRI was developed using systematic review methodology and expert consultation. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and other databases were searched to identify studies comparing: (1) MRI staging vs. radical prostatectomy staging on diagnostic accuracy outcomes; and (2) MRI staging vs. routine clinical staging on clinical and patient outcomes. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were synthesized by outcome and sensitivity/specificity analysis by tumour location was performed. Evidence quality of included studies was assessed and considered in recommendation formulation. Results: The literature search identified 2510 citations; 62 studies were included. Analysis of MRI ≥1.5 T plus endorectal coil (ER) (± functional sequences) in the detection of extraprostatic extension or seminal vesicle invasion showed modest sensitivities (≥50%) and excellent specificities (>85%) among patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy. MRI upstaging was shown in 20/21 studies, with large variation in correctness (11–85%). Scarcity of clinical and patient outcomes among studies limited synthesis and evaluation. Quality assessment found non-trivial biases. Conclusions: Modest imaging performance was shown for MRI (1.5 T + ER and 3 T ± ER) ± functional sequences in regards to sensitivity. Limitations in study design, reporting of clinical and patient outcomes, and the heterogeneous use of MRI tempered the strength of the recommendations.

  20. Routine clinical measures of adiposity as predictors of visceral fat in adolescence: a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Visceral fat (VF increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (waist, predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years. Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height. RESULTS: In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.

  1. Advances in magnetic resonance 12

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 12, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of diffusion and self-diffusion measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on spin-lattice relaxation time in hydrogen isotope mixtures; the principles of optical detection of nuclear spin alignment and nuclear quadropole resonance; and the spin-1 behavior, including the relaxation of the quasi-invariants of the motion of a system of pairs of dipolar coupled spin-1/2 nu

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  3. CLINICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF THORACOLUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISK EXTRUSIONS AND PROTRUSIONS IN LARGE BREED DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sergio A; Volk, Holger A; Packer, Rowena Ma; Kenny, Patrick J; Beltran, Elsa; De Decker, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Treatment recommendations differ for dogs with intervertebral disk extrusion vs. intervertebral disk protrusion. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine whether clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables could be used to predict a diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion in dogs. Dogs were included if they were large breed dogs, had an MRI study of the thoracolumbar or lumbar vertebral column, had undergone spinal surgery, and had the type of intervertebral disk herniation (intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion) clearly stated in surgical reports. A veterinary neurologist unaware of surgical findings reviewed MRI studies and recorded number, location, degree of degeneration and morphology of intervertebral disks, presence of nuclear clefts, disk space narrowing, extent, localization and lateralization of herniated disk material, degree of spinal cord compression, intraparenchymal intensity changes, spondylosis deformans, spinal cord swelling, spinal cord atrophy, vertebral endplate changes, and presence of extradural hemorrhage. Ninety-five dogs were included in the sample. Multivariable statistical models indicated that longer duration of clinical signs (P = 0.01), midline instead of lateralized disk herniation (P = 0.007), and partial instead of complete disk degeneration (P = 0.01) were associated with a diagnosis of intervertebral disk protrusion. The presence of a single intervertebral herniation (P = 0.023) and dispersed intervertebral disk material not confined to the disk space (P = 0.06) made a diagnosis of intervertebral disk extrusion more likely. Findings from this study identified one clinical and four MRI variables that could potentially facilitate differentiating intervertebral disk extrusions from protrusions in dogs. PMID:27038182

  4. Voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging investigation of poor and preserved clinical insight in people with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapara, Adegboyega; Ffytche, Dominic H; Cooke, Michael A; Williams, Steven CR; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To define regional grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia patients with poor insight (Insight-), relative to patients with preserved clinical insight (Insight+), and healthy controls. METHODS Forty stable schizophrenia outpatients (20 Insight- and 20 Insight+) and 20 healthy controls underwent whole brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Insight in all patients was assessed using the Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS; a self-report measure). The two patient groups were pre-selected to match on most clinical and demographic parameters but, by design, they had markedly distinct BIS scores. Voxel-based morphometry employed in SPM8 was used to examine group differences in grey matter volumes across the whole brain. RESULTS The three participant groups were comparable in age [F(2,57) = 0.34, P = 0.71] and the patient groups did not differ in age at illness onset [t(38) = 0.87, P = 0.39]. Insight- and Insight+ patient groups also did not differ in symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndromes scale (PANSS): Positive symptoms [t(38) = 0.58, P = 0.57], negative symptoms [t(38) = 0.61, P = 0.55], general psychopathology [t(38) = 1.30, P = 0.20] and total PANSS scores [t(38) = 0.21, P = 0.84]. The two patient groups, as expected, varied significantly in the level of BIS-assessed insight [t(38) = 12.11, P clusters, family-wise error corrected P 0.20) from each other. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrate a clear association between poor clinical insight and smaller fronto-temporal, occipital and cerebellar grey matter volumes in stable long-term schizophrenia patients.

  5. Prediction of individual clinical scores in patients with Parkinson's disease using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, YanBing; Luo, ChunYan; Yang, Jing; Ou, RuWei; Song, Wei; Wei, QianQian; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang; Gong, QiYong

    2016-07-15

    Neuroimaging holds the promise that it may one day aid the clinical assessment. However, the vast majority of studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have reported average differences between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls, which do not permit inferences at the level of individuals. This study was to develop a model for the prediction of PD illness severity ratings from individual fMRI brain scan. The resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 84 patients with PD and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) scores were obtained before scanning. The RVR method was used to predict clinical scores (UPDRS-III) from fMRI scans. The application of RVR to whole-brain resting-state fMRI data allowed prediction of UPDRS-III scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.35, P-value=0.001; mean sum of squares=222.17, P-value=0.002). This prediction was informed strongly by negative weight areas including prefrontal lobe and medial occipital lobe, and positive weight areas including medial parietal lobe. It was suggested that fMRI scans contained sufficient information about neurobiological change in patients with PD to permit accurate prediction about illness severity, on an individual subject basis. Our results provided preliminary evidence, as proof-of-concept, to support that fMRI might be possible to be a clinically useful quantitative assessment aid in PD at individual level. This may enable clinicians to target those uncooperative patients and machines to replace human for a more efficient use of health care resources. PMID:27288771

  6. The clinical impact of late gadolinium enhancement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: serial analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Hideki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to investigate both the clinical implications of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and the relation of LGE to clinical findings in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC. Methods We evaluated 20 consecutive patients (2 men, 18 women; median age, 77 years; interquartile range [IQR] 67-82 years who were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of TTC. CMR was performed within 1 week after admission, and follow-up studies were conducted 1.5 and 6 months later. Results In 8 patients, CMR imaging during the sub-acute phase revealed LGE in the area matched with wall motion impairment. Cardiogenic shock was more frequently observed in patients with LGE than in those without LGE (38% vs 0%, p = 0.049. The patients with LGE needed a longer duration for ECG normalization and recovery of wall motion than did those without LGE (median 205 days, IQR [152-363] vs 68 days, [43-145], p = 0.005; 15 days, [10-185] vs 7 days, [4-13], p = 0.030, respectively. In 5 of these 8 patients, LGE disappeared within 45-180 days (170, IQR [56-180] of onset. The patients with LGE remaining in the chronic phase had higher peak creatine kinase levels than did those without LGE (median 307 IU/L, IQR [264-460] vs 202 IU/L, [120-218], p = 0.017. Conclusion LGE by CMR in the sub-acute phase may be associated with the severity and prolonged recovery to normal of clinical findings in TTC.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliitis in early seronegative spondylarthropathy. Abnormalities correlated to clinical and laboratory findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhakka, K B; Jurik, A G; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new MRI scoring system of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in early spondylarthropathy (SpA) with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Forty-one patients (24 males, 17 females) with a median age of 26 yr and a median duration of inflammatory low back pain of 19 months...... were included. They all fulfilled the ESSG-criteria for SpA. The patients were examined by MRI of the SIJs using a new scoring system. Clinical examinations, biochemical tests, functional score (BASFI), and pain score (BASDAI) were also performed. RESULTS: 95% of the patients had inflammation and....../or destructive bone changes of the SIJs at MRI. No correlation was found between MRI pathology and clinical findings. MRI demonstrated significantly greater severity of both inflammation and destruction of the SIJs in HLA B27 positive patients than in the HLA B27 negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with...

  8. ST-Segment resolution and clinical outcome with ischemic postconditioning and comparison to magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Holmvang, Lene; Kelbæk, Henning;

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is suggested to reduce myocardial damage. However, the association with ST-segment resolution (STR) and clinical outcome is not determined. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association of I...

  9. Clinical and magnetic resonance observations in cerebral small-vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.I.H. Kwa

    1999-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis tried to address the following questions: 1. Is it possible to detect genetic factors and vascular risk factors that are specifically associated with the development of small- or large-vessel disease? 2. Are the different clinical and MRI manifestations, that are at

  10. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the clinical management of the acutely locked knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Eugene G.; Nasser, Khalid N.; Dawson, Stewart; Goh, Leslie A. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre and Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    To explore prospectively the hypothesis that MRI of the acutely locked knee can alter surgical decision-making.Design and patients. The study group comprised patients with a clinical diagnosis of knee locking requiring arthroscopy. The decision to carry out arthroscopy was made by an experienced consultant orthopaedic surgeon specialising in trauma and recorded in the patient's notes prior to MRI. Preoperative MRI was carried out using a 1.5 T system. The management was altered from surgical to conservative treatment in 20 (48%) patients on the basis of the MR findings. Arthroscopy was limited to patients with an MR diagnosis of a mechanical block, usually a displaced meniscal tear or loose body. Both patient groups were followed clinically until symptoms resolved.Results. Forty-two patients were entered into the study. MRI identified a mechanical cause for locking in 22 patients (21 avulsion meniscal tears and 1 loose body). All were confirmed at arthroscopy. Twenty patients were changed from operative to non-operative treatment on the basis of the MRI findings. One patient in this group required a delayed arthroscopy for an impinging anterior cruciate ligament stump. The sensitivity/specificity/accuracy of MRI in identifying patients who require arthroscopy was therefore 96%/100%/98% respectively.Conclusion. MRI can successfully segregate patients with a clinical diagnosis of mechanical locking into those who have a true mechanical block and those who can be treated conservatively. MRI should precede arthroscopy in this clinical setting. (orig.)

  11. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT OF EXTRA-OCULAR MUSCLES IN DOGS WITH NO CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF ORBITAL DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOSLYN, S.; Richards, S.; Boroffka, S.A.E.B.; Mitchell, M.; Hammond, G.; Sullivan, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of extra-ocular muscles has been reported in cases of orbital pathology in both veterinary and medical magnetic resonance imaging.We have also observed this finding in the absence of orbital disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe extra-ocular muscle contrast enh

  12. Advanced echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease : insights in right ventricular mechanics and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, Anna Elisabeth van der

    2011-01-01

    The thesis provides new insights into advanced echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques for comprehensive mechanical assessment of the right ventricle in healthy children and in pediatric patients with right ventricular dysfunction. It is shown that the right ventricle does not co

  13. Characterization of the onboard imaging unit for the first clinical magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of the onboard imaging unit for the first clinical magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods: The imaging performance characterization included four components: ACR (the American College of Radiology) phantom test, spatial integrity, coil signal to noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity, and magnetic field homogeneity. The ACR phantom test was performed in accordance with the ACR phantom test guidance. The spatial integrity test was evaluated using a 40.8 × 40.8 × 40.8 cm3 spatial integrity phantom. MR and computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom were acquired and coregistered. Objects were identified around the surfaces of 20 and 35 cm diameters of spherical volume (DSVs) on both the MR and CT images. Geometric distortion was quantified using deviation in object location between the MR and CT images. The coil SNR test was performed according to the national electrical manufacturers association (NEMA) standards MS-1 and MS-9. The magnetic field homogeneity test was measured using field camera and spectral peak methods. Results: For the ACR tests, the slice position error was less than 0.10 cm, the slice thickness error was less than 0.05 cm, the resolved high-contrast spatial resolution was 0.09 cm, the resolved low-contrast spokes were more than 25, the image intensity uniformity was above 93%, and the percentage ghosting was less than 0.22%. All were within the ACR recommended specifications. The maximum geometric distortions within the 20 and 35 cm DSVs were 0.10 and 0.18 cm for high spatial resolution three-dimensional images and 0.08 and 0.20 cm for high temporal resolution two dimensional cine images based on the distance-to-phantom-center method. The average SNR was 12.0 for the body coil, 42.9 for the combined torso coil, and 44.0 for the combined head and neck coil. Magnetic field homogeneities at gantry angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° were 23.55, 20.43, 18.76, 19

  14. Characterization of the onboard imaging unit for the first clinical magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yanle, E-mail: Hu.Yanle@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona 85054 (United States); Rankine, Leith; Green, Olga L.; Kashani, Rojano; Li, H. Harold; Li, Hua; Rodriguez, Vivian; Santanam, Lakshmi; Wooten, H. Omar; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Nana, Roger; Shvartsman, Shmaryu; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James F. [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of the onboard imaging unit for the first clinical magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods: The imaging performance characterization included four components: ACR (the American College of Radiology) phantom test, spatial integrity, coil signal to noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity, and magnetic field homogeneity. The ACR phantom test was performed in accordance with the ACR phantom test guidance. The spatial integrity test was evaluated using a 40.8 × 40.8 × 40.8 cm{sup 3} spatial integrity phantom. MR and computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom were acquired and coregistered. Objects were identified around the surfaces of 20 and 35 cm diameters of spherical volume (DSVs) on both the MR and CT images. Geometric distortion was quantified using deviation in object location between the MR and CT images. The coil SNR test was performed according to the national electrical manufacturers association (NEMA) standards MS-1 and MS-9. The magnetic field homogeneity test was measured using field camera and spectral peak methods. Results: For the ACR tests, the slice position error was less than 0.10 cm, the slice thickness error was less than 0.05 cm, the resolved high-contrast spatial resolution was 0.09 cm, the resolved low-contrast spokes were more than 25, the image intensity uniformity was above 93%, and the percentage ghosting was less than 0.22%. All were within the ACR recommended specifications. The maximum geometric distortions within the 20 and 35 cm DSVs were 0.10 and 0.18 cm for high spatial resolution three-dimensional images and 0.08 and 0.20 cm for high temporal resolution two dimensional cine images based on the distance-to-phantom-center method. The average SNR was 12.0 for the body coil, 42.9 for the combined torso coil, and 44.0 for the combined head and neck coil. Magnetic field homogeneities at gantry angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° were 23.55, 20.43, 18.76, 19

  15. Persistent Trigeminal Artery Variant Detected by Conventional Angiography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography-Incidence and Clinical Significance-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun Joo; Lee, Chae Heuck; Lee, Ghi Jai

    2007-01-01

    Objective Persistent trigeminal artery variant (PTAV) is an anastomosis between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cerebellar artery without any interposing basilar artery segment. We discuss its probable embryological origin and emphasize clinical implications. Methods Retrospectively 1250 conventional cerebral angiograms and 2947 cranial magnetic resonance angiographies (MRAs) were evaluated for the patients with PTAV. Results Five patients (four men and one woman, 23 to 76 years of age, median age 65 years) had a PTAV. Three patients who underwent MRA had a PTAV (3/2947=0.1%). Four of the patients who underwent cerebral angiography had a PTAV (4/1250=0.32%). Two of 143 patients who underwent both conventional angiography and cranial MRA showed PTAV. The PTAV was an incidental finding in all five patients. The PTAV originated from the cavernous segment of the left ICA in four patients and from the cavernous segment of the right ICA in one patient. The terminal branch of the PTAV was the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in two patients and the AICA only in the other three patients. Conclusion Neurosurgeons should be aware of possible presence of PTAV. Manipulation of this vessel during a surgical approach to the parasellar region and percutaneous gasserian ganglion procedure may result in hemorrhage or ischemia. PMID:19096587

  16. Clinical implications of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage in acute myocardial infarction using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkers, Sebastiaan C.A.M.; Smulders, Martijn W.; Waltenberger, Johannes; Gorgels, Anton P.M.; Schalla, Simon [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Passos, Valeria Lima [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht (Netherlands); Leiner, Tim [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the clinical implications of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ninety patients with a first AMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were studied. T2-weighted, cine and late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 5 {+-} 2 and 103 {+-} 11 days. Patients were categorised into three groups based on the presence or absence of MVO and IMH. MVO was observed in 54% and IMH in 43% of patients, and correlated significantly (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Pre-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow was only observed in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients. Infarct size and impairment of systolic function were largest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients (n = 39, 23 {+-} 9% and 47 {+-} 7%), smallest in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients (n = 41, 8 {+-} 8% and 55 {+-} 8%) and intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) patients (n = 10, 16 {+-} 7% and 51 {+-} 6%, p < 0.001). LVEF increased in all three subgroups at follow-up, but remained intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) and was lowest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients. Using random intercept model analysis, only infarct size was an independent predictor for adverse LV remodelling. Intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular obstruction are strongly related. Pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow is less frequently observed in patients with MVO and IMH. Only infarct size was an independent predictor of LV remodelling. (orig.)

  17. Common and Uncommon Anatomical Variants of Intrahepatic Bile Ducts in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and its Clinical Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawagi, Radha; Sundar, Shyam; Raghuvanshi, Sameer; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Jayaraman, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Preoperative knowledge of intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) anatomy is critical for planning liver resections, liver transplantations and complex biliary reconstructive surgery. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the imaging features of various anatomical variants of IHD using magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) and their prevalence in our population. Material/Methods This observational clinical evaluation study included 224 patients who were referred for MRCP. MRCP was performed in a 1.5-Tesla magnet (Philips) with SSH MRCP 3DHR and SSHMRCP rad protocol. A senior radiologist assessed the biliary passage for anatomical variations. Results The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct (RHD) was typical in 55.3% of subjects. The most common variant was right posterior sectoral duct (RPSD) draining into the left hepatic duct (LHD) in 27.6% of subjects. Trifurcation pattern was noted in 9.3% of subjects. In 4% of subjects, RPSD was draining into the common hepatic duct (CHD) and in 0.8% of subjects into the cystic duct. Other variants were noted in 2.6% of subjects. In 4.9% of cases there was an accessory duct. The most common type of LHD branching pattern was a common trunk of segment 2 and 3 ducts joining the segment 4 duct in 67.8% of subjects. In 23.2% of subjects, segment 2 duct united with the common trunk of segment 3 and 4 and in 3.4% of subjects segment 2, 3, and 4 ducts united together to form LHD. Other uncommon branching patterns of LHD were seen in 4.9% of subjects. Conclusions Intrahepatic bile duct anatomy is complex with many common and uncommon variations. MRCP is a reliable non-invasive imaging method for demonstration of bile duct morphology, which is useful to plan complex surgeries and to prevent iatrogenic injuries. PMID:27298653

  18. Septo-optic dysplasia plus: clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo K. [Instituto de Pos-Graduacao Medica Carlos Chagas (IPGMCC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiel, Chan; Py, Marco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Neurologia Deolindo Couto; Batista, Raquel Ribeiro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Gasparetto, Emerson L., E-mail: egasparetto@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2010-04-15

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous developmental malformation characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia associated with dysgenesis of the septum pellucidum and other cerebral malformations. The clinical manifestations include psychomotor retardation, visual impairment, thermoregulatory disturbances, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and seizures. In 2000, Miller et al. first named the association of SOD and cortical dysplasia as SOD-plus. In this report, all the cases had severe clinical impairment, presenting global developmental delay and spastic motor deficits. Subsequent reports of SOD-plus also stressed the psychomotor development delay, spastic motor deficits and seizures seen in these patients, emphasizing the severity of the brain involvement. Recently, Kwak et al. reported a case of SOD-plus presenting with cortical dysplasia involving the insular cortex bilaterally. However, differently from all the previous reports, the patient had no signs or symptoms of cortical dysfunction, except for one episode of seizure. We report an additional case of SOD-plus, which presented extensive cortical malformation, with no signs or symptoms of cortical dysfunction. We suggest that similar to the classical form of SOD, the clinical presentation in patients with SOD-plus can also range from mild to extremely severe. (author)

  19. Advances in magnetic resonance 1

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 1, discusses developments in various areas of magnetic resonance. The subject matter ranges from original theoretical contributions through syntheses of points of view toward series of phenomena to critical and painstaking tabulations of experimental data. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of the theory of relaxation processes. This is followed by separate chapters on the development of magnetic resonance techniques for studying rate processes in chemistry and the application of these techniques to various problems; the geometri

  20. Advances in magnetic resonance 9

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 9 describes the magnetic resonance in split constants and dipolar relaxation. This book discusses the temperature-dependent splitting constants in the ESR spectra of organic free radicals; temperature-dependent splittings in ion pairs; and magnetic resonance induced by electrons. The electron impact excitation of atoms and molecules; intramolecular dipolar relaxation in multi-spin systems; and dipolar cross-correlation problem are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the NMR studies of molecules oriented in thermotropic liquid crystals and diffusion

  1. Clinical and cranial magnetic resonance aspects in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Saltık, Sema; Dönmezer, Beril; Yüksel, Elif; Çakı, Suar; Ergüven, Müferet

    2005-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate clinical the findings and cranial MRI findings especially in neurological aspect and to search for the relationship between the lesions on MRI and behavior cognitive disorders in Neurofibromatosis type 1 NF 1 patients Thirty one patients with NF 1 between the ages of 3 19 years mean 9 7±4 6 who had no other cranial MRI findings except optic gliyoma and NF 1 hyper intense lesions NHL on T2 weighted images were included in the study Denver II test was performe...

  2. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  3. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis evaluation using cardiac magnetic resonance T1 mapping: sample size considerations for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Songtao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR T1 mapping has been used to characterize myocardial diffuse fibrosis. The aim of this study is to determine the reproducibility and sample size of CMR fibrosis measurements that would be applicable in clinical trials. Methods A modified Look-Locker with inversion recovery (MOLLI sequence was used to determine myocardial T1 values pre-, and 12 and 25min post-administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent at 3 Tesla. For 24 healthy subjects (8 men; 29 ± 6 years, two separate scans were obtained a with a bolus of 0.15mmol/kg of gadopentate dimeglumine and b 0.1mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine, respectively, with averaged of 51 ± 34 days between two scans. Separately, 25 heart failure subjects (12 men; 63 ± 14 years, were evaluated after a bolus of 0.15mmol/kg of gadopentate dimeglumine. Myocardial partition coefficient (λ was calculated according to (ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood, and ECV was derived from λ by adjusting (1-hematocrit. Results Mean ECV and λ were both significantly higher in HF subjects than healthy (ECV: 0.287 ± 0.034 vs. 0.267 ± 0.028, p=0.002; λ: 0.481 ± 0.052 vs. 442 ± 0.037, p Conclusion ECV and λ quantification have a low variability across scans, and could be a viable tool for evaluating clinical trial outcome.

  4. Cell tracking using {sup 19}F magnetic resonance imaging: Technical aspects and challenges towards clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Houshang [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Srinivas, Mangala; Vries, I.J.M. de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Veltien, Andor; Uden, Mark J. van; Heerschap, Arend [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-06

    {sup 19}F MRI is emerging as a new imaging technique for cell tracking. It is particularly attractive because of its potential for direct and precise cell quantification. The most important challenge towards in vivo applications is the sensitivity of the technique, i.e. the detection limit in a reasonable imaging time. Optimal sensitivity can be achieved with dedicated {sup 19}F compounds together with specifically adapted hardware and acquisition methods. In this paper we introduce the {sup 19}F MRI technique focusing on these key sensitivity issues and review the state-of-the-art of {sup 19}F MRI and developments towards its clinical use. We calculate {sup 19}F detection limits reported in preclinical cell and clinical {sup 19}F drug studies in terms of tissue concentration in a 1 cm{sup 3} voxel, as an alternate way to compare detection limits. We estimate that a tissue concentration of a few millimoles per litre (mM) of {sup 19}F is required for a human study at a resolution of 1 cm{sup 3}. (orig.)

  5. The clinical value of routine whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje (Department of Radiology, Haraldspass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway); Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen (Norway)), Email: jtgeit@online.no; Eikeland, Joakim (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway)); Rosland, Jan Henrik (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway); Sunniva Clinic for Palliative Care, Haraldsplass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    Background. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has become an accessible method for detecting different types of pathologies both in the skeleton and the viscera, which may explain painful conditions, for example tumors and inflammation. Purpose. To assess a possible value of using WBMRI in order to improve palliative care. Material and Methods. Twenty patients (all eligible patients) admitted to the Department for Palliative Care were consecutively included in this study. They underwent a modified WBMRI, with fewer and shorter pulse sequences than in a standard WBMRI, to reduce patient stress. However, the patients' physicians were to exclude patients where little might be obtained and discomfort, distress, and pain could be induced. The treating physicians registered clinical utility directly after receiving the MRI report in a questionnaire. The registration was repeated after ended treatment. Results. Eighty percent had new findings detected, and 40% of the patients had a change in treatment due to the MRI result, mainly changes in analgesics and/or radiation therapy. Conclusion. The WBMRI helped the clinicians to improve treatment and a majority of the patients benefited from this. In eight patients the treatment was changed due to the results. The clinical value (utility) was indicated to be high

  6. Acupuncture for Parkinson's Disease: a review of clinical, animal, and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Danqing

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture has been commonly used as an adjuvant therapy or monotherapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in China and in other countries. Animal studies have consistently show that this treatment is both neuroprotective, protecting dopaminergic neurons from degeneration and also restorative, restoring tyrosine hydroxylase positive dopaminergic terminals in striatum, resulting in improvements in motor performance in animal models of Parkinsonism. Studies show that this protection is mediated through the same common mechanisms as other neuroprotective agents, including anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways at molecular and cellular levels. Restoration of function seems to involve activation of certain compensatory brain regions as a mechanism at the network level to correct the imbalances to the nervous system resulting from loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. Clinical studies in China and Korea, in particular, have shown a positive benefit of acupuncture in treating Parkinson's disease, especially in reducing the doses of dopaminergic medications and the associated side effects. However, large and well-controlled clinical trials are still needed to further demonstrate the efficacy and effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference.

  8. SU-E-J-181: Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Workflow: Initial Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, O; Kashani, R; Santanam, L; Wooten, H; Li, H; Rodriguez, V; Hu, Y; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hand, T; Victoria, J [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States); Steele, C [Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aims of this work are to describe the workflow and initial clinical experience treating patients with an MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIGRT) system. Methods: Patient treatments with a novel MR-IGRT system started at our institution in mid-January. The system consists of an on-board 0.35-T MRI, with IMRT-capable delivery via doubly-focused MLCs on three {sup 60} Co heads. In addition to volumetric MR-imaging, real-time planar imaging is performed during treatment. So far, eleven patients started treatment (six finished), ranging from bladder to lung SBRT. While the system is capable of online adaptive radiotherapy and gating, a conventional workflow was used to start, consisting of volumetric imaging for patient setup using visible tumor, evaluation of tumor motion outside of PTV on cine images, and real-time imaging. Workflow times were collected and evaluated to increase efficiency and evaluate feasibility of adding the adaptive and gating features while maintaining a reasonable patient throughput. Results: For the first month, physicians attended every fraction to provide guidance on identifying the tumor and an acceptable level of positioning and anatomical deviation. Average total treatment times (including setup) were reduced from 55 to 45 min after physician presence was no longer required and the therapists had learned to align patients based on soft-tissue imaging. Presently, the source strengths were at half maximum (7.7K Ci each), therefore beam-on times will be reduced after source replacement. Current patient load is 10 per day, with increase to 25 anticipated in the near future. Conclusion: On-board, real-time MRI-guided RT has been incorporated into clinical use. Treatment times were kept to reasonable lengths while including volumetric imaging, previews of tumor movement, and physician evaluation. Workflow and timing is being continuously evaluated to increase efficiency. In near future, adaptive and gating capabilities of the system will

  9. THE TISSUE HYDRATION STATE IN UW-PRESERVED HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A CLINICAL-STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE RELAXATION-TIMES, DONOR CONDITION, PRESERVATION PROCEDURE, AND EARLY GRAFT FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; DENBUTTER, G; KAMMAN, RL; DEKETH, HP; SLUTTER, WJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR im

  10. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary lesions: Description of a technique aiming clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To propose a technique for evaluation of pulmonary lesions using contrast-enhanced MRI; to assess morphological patterns of enhancement and correlate quantitative analysis with histopathology. Material and methods: Thirty-six patients were prospectively studied. Volumetric-interpolated T1W images were obtained during consecutive breath holds after bolus triggered contrast injection. Volume coverage of first three acquisitions was limited (higher temporal resolution) and last acquisition obtained at 4th min. Two radiologists individually evaluated the patterns of enhancement. Region-of-interest-based signal intensity (SI)-time curves were created to assess quantitative parameters. Results: Readers agreed moderately to substantially concerning lesions’ enhancement pattern. SI-time curves could be created for all lesions. In comparison to benign, malignant lesions showed higher values of maximum enhancement, early peak, slope and 4th min enhancement. Early peak >15% showed 100% sensitivity to detect malignancy, maximum enhancement >40% showed 100% specificity. Conclusions: The proposed technique is robust, simple to perform and can be applied in clinical scenario. It allows visual evaluation of enhancement pattern/progression together with creation of SI-time curves and assessment of derived quantitative parameters. Perfusion analysis was highly sensitive to detect malignancy, in accordance to what is recommended by most recent guidelines on imaging evaluation of pulmonary lesions

  11. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary lesions: Description of a technique aiming clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Optazaite, Elzbieta, E-mail: optazaite@andrulis.eu [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Gregor, E-mail: gregor.sommer@usb.ch [Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Safi, Seyer, E-mail: seyer.safi@gmail.com [Surgery Department, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus Peter, E-mail: heussel@uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-01-15

    To propose a technique for evaluation of pulmonary lesions using contrast-enhanced MRI; to assess morphological patterns of enhancement and correlate quantitative analysis with histopathology. Material and methods: Thirty-six patients were prospectively studied. Volumetric-interpolated T1W images were obtained during consecutive breath holds after bolus triggered contrast injection. Volume coverage of first three acquisitions was limited (higher temporal resolution) and last acquisition obtained at 4th min. Two radiologists individually evaluated the patterns of enhancement. Region-of-interest-based signal intensity (SI)-time curves were created to assess quantitative parameters. Results: Readers agreed moderately to substantially concerning lesions’ enhancement pattern. SI-time curves could be created for all lesions. In comparison to benign, malignant lesions showed higher values of maximum enhancement, early peak, slope and 4th min enhancement. Early peak >15% showed 100% sensitivity to detect malignancy, maximum enhancement >40% showed 100% specificity. Conclusions: The proposed technique is robust, simple to perform and can be applied in clinical scenario. It allows visual evaluation of enhancement pattern/progression together with creation of SI-time curves and assessment of derived quantitative parameters. Perfusion analysis was highly sensitive to detect malignancy, in accordance to what is recommended by most recent guidelines on imaging evaluation of pulmonary lesions.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in perinatal brain injury: clinical presentation, lesions and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Ward, Phil; Allsop, Joanna; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Imaging Sciences Department, Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Srinivasan, Latha; Dyet, Leigh; Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imaging Sciences Department, Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Neonatal MR imaging is invaluable in assessing the term born neonate who presents with an encephalopathy. Successful imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and are essential for correct interpretation of the imaging findings, but additional or alternative diagnoses in infants with apparent hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy should always be considered. Perinatally acquired lesions are usually at their most obvious between 1 and 2 weeks of age. Very early imaging (<3 days) may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates, but abnormalities may be subtle at that stage. Diffusion-weighted imaging is clinically useful for the early identification of ischaemic white matter in the neonatal brain but is less reliable in detecting lesions within the basal ganglia and thalami. The pattern of lesions seen on MRI can predict neurodevelopmental outcome. Additional useful information may be obtained by advanced techniques such as MR angiography, venography and perfusion-weighted imaging. Serial imaging with quantification of both structure size and tissue damage provides invaluable insights into perinatal brain injury. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical ... CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine ...

  16. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  17. Study on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of multiple cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical significance of MRI in thrombotic multiple cerebral infarction was examined in 9 patients having recent lacunar stroke. Recent infarct was identified on Gd-enhanced MRI in 4 patients. For patients multiple small infarction, Gd-enhanced MRI made it possible to differentiate recent from other lesions. To clarify the significance of periventricular high intensity lesion (PVH) on T2-weighted MRI, hemodynamic and neuropsychologic examinations were carried out in 41 patients with multiple cerebral infarction. All the patients had PVH, which was classified into three grades as follows: grade I (n=16) showing only a thin high intensity band along the body of lateral ventricles; grade 2 (n=15) showing a definite high intensity area around the lateral ventricles; grade 3 (n=10) showing diffuse thick and irregular foci around the whole ventricle. In these patients, rCBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation methods. Initial slope index was significantly higher in patients with grade 3 than those with grade I. Mini-mental state test score was significantly higher in patients with grade l than those with grade 2 and 3. Progression of PVH may be related with the reduction of the cerebral circulation and mental function in cases of multiple cerebral infarction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions can be distinguished by MRI, because old intracerebral hemorrhage appear as hypointensity areas with or without hyperintensity area on T2w images. In 92 patients with multiple infarction, MRI was used to evaluate the incidence and distribution of coexisting old intracerebral hemorrhage. Old hemorrhage were found in 15 patients (16.3%). locating the site where hypertensive hemorrhage commonly occurred. High-field MRI is useful for assessing the coexistence of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with multiple cerebral infarction. (N.K.)

  18. Study on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of multiple cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Kotaro (Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.)

    1991-09-01

    The clinical significance of MRI in thrombotic multiple cerebral infarction was examined in 9 patients having recent lacunar stroke. Recent infarct was identified on Gd-enhanced MRI in 4 patients. For patients multiple small infarction, Gd-enhanced MRI made it possible to differentiate recent from other lesions. To clarify the significance of periventricular high intensity lesion (PVH) on T2-weighted MRI, hemodynamic and neuropsychologic examinations were carried out in 41 patients with multiple cerebral infarction. All the patients had PVH, which was classified into three grades as follows: grade I (n=16) showing only a thin high intensity band along the body of lateral ventricles; grade 2 (n=15) showing a definite high intensity area around the lateral ventricles; grade 3 (n=10) showing diffuse thick and irregular foci around the whole ventricle. In these patients, rCBF was measured by {sup 133}Xe inhalation methods. Initial slope index was significantly higher in patients with grade 3 than those with grade I. Mini-mental state test score was significantly higher in patients with grade l than those with grade 2 and 3. Progression of PVH may be related with the reduction of the cerebral circulation and mental function in cases of multiple cerebral infarction. Ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions can be distinguished by MRI, because old intracerebral hemorrhage appear as hypointensity areas with or without hyperintensity area on T2w images. In 92 patients with multiple infarction, MRI was used to evaluate the incidence and distribution of coexisting old intracerebral hemorrhage. Old hemorrhage were found in 15 patients (16.3%). locating the site where hypertensive hemorrhage commonly occurred. High-field MRI is useful for assessing the coexistence of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with multiple cerebral infarction. (N.K.).

  19. Advances in magnetic resonance 2

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 2, features a mixture of experimental and theoretical contributions. The book contains four chapters and begins with an ambitious and general treatment of the problem of signal-to-noise ratio in magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on the interpretation of nuclear relaxation in fluids, with special reference to hydrogen; and various aspects of molecular theory of importance in NMR.

  20. Advances in magnetic resonance 4

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 4 deals with the relaxation, irradiation, and other dynamical effects that is specific to systems having resolved structure in their magnetic resonance spectra. This book discusses the anisotropic rotation of molecules in liquids by NMR quadrupolar relaxation; rotational diffusion constants; alternating linewidth effect; and theoretical formulations of the problem. The line shapes in high-resolution NMR; matrix representations of the equations of motion; matrix representations of the equations of motion; and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are also delibera

  1. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  2. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Walter A; Truwit, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Neurosurgeons have become reliant on image-guidance to perform safe and successful surgery both time-efficiently and cost-effectively. Neuronavigation typically involves either rigid (frame-based) or skull-mounted (frameless) stereotactic guidance derived from computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that is obtained days or immediately before the planned surgical procedure. These systems do not accommodate for brain shift that is unavoidable once the cranium is opened and cerebrospinal fluid is lost. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) systems ranging in strength from 0.12 to 3 Tesla (T) have been developed in part because they afford neurosurgeons the opportunity to accommodate for brain shift during surgery. Other distinct advantages of ioMRI include the excellent soft tissue discrimination, the ability to view the surgical site in three dimensions, and the ability to "see" tumor beyond the surface visualization of the surgeon's eye, either with or without a surgical microscope. The enhanced ability to view the tumor being biopsied or resected allows the surgeon to choose a safe surgical corridor that avoids critical structures, maximizes the extent of the tumor resection, and confirms that an intraoperative hemorrhage has not resulted from surgery. Although all ioMRI systems allow for basic T1- and T2-weighted imaging, only high-field (>1.5 T) MRI systems are capable of MR spectroscopy (MRS), MR angiography (MRA), MR venography (MRV), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and brain activation studies. By identifying vascular structures with MRA and MRV, it may be possible to prevent their inadvertent injury during surgery. Biopsying those areas of elevated phosphocholine on MRS may improve the diagnostic yield for brain biopsy. Mapping out eloquent brain function may influence the surgical path to a tumor being resected or biopsied. The optimal field strength for an ioMRI-guided surgical system and the best configuration for that system are as yet

  3. First Clinical Experience with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent and Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Mangafodipir as an Adjunct in Cancer Chemotherapy—A Translational Study12

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jan Olof G; Adolfsson, Karin; Thelin, Bo; Jynge, Per; Andersson, Rolf GG; Falkmer, Ursula G

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical research suggests that the clinically approved magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent mangafodipir may protect against adverse events (AEs) caused by chemotherapy, without interfering negatively with the anticancer efficacy. The present translational study tested if pretreatment with mangafodipir lowers AEs during curative (adjuvant) FOLFOX6 chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (Dukes' C). The study was originally scheduled to include 20 patients, but because of the unforesee...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Thoracic Aortic Dissections

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Steven L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent noninvasive method for evaluating thoracic aortic dissections. A variety of magnetic resonance scans of aortic dissections are shown, documenting the ability of magnetic resonance to image the true lumen, the false channel, and the intimal septum. Detail is provided on magnetic resonance imaging techniques and findings. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:262-70)

  5. Distal border fragments of the equine navicular bone: association between magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and clinical lameness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Elizabeth H.; Judy, Carter E.; Saveraid, Travis C.; McGowan, Conor P.; Caldwell, Fred J.

    2014-01-01

    Distal border fragments of the navicular bone are increasingly being detected due to the improved capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but their clinical significance remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the location, size, and frequency of fragments in a cohort of horses presented for MRI of the foot and to compare MRI findings with severity of lameness. Archived MRI studies and medical records were searched from March 2006 to June 2008. Horses were included if a distal border fragment of the navicular bone was visible in MRI scans. Confidence interval comparisons and linear regression analyses were used to test hypotheses that fragments were associated with lameness and lameness severity was positively correlated with fragment volume and biaxial location. A total of 453 horses (874 limbs) were included. Fragments were identified in 60 horses (13.25%) and 90 limbs (10.3%). Fifty percent of the horses had unilateral fragments and 50% had bilateral fragments. Fragments were located at the lateral (62.2%), medial (8.89%), or medial and lateral (28.9%) angles of the distal border of the navicular bone. There was no increased probability of being categorized as lame if a fragment was present. There was no significant difference in fragment volume across lameness severity categorizations. Confidence intervals indicated a slightly increased probability of being classified as lame if both medial and lateral fragments were present. Findings indicated that distal border fragments of the navicular bone in equine MRI studies are unlikely to be related to existing lameness.

  6. Advances in magnetic resonance 5

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 5 deals with the interpretation of ESR spectra and provides descriptions of experimental apparatus. This book discusses the halogen hyperfine interactions; organic radicals in single crystals; pulsed-Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer; and inhomogenizer and decoupler. The spectrometers for multiple-pulse NMR; weak collision theory of relaxation in the rotating frame; and spin Hamiltonian for the electron spin resonance of irradiated organic single crystals are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the NMR in helium three and m

  7. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  8. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon ruptures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Dash, N.; Riemer, B.L.

    1986-11-01

    The diagnosis of acute tendon ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon ruptures. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles tendon rupture are presented.

  10. Magnetic resonance in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed in more than 200 patients with clinical suspicion or knowledge of Multiple Sclerosis. One hundred and forty-seven (60 males and 87 females) had MR evidence of multiple sclerosis lesions. The MR signal of demyelinating plaques characteristically has prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times and the T2-weighted spin-echo sequences are generally superior to the T1-weighted images because the lesions are better visualized as areas of increased signal intensity. MR is also able to detect plaques in the brainstem, cerebellum and within the cervical spinal cord. MR appears to be an important, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and has proven to be diagnostically superior to CT, evoked potentials (EP) and CSF examination. In a selected group of 30 patients, with the whole battery of the relevant MS studies, MR was positive in 100%, CT in 33,3%, EP in 56% and CSF examination in 60%. In patients clinically presenting only with signs of spinal cord involvement or optic neuritis or when the clinical presentation is uncertain MR has proven to be a very useful diagnostic tool for diagnosis of MS by demonstrating unsuspected lesions in the cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Dielectric Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, F; Martin, R; Rodriguez, A O

    2009-01-01

    Recently, metamaterials have been introduced to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images with very promising results. However, the use polymers in the generation of high quality images in magnetic resonance imaging has not been fully been investigated. These investigations explored the use of a dielectric periodical array as a lens to improve the image SNR generated with single surface coils. Commercial polycarbonate glazing sheets were used together with a circular coil to generate phantom images at 3 Tesla on a clinical MR imager.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, J.H.; Reicher, M.A.; Crues, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Introducing a comprehensive, practical guide to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and evaluating knee disorders and planning arthroscopic surgery) This book integrates MRI findings with pertinent anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs to assist radiologists in selecting imaging protocols and interpreting scans. Detailed chapters focus on magnetic resonance imaging of the menisci and ligaments and evaluation of osteonecrosis, osteochondrosis, and osteochondritis. The authors demonstrate the potential of MRI for diagnosing various knee disorders such as arthritis, fractures, popliteal cysts, synovial disease, plicae, popliteal artery aneurysms, tumors, and bone marrow disorders.

  13. Relationship Between Clinical and Immunological Features with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Female Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Peng Wang; Cui-Yan Wang; Zheng-Lun Pan; Jun-Yu Zhao; Bin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred neuroimaging method in the evaluation ofneuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE).The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and immunological features with MRI abnormalities in female patients with NPSLE,to screen for the value of conventional MRI in NPSLE.Methods:A total of 59 female NPSLE patients with conventional MRI examinations were enrolled in this retrospective study.All patients were classified into different groups according to MRI abnormalities.Both clinical and immunological features were compared between MRI abnormal and normal groups.One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score for MRI abnormalities.Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated the correlation between immunological features,neuropsychiatric manifestations,and MRI abnormalities.Results:Thirty-six NPSLE patients (61%) showed a variety of MRI abnormalities.There were statistically significant differences in SLEDAI scores (P < 0.001),incidence of neurologic disorders (P =0.001),levels of 24-h proteinuria (P =0.001) and immunoglobulin M (P =0.004),and incidence of acute confusional state (P =0.002),cerebrovascular disease (P =0.004),and seizure disorder (P =0.028) between MRI abnormal and normal groups.In the MRI abnormal group,SLEDAI scores for cerebral atrophy (CA),cortex involvement,and restricted diffusion (RD) were much higher than in the MRI normal group (P < 0.001,P =0.002,P =0.038,respectively).Statistically significant positive correlations between seizure disorder and cortex involvement (odds ratio [OR] =14.90;95% confidence interval [CI],1.50-151.70;P =0.023) and cerebrovascular disease and infratentorial involvement (OR =10.00;95% CI,1.70-60.00;P =0.012) were found.Conclusions:MRI abnormalities in NPSLE,especially CA,cortex involvement,and RD might be markers of

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  15. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  16. Clinical study of intermittent lock of the temporomandibular joint. Relation to frequency of intermittent lock on clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Takashi; Nagai, Itaru; Miyazaki, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kohama, Geniku [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    To examine the occurrence of intermittent lock, we investigated the correlation between the frequency of intermittent lock of the temporomandibular joint and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The subjects consisted of 25 patients (25 joints) with unilateral intermittent lock who were treated from April 1994 through March 2000 at our department. MRI examination of the joint was performed on the affected side. We divided the patients into two groups: a high-frequency group consisting of 15 patients who had symptoms of intermittent lock every day and a low-frequency group consisting of 10 patients who did not have symptoms every day. The results showed no statistical difference between the two groups in clinical findings such as age, sex, clicking side of the joint, duration of intermittent lock, method of unlocking, muscle pain on palpation, degree of maximal mouth opening, distance between the maxillary and mandibular tooth midline, or the degree of overbite and overjet. However, the two groups differed significantly in the degree of anterior disc displacement as assessed by MRI. (author)

  17. magnetic resonance imaging,etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福基

    1998-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging n.[1984] a noninvasive diagnostic technique that produces computerized images of internal body tissues and is based on nuclear magnetic resonance of atoms within he body induced by the application of radio waves磁共振成像(指一种非侵害 性诊断技术,能生成内部身体组织的计算机化影像,其依据是应用无线电波 感生体内原子并使之产磁共振)

  18. Advances in magnetic resonance 8

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 8 describes the magnetic resonance in spin polarization and saturation transfer. This book discusses the theory of chemically induced dynamic spin polarization; basic results for the radical-pair mechanism; and optical spin polarization in molecular crystals. The theory of optical electronic polarization (OEP); NMR in flowing systems; and applications of NMR in a flowing liquid are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the saturation transfer spectroscopy; studies of spin labels in the intermediate and fast motion regions; and spin-density matrix and

  19. Ultra-high-field magnetic resonance: Why and when?

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the development of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medicine. Aspects of magnetic resonancephysics and -technology relevant at ultra-high magnetic fields as well as current limitations are highlighted. Based on the first promising studies, potential clinical applications at 7 Tesla are suggested. Other aims are to stimulate awareness of the potential of ultra-high field magnetic resonance and to stimulate active participation in much needed basic or...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in mucopolysaccharidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Seijun; Tanaka, Akemi; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu; Murata, Ryosuke; Isshiki, Gen; Inoue, Yuichi

    1988-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images in six patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), two with type I S, one with type II A, two with type III B, and one with type VI MPS, were reviewed and compared with reported pathological findings and with CT scans. We used a Picker International MR imager with a 0.5-tesla superconducting magnet. The pulse sequences involved the inversion recovery technique (TR, 2,100 msec ; TI, 600 msec ; TE, 40 msec) for the T/sub 1/-weighted images and spin echo technique (TR, 1,800 msec ; TE, 120 msec) for the T/sub 2/-weighted images. The TC scanner was a Somatom 2 or DR3. In the patients with type II A and type VI MPS, there were multi-focal lesions of various sizes that showed prolonged T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ in the white matter. These lesions, which were not detected by CT, seemed to be correlated with the pathological findings of cavitation and dilated periadventitial space with viscous fluid. In the patients with type II A and type III B MPS, the T/sub 2/-weighted images showed a reduced contrast between gray and white matters, which may be related to the deposition of glycolipids and mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes of the neurons and astrocytes of the gray and white matters. These findings seemed to be correlated with the clinical finding of mental retardation. In the patient of type II A MPS, there were lesions that showed prolonged T/sub 2/ of the periventricular white matter, suggesting periventricular edema. But CT hardly detected these lesions. In the patients with type I S MPS, no abnormal findings were found in MR imaging. It was concluded that MR imaging was far more sensitive for the detection of MPS lesions than CT, and was a useful method for differential diagnosis in MPS.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in mucopolysaccharidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images in six patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), two with type I S, one with type II A, two with type III B, and one with type VI MPS, were reviewed and compared with reported pathological findings and with CT scans. We used a Picker International MR imager with a 0.5-tesla superconducting magnet. The pulse sequences involved the inversion recovery technique (TR, 2,100 msec ; TI, 600 msec ; TE, 40 msec) for the T1-weighted images and spin echo technique (TR, 1,800 msec ; TE, 120 msec) for the T2-weighted images. The TC scanner was a Somatom 2 or DR3. In the patients with type II A and type VI MPS, there were multi-focal lesions of various sizes that showed prolonged T1 and T2 in the white matter. These lesions, which were not detected by CT, seemed to be correlated with the pathological findings of cavitation and dilated periadventitial space with viscous fluid. In the patients with type II A and type III B MPS, the T2-weighted images showed a reduced contrast between gray and white matters, which may be related to the deposition of glycolipids and mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes of the neurons and astrocytes of the gray and white matters. These findings seemed to be correlated with the clinical finding of mental retardation. In the patient of type II A MPS, there were lesions that showed prolonged T2 of the periventricular white matter, suggesting periventricular edema. But CT hardly detected these lesions. In the patients with type I S MPS, no abnormal findings were found in MR imaging. It was concluded that MR imaging was far more sensitive for the detection of MPS lesions than CT, and was a useful method for differential diagnosis in MPS. (author)

  3. Final infarct size measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction predicts long-term clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove; Kelbæk, Henning Skov;

    2013-01-01

    prognostic evaluation. To evaluate the prognostic importance of the final infarct size measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an observational study the final infarct size was measured by late gadolinium enhancement CMR 3 months after initial...... admission in 309 patients with STEMI. The clinical endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and admission for heart failure. During the follow-up period of median 807 days (IQR: 669-1117) 35 events (5 non-cardiac deaths, 3 cardiac deaths, and 27 admissions for heart failure) were recorded. Patients...

  4. Advances in magnetic and optical resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    1997-01-01

    Since 1965, Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance has provided researchers with timely expositions of fundamental new developments in the theory of, experimentation with, and application of magnetic and optical resonance.

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  7. Magnetometer of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer that measures magnetic fields, between 2,500 gauss and 5,000 gauss, with an accuracy of a few parts per million. The circuit of the magnetometer, based on a marginal oscillator, permits a continuous tunning in the frequency range comprised between 10.0 MHz, with a signal to noise ratio of about 20. The radiofrequency amplifier is of the cascode type in integrated circuit and it operates with two 9V batteries. The modulation is at 35 Hz and it is provided by an external oscillator. The instrument is compact, inexpensive and easy to operate; it can also be used for didactic purposes to show the phenomenon of magnetic nuclear resonance and its main characteristics. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and morphometric histologic analysis of prostate tissue composition in predicting the clinical outcome of terazosin therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isen, K. [Karaelmas Univ., Zonguldak (Turkey). School of Medicine; Sinik, Z.; Alkibay, T.; Sezer, C.; Soezen, S.; Atilla, S.; Ataoglu, O.; Isik, S.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or quantitative color-imaged morphometric analysis (MA) of the prostate gland are related to the clinical response to terazosin. Thirty-six male patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with a serum prostate-specific antigen level of 4-10 ng/mL underwent MRI with body coil, transrectal prostate unltrasonography and biopsy prior to terazosin therapy. For MRI-determined stromal and non-stromal BPH, the ratio of the signal intensity of the inner gland to the obturator internus muscle was evaluated. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The MA of the specimens was performed by Samba 2000. Results of the two techniques were interpreted according to the terazosin therapy results. The mean stromal percentage was 60.5{+-}18.0%. No statistically significant relationship was found between the clinical outcome of terazosin and the MRI findings. The MA results showed a significant relationship between the percentage of stroma and the percent change of the peak urinary flow rate, but not with the percent change of the international prostate symptom score after terazosin therapy (P<0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging alone is not sufficient in predicting the response to terazosin therapy. Morphometric analysis of BPH tissue composition can be used in predicting the clinical outcome of terazosin therapy but it is suitable only in patients for whom prostatic biopsy is necessary in order to rule out prostate cancer. (author)

  9. The working principle of magnetic resonance therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brizhik, Larissa; Fermi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe briefly the basic aspects of magnetic resonance therapy, registered as TMR therapy. Clinical studies have shown that application of this therapy significantly accelerates wound healing and, in particular, healing of the diabetic foot disease. To understand the working principle of this therapy, we analyze relevant to it biological effects produced by magnetic fields. Based on these data, we show that there is a hierarchy of the possible physical mechanisms, which can produce such effects. The mutual interplay between the mechanisms can lead to a synergetic outcome delayed in time, which can affect the physiological state of the organism. In particular, we show that soliton mediated charge transport during the redox processes in living organisms is sensitive to magnetic fields, so that such fields can facilitate redox processes in particular, and can stimulate the healing effect of the organism in general. This and other non-thermal resonant mechanisms of the biological effects of mag...

  10. Measurement of myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T.; Jensen, L.T.; Larsson, H.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved rapidly. Recent developments have made non-invasive quantitative myocardial perfusion measurements possible. MRI is particularly attractive due to its high spatial resolution and because it does not involve ionising radiation. This paper review...... myocardial perfusion imaging with MR contrast agents: methods, validation and experiences from clinical studies. Unresolved issues still restrict the use of these techniques to research although clinical applications are within reach Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8......Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved rapidly. Recent developments have made non-invasive quantitative myocardial perfusion measurements possible. MRI is particularly attractive due to its high spatial resolution and because it does not involve ionising radiation. This paper reviews...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings as predictors of clinical outcome in patients with sciatica receiving active conservative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne B; Sorensen, Joan S;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the possible prognostic value of disk-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in relation to recovery at 14 months in patients with severe sciatica, and whether improvement of disk herniation and/or nerve root compromise is concurrent...... disability score of 3 or less. Potential predictors of interest were disk-related MRI findings in the lumbar spine. Bi- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify any predictors of recovery. Age, sex, and treatment were included in the analyses as possible confounding....../modifying factors. RESULTS: According to the definitions used, 53% of 154 patients recovered; 63% of men (n = 84) and 40% of women (n = 70). In the multivariate analyses, broad-based protrusions, extrusions, and male sex were found to be predictive of a positive outcome. Sex was identified as a true confounder in...

  12. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Klarlund, Mette; Narvestad, E.;

    2006-01-01

    .96, respectively; they were 0.42, 0.99 and 0.95 for radiography. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography, with signs of inflammation on T1-weighted MRI sequences as the reference method, were 0.70, 0.78 and 0.76, respectively; they were 0.40, 0.85 and 0.72 for the clinical examination. With...... ultrasonography can provide information on signs of inflammation and destruction in RA finger joints that are not available with conventional radiography and clinical examination, and comparable to the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second to fifth metacarpophalangeal and proximal...... interphalangeal joints of 40 RA patients and 20 control persons were assessed with ultrasonography, clinical examination, radiography and MRI. With MRI as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting bone erosions in the finger joints were 0.59, 0.98 and 0...

  13. "PALPATION BY IMAGING": MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xu; Pei-yi Gao

    2006-01-01

    Elasticity is an important physical property of human tissues.There is a tremendous difference in elasticity between normal and pathological tissues.Noninvasive evaluation of the elasticity of human tissues would be valuable for clinical practice.Magnetic resonance elastography(MRE)is a recently developed noninvasive imaging technique that can directly visualize and quantitatively measure tissue elasticity.This article reviewed the MRE technique and its current status.

  14. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors

  15. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information. PMID:26916887

  16. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad;

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to char...... a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging....

  17. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10-3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  18. Resonancia magnética cardíaca: aplicaciones clínicas Cardiac magnetic resonance: clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bastarrika

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad cardiovascular es la causa más frecuente de mortalidad en los países desarrollados y constituye un grave problema social, económico y sanitario. Aunque existen muy diversas técnicas útiles para diagnosticar las enfermedades cardíacas, con frecuencia es preciso realizar más de una prueba para llegar a un diagnóstico concreto. La resonancia magnética es una técnica inocua, bien tolerada y segura que actualmente se encuentra disponible en la mayoría de los centros hospitalarios. Esta técnica permite estudiar en una única exploración la anatomía del corazón y valorar de forma cualitativa, semicuantitativa y cuantitativa los parámetros de función cardíaca. Es útil para el estudio de las enfermedades valvulares, miocardiopatías y de la enfermedad pericárdica. Aporta información de la anatomía y función cardíaca y vascular en las cardiopatías congénitas complejas. Además, con la administración de contraste intravenoso, permite conocer la viabilidad miocárdica en la cardiopatía isquémica. Por tanto, la resonancia magnética cardíaca se perfila como una de las técnicas más prometedoras para el estudio de la patología cardíaca congénita y adquirida.Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of mortality in the developed countries and represents a serious social, economic and health problem. Although very diverse, useful techniques exist for diagnosing cardiac diseases, it is frequently necessary to ask for more than one test to reach a specific diagnosis. Magnetic resonance is a harmless, well tolerated and safe technique, which is currently available in the majority of hospitals. This technique makes it possible in a single exploration to study the anatomy of the heart and to make a qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of the parameters of cardiac function. It provides information of cardiac and vascular anatomy and function in complex congenital cardiopathies. Besides

  19. Cryogenic phased-array for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); assessment of clinical and research applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Flora S.

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is one of the most powerful tools in diagnostic medicine for soft tissue imaging. Image acquisition techniques and hardware receivers are very important in achieving high contrast and high resolution MR images. An aim of this dissertation is to design single and multi-element room and cryogenic temperature arrays and make assessments of their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SNR gain. In this dissertation, four sets of MR receiver coils are built. They are the receiver-only cryo-coils that are not commercially available. A tuning and matching circuit is attached to each coil. The tuning and matching circuits are simple; however, each device component has to operate at a high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature environment. Remote DC bias of the varactor controls the tuning and matching outside the scanner room. Active detuning of the resonator is done by two p-i-n junction (PIN) diodes. Cooling of the receiver is done by a customized liquid nitrogen cryostat. The first application is to build a 3-Tesla 2x1 horseshoe counter-rotating current (CRC) cryogenic array to image the tibia in a human body. With significant increase in SNR, the surface coil should deliver high contrast and resolution images that can show the trabecular bone and bone marrow structure. This structural image will be used to model the mechanical strength of the bone as well as bone density and chance of fracture. The planar CRC is a unique design of this surface array. The second application is to modify the coil design to 7-Tesla to study the growth of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Fast scan MR images of the infant monkey heads are taken for monitoring shapes of their eyeballs. The monkeys are induced with shortsightedness by eye lenses, and they are scanned periodically to get images of their eyeballs. The field-of-view (FOV) of these images is about five centimeters and the area of interest is two centimeters deep from the surface. Because of these reasons

  20. Ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, Arthur W.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of radiofrequency probe design for Ultra High Frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging (7T). The signal-to-noise ratio available in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is determined by the static magnetic field strength, causing a continued drive toward higher fields to enable faster image acquisition at finer spatial resolution. The resonant frequency increases linearly with static field strength. At 7T the proton resonant frequency is 300MHz, with a wavelength...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatology. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M A; Adamis, M K

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has revolutionized the assessment of pathology involving the musculoskeletal system. The soft tissue contrast, superb resolution, multiplanar acquisition potential, and the ability to monitor physiologic processes combine the best features of other imaging modalities. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for a wide range of disease processes matches or supersedes conventional radiology, nuclear medicine, and clinical examination. This article provides a brief overview of the use of MR imaging for some of the more common clinical situations confronting the rheumatologist.

  2. The Clinical Value of High-Intensity Signals on the Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques: Noncontrast T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Ehara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in the pathohistological assessment of vulnerable plaques and in invasive intravascular imaging techniques. However, the assessment of plaque morphology by invasive modalities is of limited value for the detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and the subsequent prediction or prevention of acute cardiovascular events. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR imaging technology has reached a sufficient level of spatial resolution, which allowed the plaque visualization of large and static arteries such as the carotids and aorta. However, coronary wall imaging by MR is still challenging due to the small size of coronary arteries, cardiac and respiratory motion, and the low contrast-to-noise ratio between the coronary artery wall and the surrounding structures. Following the introduction of carotid plaque imaging with noncontrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI, some investigators have reported that coronary artery high-intensity signals on T1WI are associated with vulnerable plaque morphology and an increased risk of future cardiac events. Although there are several limitations and issues that need to be resolved, this novel MR technique for coronary plaque imaging could influence treatment strategies for atherothrombotic disease and may be useful for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherothrombotic plaque formation.

  3. 心血管磁共振临床应用及进展%Progressand clinical application ofcardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀玉; 赵世华

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe CMR in RSNA 2014 mainly focused on the following aspects: The correlation between microvascular obstruction (MVO) and left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction, and the prognostic value of MVO in ischemic cardiac disease; the assessment of right ventricular morphology and function in pulmonary valve and tricuspid diseases; the application of 3D SPACE and 4D phase contrast in congenital cardiac diseases; cardiac quantitative imaging described the value of ECV(extracellular volume fraction) in cardiomyopathy, diabetes and thalassemia major.%RSNA2014心血管磁共振(cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, CMR)热点如下:在缺血性心脏病的应用主要集中在评估微血管阻塞(microvascular obstruction, MVO)与急性心梗后左室重塑的关系及其预后价值;在心脏瓣膜疾病的应用主要集中在肺动脉瓣及三尖瓣病变右心室心态及功能的监测;先天性心脏病方面的研究采用了3D SPACE及4D PC(phase contrast)技术,取得较好的成果;心脏定量成像技术介绍了细胞外间质容积分数(extracellular volume fraction, ECV)在心肌病、糖尿病及重型地中海贫血中的应用价值。

  4. Fast magnetization reversal of nanoclusters in resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for ultrafast magnetization reversal of nanoclusters is suggested. The method is based on coupling a nanocluster to a resonant electric circuit. This coupling causes the appearance of a magnetic feedback field acting on the cluster, which drastically shortens the magnetization reversal time. The influence of the resonator properties, nanocluster parameters, and external fields on the magnetization dynamics and reversal time is analyzed. The magnetization reversal time can ...

  5. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda, E-mail: ferbraggion@yahoo.com.br [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Hospital Universitário - Universidade de Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Teixeira, Sara Reis [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Volpe, Gustavo Jardim [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Divisão de Cardiologia - Universidade Johns Hopkins, Baltimore (United States); Trad, Henrique Simão [Centro de Ciências das Imagens e Física Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, André [Divisão de Cardiologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility.

  7. Advances in magnetic resonance 3

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 3, describes a number of important developments which are finding increasing application by chemists. The book contains five chapters and begins with a discussion of how the properties of random molecular rotations reflect themselves in NMR and how they show up, often differently, in other kinds of experiments. This is followed by separate chapters on the Kubo method, showing its equivalence to the Redfield approach in the cases of most general interest; the current state of dynamic nuclear polarization measurements in solutions and what they tell us abou

  8. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging.

  9. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  10. Clinical relevance and indications for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 2013. An interdisciplinary expert statement; Klinischer Stellenwert und Indikationen zur Magnetresonanztomografie des Herzens 2013. Ein interdisziplinaeres Expertenstatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, Klaus [Universitaetsklinikum Salzburg (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Herz-Kreislauf-Zentrum Gross Gerungs (Austria); Schuchlenz, H. [Landeskrankenhaus Graz-West (Austria). Dept. fuer Kardiologie/Intensivmedizin] [and others

    2013-03-15

    During the last years the indications of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) have been continuously expanded. However, the acceptance of the method by cardiologists and radiologists does not correlate with respect to the diagnostic potential. Several factors, such as expensive equipment, relatively long examination times, high technical know how and lack of remuneration, limit the application of CMRI in everyday clinical practice. Furthermore, doctors tend to apply more conventional, well established diagnostic procedures, the access to the method is still limited and there exist difficulties in the interdisciplinary collaboration. The interdisciplinary Austrian approach to Cardiac Imaging is aimed to improve the aforementioned problems and to support the implementation of CMRI in the diagnostic tree of cardiac diseases thus enabling a cost efficient management of patients in cardiology. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of the clinical state and its changes in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy with results of in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 14 boys with the Duchenne and Becker forms of muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD) were examined using 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy; 12 boys were examined repeatedly. The results were correlated with clinical findings (including those of genetic tests) and with data obtained from examinations of an age-matched control group. Evaluation of results using principal component analysis revealed maximum variability in the following ratios: phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi), phosphocreatine/phosphodiesters (PCr/PDe) and phosphocreatine/phosphomonoesters (PCr/PMe). A decrease in PCr/Pi correlates with weakness of the hip girdle and of the lower part of the shoulder girdle in DMD/BMD patients. The values of all ratios in the group of patients with the DMD phenotype differ significantly from results obtained in the group with the BMD phenotype. Continuous follow-up of patients using 31P MR spectroscopy revealed a marked decrease in PCr/Pi in DMD/BMD patients at an age that could be expected in subjects with a typical clinical course of DMD/BMD. An attempt to manage a concomitant disease with prednisone and carnitene was followed by an increase in PCr/Pi in 3 cases. A rise in the PCr/Pi ratio signalled clinical improvement in the patients. A decrease in PCr/Pi was found after controlled physical training, a finding consistent with data obtained from clinical observations describing an adverse effect of physical stress on the dystrophic process. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of the clinical state and its changes in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy with results of in vivo {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, M. [MR Unit, Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Grosmanova, A. [Dept. of Neuropediatrics, Thomayer`s Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Horska, A. [MR Unit, Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Urban, P. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Prague Inst. of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic)

    1993-12-01

    A total of 14 boys with the Duchenne and Becker forms of muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD) were examined using {sup 31}P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy; 12 boys were examined repeatedly. The results were correlated with clinical findings (including those of genetic tests) and with data obtained from examinations of an age-matched control group. Evaluation of results using principal component analysis revealed maximum variability in the following ratios: phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi), phosphocreatine/phosphodiesters (PCr/PDe) and phosphocreatine/phosphomonoesters (PCr/PMe). A decrease in PCr/Pi correlates with weakness of the hip girdle and of the lower part of the shoulder girdle in DMD/BMD patients. The values of all ratios in the group of patients with the DMD phenotype differ significantly from results obtained in the group with the BMD phenotype. Continuous follow-up of patients using {sup 31}P MR spectroscopy revealed a marked decrease in PCr/Pi in DMD/BMD patients at an age that could be expected in subjects with a typical clinical course of DMD/BMD. An attempt to manage a concomitant disease with prednisone and carnitene was followed by an increase in PCr/Pi in 3 cases. A rise in the PCr/Pi ratio signalled clinical improvement in the patients. A decrease in PCr/Pi was found after controlled physical training, a finding consistent with data obtained from clinical observations describing an adverse effect of physical stress on the dystrophic process. (orig.)

  13. Extent of silent cerebral infarcts in adult sickle-cell disease patients on magnetic resonance imaging: is there a correlation with the clinical severity of disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Solomou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to correlate the extent of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with the clinical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD in adult patients. Twenty-four consecutive adult asymptomatic SCD patients (11 male and 13 female with a mean age of 38.4 years (range 20-59 were submitted to brain MRI on a 1 Tesla Gyroscan Intera, Philips MR scanner with a dedicated head coil. The protocol consisted of TSE T2-weighted and FLAIR images on the axial and coronal planes. MRI readings were undertaken by two radiologists and consensus readings. Patients were compound heterozygotes (HbS/β-thal. The extent of SCIs was classified from 0-2 with 0 designating no lesions. Clinical severity was graded as 0-2 by the hematologist, according to the frequency and severity of vaso-occlusive crises. There was no statistically significant correlation between the severity of clinical disease and the extent of SCIs on MR imaging. The extent of SCI lesions did not differ statistically between younger and older patients. Patients receiving hydroxyurea had no statistically significant difference in the extent of SCI lesions. The extent of SCIs in heterozygous (HbS/β-thal SCD patients is not age related and may be quite severe even in younger (<38.4 years patients. However the extent of SCIs is not correlated with the severity of clinical disease.

  14. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of hemochromatosis arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare plain film radiography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of hemochromatosis arthropathy of the knees of ten patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis. Both modalities enabled visualisation of bony degenerative changes; magnetic resonance imaging enabled additional visualization of deformity of both cartilage and menisci. Magnetic resonance imaging failed reliably to confirm the presence of intra-articular iron in the patients studied. No correlation was observed between synovial fluid magnetic resonance signal values, corresponding serum ferritin levels, or the severity of the observed degenerative changes. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of hemochromatosis arthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buff, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); McCarthy, C. [The Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Mater Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); MacMathuana, P. [The Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Mater Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Gilligan, P. [The Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Mater Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ennis, J.T. [The Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Mater Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    1994-10-01

    This study was undertaken to compare plain film radiography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of hemochromatosis arthropathy of the knees of ten patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis. Both modalities enabled visualisation of bony degenerative changes; magnetic resonance imaging enabled additional visualization of deformity of both cartilage and menisci. Magnetic resonance imaging failed reliably to confirm the presence of intra-articular iron in the patients studied. No correlation was observed between synovial fluid magnetic resonance signal values, corresponding serum ferritin levels, or the severity of the observed degenerative changes. (orig.)

  17. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maceira Alicia M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension.

  19. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  20. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance studies of brain function and neurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Uǧurbil, K.; Adriany, G.; Andersen, P; Chen, W.; Gruetter, R.; Hu, X.; Merkle, H; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, S. -G.; Strupp, J.; Zhu, X H; Ogawa, S

    2000-01-01

    In the short time since its introduction, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has rapidly evolved to become an indispensable tool for clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Recently, this methodology has been successfully used for the acquisition of functional, physiological, and biochemical information in intact systems, particularly in the human body. The ability to map areas of altered neuronal activity in the brain, often referred to as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is p...

  2. Lymphoma of uterine cervix: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Constantino, Carolina Pesce Lamas; Souza, Rodrigo Canellas de, E-mail: daniel.kanaan@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Parente, Daniella Braz [Instituto D' Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease. About 1.0% to 1.5% of extranodal lymphomas originates in the female genital tract. The clinical presentation of this condition is nonspecific and magnetic resonance imaging is important for diagnostic elucidation. The present report describes the case of a 80-year-old patient with lumbar pain, whose magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine mass. The final diagnosis was lymphoma. (author)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging will not replace echocardiography as the simplest and most definitive method of establishing a noninvasive diagnosis in young patients with congenital cardiac malformations, nor will it replace radionuclide angiography for relatively noninvasive detection and quantitation of cardiac shunts. Magnetic resonance imaging is a complementary noninvasive imaging procedure that can answer some questions left in doubt by echocardiography (mainly extracardiac artery and vein assessments) or radionuclide angiography and used as a preferred follow-up imaging method in certain clinical circumstances. In addition, MRI can be a first-line modality for cardiovascular imaging in older patients in whom adequate echo windows are not available. Angiocardiography remains necessary to provide vital physiological data, i.e., chamber pressures, shunt volumes, oxygen saturations, and pulmonary vascular resistance; however, MRI could negate some follow-up catheterizations in appropriate clinical circumstances. High-resolution proton MRI tomography should ultimately permit the accurate evaluation of ventricular volumes, myocardial mass, and the assessment of regional wall motion and ejection fractions. Paramagnetic substances such as manganese ion may ultimately provide a basis for myocardial perfusion imaging. The potential for MRI evaluation of tissue characterization, noninvasive blood-flow measurements, and myocardial metabolism assessment in intriguing and awaits clinical evaluation

  4. Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciandrone, M.; Placidi, G.; Testa, L.; Sotgiu, A.

    2000-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter. In clinical analysis of peripheral regions of the body (legs, arms, foot, knee, etc.) it would be better to adopt much less expensive magnets leaving the most expensive instruments to applications that require the insertion of the patient in the magnet (head, thorax, abdomen, etc.). These "dedicated" apparati could be smaller and based on resistive magnets that are manufactured and operated at very low cost, particularly if they utilize an iron yoke to reduce power requirements. In order to obtain good field uniformity without the use of a set of shimming coils, we propose both particular construction of a dedicated magnet, using four independently controlled pairs of coils, and an optimization-based strategy for computing, a posteriori, the optimal current values. The optimization phase could be viewed as a low-cost shimming procedure for obtaining the desired magnetic field configuration. Some experimental measurements, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach (construction and optimization), have also been reported. In particular, it has been shown that the adoption of the proposed optimization based strategy has allowed the achievement of good uniformity of the magnetic field in about one fourth of the magnet length and about one half of its bore. On the basis of the good experimental results, the dedicated magnet can be used for MRI of peripheral regions of the body and for animal experimentation at very low cost.

  5. Research progress of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a clinical diagnostic modality, which has become popular in hospitals around the world. Approximately 30% of MRI exams include the use of contrast agents. The research progress of the paramagnetic resonance imaging contrast agents was described briefly. Three important approaches in the soluble paramagnetic resonance imaging contrast agents design including nonionic, tissue-specific and macromolecular contrast agents were investigated. In addition, the problems in the research and development in future were discussed.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.H.; Nathanson, J.A.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.; Lownie, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the brain in patients with clinical brain death, high-field MRI was performed on 5 patients using conventional T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging. The study showed MRI exhibited similar features for all of the patients, features which were not found in MRI of comatose patients who were not clinically brain dead. It was stated that up to now the most important limitation in MRI of patients with suspected brain death has been the extreme difficulty of moving them out of the intensive care setting. If this problem can be overcome, and it appears possible with with the advent of MRI-compatible ventilators and noninvasive monitoring, MRI could become an excellent alternative for confirming clinical diagnosis of brain death for such patients. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Clinical correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with symptom complex in prolapsed intervertebral disc disease: A cross-sectional double blind analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low backache (LBA is one of the most common problems and herniated lumbar disc is one of the most commonly diagnosed abnormalities associated with LBA. Disc herniation of the same size may be asymptomatic in one patient and can lead to severe nerve root compromise in another patient. Objective: To evaluate correlation between the clinical features of disc collapse and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI finding to determine the clinical importance of anatomical abnormalities identified by MRI technique. Summary: From January 2010 to January 2012, 75 otherwise healthy patients (43 males 32 females between the age of 19 and 55 years (average age was 44.5 years with low back pain and predominant complaint of root pain who presented to our clinic were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Proper screening was done to rule out previous spine affection and subjected to MRI. Results: The results were analyzed under four headings viz. disc herniation, disc degeneration, thecal sac deformation and neural foramen effacement. All patients had a visual analog score (VAS score more than 6. The interrater correlation coefficient kappa was calculated to be k=0.51. There were total 44 patients with herniation, 25 patients had mild, one patient had moderate degree of thecal sac deformation, 21 patients had one or more levels of foraminal effacement by the herniated tissue, 100% of the patients had disc degeneration ranging from grade 1 to 3 at different levels; and 48 patients (64% had radiculopathy, six (8% patients had bilateral and others had ipsilateral affection. Conclusion: In our study, the correlation was made between clinical findings and MRI findings. It can safely be concluded that treating physician should put more emphasis on history, clinical examination, and make the inference by these and then should correlate the clinical findings with that of MRI to reach a final diagnosis.

  8. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging signs and clinical findings in follow-up examinations in children and juveniles with temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the extent to which pathological findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up examinations are correlated with clinical symptoms in patients with TMJ involvement in juvenile ideopathic arthritis (JIA) over time. Data from 34 patients with TMJ involvement in JIA was retrospectively examined. Shortly after two clinical examinations, the first MRI and the follow-up MRI were performed. The MRI examinations took place with 1.5 T MRI. In both MRI examinations alterations on the condyle (MRI1: 88 %, MRT2: 91 %) and contrast enhancement (MRT1: 76 %, MRT2 65 %) were found most frequently. TMJ pain (65 %) and lower mouth opening capacity (65 %) were the number one finding in the first clinical examination. A statistically significant correlation was found between the alterations on the condyle and TMJ pain (p = 0.025) and between the alterations on the condyle and lower mouth opening capacity (p = 0.019). By comparing the results of the first MRI with the results of the follow-up MRI, we identified a trend towards a progression of TMJ arthritis, while the clinical follow-up showed an improvement in most patients. We found a discrepancy between the progressive or stable trends of pathological findings in follow-up MRI and the decrease in clinical symptoms over time. Therefore, follow-up examination by MRI shows important information for correct evaluation about the stage of TMJ arthritis and about the need for treatment. Consequently, follow-up examination by MRI is an appropriate addition to clinical examination in the therapeutic concept. (orig.)

  9. Clinical validation of semi-automated software for volumetric and dynamic contrast enhancement analysis of soft tissue venous malformations on magnetic resonance imaging examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caty, Veronique [Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Universite de Montreal, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude; Giroux, Marie-France; Oliva, Vincent; Therasse, Eric [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Universite de Montreal and Research Centre, CHUM (CRCHUM), Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dubois, Josee [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine et Universite de Montreal, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa [Institut de Cardiologie de Montreal, Heart Institute Coordinating Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Universite de Montreal and Research Centre, CHUM (CRCHUM), Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada); CHUM - Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate venous malformation (VM) volume and contrast-enhancement analysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with diameter evaluation. Baseline MRI was undertaken in 44 patients, 20 of whom were followed by MRI after sclerotherapy. All patients underwent short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) acquisitions and dynamic contrast assessment. VM diameters in three orthogonal directions were measured to obtain the largest and mean diameters. Volumetric reconstruction of VM was generated from two orthogonal STIR sequences and fused with acquisitions after contrast medium injection. Reproducibility (interclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) of diameter and volume measurements was estimated. VM size variations in diameter and volume after sclerotherapy and contrast enhancement before sclerotherapy were compared in patients with clinical success or failure. Inter-observer ICCs were similar for diameter and volume measurements at baseline and follow-up (range 0.87-0.99). Higher percentages of size reduction after sclerotherapy were observed with volume (32.6 ± 30.7 %) than with diameter measurements (14.4 ± 21.4 %; P = 0.037). Contrast enhancement values were estimated at 65.3 ± 27.5 % and 84 ± 13 % in patients with clinical failure and success respectively (P = 0.056). Venous malformation volume was as reproducible as diameter measurement and more sensitive in detecting therapeutic responses. Patients with better clinical outcome tend to have stronger malformation enhancement. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density with Plain Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Clinical Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Ik Chan [Dept. of Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare BMD with plain radiography, MRI and clinical stage. We reviewed 59 patients with MM and an age- and sex-matched control group, with measured BMD. The L-spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral plain radiographs of the L-spine were graded as 3 stages using the modified Saville index. Four bone marrow patterns were classified on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the L-spine. BMD in the MM and control group were analyzed. BMD in MM was compared with the modified Saville index, bone marrow patterns on MRI, and clinical stages. In MM, spine BMD was reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group (p < 0.001). The modified Saville index was negatively correlated with spine T scores (p < 0.01). The spine BMD in normal marrow pattern on the MRI was the most reduced. There was no statistical correlation between BMD and clinical stage. In MM, spine BMD was significantly reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group. The modified Saville index was significantly correlated with spine BMD in MM.

  11. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting

  12. Clinical Observation of Electroacupuncture plus Magnetic Resonance for Postoperative Gastroparesis%电针联合磁振热治疗术后胃瘫临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈珉佳

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture plus magnetic resonance in treatingpostoperative gastroparesis syndrome.MethodPatients with postoperative gastroparesis syndrome were recruited and coded according to the onset time, and then randomized into a treatment group of 10 cases and a control group of 10 cases. The treatment group was intervened by electroacupuncture plus magnetic resonance, while the control group was by electroacupuncture. The recovery time of gastrointestinal motility and drainage volume of gastric fluid were observed after treatment.ResultThe drainage volume of gastric fluid was significantly reduced (P<0.05) and it took less time to recover the gastrointestinal motility in the treatment group;compared to the control group, it took a significantly shorter time to recover the gastrointestinal motility in the treatmentgroup (P<0.05); after 20-day treatment, the drainage volume of gastric fluid was markedly reduced in the treatment group (P<0.05). ConclusionElectroacupuncture plus magnetic resonance can produce a more significant therapeutic efficacy in treating postoperative gastroparesis syndrome thanelectroacupuncture alone.%目的:观察电针联合磁振热治疗术后胃瘫综合征的临床疗效。方法收集术后胃瘫综合征患者,按发病时间顺序编号将其随机分为治疗组10例和对照组10例,治疗组采用电针联合磁振热治疗,对照组采用电针治疗,观察两组患者治疗后胃肠动力恢复时间和胃液引流量。结果治疗组能明显减少胃液引流量(P<0.05)及缩短胃肠动力恢复时间,与对照组比较,胃肠动力恢复时间显著缩短(P<0.05),治疗20 d后,胃液引流量显著减少(P<0.05)。结论采用电针联合磁振热方法治疗术后胃瘫综合征疗效明显优于单纯电针治疗。

  13. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Ginat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosarcoidosis is an uncommon condition with protean manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is often used in the diagnostic evaluation and follow-up of patients with neurosarcoidosis. Therefore, familiarity with the variety of MRI appearances is important. In this pictorial essay, the range of possible patterns of involvement in neurosarcoidosis are depicted and discussed. These include intracranial and spine leptomeningeal involvement, cortical and cerebral white matter lesions, corpus callosum involvement, sellar and suprasellar involvement, periventricular involvement, cranial nerve involvement, cavernous sinus involvement, hydrocephalus, dural involvement, ischemic lesions, perivascular involvement, orbit lesions, osseous involvement, nerve root involvement, and spinal cord intramedullary involvement. Differential diagnoses for each pattern of involvement of neurosarcoidosis are also provided.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C;

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in the investigation of the prostate. The current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be of value in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C;

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in investigation of the prostate gland. Current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  19. Contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origine of nuclear magnetic resonance signal is reminded and different ways for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging are presented, especially, modifications of tissus relaxation times. Investigations have focused on development of agents incorporating either paramagnetic ions or stable free radicals. Pharmacological and toxicological aspects are developed. The diagnostic potential of these substances is illustrated by the example of gadolinium complexes

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of erythrocyte membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, D.; Kamat, V.B.; Gier, J. de; Penkett, S.A.

    1968-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for studying molecular interactions in biological membranes has been investigated using erythrocyte membrane fragments. Sonic dispersion of these fragments produces a sharp and well-defined high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. The sp

  2. General review of magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Gavin; Kruse, Scott A; Lomas, David J

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an innovative imaging technique for the non-invasive quantification of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues via the direct visualization of propagating shear waves in vivo using a modified phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Fundamentally, MRE employs the same physical property that physicians utilize when performing manual palpation - that healthy and diseased tissues can be differentiated on the basis of widely differing mechanical stiffness. By performing "virtual palpation", MRE is able to provide information that is beyond the capabilities of conventional morphologic imaging modalities. In an era of increasing adoption of multi-parametric imaging approaches for solving complex problems, MRE can be seamlessly incorporated into a standard MRI examination to provide a rapid, reliable and comprehensive imaging evaluation at a single patient appointment. Originally described by the Mayo Clinic in 1995, the technique represents the most accurate non-invasive method for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis and is currently performed in more than 100 centers worldwide. In this general review, the mechanical properties of soft tissues, principles of MRE, clinical applications of MRE in the liver and beyond, and limitations and future directions of this discipline -are discussed. Selected diagrams and images are provided for illustration. PMID:26834944

  3. Magnetic non-collinear neutron wave resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Khaidukov, Yu N

    2009-01-01

    The expression are received for amplitude of neutron reflection from layered magnetic non-collinear structure (neutron wave resonator (NWR)). It is showed the magnetic non-collinear NWR is characterized by the system of pairs of resonances for the spin flipped neutrons. The conditions are defined at which amplifying of spin-flipped neutron flux in wave resonator is multiple increased in comparison with amplifying of neutron absorption.

  4. Association Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Temporo-Mandibular Joint Scanographic Findings and Clinical Manifestations of Joint Pain and Sounds in Temporo-Mandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goodarzi Pour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Exploring the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI,"ntemporomandibular joint (TMJ scanography and clinical manifestations of joint pain and sounds"nin patients with temporomandibular (TM disorder."nPatients and Methods: This study included 62 TM joints with internal derangement. Sagittal"nscanography and MRI of these TMJs were obtained and reported blindly by the consensus of two"nradiologists."nResults: No significant association was observed between clinical and scanographic findings with"nMRI. The abnormal range of motion had significant relationship with pain (P=0.017 and sound"n(P=0.046. There was a strong association between sound and condylar flattening (P=0.007."nConclusion: It was demonstrated that joint pain and sounds were predictors of the abnormal"nrange of motion in TMJ scanography. Sound could be heard more often in patients with condylar"nflattening, and TMJ scanographic findings as well as joint pain and sounds had limited value in the"ndiagnosis of disk position or effusion.

  5. Clinical application of bilateral high temporal and spatial resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Baltzer, P.; Bernathova, M.; Weber, M.; Leithner, D.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Trattnig, S.; Gruber, S.; Zaric, O. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Abeyakoon, O. [King' s College, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Z. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical application of bilateral high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR DCE-MRI) of the breast at 7 T. Following institutional review board approval 23 patients with a breast lesion (BIRADS 0, 4-5) were included in our prospective study. All patients underwent bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T (spatial resolution of 0.7 mm{sup 3} voxel size, temporal resolution of 14 s). Two experienced readers (r1, r2) and one less experienced reader (r3) independently assessed lesions according to BI-RADS registered. Image quality, lesion conspicuity and artefacts were graded from 1 to 5. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed using histopathology as the standard of reference. HR DCE-MRI at 7 T revealed 29 lesions in 23 patients (sensitivity 100 % (19/19); specificity of 90 % (9/10)) resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 96.6 % (28/29) with an AUC of 0.95. Overall image quality was excellent in the majority of cases (27/29) and examinations were not hampered by artefacts. There was excellent inter-reader agreement for diagnosis and image quality parameters (κ = 0.89-1). Bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T is feasible with excellent image quality in clinical practice and allows accurate breast cancer diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Italian registry of cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francone, Marco [Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologie, Università di L’Aquila (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Cardio-Vascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier di Treviso, TV (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pontone, Gianluca [IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino (Italy); Lovato, Luigi [Policlinico S. Orsola Bologna (Italy); Matta, Gildo [Azienda ospedaliera G Brotzu Cagliari (Italy); Secchi, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Maffei, Erica [Cardio-Vascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier di Treviso, TV (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pradella, Silvia [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi (Italy); Carbone, Iacopo [Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Marano, Riccardo [Policlinico Gemelli, Università Cattolica Roma (Italy); Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [Ospedale Galliera, Genova (Italy); Chiodi, Elisabetta [Ospedale S. Anna Ferrara (Italy); Donato, Rocco [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria G. Martino, Me (Italy); Sbarbati, Stefano [Ospedale Madre Giuseppina Vannini, Roma (Italy); De Cobelli, Francesco [IRCCS S. Raffaele, Università Vita Salute, Milano (Italy); Di Renzi, Paolo [Fate Bene Fratelli Isola tiberina, Roma (Italy); Ligabue, Guido; Mancini, Andrea [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena (Italy); Palmieri, Francesco [Diparimento di Diagnostica per immagini e radiologia interventistica, Ospedale S. Maria delle Grazie, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy); and others

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: Forty sites were involved in this multicenter and multivendor registry, which sought to evaluate indications, spectrum of protocols, impact on clinical decision making and safety profile of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Materials and methods: Data were prospectively collected on a 6-month period and included 3376 patients (47.2 ± 19 years; range 1–92 years). Recruited centers were asked to complete a preliminary general report followed by a single form/patient. Referral physicians were not required to exhibit any specific certificate of competency in CMR imaging. Results: Exams were performed with 1.5 T scanners in 96% of cases followed by 3 T (3%) and 1 T (1%) magnets and contrast was administered in 84% of cases. The majority of cases were performed for the workup of inflammatory heart disease/cardiomyopathies representing overall 55.7% of exams followed by the assessment of myocardial viability and acute infarction (respectively 6.9% and 5.9% of patients). In 49% of cases the final diagnosis provided was considered relevant and with impact on patient's clinical/therapeutic management. Safety evaluation revealed 30 (0.88%) clinical events, most of which due to patient's preexisting conditions. Radiological reporting was recorded in 73% of exams. Conclusions: CMR is performed in a large number of centers in Italy with relevant impact on clinical decision making and high safety profile.

  7. Is magnetic resonance imaging a plausible biomarker for upper motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/primary lateral sclerosis or merely a useful paraclinical tool to exclude mimic syndromes? A critical review of imaging applicability in clinical routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José da Rocha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, brain regions in which conventional magnetic resonance imaging is often uninformative. Although the mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis is estimated to be about one year, the current criteria only prescribe magnetic resonance imaging to exclude "ALS mimic syndromes". Extensive application of non-conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to the study of ALS has improved our understanding of the in vivo pathological mechanisms involved in the disease. These modern imaging techniques have recently been added to the list of potential ALS biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. This article provides a comprehensive review of the clinical applicability of the neuroimaging progress that has been made over the past two decades towards establishing suitable diagnostic tools for upper motor neuron (UMN degeneration in ALS.

  8. Safety of magnetic resonance contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, V M

    2001-08-01

    Intravenous contrast media, specifically the gadolinium chelates, are well accepted for use in the clinical practice of magnetic resonance imaging. The gadolinium chelates are considered to be very safe and lack (in intravenous use) the nephrotoxicity found with iodinated contrast media. Minor adverse reactions, including nausea and hives, occur in a low percentage of cases. The four agents currently available in the United States cannot be differentiated on the basis of these adverse reactions. Severe anaphylactoid reactions are also known to occur with all agents, although these are uncommon. This review discusses the safety issues involved with intravenous administration of the gadolinium chelates and off-label use. The latter is common in clinical practice and permits broader application of these agents. PMID:11687717

  9. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  10. Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus with autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis: clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation at one-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    USUELLI, FEDERICO GIUSEPPE; GRASSI, MIRIAM; MANZI, LUIGI; GUARRELLA, VINCENZO; BOGA, MICHELE; DE GIROLAMO, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study is to report the clinical and imaging results recorded by a series of patients in whom osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) were repaired using the autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis (ACIC) technique with a completely arthroscopic approach. Methods nine patients (mean age 37.4±10 years) affected by OLTs (lesion size 2.1±0.9 cm2) were treated with the ACIC technique. The patients were evaluated clinically both preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). For morphological evaluation, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used. Results the AOFAS score improved from 51.4±11.6 preoperatively to 71.8±20.6 postoperatively, while the VAS value decreased from 6.9±1.8 to 3.2±1.9. The mean MOCART score was 51.7±16.6 at 12 months of follow-up; these scores did not directly correlate with the clinical results. Conclusion use of the ACIC technique for arthroscopic repair of OLTs allowed satisfactory clinical results to be obtained in most of the patients as soon as one year after surgery, with no major complications or delayed revision surgery. ACIC is a valid and low-invasive surgical technique for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602347

  11. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as step...

  12. Spatial localization in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keevil, Stephen F [Department of Medical Physics, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Guy' s Hospital, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College London, Guy' s Campus, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-21

    The ability to select a discrete region within the body for signal acquisition is a fundamental requirement of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Ideally, it should be possible to tailor the selected volume to coincide exactly with the lesion or tissue of interest, without loss of signal from within this volume or contamination with extraneous signals. Many techniques have been developed over the past 25 years employing a combination of RF coil properties, static magnetic field gradients and pulse sequence design in an attempt to meet these goals. This review presents a comprehensive survey of these techniques, their various advantages and disadvantages, and implications for clinical applications. Particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of the techniques in terms of signal loss, contamination and the effect of nuclear relaxation and J-coupling. The survey includes techniques based on RF coil and pulse design alone, those using static magnetic field gradients, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Although there is an emphasis on techniques currently in widespread use (PRESS, STEAM, ISIS and MRSI), the review also includes earlier techniques, in order to provide historical context, and techniques that are promising for future use in clinical and biomedical applications. (topical review)

  13. Semi-quantitative Assessment of Brain Maturation by Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neonates with Clinically Mild Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Qin-Li Sun; Yu-Miao Zhang; Yan-Yan Li; Huan Li; Xin Hou; Bo-Lang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury is becoming the major type in neonatal brain diseases.The aim of this study was to assess brain maturation in mild HIE neonatal brains using total maturation score (TMS) based on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods:Totally,45 neonates with clinically mild HIE and 45 matched control neonates were enrolled.Gestated age,birth weight,age after birth and postmenstrual age at magnetic resonance (MR) scan were homogenous in the two groups.According to MR findings,mild HIE neonates were divided into three subgroups:Pattern Ⅰ,neonates with normal MR appearance; Pattern Ⅱ,preterm neonates with abnormal MR appearance; Pattern Ⅲ,full-term neonates with abnormal MR appearance.TMS and its parameters,progressive myelination (M),cortical infolding (C),involution of germinal matrix tissue (G),and glial cell migration bands (B),were employed to assess brain maturation and compare difference between HIE and control groups.Results:The mean of TMS was significantly lower in mild HIE group than it in the control group (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.62 ± 1.53 vs.12.36 ± 1.26,P < 0.001).In four parameters of TMS scores,the M and C scores were significantly lower in mild HIE group.Of the three patterns of mild HIE,Pattern Ⅰ (10 cases) showed no significant difference of TMS compared with control neonates,while Pattern Ⅱ (22 cases),Ⅲ (13 cases) all had significantly decreased TMS than control neonates (mean ± SD 10.56 ± 0.93 vs.11.48 ± 0.55,P < 0.05; 12.59 ± 1.28 vs.13.25 ± 1.29,P < 0.05).It was M,C,and GM scores that significantly decreased in Pattern Ⅱ,while for Pattern Ⅲ,only C score significantly decreased.Conclusions:The TMS system,based on conventional MRI,is an effective method to detect delayed brain maturation in clinically mild HIE.The conventional MRI can reveal the different retardations in subtle structures and development processes among the different patterns of

  14. Effect of tunnel placements on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double-bundle technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomalainen P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piia Suomalainen,1 Tommi Kiekara,2 Anna-Stina Moisala,1 Antti Paakkala,2 Pekka Kannus,3 Timo Järvelä4 1Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Trauma, Musculoskeletal Surgery and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 2Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 3Injury and Osteoporosis Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, 4Arthroscopic and Sports Medicine Center Omasairaala, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods: This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258. The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results: We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion: Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this

  15. Overlapping phenotypes - a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging investigation of schizotypy and pervasive developmental disorders in adolescents with cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Stanfield, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The neurobiological bases of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and schizotypy are not well established. In addition there are clinical overlaps between the two which can make diagnostic determination difficult. The primary aim of this thesis was to explore the relationship between PDD and schizotypy by examining their associated clinical and brain structural features in a group of cognitively impaired adolescents. Methods: 138 adolescents receiving special educational a...

  16. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Yumin Hou

    2013-01-01

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE osci...

  17. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Predict the Clinical Outcome of Non-Surgical Treatment for Lumbar Interverterbal Disc Herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Chung Hwan; Shin, Myung Jin; Ryu, Dae Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Jung, Seung Moon; Park, Man Soo [GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, GangNeung, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Seok [University of Kwandong College of Medicine, GangNeung (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    We wanted to investigate the relationship between the magnetic resonance (MR) findings and the clinical outcome after treatment with non-surgical transforaminal epidural steroid injections (ESI) for lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. Transforaminal ESI were performed in 91 patients (50 males and 41 females, age range: 13 78 yrs) because of lumbosacral HIVD from March 2001 to August 2002. Sixty eight patients whose MRIs and clinical follow-ups were available were included in this study. The medical charts were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were divided into two groups; the successful (responders, n = 41) and unsatisfactory (non-responders, n = 27) outcome groups. A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction score greater than two and a pain reduction score greater than 50%. The MR findings were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups with regard to the type (protrusion, extrusion or sequestration), hydration (the T2 signal intensity), location (central, right/left central, subarticular, foraminal or extraforaminal), and size (volume) of the HIVD, the grade of nerve root compression (grade 1 abutment, 2 displacement and 3 entrapment), and an association with spinal stenosis. There was no significant difference between the responders and nonresponders in terms of the type, hydration and size of the HIVD, or an association with spinal stenosis (p > 0.05). However, the location of the HIVD and the grade of nerve root compression were different between the two groups (p < 0.05). MRI could play an important role in predicting the clinical outcome of non-surgical transforaminal ESI treatment for patients with lumbar HIVD.

  18. Gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in elderly patients: review of the safety profile from clinical trial, post-marketing surveillance, and pharmacovigilance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the safety of gadobutrol administration in elderly patients (≥65 years) by comparing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures in elderly patients with that in adults aged 18–64 years. Materials and methods: Safety data on gadobutrol administration from clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies, and pharmacovigilance reports were collected in three databases. In each dataset, absolute and relative frequencies of ADRs between age groups were analysed, along with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression was used to identify significant influencing factors on ADRs in the PMS and pharmacovigilance data. Results: Rates of reported ADRs were lower in elderly patients versus adults aged <65 years due to a reduced incidence of non-serious ADRs; this was statistically significant for the clinical trials and pharmacovigilance populations, with a trend in the PMS database. Serious ADRs occurred infrequently in the clinical trials and PMS populations (too low for statistical comparison), and pharmacovigilance data demonstrated a low incidence (<0.005%) in both age groups. Conclusions: This evaluation involving three large databases demonstrated no greater incidence of ADRs following gadobutrol-enhanced MRI in elderly patients (≥65 years) compared with younger adults, with gadobutrol having a favourable safety profile in both age groups. -- Highlights: •First dedicated safety study of an extracellular contrast agent in the elderly. •Elderly patients experience fewer non-serious ADRs than younger adults. •Gadobutrol has a favourable safety profile in both age groups

  19. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  20. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Dmitry; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    All-dielectric “magnetic light” nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here an approach for enhancing of magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of the magnetic moment, tailoring the latter in the dynamical range of 100% and delivering enhancement up to 36% relative to performances of standalone spherical particles. The proposed approach provides pathways for designs of all-dielectric metamaterials and metasurfaces with strong magnetic responses.

  1. Clinical value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma - with a special emphasis on early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masanori

    2015-12-28

    Gadoxetic acid- or gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) achieves excellent lesion detection and characterization for both hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in arterial phase imaging and hypovascular early HCC (small well-differentiated HCC of the vaguely nodular type) in hepatobiliary phase imaging, and has become an indispensable imaging modality in the treatment of HCC. Early HCCs have been detected more frequently since the introduction of EOB-MRI into daily clinical practice. Early HCC is known to progress to conventional hypervascular HCC, and many risk factors have been identified for the hypervascularization of early HCC including the diameter of the tumor, presence of fat, and imaging findings of EOB-MRI. The rate of the development of hypervascular HCC was previously reported to be high in patients with chronic liver disease and early HCC. The presence of early HCC is regarded as a predictor for the recurrence of HCC following hepatic resection. On the other hand, although early HCC itself is currently not regarded as a target lesion for hepatic resection, early HCC at high risk of hypervascularity needs to be treated by local ablation therapy. If concomitant early HCC with progressed HCC is at high risk of hypervascularization and the functional liver reserve of a patient is sufficient, its simultaneous treatment at the time of hepatic resection for progressed HCC is recommended. Further studies on larger numbers of patients are needed before this strategy is adopted.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

    2010-09-17

    Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.

  3. Turbo STIR magnetic resonance imaging as a whole-body screening tool for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma: preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Kessar, P; Blanchard, R; Dimasi, M; Harper, K; DeCarvalho, V; Yucel, E K; Patriquin, L; Eustace, S

    2000-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the utility of whole-body turbo short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect metastases to liver, brain, and bone as a single examination in women with breast cancer. Seventeen patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer and suspected metastatic disease attending over a 12-month period referred for both conventional imaging and whole-body MRI were included in the study. Three patients were found to be free of metastases at both conventional and MR imaging. Appendicular or axial skeletal metastases were identified in 11 of 17 patients, with correlation between findings at whole-body MRI and scintigraphy in 15 of the 17 patients. Five patients had evidence of hepatic metastases on whole-body MRI, of which metastases were identified in only three patients at CT despite contrast enhancement. Four patients had brain abnormalities (metastases in three patients, meningioma in one patient) detected on both whole-body and dedicated brain MRI. Preliminary clinical experience suggests that turbo STIR whole-body MRI may represent a convenient and cost-effective method of total body screening for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma.

  4. Clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome: diagnosis of associated malformations, uterine rudiments and intrauterine endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wietek, B.M.; Claussen, C.D.; Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Rall, K.; Brucker, S.Y. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome and identification of uterine endometrium to optimise the clinical management. We retrospectively reviewed 214 consecutive MRKH patients, mean age 19 years, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted neovagina creation. A total of 115 patients (53.7 %) met the inclusion criterion of sufficient preoperative MRI. In 110 of them (95.7 %), MRI findings were correlated with laparoscopy and associated malformations. In 39 cases (35.5 %) uterine rudiments were removed and analysed histopathologically. Ten per cent (11/110) of the patients showed complete uterine agenesis. The others presented with either unilateral (n = 16; 14.5 %) or bilateral (n = 83; 75.5 %) uterine rudiments. MRI detection of uterine rudiments agreed in 78.2 % (86/110) with laparoscopy. In 85.4 % of the removed rudiments, MRI could correctly diagnose the existence of the endometrium. Compared to laparoscopy, MRI could exactly detect ovaries in 97.3 % (107/110). Renal or ureteral malformations were seen in 32 cases (27.8 %). In 83 % of unilateral renal agenesis and unilateral rudiment, the latter was located at the side of the kidney. MRI is useful for preoperative detection of MRKH-associated malformations and assessment of the endometrium to further optimise MRKH patient treatment. (orig.)

  5. Clinical significance of three-dimensional measurement of tumour thickness on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Minsu [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Yoon-Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To identify the clinical significance of primary tumour thickness (TT) and its direction in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we measured TT in all axial/coronal/sagittal views on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their meaning. A total of 53 OTSCC patients were analysed who had undergone preoperative three-dimensional MRI and had been surgically treated. TT measured on axial (mediolateral direction), coronal (superoinferior direction), and sagittal (anteroposterior direction) views was compared to that in pathologic specimens. The association between TT on MRI and other pathologic parameters was also evaluated. TT on MRI in each plane showed relatively high concordance rates with the histological measurements. TT in all three planes was significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Occult LN metastasis was found in 15 of 39 (38.5 %) patients, and the cutoff value of TT in axial/coronal/sagittal MRI predicting occult LN metastasis was 6.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively. TT on MRI did not show any significant association with recurrence and survival. TT on MRI in all three planes showed relatively high coincidence with TT on histopathology and presented a potential cut-off value as a predictive indicator for occult LN metastasis. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of human breast disease using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides the fundamental characterization and differentiation of breast tissues using in vivo and ex vivo MR techniques in the hope that these techniques and experimental findings will be used on a larger scale and in a predictive manner in order to improve the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this dissertation, clinical studies were performed using proton magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectro-scopy (31P MRS) to characterize and differentiate malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues in vivo. These studies were carried out following the methodical characterization of chemical extracts of malignant breast tumor, benign breast tumor and normal breast parenchymal surgical tissue specimens using high resolution 31P MRS. Alterations in breast tissue metabolism, as a result of pathological processes, were postulated to be responsible for measurable differences between malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues using magnetic resonance techniques. (author). 365 refs.; 37 figs.; 25 tabs

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: correlation with clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Chang, YoungHee; Kim, SangYun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a fatal disease with variable clinical courses. The presence or absence of basal ganglia (BG) involvement has been reported to be associated with clinical course. We investigated the association of clinical course of sCJD with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) as well as BG involvement at early stage. DWI and single voxel proton MRS were performed in 14 patients with sCJD during the initial diagnostic workup. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and metabolites were measured in medial occipitoparietal cortices where large hyperintense DWI lesions were found in all patients. The presence or absence of BG involvement, ADC, N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) ratios, and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were correlated with disease duration (i.e., the time from the symptom onset to death). The disease duration ranged from 2 to 31 months (median, 16). Hyperintense DWI lesions were observed bilaterally in both cortices and basal ganglia in eight patients and in cortices alone in six patients. Patients with BG involvement had shorter disease duration (median, 6.8 versus 20.5; p = 0.039) than those without and lower NAA/Cr ratios (median, 1.41 versus 2.03; p = 0.001). ADC and Cho/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the patients with BG involvement and those without. By multiple regression analysis, NAA/Cr ratios had the greatest correlation with the disease duration (p = 0.029). The disease duration of sCJD was variable. NAA/Cr ratios of the affected brain at the early stage of sCJD can be used as a useful parameter in predicting the clinical course. (orig.)

  8. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography utilizing half-Fourier acquisition single-shot fast spin-echo in diagnosing bile duct diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪林; 颜志平; 邱士军

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) utilizing half-Fourier acquisition single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) in the diagnosis of bile duct diseases. Methods: Forty-three patients with obstructive jaundice and 4 without were enrolled in this study. The underlying diseases included bile duct calculi (13 cases), chronic cholangitis (14 cases) malignant tumors (18 cases) and congenital biliary cysts (2 cases). All patients underwent examinations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRCP, and 39 were also examined with B-type ultrasonography, 33 with CT and 25 with ERCP and PTC. Three-dimensional image reconstruction was performed using volume-rendered technique (VRE) on the basis of the data obtained by MRCP. Results: The biliary calculi were displayed as circular filling defects in MRCP images, with the proximal end of dilated bile duct taking the form of the mouth of a cup. The bile duct of patients with chronic cholangitis showed distal end dilation and thinner proximal end without discontinuity. Interception of the bile ducts was most frequent (72.2%) in cases of malignant bile duct obstruction, in which the ducts may also be mastoid or resembling rat tails. 72.2% of the cases had severe dilation of the bile ducts, which occur in only 16.0% of the benign cases, with significant difference between them (P<0.01). In images of intrahepatic biliary cyst, intrahepatic duct dilated in the shape of a bursa in connection with the duct. By MRCP, 20 malignant obstructions of the bile ducts were identified with 2 misdiagnoses, and in 25 cases of benign obstructions identified by MRCP, only 1 misdiagnoses occurred. Thus MRCP had the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 90.0%, 96.3% and 93.6% respectively in discriminating benign and malignant diseases of the bile ducts, showing a total diagnostic accuracy of 94.0% that was similar to that of ERCP (92.0%) but significantly higher than those of both CT

  9. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  10. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  11. Contribution to nuclear magnetic resonance imager using permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some recalls of nuclear magnetic resonance, ways to get a stable and homogeneous magnetic field are studied with permanent magnets. Development of correction coils on integrated circuits has been particularly stressed. Gradient coil specific systems have been studied taking in account ferromagnetic material presence. Antenna system has been improved and possibility of image obtention with the prototype realized has been shown

  12. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join the ISMRM Journals History & Mission Central Office Society Award Winners Strategic Plan Policies Corporate Members Contact ... E-Library Virtual Meetings Connect With Us International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2300 Clayton Road, ...

  13. Magnetic moment of the Roper resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Gegelia, J., E-mail: gegelia@kph.uni-mainz.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); High Energy Physics Institute of TSU, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Scherer, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-08-29

    The magnetic moment of the Roper resonance is calculated in the framework of a low-energy effective field theory of the strong interactions. A systematic power-counting procedure is implemented by applying the complex-mass scheme.

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  16. Magnetic moment of the Roper resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, T.; Gegelia, J.; Scherer, S.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the Roper resonance is calculated in the framework of a low-energy effective field theory of the strong interactions. A systematic power-counting procedure is implemented by applying the complex-mass scheme.

  17. A clinical study to identify the possible etiology of complex partial seizures using magnetic resonance imaging brain findings and its implications on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nancy Jeniffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epilepsy is one of the common neurological disorders worldwide. Fundamentally, there are two types of epilepsy—primary generalized epilepsy and localization-related epilepsy. Partial seizures account for about 40% of childhood seizures in some series and can be classified as simple or complex.[1] Partial seizures, more so the complex partial seizures (CPSs, are presumed to have a structural etiology. Aims: (1 To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain findings in CPSs in children aged 1–18 years. (2 To identify treatable causes of CPSs based on MRI findings and institute appropriate treatment. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using percentages and proportions. Methods: Hospital based prospective study in which MRI brain was done on all newly diagnosed children with complex partial seizures, aged 1 to 18 yrs, during the study period. Final diagnosis was made correlating clinical features, radiological features and other supportive evidences, and appropriate treatment instituted. Follow up of cases was done until the completion of treatment (maximum 6 months. Results: Among the 64 children who were clinically diagnosed to have CPSs and subjected to MRI study of the brain, 40(62.5% children were detected to have structural lesions, of which neurocysticercosis (NCC was noted in 17 (42.5%, tuberculoma in 12 (30%, hippocampal sclerosis (HS in 6 (15%, gliosis in 4 (10%, and tumor in 1 (2.5% patient. Sixty-two (96.8% children were treated medically, and 2 (3.2% children underwent surgery. Conclusions: Etiology of CPS based on MRI findings showed a substantial number of medically- and surgically-treatable pathologies. This study done on South Indian children showed neuro infections to be the most common cause of CPS, followed by HS, with NCC being the most common lesion noted. MRI not only identifies specific epileptogenic substrates, but also determines the specific treatment and predicts prognosis and should

  18. The relationship between cognitive impairment and in vivo metabolite ratios in patients with clinical Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, A.D. [Department of Imaging, Charing Cross Hospital and Dementia Research Group, University College London, Fulham Palace Road, W6 8RF, London (United Kingdom); Rai, G.S. [Department of Care of Older People, Whittington Hospital, Highgate Hill, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Previous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown increased myo-inositol (MI) and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the parieto-occipital lobes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to those with other dementias and normal subjects. This study aimed to establish the quantitative relationship between metabolite ratios and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with mild to moderate AD and sub-cortical ischaemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Forty-four older people with clinical dementia were recruited from a memory clinic and followed up for 2.0-3.5 years; 20 cases were finally classified as probable AD, 18 as SIVD and 6 as mixed type. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and short echo time single voxel automated MRS from the mesial parieto-occipital lobes were performed at the time of initial referral. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for MMSE scores and measured metabolite ratios MI/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/MI. The AD group showed a significant correlation between MMSE and NAA/MI (r=0.54, P=0.014) and NAA/Cr (r=0.48, P=0.033), and a negative, non-significant association with MI/Cr (r=-0.41, P=0.072). MI/Cr was negatively correlated with NAA/Cr (r=-0.51, P=0.021). Neither Cho/Cr ratios nor age correlated with cognitive function. The SIVD group showed no correlation between any of the measured metabolite ratios and MMSE score. This study reinforces the specific association between reduced NAA and increased MI levels in the parieto-occipital region and cognitive impairment in AD. MRS may have a role in evaluating disease progression and therapeutic monitoring in AD, as new treatments become available. (orig.)

  19. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and soluble adhesion molecules in relation to magnetic resonance imaging results and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One direction of research in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity that are capable of predicting subsequent course of disease and are sensitive to intervention by immunomodulatory therapies. Adhesion molecules and tumor necrosis factor-α of the cytokine superfamily are associated with inflammation-mediated blood-brain barrier dysfunction and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). This study investigates the relationship between the serum level of soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (alCAM), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in 18 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS with different clinical activity. Patients with active gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced lesions on MRI showed a higher serum level of TNF-α, sVCA-1, slCAM-1 than RR MS patients without Gd-enhanced lesions. Control individuals (n=10) without MRI abnormalities had significantly lower serum levels of the above immunological parameters. These results suggest that serum levels of TNF-α and adhesion molecules slCAM-1 in RR MS patients are correlated with Gd-enhanced MRI and disease clinical activity and that they can be used as biological markers of disease activity. The soluble form of VCAM levels in peripheral blood did not correlate with disease activity and Gd-enhanced lesions of MRI. sVCAM as an early indicator of blood-brain barrier dysfunction may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in the relapsing phase of MS course. (authors)

  20. Early assessment of sub-clinical cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (CE-MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Battisti, Sara; Di Sibio, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Cipriani, Paola; Giacomelli, Roberto; Liakouli, Vasiliky; Ruscitti, Piero [Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: Systemic sclerosis heart involvement (SHI) is one of systemic sclerosis (SSc) most frequent complications, both in diffuse (dcSSc) and limited (lcSSc) cutaneous forms of disease. Nowadays, SHI is a major factor decreasing SSc survival rate because, when clinically evident, is associated with 70% of mortality at 5 years. SHI shows different forms, primary and/or secondary. Primary myocardial SHI is characterized by fibrosis. Aim of our study is to assess the presence and pattern of fibrosis as detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in systemic sclerosis. Methods: In this study, we used CE-MRI (contrast enhanced-MRI) in 58 female SSc patients. Images were evaluated to obtain functional parameters and to see presence, location and pattern (nodular, linear or diffuse) of myocardial LE, sign of fibrosis. CE-MRI findings were correlated with patients clinical setting. Results: Myocardial fibrosis was detected in 25 of 58 patients (43%). The main finding observed in 16 of these 25 patients was a late enhancement showing a linear pattern, without coronary distribution and sparing the sub-endocardial myocardial layers. A patchy nodular enhancement pattern was observed in 9 patients (36%). Patients with linear pattern presented dcSSc, on the contrary patients with nodular LE displayed the lcSSc form. Conclusions: This study shows that CE-MRI is a reliable technique to detect SHI earlier than other methods. SHI increase passive myocardial stiffness, proportional to collagen deposition degree, leading to cardiac remodelling with possible development of heart failure, even with normal ejection fraction. An early treatment of SHI might improve SSc patients outcome.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foram Gala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, K.S.; Brockwell, J.; Chan, F.L.; Janus, E.D.; Lam, K.S.L.

    1995-02-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare genetic disorder in which cholestanol and cholesterol accumulate in the nervous system and other tissues. It has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Most patients are of low intelligence with poor school performance. Specific clinical manifestations include xanthomas of the tendons. Furthermore, patients develop cataracts and a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. There is slight mental deterioration. Death usually occurs in the sixth or seventh decade and is often due to unrelated causes. Plasma cholesterol levels are normal or only moderately elevated. The pattern of serum lipids is normal, and only serum cholestanol is significantly increased. Radiological features of the disease are infrequently described in the literature. We report a case of CTX in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to image the brain, lumbar spine and the tendinous xanthomas of the lower limbs. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Peng; 曹鹏

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is a well-known non-invasive technique that provides spectra (by MR spectroscopy, MRS) and images (by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) of the examined tissue with detailed metabolic, structural, and functional information. This doctoral work is focused on advanced methodologies and applications of MRS for probing cellular and molecular changes in vivo. A single-voxel diffusion-weighted (DW) MRS method was first developed for monitoring the size changes of intramyocellu...

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Current Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Peter L.; Crooks, Lawrence E.; Margulis, Alexander R.; Kaufman, Leon

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging can produce tomographic images of the body without ionizing radiation. Images of the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremities have been obtained and normal structures and pathology have been identified. Soft tissue contrast with this method is superior to that with x-ray computerized tomography and its spatial resolution is approaching that of x-ray computerized tomography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enables us to image along the sag...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Dielectric Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, F.; Marrufo, O.; MARTIN,R; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, metamaterials have been introduced to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images with very promising results. However, the use polymers in the generation of high quality images in magnetic resonance imaging has not been fully been investigated. These investigations explored the use of a dielectric periodical array as a lens to improve the image SNR generated with single surface coils. Commercial polycarbonate glazing sheets were used together with a circula...

  8. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, Dmitry; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    All-dielectric "magnetic light" nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here a new approach for increasing magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer nanoantenna. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of magnetic polarizability, tailoring the later in the dynamical range of 100 % and enhancement up to 36 % relative to performances of standalone spherical particles....

  9. Clinical utility of quantitative magnetic resonance angiography in the assessment of the underlying pathophysiology in a variety of cerebrovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Quantitative MRA (qMRA) is a relatively new technique that uses traditional time-of-flight and phase-contrast MRI to visualize extracranial and intracranial vascular anatomy and measure volumetric blood flow. We aimed to assess the clinical utility of qMRA in assessing the hypothesized pathophysiology (HP) in a range of cerebrovascular diseases. Moreover, we postulated that evaluation of the arterial waveforms, can improve the evaluation of the hypothesized pathophysiology by qMRA. Methods: We reviewed studies from 10 patients who underwent qMRA examinations before and after their treatments. Two reviewers assessed the anatomy, volumetric flow rates and arterial waveforms for each vessel sampled and reached a consensus as to whether the above parameters supported the clinical diagnosis/hypothesized pathophysiology and the subsequent management. Findings: All 20 qMRA studies were technically adequate. qMRA supported the HP in all 10 patients as determined by abnormal volumetric flow values in the affected vessels before treatment and by the correction of these abnormal values in the patients whose treatment was successful. Each of our five patients with occlusive disease/vasoconstriction demonstrated evidence of dampening of the arterial waveforms distally to the narrowed artery (parvus–tardus phenomenon). The parvus–tardus effect disappeared after treatment. Conclusion: qMRA is unique in combining time-of-flight MRA in a complementary manner with phase-contrast MRA to obtain volumetric flow values and potentially important physiologic information from arterial waveform analysis in patients with a range of cerebrovascular diseases during the course of a single MR examination.

  10. Safety and efficacy of gadoteric acid in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: overview of clinical trials and post-marketing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Roberts, Donna [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Miller, Stephen F. [LeBonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Gadoteric acid is a paramagnetic gadolinium macrocyclic contrast agent approved for use in MRI of cerebral and spinal lesions and for body imaging. To investigate the safety and efficacy of gadoteric acid in children by extensively reviewing clinical and post-marketing observational studies. Data were collected from 3,810 children (ages 3 days to 17 years) investigated in seven clinical trials of central nervous system (CNS) imaging (n = 141) and six post-marketing observational studies of CNS, musculoskeletal and whole-body MR imaging (n = 3,669). Of these, 3,569 children were 2-17 years of age and 241 were younger than 2 years. Gadoteric acid was generally administered at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We evaluated image quality, lesion detection and border delineation, and the safety of gadoteric acid. We also reviewed post-marketing pharmacovigilance experience. Consistent with findings in adults, gadoteric acid was effective in children for improving image quality compared with T1-W unenhanced sequences, providing diagnostic improvement, and often influencing the therapeutic approach, resulting in treatment modifications. In studies assessing neurological tumors, gadoteric acid improved border delineation, internal morphology and contrast enhancement compared to unenhanced MR imaging. Gadoteric acid has a well-established safety profile. Among all studies, a total of 10 children experienced 20 adverse events, 7 of which were thought to be related to gadoteric acid. No serious adverse events were reported in any study. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance experience did not find any specific safety concern. Gadoteric acid was associated with improved lesion detection and delineation and is an effective and well-tolerated contrast agent for use in children. (orig.)

  11. Safety and efficacy of gadoteric acid in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: overview of clinical trials and post-marketing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadoteric acid is a paramagnetic gadolinium macrocyclic contrast agent approved for use in MRI of cerebral and spinal lesions and for body imaging. To investigate the safety and efficacy of gadoteric acid in children by extensively reviewing clinical and post-marketing observational studies. Data were collected from 3,810 children (ages 3 days to 17 years) investigated in seven clinical trials of central nervous system (CNS) imaging (n = 141) and six post-marketing observational studies of CNS, musculoskeletal and whole-body MR imaging (n = 3,669). Of these, 3,569 children were 2-17 years of age and 241 were younger than 2 years. Gadoteric acid was generally administered at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We evaluated image quality, lesion detection and border delineation, and the safety of gadoteric acid. We also reviewed post-marketing pharmacovigilance experience. Consistent with findings in adults, gadoteric acid was effective in children for improving image quality compared with T1-W unenhanced sequences, providing diagnostic improvement, and often influencing the therapeutic approach, resulting in treatment modifications. In studies assessing neurological tumors, gadoteric acid improved border delineation, internal morphology and contrast enhancement compared to unenhanced MR imaging. Gadoteric acid has a well-established safety profile. Among all studies, a total of 10 children experienced 20 adverse events, 7 of which were thought to be related to gadoteric acid. No serious adverse events were reported in any study. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance experience did not find any specific safety concern. Gadoteric acid was associated with improved lesion detection and delineation and is an effective and well-tolerated contrast agent for use in children. (orig.)

  12. Myocardial wall motion imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Dani�l; Kuijpers, D.; Oudkerk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Wall motion imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) provides important functional information about global and regional myocardial function. This review will give an overview of the current state of myocardial wall motion imaging, especially focusing on the clinical role of dobutamine

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is an important and frequent neurological disease and the diagnosis might be difficult. The clinical criteria of multiple sclerosis and the role of laboratory examinations in the diagnosis of the disease are discussed. In particular the help offered by the magnetic resonance imaging method is the subject of this paper. Three patients are reported and discussed

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis advances and research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, FM; Bird, P;

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used extensively in cross-sectional and observational studies as well as in controlled clinical trials to assess disease activity and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MRI measurements or scores for erosions, bone edema, and synovitis have been...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral joints in rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Møller, Uffe;

    2004-01-01

    The need for better methods than the conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographical examinations in the management of inflammatory joint diseases is evident, since these methods are not sensitive or specific to early pathologies and subtle changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: A clinicial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Edge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in screening for breast cancer and its use after the diagnosis of breast cancer is discussed. The topic is enormous, with over 5 000 papers published in the last 10 years. In this précis, we focused on articles that examine its clinical relevance. We did not look at economic factors.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Follow-up Assessment of Sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L. A. M.; Nijeholt, Geert J. Lycklama A.; Van der Kallen, Bas F.; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Koes, Bart W.; Peul, Wilco C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently performed during follow-up in patients with known lumbar-disk herniation and persistent symptoms of sciatica. The association between findings on MRI and clinical outcome is controversial. METHODS We studied 283 patients in a randomized trial

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  19. Utility of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jullie W; Kuzniecky, Ruben I.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the potential utility of broad based use of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy and seizure localization. The clinical challenges are well known to the epilepsy community, intrinsic in the variability of location, volumetric size and network extent of epileptogenic tissue in individual patients. The technical challenges are also evident, with high performance requirements in multiple steps, including magnet homogeneity, detector performance, ...

  20. Therapeutic imaging window of cerebral infarction revealed by multisequence magnetic resonance imaging An animal and clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lu; Hui Hu; Zhanping He; Xiangjun Han; Jing Chen; Rong Tu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we established a Wistar rat model of right middle cerebral artery occlusion and observed pathological imaging changes (T2-weighted imaging [T2WI], T2FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) following cerebral infarction. The pathological changes were divided into three phases: early cerebral infarction, middle cerebral infarction, and late cerebral infarction. In the early cerebral infarction phase (less than 2 hours post-infarction), there was evidence of intracellular edema, which improved after reperfusion. This improvement was defined as the ischemic penumbra. In this phase, a high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient were observed in the right basal ganglia region. By contrast, there were no abnormal T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the middle cerebral infarction phase (2–4 hours post-infarction), a mixed edema was observed. After reperfusion, there was a mild improvement in cell edema, while the angioedema became more serious. A high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient signal were observed, and some rats showed high T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the late cerebral infarction phase (4–6 hours post-infarction), significant angioedema was visible in the infarction site. After reperfusion, there was a significant increase in angioedema, while there was evidence of hemorrhage and necrosis. A mixed signal was observed on DWI, while a high apparent diffusion coefficient signal, a high T2WI signal, and a high T2FLAIR signal were also observed. All 86 cerebral infarction patients were subjected to T2WI, T2FLAIR, and DWI. MRI results of clinic data similar to the early infarction phase of animal experiments were found in 51 patients, for which 10 patients (10/51) had an onset time greater than 6 hours. A total of 35 patients had MRI results similar to the middle and late infarction phase of animal experiments, of which eight patients (8/35) had an onset time less than 6 hours. These data suggest that defining the

  1. Musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging: importance of radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Hunter, Tim B.; Fitzpatrick, Kimberly A. [Department of Radiology, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, AZ 85724, Tucson (United States); Krupinski, Elizabeth A. [Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1609 N. Warren, Building 211, AZ 85724, Tucson (United States); Pope, Thomas L. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, 169 Ashley Avenue, P.O. Box 250322, SC 29425, Charleston (United States)

    2003-07-01

    To determine the usefulness of radiography for interpretation of musculoskeletal (MSK) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. In a 1-year period, 1,030 MSK MRI studies were performed in 1,002 patients in our institution. For each study, the interpreting radiologist completed a questionnaire regarding the availability and utility of radiographs, radiological reports and clinical information for the interpretation of the MRI study. Radiographs were essential, very important or added information in 61-75% of all MSK MRI cases. Radiographs were judged as essential for reading of MRI studies more often for trauma, infection/inflammation and tumors than for degenerative and miscellaneous/normal diagnoses ({chi}{sup 2}=60.95, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical information was rated as ''essential'' or ''useful'' significantly more often than not ({chi}{sup 2}=93.07, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical and MRI diagnoses were the same or partially concordant significantly more often for tumors than for trauma, infection/inflammation and degenerative conditions, while in the miscellaneous/normal group they were different in 64% of cases. When the diagnoses were different, there were more instances in which radiographs were not available. Radiographs are an important, and sometimes essential, initial complementary study for reading of MSK MRI examinations. It is highly recommended that radiographs are available when MSK MRI studies are interpreted. (orig.)

  2. Coherence of magnetic resonators in a metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coherence of periodic magnetic resonators (MRs under oblique incidence is studied using simulations. The correlated phase of interaction including both the retardation effect and relative phase difference between two MRs is defined, and it plays a key role in the MR interaction. The correlated phase is anisotropic, as is the coherence condition. The coherence condition is the same as the Wood's anomaly and verified by the Fano resonance. This study shows that the applications of the Fano resonance of periodic MRs will become widespread owing to achieving the Fano resonance simply by tuning the incident angle.

  3. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose–Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45–50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model (α/β = 10 Gy for tumor; α/β = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV (± 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 (±30) cm3, and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 (±14) cm3. The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 (±13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 (±20) Gy, 76 (±16) Gy, 70 (±9) Gy, and 60 (±9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19–87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and organs at risk are in a comparable range

  4. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose-Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Schmid, Maximilian P., E-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Fidarova, Elena; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45-50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy for tumor; {alpha}/{beta} = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV ({+-} 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 ({+-}30) cm{sup 3}, and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 ({+-}14) cm{sup 3}. The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 ({+-}13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 ({+-}20) Gy, 76 ({+-}16) Gy, 70 ({+-}9) Gy, and 60 ({+-}9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19-87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and

  5. Liver magnetic resonance imaging: State of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; E; Sijens

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used for about three decades to characterize the human liver in a non-invasive way, that is without the need of using ionizing radiation or removing tissue samples. During the past few years, technical progress has been considerable and novel applications of MRI have been implemented in the clinic. The beginning of a new decade offers an excellent opportunity for having fi ve experts to present their view on the current status of MRI (and magnetic resonance spec...

  6. Noise Reduction in Magnetic Resonance Images using Wave Atom Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Rajeesh, R.S.Moni, S.Palanikumar, T.Gopalakrishnan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available De-noising is always a challenging problem in magnetic resonance imaging andimportant for clinical diagnosis and computerized analysis, such as tissueclassification and segmentation. It is well known that the noise in magneticresonance imaging has a Rician distribution. Unlike additive Gaussian noise,Rician noise is signal dependent, and separating signal from noise is a difficulttask. An efficient method for enhancement of noisy magnetic resonance imageusing wave atom shrinkage is proposed. The reconstructed MRI data have highSignal to Noise Ratio (SNR compared to the curvelet and wavelet domain denoisingapproaches.

  7. Effectiveness of Adalimumab in Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: Evaluation of Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Outcomes in a Monocentric Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarini, Luca; Fabbroni, Marta; Talarico, Rosaria; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Cuneo, Gian Luca; Frediani, Bruno; Faralli, Gabriele; Vitale, Antonio; Brizi, Maria Giuseppina; Sabadini, Luciano; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of adalimumab (ADA) in a cohort of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA), and the secondary aims were to identify predictive factors of response and evaluate radiological progression.We evaluated 37 patients (male/female: 12/25; mean age 49 ± 14; mean disease duration: 6.3 ± 5.8) with active nr-axSpA (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria), despite the treatment with ≥1 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for at least 3 months, initiating the treatment with ADA 40 mg every other week. Patients were treated for 24 months, and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Outcome measures included Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. Radiograph of the spine and sacroiliac joints and magnetic resonance of the sacroiliac joints were performed at baseline and according to the standard of assessment for the disease.The proportion of patients that achieved a BASDAI50 response at 6, 12 and 24 months was 51.3%, 70.3%, and 76.8%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated with no unexpected adverse events and/or serious adverse events. All patients remained on treatment for 2 years, with a good compliance. We did not identify any predictive factor of response to therapy. Moreover, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada scores showed a trend of improvement during the study period.ADA was effective on clinical and radiological outcomes at 2-year follow-up; thus, early treatment with ADA may prevent radiographic damage and be associated with low disease activity or remission. Moreover, data from this cohort study have confirmed safety and tolerability profile of ADA in nr-axSpA in the long term.

  8. First clinical experience with the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and superoxide dismutase mimetic mangafodipir as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy-a translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jan Olof G; Adolfsson, Karin; Thelin, Bo; Jynge, Per; Andersson, Rolf Gg; Falkmer, Ursula G

    2012-02-01

    Preclinical research suggests that the clinically approved magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent mangafodipir may protect against adverse events (AEs) caused by chemotherapy, without interfering negatively with the anticancer efficacy. The present translational study tested if pretreatment with mangafodipir lowers AEs during curative (adjuvant) FOLFOX6 chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (Dukes' C). The study was originally scheduled to include 20 patients, but because of the unforeseen withdrawal of mangafodipir from the market, the study had to be closed after 14 patients had been included. The withdrawal of mangafodipir was purely based on commercial considerations from the producer and not on any safety concerns. The patients were treated throughout the first 3 of 12 scheduled cycles. Patients were randomized to a 5-minute infusion of either mangafodipir or placebo (7 in each group). AEs were evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the Sanofi-NCI criteria. The primary end points were neutropenia and neurosensory toxicity. There were four AEs of grade 3 (severe) and one AE of grade 4 (life threatening) in four patients in the placebo group, whereas there were none in the mangafodipir group (P events, two were neutropenia and one was neurosensory toxicity. Furthermore, white blood cell count was statistically, significantly higher in the mangafodipir group than in the placebo group (P < .01) after treatment with FOLFOX. This small feasibility study seems to confirm what has been demonstrated preclinically, namely, that pretreatment with mangafodipir lowers AEs during adjuvant 5-fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in colon cancer patients. PMID:22348174

  9. Urethrogram-directed Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients with Contraindications to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima ePaydar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-directed stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has been established as a safe and effective treatment for prostate cancer. For patients with contraindications to MRI, CT-urethrogram is an alternative imaging approach to identify the location of the prostatic apex to guide treatment. This study sought to evaluate the safety of urethrogram-directed SBRT for prostate cancer.Methods: Between February 2009 and January 2014, 31 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with urethrogram-directed SBRT with or without supplemental intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT at Georgetown University Hospital. SBRT was delivered either as a primary treatment of 35-36.25 Gray (Gy in 5 fractions or as a boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions followed by supplemental conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (45-50.4 Gy. Toxicities were recorded and scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE v.4.0.Results: The median patient age was 70 years with a median prostate volume of 38 cc. The median follow-up was 3.7 years. The patients were elderly (Median age = 70, and comorbidities were common (Carlson Comorbidity Index > 2 in 36%. 71% of patients utilized alpha agonists prior to treatment, and 9.7% had prior procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The 3-year actuarial incidence rates of > Grade 3 GU toxicity and > Grade 2 GI toxicity were 3.2% and 9.7%, respectively. There were no Grade 4 or 5 toxicities.Conclusions: MRI is the preferred imaging modality to guide prostate SBRT treatment. However, urethrogram-directed SBRT is a safe alternative for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer who are unable to undergo MRI.

  10. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Albert C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR examinations.

  11. Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Simon; Arai, Andrew E; Sechtem, Udo; Mahrholdt, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-invasive imaging modality that has rapidly emerged during the last few years and has become a valuable, well-established clinical tool. Beside the evaluation of anatomy and function, CMR has its strengths in providing detailed non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization, for which it is considered the current diagnostic gold standard. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), with its capability to detect necrosis and to separate ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathies by distinct LGE patterns, offers unique clinical possibilities. The presence of LGE has also proven to be a good predictor of an adverse outcome in various studies. T2-weighted (T2w) images, which are supposed to identify areas of edema and inflammation, are another CMR approach to tissue characterization. However, T2w images have not held their promise owing to several technical limitations and potential physiological concerns. Newer mapping techniques may overcome some of these limitations: they assess quantitatively myocardial tissue properties in absolute terms and show promising results in studies for characterization of diffuse fibrosis (T1 mapping) and/or inflammatory processes (T2 mapping). However, these techniques are still research tools and are not part of the clinical routine yet. T2* CMR has had significant impact in the management of thalassemia because it is possible to image the amount of iron in the heart and the liver, improving both diagnostic imaging and the management of patients with thalassemia. CMR findings frequently have clinical impact on further patient management, and CMR seems to be cost effective in the clinical routine. PMID:27635240

  12. 170 Nanometer Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging using Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Thurber, K R; Smith, D D; Thurber, Kent R.; Harrell, Lee E.; Smith, Doran D.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the semiconductor GaAs with 170 nanometer slice separation and resolve two regions of reduced nuclear spin polarization density separated by only 500 nanometers. This is achieved by force detection of the magnetic resonance, Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM), in combination with optical pumping to increase the nuclear spin polarization. Optical pumping of the GaAs creates spin polarization up to 12 times larger than the thermal nuclear spin polarization at 5 K and 4 T. The experiment is sensitive to sample volumes containing $\\sim 4 \\times 10^{11}$ $^{71}$Ga$/\\sqrt{Hz}$. These results demonstrate the ability of force-detected magnetic resonance to apply magnetic resonance imaging to semiconductor devices and other nanostructures.

  13. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eitel Ingo; Friedrich Matthias G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acu...

  14. Assessment of the kidneys: magnetic resonance angiography, perfusion and diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Attenberger Ulrike I; Morelli John N; Schoenberg Stefan O; Michaely Henrik J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has undergone major improvements in the past several years. This review focuses on the technical basics and clinical applications of MR angiography (MRA) with the goal of enabling readers to acquire high-resolution, high quality renal artery MRA. The current role of contrast agents and their safe use in patients with renal impairment is discussed. In addition, an overview of promising techniques on the horizon for renal MR is provided. The clinic...

  15. Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a pote...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of iliotibial band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, E F; Pope, T; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1994-01-01

    Seven cases of iliotibial band syndrome and the pathoanatomic findings of each, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, are presented. These findings were compared with magnetic resonance imaging scans of 10 age- and sex-matched control knees without evidence of lateral knee pain. Magnetic resonance imaging signal consistent with fluid was seen deep to the iliotibial band in the region of the lateral femoral epicondyle in five of the seven cases. Additionally, when compared with the control group, patients with iliotibial band syndrome demonstrated a significantly thicker iliotibial band over the lateral femoral epicondyle (P iliotibial band in the disease group was 5.49 +/- 2.12 mm, as opposed to 2.52 +/- 1.56 mm in the control group. Cadaveric dissections were performed on 10 normal knees to further elucidate the exact nature of the area under the iliotibial band. A potential space, i.e., a bursa, was found between the iliotibial band and the knee capsule. This series suggests that magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates objective evidence of iliotibial band syndrome and can be helpful when a definitive diagnosis is essential. Furthermore, correlated with anatomic dissection, magnetic resonance imaging identifies this as a problem within a bursa beneath the iliotibial band and not a problem within the knee joint.

  17. Gender and magnetic resonance imaging classification-related differences in clinical and biochemical characteristics of Cushing's disease: a single-centre study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yufan; Mei Xiaobo; Jian Fangfang; Ma Qinyun; Chen Xiao; Bian Liuguan; Sun Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Cushing's disease (CD) presents a remarkable preponderance in female gender,and a significant minority of patients with CD presented with negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.The aim of this study was to evaluate gender-related and MRI classification-related differences in clinical and biochemical characteristics of CD.Methods We retrospectively studied 169 patients with CD,comprising 132 females and 37 males,and 33 patients had no visible adenoma on MRI.Results We observed that male and MRI-positive patients presented with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) values (P <0.05).Female patients presented with higher prevalence of hirsutism and hyperpigmentation and lower prevalence of purple striae (P <0.05).The prevalence of buffalo-hump and hypertension was greater in MRI-negative patients (P <0.05).In addition,male patients with CD presented at a younger age compared with females (P <0.05).Patients with fatigue and hypokalaemia presented significantly higher urinary-free cortisol,ACTH and cortisol levels compared with patients without these symptoms (P <0.05).The prevalence of LH reduction,hyper total cholesterol (TC) and hyper low-density lipoprotein was more frequent in MRI-positive patients (P <0.05).Hyper-TC levels and PRL reduction were more frequent in males (P <0.05).T3,T4 and FT3 levels negatively correlated with age at diagnosis (r=-0.310,P <0.01; r=-0.191,P <0.05; r=-0.216,P <0.05).T3,T4,FT3 and FT4 levels significantly negatively correlated with 8-am plasma cortisol levels (r=-0.328,P <0.01; r=-0.195,P <0.05; r=-0.333,P <0.01; r=-0.180,P <0.05).Females presented higher total protein level (P <0.01) and lower blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels (P <0.01),compared with male patients.Conclusions Carefulness and caution are required in all patients with CD,because of the complexity of clinical and biochemical characteristics in CD patients of different gender and MRI classification

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging structured reporting in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu-Fornas, Guillermina; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to define and propose a standardized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging structured report in patients with infertility to have clinical completeness on possible diagnosis and severity. Patients should be studied preferable on 3T equipment with a surface coil. Standard MR protocol should include high-resolution fast spin-echo T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted images and gradient-echo T1-weighted fat suppression images. The report should include ovaries (polycystic, endometrioma, tumor), oviduct (hydrosalpinx, hematosalpinx, pyosalpinx, peritubal anomalies), uterus (agenesia, hypoplasia, unicornuate, uterus didelphys, bicornuate, septate uterus), myometrium (leiomyomas, adenomyosis), endometrium (polyps, synechia, atrophy, neoplasia), cervix and vagina (isthmoceles, mucosal-parietal irregularity, stenosis, neoplasia), peritoneum (deep endometriosis), and urinary system-associated abnormalities. To be clinically useful, radiology reports must be structured, use standardized terminology, and convey actionable information. The structured report must comprise complete, comprehensive, and accurate information, allowing radiologists to continuously interact with patients and referring physicians to confirm that the information is used properly to affect the decision making process. PMID:27105717

  19. Pancreatitis: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.J.A.; Sheridan, M.B. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    The value of CT in management of severe acute pancreatitis is well established. Some, but not all, experimental studies suggest a detrimental effect of intravenous iodinated contrast agents in acute pancreatitis, but although initial clinical data tends to support this, the positive advantages of enhanced CT outweigh the possible risks. Magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be as effective as CT in demonstrating the presence and extent of pancreatic necrosis and fluid collections, and probably superior in indicating the suitability of such collections for percutaneous drainage. Image-guided intervention remains a key approach in the management of severely ill patients, and the indications, techniques and results of radiological intervention are reviewed herein. Both CT and MRI can be used to diagnose advanced chronic pancreatitis, with the recent addition of MRCP as a viable alternative to diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Both MRCP and CT/MR imaging of the pancreatic parenchyma still have limitations in the recognition of the earliest changes of chronic pancreatitis - for which ERCP and tests of pancreatic function remain more sensitive - but the clinical significance of these minor changes remains contentious. (orig.)

  20. Generation of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two generation techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance images, the retro-projection and the direct transformation method are studied these techniques are based on the acquisition of NMR signals which phases and frequency components are codified in space by application of magnetic field gradients. The construction of magnet coils is discussed, in particular a suitable magnet geometry with polar pieces and air gap. The obtention of image contrast by T1 and T2 relaxation times reconstructed from generated signals using sequences such as spin-echo, inversion-recovery and stimulated echo, is discussed. The mathematical formalism of matrix solution for Bloch equations is also presented. (M.C.K.)

  1. Magnetic resonance of magnetic fluid and magnetoliposome preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Paulo C. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: pcmor@unb.br; Santos, Judes G. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Skeff Neto, K. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Pelegrini, Fernando [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil); Cuyper, Marcel de [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortrijk, Interdisciplinary Research Centre, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2005-05-15

    In this study, magnetic resonance was used to investigate lauric acid-coated magnetite-based magnetic fluid particles and particles which are surrounded by a double layer of phospholipid molecules (magnetoliposomes). The data reveal the presence of monomers and dimers in both samples. Whereas evidence for a thermally induced disruption of dimers is found in the magnetic fluid, apparently, the bilayer phospholipid envelop prevents the dissociation in the magnetoliposome samples.

  2. 植入型凶险性前置胎盘应用磁共振的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Magnetic Resonance in the Application of Implantable Dangerous Placenta Previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕冲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究对植入型凶险性前置胎盘的临床诊断中磁共振的临床应用情况。方法回顾性分析2013年7月—2015年6月在该院接诊的凶险性前置胎盘患者60例,其中植入型凶险性前置胎盘患者25例,结合患者的手术和病理检查结果为参考标准,对植入型凶险性前置胎盘患者进行核磁共振以及彩色多普勒超声检查的联合应用评估,同时患者分别为粘连胎盘、植入性胎盘以及穿透性胎盘,结床分析。结果在胎盘植入的临床诊断中磁共振与磁共振和彩超联合诊断的临床诊断价值无合患者的病症分型对患者的磁共振图像进行临统计学差异(P﹥0.05),但结合患者的病理分型对磁共振的诊断准确率进行判定显示差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05),在穿透性胎盘的诊断中其应用价值最高,而在粘连性胎盘的诊断中其应用价值则相对较低,数据显示差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。结论在植入型凶险性前置胎盘的临床诊断中应用磁共振具有较高的诊断准确性,同时对患者的临床分型也有一定的应用,值得在临床上推广应用。%Objective To discuss the clinical application situation of magnetic resonance in the clinical diagnosis of im-plantable dangerous placenta previa. Methods 60 cases of patients with dangerous placenta previa treated in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, among them, 25 cases were implantable dangerous placenta previa and they were evaluated by the combined application of magnetic resonance and color Doppler ultrasonography ac-cording to the operative and pathological examination results and divided into the adherent placenta, implantable percreta and placenta percreta according to the clinical analysis. Results The difference in the clinical diagnostic value between the magnetic resonance diagnosis of placenta implantation and magnetic resonance combined with colour

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mala; Tanna, Neil; Margolies, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have significantly evolved since their introduction half a century ago, yet implant rupture remains a common and expected complication, especially in patients with earlier-generation implants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary modality for assessing the integrity of silicone implants and has excellent sensitivity and specificity, and the Food and Drug Administration currently recommends periodic magnetic resonance imaging screening for silent silicone breast implant rupture. Familiarity with the types of silicone implants and potential complications is essential for the radiologist. Signs of intracapsular rupture include the noose, droplet, subcapsular line, and linguine signs. Signs of extracapsular rupture include herniation of silicone with a capsular defect and extruded silicone material. Specific sequences including water and silicone suppression are essential for distinguishing rupture from other pathologies and artifacts. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about the integrity of silicone implants and associated complications.

  4. Tutte polynomial in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castillón, Marlly V.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of graph theory are applied to the processing of functional magnetic resonance images. Specifically the Tutte polynomial is used to analyze such kind of images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging provide us connectivity networks in the brain which are represented by graphs and the Tutte polynomial will be applied. The problem of computing the Tutte polynomial for a given graph is #P-hard even for planar graphs. For a practical application the maple packages "GraphTheory" and "SpecialGraphs" will be used. We will consider certain diagram which is depicting functional connectivity, specifically between frontal and posterior areas, in autism during an inferential text comprehension task. The Tutte polynomial for the resulting neural networks will be computed and some numerical invariants for such network will be obtained. Our results show that the Tutte polynomial is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize the networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. MAGNETIC RESONANCE SEMIOTICS OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Serebryakova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC that is the most common malignancy in women presents an indubitable threat to their life and health. The basis for this investigation was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of 203 women with histologically verified malignan- cies. The patients' mean age was 53±10.2 years. The paper describes the magnetic resonance semiotics of BC; the authors have developed criteria for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography used in the differential diagnosis of nodules.Due to high soft-tissue contrast, the use of thin sections, and the possibility of examining in any projection, MRI allows one not only to accurately visualize a pathological mass as compared with X-ray mammography or ultrasound study, but also to characterize its vascularization, which is a major criteria for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast nodules.

  6. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth\\'s magnetic field system.

  7. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridjonsson, E. O.; Creber, S. A.; Vrouwenvelder, J. S.; Johns, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common ... acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This is because traction devices and many ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, ... magnetic field is not harmful in itself, implanted medical devices that contain metal may malfunction or cause problems ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material ... are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... look like? The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. ... still during imaging. A person who is very large may not fit into the opening of certain ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it ... if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. MRI has been used for scanning patients since ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most ... number of abrupt onset or long-standing symptoms. It can help diagnose conditions such as: brain tumors ...

  17. Magnetic force microscopy using tip magnetization modulated by ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the tip–sample distance should be reduced to analyze the microscopic magnetic domain structure with high spatial resolution. However, achieving a small tip–sample distance has been difficult because of superimposition of interaction forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces induced by the sample surface. In this study, we propose a new method of MFM using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to extract only the magnetic field near the sample surface. In this method, the magnetization of a magnetic cantilever is modulated by FMR to separate the magnetic field and topographic structure. We demonstrate the modulation of the magnetization of the cantilever and the identification of the polarities of a perpendicular magnetic medium. (paper)

  18. Progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, J W; Sutcliffe, L H

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Part 1 is a two-chapter text that reviews significant developments in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications.The first chapter discusses NMR studies of molecules physisorbed on homogeneous surfaces. This chapter also describes the phase changes in the adsorbed layer detected by following the variation in the NMR parameters. The second chapter examines the process to obtain a plotted, data reduced Fourier transform NMR spectrum. This chapter highlights the pitfalls that can cause a decrease in information content in a NMR spectrum. The

  19. The progress of coronary magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a kind of disease with high morbidity and mortality. The early detection and treatment has important significance to patient. With the features of noninvasive, no radiation, good soft tissue contrast and multi parameter, and displaying anatomy in arbitrary plane, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was gradually applied in coronary artery imaging. In this paper, the main sequence and scanning technology of coronary MRI were reviewed, factors that affecting the quality of coronary magnetic resonance imaging were summarized, and the main advantages and disadvantages were concluded. (authors)

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance of thermally oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more recent developments in the spectroscopy of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei (NMRON) are reviewed; both theoretical and experimental advances are summarised with applications to On-Line and Off-Line determination of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine parameters. Some emphasis is provided on solid state considerations with indications of where likely enhancements in technique will lead in conventional hyperfine studies. (orig.)

  1. Multi-dimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image...

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Present results and its application to renal pathology. Experimental study of hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation time measurement of experimental hydronephrosis in mice are presented. The study is preceded by a description of the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and of its biomedical applications and with a review of the clinical use of NMR imaging in renal pathology

  3. ABC of the cardiac magnetic resonance. Part 1: perfusion, viability and coronary anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the fundamental concepts, the basic sequences and the clinical and potential applications of cardiac magnetic resonance as a diagnostic technique in updated radiology and cardiology practices. In this second part, we present basic aspects of the cardiac magnetic resonance application in the coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion and viability. (author)

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  5. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.R. (Univ. Dept. of Otolaryngology, Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)); Birzgalis, A.R. (Univ. Dept. of Otolaryngology, Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)); Ramsden, R.T. (Univ. Dept. of Otolaryngology, Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    Intralabyrinthine schwannomas are rare benign tumours which present with progressive or fluctuant audiovestibular symptoms and may mimic Menieres disease. The size and position of these lesions make preoperative diagnosis unusual and most are discovered incidentally at labyrinthectomy. A case is reported which was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgery. (orig.)

  6. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  7. Sports health magnetic resonance imaging challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gary A; Stadnick, Michael E; Awh, Mark H

    2010-11-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex are often suspected, particularly in the setting of midfoot pain without radiographic abnormality. Knowledge of the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to this region is helpful for the diagnosing and treating physicians.

  8. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Felipe Rodrigues; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: garrido@ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filisofia, Ciencias e Letras; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAMUS/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: the intrinsically high sensitivity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) causes considerable variability in metabolite quantification. In this study, we evaluated the variability of MRS in two research centers using the same model of magnetic resonance image scanner. Methods: two metabolic phantoms were created to simulate magnetic resonance spectra from in vivo hippocampus. The phantoms were filled with the same basic solution containing the following metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine and inositol. Spectra were acquired over 15 months on 26 acquisition dates, resulting in a total of 130 spectra per center. Results: the phantoms did not undergo any physical changes during the 15-month period. Temporal analysis from both centers showed mean metabolic variations of 3.7% in acquisitions on the same day and of 8.7% over the 15-month period. Conclusion: The low deviations demonstrated here, combined with the high specificity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, confirm that it is feasible to use this technique in multicenter studies in neuroscience research. (author)

  9. Use of Magnetic Resonance in Pancreaticobiliary Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David D B; LeBedis, Christina A; Soto, Jorge A; Gupta, Avneesh

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the magnetic resonance protocols, imaging features, diagnostic criteria, and complications of commonly encountered emergencies in pancreaticobiliary imaging. Pancreatic trauma, bile leak, acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, and pancreatitis are discussed. Various classifications and complications that can arise with these conditions, as well as artifacts that may mimic pathology, are also included. PMID:27150328

  10. Magnetic Resonance Lithography with Nanometer Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad AlGhannam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for super-resolution optical lithography which is based on the inverse of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The technique uses atomic coherence in an ensemble of spin systems whose final state population can be optically detected. In principle, our method is capable of producing arbitrary one and two dimensional high-resolution patterns with high contrast.

  11. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: the intrinsically high sensitivity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) causes considerable variability in metabolite quantification. In this study, we evaluated the variability of MRS in two research centers using the same model of magnetic resonance image scanner. Methods: two metabolic phantoms were created to simulate magnetic resonance spectra from in vivo hippocampus. The phantoms were filled with the same basic solution containing the following metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine and inositol. Spectra were acquired over 15 months on 26 acquisition dates, resulting in a total of 130 spectra per center. Results: the phantoms did not undergo any physical changes during the 15-month period. Temporal analysis from both centers showed mean metabolic variations of 3.7% in acquisitions on the same day and of 8.7% over the 15-month period. Conclusion: The low deviations demonstrated here, combined with the high specificity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, confirm that it is feasible to use this technique in multicenter studies in neuroscience research. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Marinus Adriaan

    2001-01-01

    From its inception in the early 1970's up to the present, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into a sophisticated technique, which has aroused considerable interest in var- ious subelds of medicine including radiotherapy. MRI is capable of imaging in any plane and does not use ionizing rad

  13. Numerical methods in electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soernes, A.R

    1998-07-01

    The focal point of the thesis is the development and use of numerical methods in the analysis, simulation and interpretation of Electron Magnetic Resonance experiments on free radicals in solids to uncover the structure, the dynamics and the environment of the system.

  14. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Neuromyelitis Optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sun Kyung; Song, Chang June; Park, Woon Ju; Lee, In Ho; Son, Eun Hee [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    To report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the spinal cord and brain in patients of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Between January 2001 and March 2010, the MR images (spinal cord, brain, and orbit) and the clinical and serologic findings of 11 NMO patients were retrospectively reviewed. The contrast-enhancement of the spinal cord was performed (20/23). The presence and pattern of the contrast-enhancement in the spinal cord were classified into 5 types. Acute myelitis was monophasic in 8 patients (8/11, 72.7%); and optic neuritis preceded acute myelitis in most patients. Longitudinally extensive cord lesion (average, 7.3 vertebral segments) was involved. The most common type was the diffuse and subtle enhancement of the spinal cord with a multifocal nodular, linear or segmental intense enhancement (45%). Most of the brain lesions (5/11, 10 lesions) were located in the brain stem, thalamus and callososeptal interphase. Anti-Ro autoantibody was positive in 2 patients, and they showed a high relapse rate of acute myelitis. Anti-NMO IgG was positive in 4 patients (4/7, 66.7%). The imaging findings of acute myelitis in NMO may helpful in making an early diagnosis of NMO which can result in a severe damage to the spinal cord, and to make a differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and inflammatory diseases of the spinal cord such as toxocariasis.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of primary vaginal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ben.taylor@christie-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Dugar, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davidson, S.E. [Radiation Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, B.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Aims: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of vaginal carcinoma and to suggest a role for MRI in its management. Materials and methods: Twenty-five patients with primary vaginal carcinoma treated at our institution between 1996 and 2005 were included in the study. The MRI examinations were reviewed and tumour dimensions, signal characteristics and involvement of pelvic structures were documented, as were sites of enlarged lymph nodes and metastases. Details of patient treatment and outcome were obtained from the clinical notes. Results: The median patient age was 54 years (range 31-86 years). Tumour maximum diameter ranged from 1.6-11.3 cm (mean 3.7 cm). Most tumours were of iso-intense signal to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyper-intense to muscle on T2-weighted images. Eighty-eight percent of patients had tumour extending beyond the vagina and 56% of patients had Figo stage III or above tumours. Sixteen patients were treated with radiotherapy (two with chemoradiotherapy), five with surgery and four with supportive care. Ten patients (40%) died of their disease during the study period. The MRI stage of the tumour correlated with survival. Conclusion: MRI identified over 95% of primary vaginal tumours in the present study, enabled radiological staging, which correlated with outcome, and provided information of use in treatment planning.

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francone Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  1. Potts disease: Diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eponymously named Potts disease is a relatively rare form of Tuberculosis (TB) which affects the spine. TB of the spine is one of the earliest diseases known to man and in the 20th century was thought to be a disease which had been defeated by the advent of antitubercular drugs. Over the last two decades there have been several reports which indicate a revival of TB in both the developing and developed world. Factors which may be contributing to this are the spread of the HIV virus, increased immigration and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the TB bacteria. Potts disease has an insidious onset and often the radiographic findings are far advanced when a diagnosis is finally reached. MRI is able to detect changes to the vertebrae in Potts disease earlier than radiographs. This case report outlines the clinical presentation of a young male with Potts disease who was HIV negative, and the important role that MRI plays in diagnosis and therefore in appropriate and timely intervention. The typical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and the radiographic hallmarks of the disease will also be discussed.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barikbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological affliction of children. It carries an estimated annual incidence of up to one per 1,000, and a prevalence of up to 5 per 1,000 children. Children suffering from epilepsy have a significantly increased mortality rate. The major causes of death are the underlying cause of the epilepsy itself, associated neurological compromise, injuries, and status epilepticus."nNeuroimaging techniques have advanced the diagnosis, management, and understanding the pathophysiology of underlying the epilepsies. MRI is the technique of choice for investigation of patients with seizure disorders. MRI provides excellent anatomic information and tissue contrast, resulting in high sensitivity. MRI studies should be customized to answer the appropriate clinical questions. Functional imaging techniques including magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are becoming increasingly important in the investigation and management of patients with seizures. These techniques permit noninvasive assessment of the epileptic substrate, functional status, ictal activity, blood flow changes, me-tabolism, and neuroreceptors. Application of these new techniques promises to advance our understanding and treatment of seizures in children. In this presentation we will address the MR findings of epilepsy in children.

  3. Compression-sensitive magnetic resonance elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Sebastian; Beyer, Frauke; Guo, Jing; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Tzschaetzsch, Heiko; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) quantifies the shear modulus of biological tissue to detect disease. Complementary to the shear elastic properties of tissue, the compression modulus may be a clinically useful biomarker because it is sensitive to tissue pressure and poromechanical interactions. In this work, we analyze the capability of MRE to measure volumetric strain and the dynamic bulk modulus (P-wave modulus) at a harmonic drive frequency commonly used in shear-wave-based MRE. Gel phantoms with various densities were created by introducing CO2-filled cavities to establish a compressible effective medium. The dependence of the effective medium's bulk modulus on phantom density was investigated via static compression tests, which confirmed theoretical predictions. The P-wave modulus of three compressible phantoms was calculated from volumetric strain measured by 3D wave-field MRE at 50 Hz drive frequency. The results demonstrate the MRE-derived volumetric strain and P-wave modulus to be sensitive to the compression properties of effective media. Since the reconstruction of the P-wave modulus requires third-order derivatives, noise remains critical, and P-wave moduli are systematically underestimated. Focusing on relative changes in the effective bulk modulus of tissue, compression-sensitive MRE may be useful for the noninvasive detection of diseases involving pathological pressure alterations such as hepatic hypertension or hydrocephalus.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; La Porta, M; Antinolfi, G; Cesarano, E; Fonio, P; Brunese, L; Coppolino, F

    2013-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury represents the most severe nerve injury of the extremities. While obstetric brachial plexus injury has showed a reduction in the number of cases due to the improvements in obstetric care, brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. The therapeutic measures depend on the pathologic condition and the location of the injury: Preganglionic avulsions are usually not amenable to surgical repair; function of some denervated muscles can be restored with nerve transfers from intercostals or accessory nerves and contralateral C7 transfer. Postganglionic avulsions are repaired with excision of the damaged segment and nerve autograft between nerve ends or followed up conservatively. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for depicting the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus: It demonstrates the location of the nerve damage (crucial for optimal treatment planning), depicts the nerve continuity (with or without neuroma formation), or may show a completely disrupted/avulsed nerve, thereby aiding in nerve-injury grading for preoperative planning. Computed tomography myelography has the advantage of a higher spatial resolution in demonstration of nerve roots compared with MR myelography; however, it is invasive and shows some difficulties in the depiction of some pseudomeningoceles with little or no communication with the dural sac. PMID:23949940

  5. Potts disease: Diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursey, Jacqueline [MRI Department, Gartnavel General Hospitial, 1053 Great Western road, Glasgow G12 0YN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Jacqueline.pursey@ggc.scot.nhs.uk; Stewart, Sharon [School of Health and Social Care, Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The eponymously named Potts disease is a relatively rare form of Tuberculosis (TB) which affects the spine. TB of the spine is one of the earliest diseases known to man and in the 20th century was thought to be a disease which had been defeated by the advent of antitubercular drugs. Over the last two decades there have been several reports which indicate a revival of TB in both the developing and developed world. Factors which may be contributing to this are the spread of the HIV virus, increased immigration and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the TB bacteria. Potts disease has an insidious onset and often the radiographic findings are far advanced when a diagnosis is finally reached. MRI is able to detect changes to the vertebrae in Potts disease earlier than radiographs. This case report outlines the clinical presentation of a young male with Potts disease who was HIV negative, and the important role that MRI plays in diagnosis and therefore in appropriate and timely intervention. The typical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and the radiographic hallmarks of the disease will also be discussed.

  6. Magnetic resonance tomography in confirmed multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Dickmann, E.; Beyer, H.K.; Gehlen, W.

    1985-03-01

    The authors report on 21 cases of confirmed multiple sclerosis examined by both CT and magnetic resonance tomography. To safeguard the results, strict criteria were applied in accordance with the suggestions made by neurological work teams. Pathological lesions were seen in 20 patients; the MR image did not reveal anything abnormal in one case. On the average, 10.3 lesions were seen in the MR tomogram, whereas CT images showed on the average only 2.1 foci. The size and number of lesions in the MR tomogram were independent of the duration of the disease, the presented clinical symptoms, or the type of treatment at the time of examination. Evidently the sensitivity of MR tomography is very high in MS patients, but it has not yet been clarified to what extent this applies also to the specificity. Further research is mandatory. First experiences made by us show that lesions of a similar kind can also occur in diseases such as malignant lymphoma involving the brain, in vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome, or encephalitis, and can become manifest in the MR tomogram.

  7. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yumin

    2013-12-01

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters-shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  8. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  9. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yumin, E-mail: ymhou@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-12-15

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices. PMID:24112886

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices.

  13. 磁共振技术诊断膝关节损伤的临床价值%Clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of knee injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗谞成; 马平克; 许会民; 肖志成; 李春梁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨磁共振在膝关节损伤患者临床诊断中的应用价值。方法:收治膝关节损伤患者61例,采用磁共振检查,与膝关节镜的诊断结果进行比较。结果:磁共振技术诊断膝关节损伤的准确性83.60%(51/61)、敏感性90.69%(39/43)、特异性66.67%(12/18)、假阳性率33.3%(6/18)、假阴性率9.30%(4/43)。结论:磁共振技术在膝关节损伤患者的临床诊断中,准确、灵敏,且快速、无创、经济、方便。%Objective:To explore the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of knee injuries.Methods:61 patients with knee injuries were selected,and they were given magnetic resonance imaging,and the results were compared with the knee arthroscopy.Results:Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of knee injuries was 83.60%(51/61),sensitivity was 90.69% (39/43),specificity was 66.67% (12/18),false positive rate was 33.3% (6/18),false negative rate was 9.30% (4/43). Conclusion:Magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of knee injuries had many advantages,such as accurate,sensitive,fast, noninvasive,economical and convenient and so on.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in ADNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R.; Barnes, Josephine; Bernstein, Matt A.; Borowski, Bret J.; Brewer, James; Clegg, Shona; Dale, Anders M.; Carmichael, Owen; Ching, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Desikan, Rahul S.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fjell, Anders M.; Fletcher, Evan; Fox, Nick C.; Gunter, Jeff; Gutman, Boris A.; Holland, Dominic; Hua, Xue; Insel, Philip; Kantarci, Kejal; Killiany, Ron J.; Krueger, Gunnar; Leung, Kelvin K.; Mackin, Scott; Maillard, Pauline; Molone, Ian; Mattsson, Niklas; McEvoy, Linda; Modat, Marc; Mueller, Susanne; Nosheny, Rachel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schuff, Norbert; Senjem, Matthew L.; Simonson, Alix; Thompson, Paul M.; Rettmann, Dan; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Walhovd, Kristine; Zhao, Yansong; Zuk, Samantha; Weiner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION ADNI is now in its 10th year. The primary objective of the MRI core of ADNI has been to improve methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. METHODS We review the contributions of the MRI core from present and past cycles of ADNI (ADNI 1, GO and 2). We also review plans for the future – ADNI 3. RESULTS Contributions of the MRI core include creating standardized acquisition protocols and quality control methods; examining the effect of technical features of image acquisition and analysis on outcome metrics; deriving sample size estimates for future trials based on those outcomes; and piloting the potential utility of MR perfusion, diffusion, and functional connectivity measures in multicenter clinical trials. DISCUSSION Over the past decade the MRI core of ADNI has fulfilled its mandate of improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease and will continue to do so in the future. PMID:26194310

  15. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging: Atlas of the head, neck and spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, C.M.; De Groot, J.; Posin, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this atlas is to provide the reader with a means to complement existing sources of information and to correlate the superb soft tissue contrast realized in magnetic resonance images with the appropriate anatomic and functional structures. Where appropriate, pathologic examples have been included to complement normal images. In addition, since MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) clearly separates gray from white matter, and thus accurately visualizes the position of functional tracts as they extend from cortex to spinal cord, a separate section on functional neuroanatomy has been provided. Likewise, the improved visualization of vascular structures and associated pathologic processes has led to the inclusion of vascular anatomy and associated perfusion territories. These additions will be of particular use in clinical practice, as precise lesion identification and localization can now be correlated to specific clinical symptomatology.

  17. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzinger, A.L.; Hendee, W.R.

    1985-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. 92 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  18. Increasing Benefit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an essential tool of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and has opened up completely new prospects in MS research and treatment trials. It is a sensitive method that gives direct evidence of tissue pathology and has greatly increased our knowledge of MS. In clinical work, MRI is used to confirm and exclude the diagnosis of MS. The international recommendation is that every suspected MS patient should undergo at least one brain MRI. T2-weighted images are the standard tool in clinical work, and functional imaging methods are mainly used in MS research. The subtypes and the course of the disease cause variation in MRI findings. Here, we present a general overview of MR findings in MS. Brain, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in deep pelvic endometriosis: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Aidar, Marisa Nassar [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: cmaol@br.inter.net; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2008-03-15

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of normal endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. In patients with deep pelvic endometriosis, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder may be involved. Clinical manifestations may be variable, including pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, urinary symptoms and infertility. Complete surgical excision is the gold standard for treating this disease, and hence the importance of the preoperative work-up that usually is limited to an evaluation of sonographic and clinical data. Magnetic resonance imaging is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of endometriosis, considering its high accuracy in the identification of lesions intermingled with adhesions, and in the determination of peritoneal lesions extent. The present pictorial review describes the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in deep pelvic endometriosis. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in deep pelvic endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of normal endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. In patients with deep pelvic endometriosis, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder may be involved. Clinical manifestations may be variable, including pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, urinary symptoms and infertility. Complete surgical excision is the gold standard for treating this disease, and hence the importance of the preoperative work-up that usually is limited to an evaluation of sonographic and clinical data. Magnetic resonance imaging is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of endometriosis, considering its high accuracy in the identification of lesions intermingled with adhesions, and in the determination of peritoneal lesions extent. The present pictorial review describes the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in deep pelvic endometriosis. (author)

  1. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Christopher J.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is a non-invasive technique capable of measuring the three-component mean velocity field in complex three-dimensional geometries with either steady or periodic boundary conditions. The technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and works in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets used for clinical imaging. Velocities can be measured along single lines, in planes, or in full 3D volumes with sub-millimeter resolution. No optical access or flow markers are required so measurements can be obtained in clear or opaque MR compatible flow models and fluids. Because of its versatility and the widespread availability of MRI scanners, MRV is seeing increasing application in both biological and engineering flows. MRV measurements typically image the hydrogen protons in liquid flows due to the relatively high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, lower SNR applications such as fluorine gas flows are beginning to appear in the literature. MRV can be used in laminar and turbulent flows, single and multiphase flows, and even non-isothermal flows. In addition to measuring mean velocity, MRI techniques can measure turbulent velocities, diffusion coefficients and tensors, and temperature. This review surveys recent developments in MRI measurement techniques primarily in turbulent liquid and gas flows. A general description of MRV provides background for a discussion of its accuracy and limitations. Techniques for decreasing scan time such as parallel imaging and partial k-space sampling are discussed. MRV applications are reviewed in the areas of physiology, biology, and engineering. Included are measurements of arterial blood flow and gas flow in human lungs. Featured engineering applications include the scanning of turbulent flows in complex geometries for CFD validation, the rapid iterative design of complex internal flow passages, velocity and phase composition measurements in

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging by using nano-magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramdin, A. [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Isapour, Gh. [Department of Materials and Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Magnetism and magnetic materials play a major role in various biological applications, such as magnetic bioseparation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia treatment of cancer and drug delivery. Among these techniques, MRI is a powerful method not only for diagnostic radiology but also for therapeutic medicine that utilizes a magnetic field and radio waves. Recently, this technique has contributed greatly to the promotion of the human quality life. Thus, this paper presents a short review of the physical principles and recent advances of MRI, as well as providing a summary of the synthesis methods and properties of contrast agents, like different core materials and surfactants. - Highlights: • This paper studies the physics of MRI as a powerful diagnostic technique. • MRI uses the differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. • The relaxation times can be shortened by the use of a magnetic contrast agent. • The magnetic nanoparticles act as contrast agents, helping to increase the resolution. • Different synthesis methods can influence the magnetic resonance behavior.

  4. A review of functional magnetic resonance imaging for Brainnetome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Song; Tianzi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The functional brain network using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed the potentials for probing brain architecture,as well as for identifying clinical biomarkers for brain diseases.In the general context of Brainnetome,this review focuses on the development of approaches for modeling and analyzing functional brain networks with BOLD fMRI.The prospects for these approaches are also discussed.

  5. Value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study summarizes an experience with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of twelve patients with a variety of cardiac abnormalities (myocardial infarction, mural thrombi, obstructive cardiomyopathy, pericarditis). The results are compared with clinical data, with measurements from other techniques such as two-dimensional echocardiography and with the images in normal subjects. An anticipated advantage of MRI is the ability to provide better tissue characterization, than has been attained with other imaging techniques, by relaxation time measurement

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of epilepsy at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, I., E-mail: ian.craven@sth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P.D.; Hoggard, N. [Academic Unit of Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Patients with epilepsy often have a structural cause for their seizures and may benefit from surgical resection. As recommended in the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to screen for structural abnormalities in these patients and there is increasing evidence that 3T MRI has better sensitivity and specificity than 1.5T. This article reviews the imaging findings of many of the common diseases that can cause epilepsy.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of epilepsy at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with epilepsy often have a structural cause for their seizures and may benefit from surgical resection. As recommended in the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to screen for structural abnormalities in these patients and there is increasing evidence that 3T MRI has better sensitivity and specificity than 1.5T. This article reviews the imaging findings of many of the common diseases that can cause epilepsy.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalieri, Margherita; Ropele, Stefan; Petrovic, Katja; Pluta-Fuerst, Aga; Homayoon, Nina; Enzinger, Christian; Grazer, Anja; Katschnig, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Berghold, Andrea; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored cognitive impairment in metabolic syndrome in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 819 participants free of clinical stroke and dementia of the population-based Austrian Stroke Prevention Study who had undergone brain MRI, neuropsychological testing, and a risk factor assessment relevant to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria–defined metabolic syndrome. High-sensitivity C...

  9. The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin Radwa A; Liu Songtao; Nacif Marcelo S; Judge Daniel P; Halushka Marc K; Abraham Theodore P; Ho Carolyn; Bluemke David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic disease of the heart. HCM is characterized by a wide range of clinical expression, ranging from asymptomatic mutation carriers to sudden cardiac death as the first manifestation of the disease. Over 1000 mutations have been identified, classically in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. Noninvasive imaging is central to the diagnosis of HCM and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to characterize morp...

  10. Giant right atrial myxoma: characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of dyspnoea and chest pain. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed to exclude acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This demonstrated a large right atrial mass and no evidence of PE. Transthoracic echocardiography followed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a mobile right atrial mass. Surgical resection was then performed confirming a giant right atrial myxoma. We describe the typical clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of right atrial myxoma.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the ability of certain nuclei possessing both intrinsic angular momentum or ''spin'' I and magnetic moment to absorb electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency range. In principle, there are approximately 200 nuclei which may be investigated using the NMR technique. The NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum provides a variety of qualitative and quantitative analytical applications. The most obvious applications consist of the measurements of nuclear properties, such as spin number and nuclear magnetic moment. In liquids, the fine structure of resonance spectra provides a tool for chemical identification and molecular structure analysis. Other applications include the measurements of self-diffusion coefficients, magnetic fields and field homogeneity, inter-nuclear distances, and, in some cases, the water content of biological materials. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 892.1000 - Magnetic resonance diagnostic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. 892.1000... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1000 Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. (a) Identification. A magnetic resonance diagnostic device is intended for general diagnostic...

  13. Specific Targeting of Breast Tumor by Octreotide-Conjugated Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Particles Using a Clinical 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xubin Li; Xiangke Du; Tianlong Huo; Xia Liu; Sen Zhang; Fei Yuan (Dept. of Radiology, Peking Univ. People' s Hospital, Beijing (China))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Targeted magnetic resonance contrast agents have enabled the imaging of biological processes in vivo, and current insights have opened up new perspectives for the monitoring and diagnosis of many diseases. Purpose: To develop a contrast agent for targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expressed on breast cancer cells, and to evaluate the detection capabilities of a molecular probe using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an in vivo mouse model of breast carcinoma. Material and Methods: Octreotide (OCT) was conjugated with polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by an ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated reaction. Prussian blue staining for intracellular iron, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cellular MR imaging in vitro were performed on labeled MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Twenty-four mice bearing tumors were divided into two groups: 1) study group with injection of OCT-USPIOs (n=12); 2) control group with injection of USPIOs (n=12). Tumors were monitored in vivo using a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner before and after injection of contrast agents, and the findings were correlated with the histopathological findings. Results: OCT-USPIOs were shown to specifically bind to MCF-7 cells and did not affect proliferation and viability of the cells labeled. T2 value of the cells labeled with OCT-USPIOs in vitro was 56.465+-13.147 ms, while those of the cells cultured with USPIOs and gelatin/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) gel alone were 75.435+-16.171 ms and 85.950+-22.352 ms, respectively (P<0.05). Signal intensity of the tumor gradually decreased, and its T2 value reached a minimum of approximately 24.49% 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs in vivo, compared to a minimum of 21.89% after 2 hours in the control group. Iron depositions were visualized as blue particles in tumor 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs, while no blue particles were observed

  14. CT及磁共振诊断中枢神经系统感染的临床研究%Clinical research of CT and magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究C T、磁共振诊断中枢神经系统感染的临床价值。方法选取2011-01-2013-01入院诊治的中枢神经感染的患者120例,分别作C T、磁共振诊断检查,并选取同期入院体检的健康受试者120例分别作上述检查,将2组患者的检查结果进行对比分析。结果120例患者中C T诊断正常53例,异常67例,磁共振检查正常2例,异常118例;C T早期病变61例,磁共振早期病变109例;C T检查病脑21例,化脑6例,结脑20例,隐脑8例,脑囊虫病12例,磁共振检查分别为62例、7例、25例、9例、15例。120例健康体检者中,C T见8例腔隙性脑梗死,磁共振见18例轻微脑萎缩,其余患者均正常。结论 CT、磁共振对中枢神经系统感染均具有一定的诊断价值,但CT联合磁共振对该病的诊断效果、评价病情程度、预后判断优于单纯的CT诊断。%Objective To research the clinical value of CT and magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of central nervous sys-tem infection .Methods Totally 120 patients with central nervous system infection treated in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013 were selected ,and were diagnosed by CT and magnetic resonance .And 120 healthy examiners during the same period were selected and received the above examination .The examination results of two groups were compared and analyzed . Results For the 120 patients ,CT diagnosis indicated 53 normal cases and 67 abnormal cases .The magnetic resonance exami-nation indicated 2 normal cases and 118 abnormal cases .There were 61 cases with CT early lesion ,and 109 cases with magnetic resonance early lesion .CT examination indicated 21 cases with sickness brain ,6 cases with chemical brain ,20 cases with tu-berculosis meningitis ,8 cases with cryptococcal meningitis and 12 cases with cerebral cysticercosis .The magnetic resonance ex-amination indicated 62 cases with sickness brain ,7 cases with chemical brain ,25 cases with

  15. Advances in magnetic and optical resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance contains three articles which review quite fundamentally different aspects of coherent spectroscopy. An enormous variety of effects can be observed when optical and spin resonances are coupled, usually by a combination of radio frequency and laser irradiation. The first article reviews these effects and pays particular attention to developing a theoretical framework which is as similar as possible for the optical and spin cases. Subsequent articles examine deuterium relaxation in molecular solids, and the spatiotemporal growth of multiple spin coheren

  16. Exploring the elusive link between subclinical fibrosis and clinical events in end-stage renal disease: does cardiac magnetic resonance imaging hold the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Gautam R; Raggi, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Extensive myocardial fibrosis is known to occur in patients undergoing dialysis due to a variety of mechanisms not necessarily restricted to coronary artery disease. Fibrosis may predispose to reentry arrhythmias and long-term myocardial dysfunction, and sudden death and congestive heart failure are the most frequent causes of death in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. Despite the high accuracy of magnetic resonance for imaging of myocardial fibrosis, its use has been restricted by the risk of inducing nephrogenic systemic sclerosis with the injection of gadolinium. The development of new sequences that allow the detection and quantifying of the severity of extracellular myocardial fibrosis offers a chance to study the pathogenesis of this condition and identify potential interventions to retard or reverse it. Whether these will lead to an improved outcome needs to be prospectively tested.

  17. Gated SPECT evaluation of left ventricular function using a CZT camera and a fast low-dose clinical protocol: comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Marras, Gavino; Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Pisa (Italy); Rustamova, Yasmine K. [Azerbaijan Medical University, Department of internal medicine Central Customs Hospital, Baku (Azerbaijan); Marzullo, Paolo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    CZT technology allows ultrafast low-dose myocardial scintigraphy but its accuracy in assessing left ventricular function is still to be defined. The study group comprised 55 patients (23 women, mean age 63 {+-} 9 years) referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patients were studied at rest using a CZT camera (Discovery NM530c; GE Healthcare) and a low-dose {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin clinical protocol (mean dose 264 {+-} 38 MBq). Gated SPECT imaging was performed as a 6-min list-mode acquisition, 15 min after radiotracer injection. Images were reformatted (8-frame to 16-frame) using Lister software on a Xeleris workstation (GE Healthcare) and then reconstructed with a dedicated iterative algorithm. Analysis was performed using Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software. Within 2 weeks patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI, 1.5-T unit CVi; GE Healthcare) using a 30-frame acquisition protocol and dedicated software for analysis (MASS 6.1; Medis). The ventricular volumes obtained with 8-frame QGS showed excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (end-diastolic volume (EDV), r = 0.90; end-systolic volume (ESV), r = 0.94; p < 0.001). However, QGS significantly underestimated the ventricular volumes (mean differences: EDV, -39.5 {+-} 29 mL; ESV, -15.4 {+-} 22 mL; p < 0.001). Similarly, the ventricular volumes obtained with 16-frame QGS showed an excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (EDV, r = 0.92; ESV, r = 0.95; p < 0.001) but with significant underestimations (mean differences: EDV, -33.2 {+-} 26 mL; ESV, -17.9 {+-} 20 mL; p < 0.001). Despite significantly lower values (47.9 {+-} 16 % vs. 51.2 {+-} 15 %, p < 0.008), 8-frame QGS mean ejection fraction (EF) was closely correlated with the cMRI values (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). The mean EF with 16-frame QGS showed the best correlation with the cMRI values (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and was similar to the mean cMRI value (49.6 {+-} 16 %, p not significant). Regional analysis showed a good

  18. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  19. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in paediatrics: The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P.E.; Oudkerk, M.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies, a paediatric application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy that has already become a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, is reviewed and illustrated with results from recent examinations

  20. Thin layer and nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this text, magnetometers with sensitive elements in the form of thin cylindrical ferromagnetic layers are described. These layers are anisotropic, uniaxial, C orientated and single domains. In the second part of the text, the principles of the nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer realized at the LETI are presented. This instrument is accurate, of high efficiency, and isotropic. Very small variations in magnetic field intensity (10-7 oersteds) can be detected with a 1Hz pass band at zero frequency

  1. Development of the 1.2 T~1.5 T Permanent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Device and Its Application for Mouse Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By improving the main magnet, gradient, and RF coils design technology, manufacturing methods, and inventing new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI special alloy, a cost-effective and small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager was developed. The main magnetic field strength of magnetic resonance imager with independent intellectual property rights is 1.2~1.5 T. To demonstrate its effectiveness and validate the mouse imaging experiments in different directions, we compared the images obtained by small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager with that obtained by using superconductor magnetic resonance imager for clinical diagnosis.

  2. Magnetic resonance semiotics of breast fibroadenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Serebryakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various benign breast abnormalities are diagnosed in 60% of women in Russia today. This is associated with failure of preoperative recognition of the histological class of an identified nodular mass – its detection is an indication for surgical treatment. By using 67 histologically verified breast fibroadenomas (FA as an example, the authors describe their magnetic resonance semiotics and present the differential diagnostic criteria used during dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography. FAs are characterized by well-defined uniform outlines, homogeneous internal structure, centrifugal and homogeneous accumulation of contrast media through- out the study, without deforming the breast vasculature around. One of the criteria that permit differential diagnosis of FA with malignan- cies is their estimated vascularization.

  3. Sensorineural hearing loss after magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Atighechi, Saeid;

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices produce noise, which may affect patient's or operators' hearing. Some cases of hearing impairment after MRI procedure have been reported with different patterns (temporary or permanent, unilateral or bilateral, with or without other symptoms like tinnitus)......). In this report, a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in an otherwise healthy patient underwent brain MRI was described. The patient's hearing loss was accompanied with tinnitus and was not improved after 3 months of followup.......Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices produce noise, which may affect patient's or operators' hearing. Some cases of hearing impairment after MRI procedure have been reported with different patterns (temporary or permanent, unilateral or bilateral, with or without other symptoms like tinnitus...

  4. Contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavieille, J.; Amalric, R.; Stanoyevitch, J.F.; Hopf, M.A.; Antipoff, G.M.; Roux, H.

    1986-11-01

    The authors report their experience with magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatology, established on more than 250 examinations. The method seems interesting for the study of discal and somatic spine diseases, and especially for the evaluation of tumor extension, the diagnosis of herniated disc, the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis, the exploration of the cervico-occipital joint. As compared to tomodensitometry, this method presents at the same time advantages and drawbacks. Peripherally, magnetic resonance imaging is useful for the exploration of bony tumors and evaluation of their extension. It gives excellent images of the knees and the hips where it seems to improve the results of tomodensitometry and bony scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteonecrosis. It is likely that advances will broaden the scope of the indications and capabilities of this method.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in tuberculous meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Memon, W.A. [Aga Khan Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing tuberculosis from other types of meningoencephalitis. MRIs of 100 patients with tuberculous (50), pyogenic (33), viral (14), or fungal (3) meningoencephalitis were analyzed independently by 2 radiologists. Number, size, location, signal characteristics, surrounding edema, and contrast enhancement pattern of nodular lesions; location and pattern of meningeal enhancement; extent of infarct or encephalitis and hydrocephalus were evaluated. Contrast-enhancing nodular lesions were detected in patients with tuberculous (43 of 50 patients), pyogenic (9 of 33), and fungal (3 of 3) infections. No nodules were detected in patients with viral meningoencephalitis. Using the criteria of 1 or more solid rim or homogeneously enhancing nodules smaller than 2 cm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis were 86.0%, 90.0% and 88.0%, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in distinguishing tuberculous from pyogenic, viral and fungal meningoencephalitis. (author)

  6. High speed functional magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, A M

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the except where indicated by reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to October 2001. This thesis documents the implementation and application of a novel high-speed imaging technique, the multi-slice, echo shifted, echo planar imaging technique. This was implemented on the Nottingham 3 T imaging system, for functional magnetic resonance imaging. The technique uses echo shifting over the slices in a multi-slice echo planar imaging acquisition scheme, making the echo time longer than the repetition time per slice. This allows for rapid volumar sampling of the blood oxygen level dependent effect in the human brain. The new high-speed technique was used to investigate the variability of measuring the timing differences between haemodynamic responses, at the same cortical location, to simple cued motor tasks. The technique was also used in an investigation into motor cortex functional connect...

  7. Female pelvic anatomy: magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated in this study. Conventional imaging methods like sonography and X-ray computerised tomography generally provide accurate data. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be very suitable for studying the pelvis because it has the capacity to produce direct multidirectional images. By recording alterations in T1 and T2 values, it provides a wide range of information. A 1.5 T imaging system was used. Pulse sequences used always included T1 and T2 weighted spin-echo scans. The T2 scan was performed in the best plane for the organ of interest. The comparison between these different acquisitions provides good tissue differentiation. Results of 73 studies are exposed

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance...

  9. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choon; Hua; Thng; Tong; San; Koh; David; J; Collins; Dow; Mu; Koh

    2010-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies quantify the microcirculatory status of liver parenchyma and liver lesions, and can be used for the detection of liver metastases, assessing the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy, evaluating tumor viability after anticancer therapy or ablation, and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and its severity. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts of perfusion MRI using tracer kinetic modeling, the common kinetic models applied for analyses, the MR scanning t...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Inversions in Bounded Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kolipaka, Arunark; McGee, Kiaran P.; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J; Glaser, Kevin J.; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of quantifying and spatially resolving the shear stiffness of soft tissues by visualization of synchronized mechanical wave displacement fields. However, MRE inversions generally assume that the measured tissue motion consists primarily of shear waves propagating in a uniform, infinite medium. This assumption is not valid in organs such as the heart, eye, bladder, skin, fascia, bone and spinal cord in which the s...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up ...

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Huijun; Wang Jinnan; Li Rui; Ferguson Marina S; Kerwin William S; Dong Li; Canton Gador; Hatsukami Thomas S; Yuan Chun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of the carotid vessel wall is one promi...

  13. Myocardial tissue tagging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Bluemke David A; Osman Nael F; Cheng Susan; Shehata Monda L; Lima João AC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the gold standard for assessing both global and regional myocardial function. New tools for quantifying regional function have been recently developed to characterize early myocardial dysfunction in order to improve the identification and management of individuals at risk for heart failure. Of particular interest is CMR myocardial tagging, a non-invasive technique for assessing regional function that provides a detailed and compreh...

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Bradlow William M; R Gibbs J Simon; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension represents a group of conditions characterized by higher than normal pulmonary artery pressures. Despite improved treatments, outcomes in many instances remain poor. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This technique offers certain advantages over other imaging modalities since it is well suited to the assessment of the right ventricle and the proximal pu...

  15. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza Gregory M; Caruthers Shelton D; Winter Patrick M; Wickline Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to important physiological factors, such as pH, temperature or oxygenation. In this review, examp...

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with cognitive and affective neuroscience paradigms enables examination of the brain systems underlying the behavioral deficits manifested in schizophrenia; there have been a remarkable increase in the number of studies that apply fMRI in neurobiological studies of this disease. This article summarizes features of fMRI methodology and highlights its application in neurobehavioral studies in schizophrenia. Such work has helped elu...

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Dahya; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths...

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Dahya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths and limitations of the modality.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate bed treatment planning could influence definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients referred for prostate bed radiotherapy were included in the present retrospective study. The CTV was delineated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer recommendations on computed tomography (CT) and T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The CTV magnitude, agreement, and spatial differences were evaluated on the planning CT scan after registration with the MRI scans. Results: The CTV was significantly reduced on the T1w and T2w MRI scans (13% and 9%, respectively) compared with the CT scans. The urinary bladder was drawn smaller on the CT scans and the rectum was smaller on the MRI scans. On T1w MRI, the rectum and urinary bladder were delineated larger than on T2w MRI. Minimal agreement was observed between the CT and T2w images. The main spatial differences were measured in the superior and superolateral directions in which the CTV on the MRI scans was 1.8–2.9 mm smaller. In the posterior and inferior border, no difference was seen between the CT and T1w MRI scans. On the T2w MRI scans, the CTV was larger in these directions (by 1.3 and 1.7 mm, respectively). Conclusions: The use of MRI in postprostatectomy radiotherapy planning resulted in a reduction of the CTV. The main differences were found in the superior part of the prostate bed. We believe T2w MRI enables more precise definition of prostate bed CTV than conventional planning CT.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William G

    2016-04-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past. Good response to shunting has been associated with hyperdynamic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the aqueduct. In the early days of MRI, patients with a large CSF flow void extending from the foramen of Monro through the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle had an excellent chance of responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting (P < 0.003). Today, we use phase-contrast MRI to measure the volume of CSF flowing through the aqueduct in either direction over a cardiac cycle. When this aqueductal CSF stroke volume is sufficiently elevated, there is an excellent chance of shunt responsiveness (100% positive predictive value in 1 study). Idiopathic NPH appears to be a "two-hit" disease-benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) in infancy followed by DWMI in late adulthood. As BEH occurs when the sutures are still open, these infants present with large heads, a finding also noted in patients with NPH. Although BEH has been attributed to immature arachnoidal granulations with decreased CSF resorptive capacity, this now appears to be permanent and may lead to a parallel pathway for CSF resorption via the extracellular space of the brain. With DWMI, the myelin lipid is lost, exposing the polar water molecules to myelin protein, increasing resistance to CSF outflow and leading to backing up of CSF and hydrocephalus. PMID:27063662

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of uveitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Charles Q.; Mafee, Mahmood F. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Cho, Aaron A. [Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Edward, Neeraj J. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Edward, Deepak P. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fajardo, Roman G. [University of California, San Diego, Shiley Eye Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Uveitis is a term used to describe inflammation of the choroid, iris, or ciliary body, which make up the uveal tract. It can be idiopathic or associated with a systemic disease which may be infectious or noninfectious. With the exception of B-scan ultrasonography, current imaging methods for diagnosing and monitoring uveitis are predominately non-radiologic. Although MRI has been anecdotally shown to detect various inflammatory conditions of the globe, such as posterior scleritis, endophthalmitis, and posterior uveitis secondary to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, a more comprehensive review of the MRI findings in uveitis of various etiologies is presented here. The MRI and CT studies of seven patients with uveitis and the clinical history of three of them (not available in four patients) were reviewed. Etiologies included ankylosing spondylitis, relapsing polychondritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, sarcoidosis, and tuberculosis. Increased gadolinium enhancement of the uveal tract, which is visualized as the enhancing layer immediately deep to the low-signal sclera, was seen on all six MRI studies. Diffusion-weighted imaging of a case with posterior uveitis and subretinal effusions revealed restriction within the uvea and effusions. Two patients had inflammatory nodules adherent to the uvea, two patients had vitreous humor abnormalities, and one patient exhibited proximal perineural and perimuscular spread of enhancement. Uveoscleral thickening and enhancement with a posterior calcification were observed in the patient with chronic uveitis imaged with CT. Increased uveal tract enhancement is a common finding in patients with uveitis, regardless of anatomic distribution and etiology. MRI can also further evaluate complications of uveitis and help differentiate it from masquerade syndromes. (orig.)

  3. Waveguide volume probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a probe for use within the field of nuclear magnetic resonance, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). One embodiment relates to an RF probe for magnetic resonance imaging and/or spectroscopy comprising a conductive...... non-magnetic hollow waveguide having an internal volume and at least one open end, one or more capacitors and at least a first conductive non-magnetic wire, wherein said first conductive wire connects at least one of said one or more capacitors to opposite walls of one open end of the waveguide...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of pericardial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Edward T D; Shahid, Muhammad; Watkin, Richard W

    2016-06-01

    Pericardial diseases are commonly encountered in clinical practice and may present as an isolated process or in association with various systemic conditions. Traditionally transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been the method of choice for the evaluation of suspected pericardial disease but increasingly computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also being used as part of a rational multi-modality imaging approach tailored to the specific clinical scenario. This paper reviews the role of CT and MRI across the spectrum of pericardial diseases. PMID:27429911

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight children representing a spectrum of clinical states of biopsy-proven Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) underwent magnetic resonance (MR) scans to assess the degree of muscular involvement and disease progression. Five muscle groups (neck, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, thigh and calf) were evaluated. In each case, involved muscles were clearly demarcated. Image estimates of disease severity by degree of muscle involvement correlated well with clinical staging. In our experience MR is useful for assessment of disease stage, selection of appropriate muscles for biopsy and planning for courses of physical and rehabilitation therapy. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis advances and research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, FM; Bird, P;

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used extensively in cross-sectional and observational studies as well as in controlled clinical trials to assess disease activity and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MRI measurements or scores for erosions, bone edema, and synovitis have been......, and financial context of the study in question. We review the extent to which MRI assessments of joint erosion, bone edema, and synovitis fulfil these criteria, particularly as they relate to proof-of-concept RA clinical trials....

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: A quick review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaghela Viratsinh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to non-invasively map the hemodynamic changes occurring focally in areas of brain involved in various motor, sensory and cognitive functions by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has revolutionized research in neuroscience in the last two decades. This technique has already gained clinical use especially in pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy and neurosurgical planning of resection of mass lesions adjacent to eloquent cortex. In this review we attempt to illustrate basic principles and techniques of fMRI, its applications, practical points to consider while performing and evaluating clinical fMRI and its limitations.

  9. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: thomaskwee@gmail.com; Takahara, Taro [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Department of Radiology, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan); Imai, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.

  10. Electro-Mechanical Resonant Magnetic Field Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Temnykh, A B; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new type of magnetic field sensor which is termed an Electro-Mechanical Resonant Sensor (EMRS). The key part of this sensor is a small conductive elastic element with low damping rate and therefore a high Q fundamental mode of frequency $f_1$. An AC current is driven through the elastic element which, in the presence of a magnetic field, causes an AC force on the element. When the frequency of the AC current matches the resonant frequency of the element, maximum vibration of the element occurs and this can be measured precisely by optical means. We have built and tested a model sensor of this type using for the elastic element a length of copper wire of diameter 0.030 mm formed into a loop shape. The wire motion was measured using a light emitting diode photo-transistor assembly. This sensor demonstrated a sensitivity better than 0.001G for an applied magnetic field of $ \\sim 1$G and a good selectivity for the magnetic field direction. The sensitivity can be easily improved by a factor of $\\sim ...

  11. Practical Introduction to Cerebral Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR ) imaging holds a privileged position within neuroimaging techniques owing to its high anatomic detail and its capacity to study many physiological processes. The appearance of functional magnetic resonance (fMR I) brings more relevance to MR , turning it into a powerful tool with the ability to group, in a single exam, high-resolution anatomy and cerebral function. In this article we describe the principles and some advantages of fMRI compared to other neuro functional imaging modalities. In addition, we present the site wide and analysis requisites for the performance and post-processing of the most common neuro functional experiments in clinical practice. We also include neuro functional images obtained at Instituto de Alta Tecnologia Medica of Antioquia (IATM ) on a healthy volunteer group and two pathological cases. Lastly, we mention some of the practical indications of this technique which is still in an intense development, research and validation phase.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher's disease is a progressive encephalopathy with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The diagnosis cannot be made on clinical or biological grounds: pathological investigation is necessary to confirm tigroid demyelination. CT scanning failure to visualize this type of anomaly but detection is now possible with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The authors studied the case of a boy who, at the age of 8 presented with symptoms characeristic of the disease, rotatory nystagmus, progressive encephalopathy, and inherited X-linked recessive traits. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal in the supra-tentorial white matter and the usual contrast was inverted. The authors believe that MRI can make an important contribution to the diagnosis of the disease. (orig.)

  13. First national meeting of magnetic resonance and hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works performed at CNEA's: Magnetic Resonance Division; Moessbauer Spectroscopy; Solid State Physics Division; Nuclear magnetic Resonance Laboratory and Theoretical Physics Group; Mossbauer Spectroscopy Group; Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance; Physics and Materials Group; Perturbed Angular Correlation and Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Physics Department. (M.E.L.)

  14. 肉芽肿性乳腺炎的临床表现与X线及MRI诊断特点%The Clinical Radiographic Findings and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of 31 Patients with Granulomatous Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽萍; 贾文霄; 倪多; 李涌涛; 吴涛; 赵倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肉芽肿性乳腺炎(granulomatous mastitis,GM)的临床表现与X线及MRI诊断特点.资料与方法 对31例经病理证实的GM患者的临床表现与X线及MRI资料进行回顾性分析.结果 临床表现为乳房肿块短期内迅速增大,边缘不清与皮肤有粘连,部分伴有腋窝淋巴结肿大;钼靶X线表现呈多样性,病灶呈等密度或稍高于腺体密度结节状不规则影多见,部分显示局限性敛密影结构紊乱,边缘不清、毛糙分叶及不规则状;MRT1WI呈等或高信号,T2WI呈高信号,增强扫描病变呈片状强化,高于周围正常腺体,边缘呈渐进性强化.结论 GM临床表现缺乏特异性,与乳腺X线与MRI相结合有助于准确诊断.%Objective To explore the clinical radiographic findings and magnetic resonance imaging features of granulomatous mastitis. Materials and Methods The clinical radiographic findings and magnetic resonance imaging data from 31 patients with granulomatous mastitis proved by pathological results were analyzed retrospectively. Results The clinical findings of GM were quickly augmentation of lump in breast in short time, ill-defined margin and adherence to skin, some lesions often accompanied by intumesce of axillary nodes. The radiographic findings of GM demonstrated diversity. The lesions' density were found as isodense or higher than glands density with irregular tubercle. Some lesions of GM displayed as architeetual distortion of local asymmetric density, ill-defined margin, ruffled, lobulated and irregular. The MR signs of GM lesions included hyper or isointensity signal on T1 WI images, hyperintensity signal on T2 WI images. The granulomatous mastitis lesions appeared pathcy enhancement, which was higher than that of normal glands adjacent to tumor, the border appeared gradually enhancement. Conclusion Granulomatous mastitis has no specific clinical findings, combination molybdenum target radiography and magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for the

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging method based on the detecting signal from hydrogen nuclei of water molecules and fat. Performances of MRI are continuously increasing, and its domains of investigation of the human body are growing in both morphological and functional study. MRI also allows It also performing advanced management of tumours especially in the brain, by combining anatomical information (morphological MRI), functional (diffusion, perfusion and BOLD contrast) and metabolic (tissue composition in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). The MRI techniques have an important role in cancerology. These techniques allow essential information for the diagnosis and answering therapist's questions before, during or after the treatment. The MR allows clarifying the localization of expanding processes, the differential diagnosis between brain tumour and a lesion confined by another structural aspect, the diagnosis of the tumoral aspect of a lesion, the histological ranking in case of glial tumour and the extension of its localization as well as the therapeutic follow-up (pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutics assessments). A better combination between the morphological, functional and metabolic studies, as well as integrating new technical developments, especially while using a multichannel bird cage coils the 3T magnet and suitable computing software, would allow significant improvements of the exploration strategies and management of brain tumors.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of valvular heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1999-01-01

    The optimum management of patients with valvular heart diseases requires accurate and reproducible assessment of the valvular lesion and its hemodynamic consequences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as volume measurements, signal-void phenomena, and velocity mapping, can be used...... in an integrated approach to gain qualitative and quantitative information on valvular heart disease as well as ventricular dimensions and functions. Thus, MRI may be advantageous to the established diagnostic tools in assessing the severity of valvular heart disease as well as monitoring the lesion and predicting...... the optimal timing for valvular surgery. This paper reviews the validation of these MRI techniques in assessing valvular heart disease and discusses some typical pitfalls of the techniques, including suggestions for solutions.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:627-638....

  17. Nanodiamond graphitization: a magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the high-temperature nanodiamond-to-onion transformation. 1H, 13C NMR and EPR spectra of the initial nanodiamond samples and those annealed at 600, 700, 800 and 1800 ° C were measured. For the samples annealed at 600 to 800 ° C, our NMR data reveal the early stages of the surface modification, as well as a progressive increase in sp2 carbon content with increased annealing temperature. Such quantitative experimental data were recorded for the first time. These findings correlate with EPR data on the sensitivity of the dangling bond EPR line width to air content, progressing with rising annealing temperature, that evidences consequent graphitization of the external layers of the diamond core. The sample annealed at 1800 ° C shows complete conversion of nanodiamond particles into carbon onions. (paper)

  18. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed

  19. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance common laboratory, quadrennial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quadrennial report of the nuclear magnetic resonance common laboratory gives an overview of the main activities. Among the different described activities, only one is interesting for the INIS database: it concerns the Solid NMR of cements used for radioactive wastes storage. In this case, the NMR is used to characterize the structure of the material and the composition, structure and kinetics of formation of the alteration layer which is formed at the surface of concrete during water leaching conditions. The NMR methodology is given. (O.M.)

  1. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  2. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Kimura's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although early diagnosis of Kimura's disease, a rare chronic inflammatory disorder most commonly presenting with asymmetric swelling in the head and neck region, is helpful in avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and starting prompt treatment, only a few reports emphasized radiological findings in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging findings showing the infiltrative nature of the disease and diffuse loss of fat tissue even in nonpalpable normally appearing regions of the head and neck in a young man with Kimura's disease are presented in this report. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosa, Hirofumi; Yamano, Kouichirou; Ihara, Fumitoshi; Ueda, Yoshiaki; Maekawa, Masayuki; Tokuhisa, Ginichirou; Kuwano, Tadashi; Kamo, Yoshi; Nomura, Shigeharu (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    Forty-three patients operated for cervical myelopathy were examined with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cord compression was demonstrated directly on the sagittal image in cases of cervical disc herniation, cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. Herniated disc material was seen positive on axial image. But factors of cord compression in cases of cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. were not clearly confirmed, so additional examinations such as myelogram, tomogram and CT was needed. (author).

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Liquids and Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance, trying wherever possible to compare and contrast the method with that of slow neutron scattering as a technique for studying the properties of condensed phases and especially of molecular and atomic motions. It is emphasized that this is not a review of nmr for an expert audience but has a pedagogical aim. It is hoped to give persons with a main interest in neutron scattering some appreciation of the scope and limitations of the nmr method. This is illustrated by recent results on one substance which covers many but by no means all of the important points. (author)

  6. Magnetic Resonance of Pelvic and Gastrointestinal Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Dattwyler, Matthew; Abujudeh, Hani H; Singh, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is gaining increased acceptance in the emergency setting despite the continued dominance of computed tomography. MR has the advantages of more precise tissue characterization, superior soft tissue contrast, and a lack of ionizing radiation. Traditional barriers to emergent MR are being overcome by streamlined imaging protocols and newer rapid-acquisition sequences. As the utilization of MR imaging in the emergency department increases, a strong working knowledge of the MR appearance of the most commonly encountered abdominopelvic pathologies is essential. In this article, MR imaging protocols and findings of acute pelvic, scrotal, and gastrointestinal pathologies are discussed. PMID:27150327

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, P.; Cortelli, P.; Barbiroli, B. (Inst. of Medical Pathology, Univ. of Bologna (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    The authors describe the method of [sup 31]phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and review the results when it is applied to the study of brain and muscle energy metabolism in migraine subjects. Brain energy metabolism appears to be abnormal in all major subtypes of migraine when measured both during and between attacks. Impaired energy metabolism is also documented in skeletal muscle. It is suggested that migraine is associated with a generalized disorder of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and that this may constitute a threshold for the triggering of migraine attacks. 47 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, Kengo; Murata, Hideaki; Ito, Haruhide; Onishi, Hiroaki; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki.

    1989-03-01

    Thirteen patients with acoustic neuroma were studied on a 1.5T superconductive magnetic resonance (MR) imager. Acoustic neuromas appeared as lower signal intensity than the surrounding brain stem on T1 weighted image (W.I.), and as higher signal intensity on T2 W.I.. Axial and coronal sections of T1 W.I. were very useful in observing the tumor in the auditory canal and in investigating the anatomical relations of the tumor and the surrounding structures. MR imaging is very excellent examination to make early diagnosis of the acoustic neuroma and preoperative anatomical evaluation.

  9. Magnetic resonance-guided prostate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; Roebuck, Joseph R; Barnes, Agnieska Szot; Dimaio, Simon; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M C

    2005-10-01

    We review our experience using an open 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) interventional unit to guide procedures in the prostate. This system allows access to the patient and real-time MR imaging simultaneously and has made it possible to perform prostate biopsy and brachytherapy under MR guidance. We review MR imaging of the prostate and its use in targeted therapy, and describe our use of image processing methods such as image registration to further facilitate precise targeting. We describe current developments with a robot assist system being developed to aid radioactive seed placement. PMID:16924169

  10. MRCP. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; MRCP. Magnetresonanzcholangiopankreatografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, Sonja [Wisconsin-Madison Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Lauenstein, Thomas [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duesseldorf (Germany). Radiologie

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a special MR technique to display and analyze the biliary tract and pancreatic ducts. MRCP sequences are equivalent to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnostic purposes due to technical developments of the classical T2 weighted MRCP sequences and the availability of contrast enhanced T1 weighted sequences. Therefore, MRCP plays a fundamental role in the diagnoses of hepatobliary and pancreatic diseases, which are presented in this review article as are technical details of sequence acquisitions and the underlying anatomy.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    :During the last two decades, magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used In the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of multiple sclerosis. MRI, both conventional and non conventional methods, has transformed all aspects of M S research and clinical practice in recent years. Although advanced imaging methods have added much more to our knowledge about pathogenesis and natural history of the disease but their cost, availability, complexity and lack of validation have limited their use in routine clinical practice. Conventional MR techniques including proton density, T1/T2-Weighted images and fluid- attenuated inversion recovery sequences are now accepted in standard protocols for diagnosis and treatment outcome measures in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis. This review will focus on the type, morphology and evolution of M S lesions regarding conventional MRI and their use for treatment monitoring in daily clinical practice

  12. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  13. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    for chemotherapy. The nanoparticles were 150 nm in size with spherical shape, which contained PFOB in the inner core and Dox and ICG in the polymeric shell. More importantly, they could target folate receptor expressing cancer cells, which provide positive in vitro and in vivo NIR and 19F MRI results. In project......Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...

  14. Enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging with metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Slobozhanyuk, A P; Raaijmakers, A J E; Berg, C A T van den; Kozachenko, A V; Dubrovina, I A; Melchakova, I V; Kivshar, Yu S; Belov, P A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the cornerstone technique for diagnostic medicine, biology, and neuroscience. This imaging method is highly innovative, noninvasive and its impact continues to grow. It can be used for measuring changes in the brain after enhanced neural activity, detecting early cancerous cells in tissue, as well as for imaging nanoscale biological structures, and controlling fluid dynamics, and it can be beneficial for cardiovascular imaging. The MRI performance is characterized by a signal-to-noise ratio, however the spatial resolution and image contrast depend strongly on the scanner design. Here, we reveal how to exploit effectively the unique properties of metasurfaces for the substantial improvement of MRI efficiency. We employ a metasurface created by an array of wires placed inside the MRI scanner under an object, and demonstrate a giant enhancement of the magnetic field by means of subwavelength near-field manipulation with the metasurface, thus strongly increasing the scanner sen...

  15. Magnetic levitation of metamaterial bodies enhanced with magnetostatic surface resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Bingham, Chris; Padilla, Willie; Smith, David R

    2011-01-01

    We propose that macroscopic objects built from negative-permeability metamaterials may experience resonantly enhanced magnetic force in low-frequency magnetic fields. Resonant enhancement of the time-averaged force originates from magnetostatic surface resonances (MSR) which are analogous to the electrostatic resonances of negative-permittivity particles, well known as surface plasmon resonances in optics. We generalize the classical problem of MSR of a homogeneous object to include anisotropic metamaterials, and consider the most extreme case of anisotropy where the permeability is negative in one direction but positive in the others. It is shown that deeply subwavelength objects made of such indefinite (hyperbolic) media exhibit a pronounced magnetic dipole resonance that couples strongly to uniform or weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field and provides strong enhancement of the magnetic force, enabling applications such as enhanced magnetic levitation.

  16. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Metzinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR. Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers on technological advancement and diagnostic uses g magnetic resonance imaging. A comparative evaluation with computerized tomography is presented. Topics covered are imaging principles g magnetic resonance;instrumentation of magnetic resonance (MR);pathophysiology;quality and limitations g images;NMR imaging of brain and spinal cord;MR spectroscopy and its applications;neuroanatomy;Congenital malformations of brain and MR imaging;planning g MR imaging of spine and head and neck imaging.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Allan

    1999-11-01

    The lung presents both challenges and opportunities for study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The technical challenges arise from respiratory and cardiac motion, limited signal from the tissues, and unique physical structure of the lung. These challenges are heightened in magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) where the spatial resolution may be up to a million times higher than that of conventional MRI. The development of successful techniques for MRM of the lung present enormous opportunities for basic studies of lung structure and function, toxicology, environmental stress, and drug discovery by permitting investigators to study this most essential organ nondestructively in the live animal. Over the last 15 years, scientists at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy have developed techniques for MRM in the live animal through an interdisciplinary program of biology, physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and computer science. This talk will focus on the development of specialized radiofrequency coils for lung imaging, projection encoding methods to limit susceptibility losses, specialized support structures to control and monitor physiologic motion, and the most recent development of hyperpolarized gas imaging with ^3He and ^129Xe.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in adnexial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Ronald Meira Castro; Quadros, Marianne Siquara de [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa], e-mail: rtrindade@einstein.br; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Rosemberg, Michelle; Racy, Marcelo de Castro Jorge; Tachibana, Adriano [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Service

    2010-01-15

    Adnexial torsion is an unusual event, but a major cause of abdominal pain in women. It is often associated with ovarian tumor or cyst, but can occur in normal ovaries, especially in children. The twisting of adnexial structures may involve the ovary or tube, but frequently affects both. In most cases, it is unilateral, with slight predilection for the right size. In imaging findings, increased ovarian volume and adnexial masses are observed, with reduced or absent vascularisation. In cases of undiagnosed or untreated complete twist, hemorrhagic necrosis may occur leading to complications; in that, peritonitis is the most frequent. Early diagnosis helps preventing irreversible damage with conservative treatment, thereby saving the ovary. Limitations in performing physical examination, possible inconclusive results in ultrasound and exposure to radiation in computed tomography makes magnetic resonance imaging a valuable tool in emergency assessment of gynecological diseases. The objective of this study was to report two confirmed cases of adnexial twist, emphasizing the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  1. Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis of metamat......An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...

  2. Methotrexate-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for thermochemotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fuping, E-mail: gaofp158@gmail.com [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medical Physics and Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics (China); Yan Zixing [Shanxi Medical University, Second Hospital (China); Zhou Jing; Cai Yuanyuan; Tang Jintian, E-mail: tangjt@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medical Physics and Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics (China)

    2012-10-15

    There is significant interest in recent years in developing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having multifunctional characteristics with complimentary roles. In this study, methotrexate (MTX) was conjugated on the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles surface via a poly(ethyleneimine) self-assembled monolayer (MTX-MNPs). The novel platform combined cancer chemotherapy, hyperthermia and potential monitoring of the progression of disease through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The conjugation of MTX on the magnetite surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and change of zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that MTX-MNPs were morphologically spherical. The average diameter of MTX-MNPs was 30.1 {+-} 5.2 nm determined by dynamic light scattering. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization of MTX-MNPs reached 68.8 emu/g and the nanoparticles were superparamagnetic. The MTX-MNPs had good heating properties in an alternating magnetic field. TEM results showed that a larger number of MTX-MNPs were internalized into the MCF-7 cellular cytoplasm compared with the MNPs. The MTX-MNPs demonstrated highly synergistic antiproliferative effects of simultaneous chemotherapy and hyperthermia in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A significant negative contrast enhancement was observed with magnetic resonance phantom imaging for MCF-7 cells over L929cells, when both were cultured with the nanoconjugate. The MTX-MNPs with combined characteristics of thermochemotherapy and MRI could be of high clinical significance in the treatment of tumor.

  3. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.)

  4. Fast abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; Schnelle Abdomenbildgebung in der Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Riffel, P. [University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal imaging is the driving force that necessitates the development of numerous techniques for accelerated image acquisition in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Today, numerous techniques are available that enable rapid, high spatial resolution acquisition for both T1 and T2 weighted images. These techniques open new opportunities in the detection and classification of numerous pathologies in the abdomen. However, there is still ongoing progress in the development of fast and ultrafast sequences and promising techniques are currently close to clinical application. With these 4D-technologies, MRI is becoming the central imaging modality for dynamic, motion-compensated imaging of the parenchymal abdominal organs such as liver, pancreas and kidney.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for the ophthalmologist: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computerized tomography (CT have added a new dimension in the diagnosis and management of ocular and orbital diseases. Although CT is more widely used, MRI is the modality of choice in select conditions and can be complimentary to CT in certain situations. The diagnostic yield is best when the ophthalmologist and radiologist work together. Ophthalmologists should be able to interpret these complex imaging modalities as better clinical correlation is then possible. In this article, we attempt to describe the basic principles of MRI and its interpretation, avoiding confusing technical terms.

  6. Dental magnetic resonance imaging; MRT der Zaehne und des Zahnhalteapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgenfeld, Tim; Bendszus, Martin; Haehnel, Stefan [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2016-03-15

    Growing distribution and utilization of digital volume tomography (DVT) extend the spectrum of clinical dental imaging. Additional diagnostic value, however, comes along with an increasing amount of radiation. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging is a radiation free imaging technique. Furthermore, it offers a high soft tissue contrast. Morphological and numerical dental anomalies, differentiation of periapical lesions and exclusion of complications of dental diseases are field of applications for dental MRI. In addition, detection of caries and periodontal lesions and injury of inferior alveolar nerve are promising application areas in the future.

  7. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the clinical value of diffusion-weight- ed imaging (DWI) for the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) by comparing the diagnostic sensitivity of DWI and magnetic resonance cholan-giopancreatography (MRCP). METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 56 patients with suspected EHCC. T1- weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, MRCP and DWI sequence, DWI using single-shot spin-echo echoplanar imaging sequence with different b values (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1...

  8. Improved Depiction of Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, K. P. Q.; Pameijer, F. A.; Zwanenburg, J. J. M.; Hordijk, G J; De Ru, J. A.; Bleys, R L A W

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) using ultrahigh-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. A human cadaveric tissue block containing the pterygopalatine fossa was examined on a clinical 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Subsequently, cryosections of the tissue block were created in a coronal plane. The cryosections were photographed and collected on adhesive tape. The on-tape sections were stained for Mallory-Cason, in order to detail the anatomi...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging research progress on brain functional reorganization after peripheral nerve injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years, with the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging technology the brain plasticity and functional reorganization are hot topics in the central nervous system imaging studies. Brain functional reorganization and rehabilitation after peripheral nerve injury may have certain regularity. In this paper, the progress of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging technology and its applications in the world wide clinical and experimental researches of the brain functional reorganization after peripheral nerve injury is are reviewed. (authors)

  10. Magnetic resonance techniques applied to the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito eDe Celis Alonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease affects at least 10 million people worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease which is currently diagnosed by neurological examination. No neuroimaging investigation or blood biomarker is available to aid diagnosis and prognosis. Most effort toward diagnosis using magnetic resonance has been focused on the use of structural/anatomical neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging. However, deep brain stimulation, a current strategy for treating Parkinson’s disease, is guided by magnetic resonance imaging. For clinical prognosis, diagnosis and follow-up investigations, blood oxygen level–dependent magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used. These techniques represent the state of the art in the last five years. Here, we focus on magnetic resonance techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  11. Purely electric and magnetic dipole resonances in metamaterial dielectric resonators through perturbation theory inspired geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometry in a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole ...

  12. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F. Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space. PMID:26981483

  13. Magnetic resonance tracking of fluorescent nanodiamond fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance techniques (electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) are used for tracking the multi-stage process of the fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) produced by high-energy electron irradiation, annealing, and subsequent nano-milling. Pristine commercial high pressure and high temperature microdiamonds (MDs) with mean size 150 μm contain ∼5  ×  1018 spins/g of singlet (S = 1/2) substitutional nitrogen defects P1, as well as sp3 C–C dangling bonds in the crystalline lattice. The half-field X-band EPR clearly shows (by the appearance of the intense ‘forbidden’ g = 4.26 line) that high-energy electron irradiation and annealing of MDs induce a large amount (∼5  ×  1017 spins/g) of triplet (S = 1) magnetic centers, which are identified as negatively charged nitrogen vacancy defects (NV−). This is supported by EPR observations of the ‘allowed’ transitions between Zeeman sublevels of the triplet state. After progressive milling of the fluorescent MDs down to an ultrasubmicron scale (≤100 nm), the relative abundance of EPR active NV− defects in the resulting fluorescent NDs (FND) substantially decreases and, vice versa, the content of C-inherited singlet defects correlatively increases. In the fraction of the finest FNDs (mean particle size <20 nm), which are contained in the dried supernatant of ultracentrifuged aqueous dispersion of FNDs, the NV− content is found to be reduced by one order of magnitude whereas the singlet defects content increases up to ∼2  ×  1019 spins/g. In addition, another triplet-type defect, which is characterized by the g = 4.00 ‘forbidden’ line, appears. On reduction of the particle size below the 20 nm limit, the ‘allowed’ EPR lines become practically unobservable, whereas the ‘forbidden’ lines remain as a reliable fingerprint of the presence of NV− centers in small ND systems. The same size reduction causes the

  14. Indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography in patients with lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: lohrmann@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Foeldi, Etelka [Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology, Hinterzarten, Roesslehofweg 2-6, D-79856 Hinterzarten (Germany); Langer, Mathias [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of indirect magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography with intracutaneous injection of gadodiamide, a commercially available, non-ionic, extracellular paramagnetic contrast agent for the detection of lymphatic vessels in patients with lymphedema. Materials and methods: In 2005, three patients with lymphedema of the lower extremities (1 primary, 2 secondary) were referred by the Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology for indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography. 4.5 mL of gadodiamide and 0.5 mL of mepivacainhydrochloride 1% were injected intracutaneously into the dorsal aspect of each foot. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system equipped with high-performance gradients. For indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography, a 3D Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) sequence (TR/TE: 5.1/1.23; flip angle: 25; matrix: 448 x 448; bandwidth: 330 Hz/pixel; 6/8 rectangular field of view with a maximum dimension of 500 mm; slices: 88; voxel size: 2.0 mm x 1.0 mm x 1.0 mm; acquisition time: 0 min 31 s) was used. Results: Indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography depicted lymphatic vessels of the lower and upper leg, and inguinal lymph nodes in all three patients. After 5 min of contrast material application, concomitant venous enhancement was detected. Collateral vessels with dermal back-flow were seen in two patients. A lymphocele in the inguinal region with the afferent lymphatic vessel was depicted in one patient. Conclusion: In the presented small study group, indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography was technically feasible, and no complications were observed after intracutaneous injection of gadodiamide. Visualizing the lymphatic vessels and accompanying complications non-invasively and without the use of radiation, the presented method has the capability to become a routine diagnostic imaging tool in patients with primary and secondary lymphedema. The method is not able to characterize lymph node morphology, but could provide additional

  15. Numerical study of remote detection outside the magnet with travelling wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the travelling wave approach for high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging has been used recently with very promising results. This approach offer images one with greater field-of-view and a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio using a circular waveguide. This scheme has been proved to be successful at 7 T and 9.4 T with whole-body imager. Images have also been acquired with clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems whose resonant frequencies were 64 MHz and 128 MHz. These results motivated the use of remote detection of the magnetic resonance signal using a parallel-plate waveguide together with 3 T clinical scanners, to acquired human leg images. The cut-off frequency of this waveguide is zero for the principal mode, allowing us to overcome the barrier of transmitting waves at lower frequency than 300 MHz or 7 T for protons. These motivated the study of remote detection outside the actual magnet. We performed electromagnetic field simulations of a parallel-plate waveguide and a phantom. The signal transmission was done at 128 MHz and using a circular surface coil located almost 200 cm away for the magnet isocentre. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the magnetic field of the principal mode propagate inside a waveguide outside the magnet. Numerical results were compared with previous experimental-acquired image data under similar conditions

  16. Basic concepts from magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has grown exponentially, due in part to excellent anatomic and pathologic detail provided by the modality, as recent technological advances that have led to more rapid acquisition times. Radiology residents in different parts of the world now receive training in MR images from their first year of residence, included the pulse sequences training spin-echo, gradient-echo, inversion-recovery, echo-planar image and MR angiographic sequences, commonly used in medical imaging. However, to optimize the use of this type of study, it has been necessary to understand the basic concepts of physics, included the concepts of recovery T1, degradation T2* and T2, repetition time, echo time, and the effects of chemical shift. Additionally, it has been important to understand the contrast weighting for better representation of specific tissues and thus perform an appropriate differential diagnosis of various pathological processes. (author)

  17. Valuation for magnetic resonance of neuro tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased incidence of neuro tuberculosis (NTB), due to the world epidemic of resistant strains and AIDS, has made of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the study of choice for the early detection of lesions that lead the clinicians to an effective treatment. We present our experience with six cases of NTB, with meningoencephalic (4 cases), spinal, (1 case) and epidural (1 case) involvement. We identified basal arachnoiditis that was also seen on CT. Two cases demonstrated non-classifying tuberculomas, the spinal lesion consisted of casseifying tuberculoma that responded to treatment and disappeared on a follow up MR study. Epidural involvement consisted of Pott's disease with displacement and edema of the spinal cord. The differential diagnosis of these lesions includes mycoses, cysticercosis, sarcoidosis and leptomeningeal metastases

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Consumer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Martin; Schilke, Oliver; Weber, Bernd;

    2011-01-01

    of prior fMRI research related to consumer behavior and highlights the features that make fMRI an attractive method for consumer and marketing research. The authors discuss advantages and limitations and illustrate the proposed procedures with an applied study, which investigates loss aversion when buying......Although the field of psychology is undergoing an immense shift toward the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the application of this methodology to consumer research is relatively new. To assist consumer researchers in understanding fMRI, this paper elaborates on the findings...... and selling a common product. Results reveal a significantly stronger activation in the amygdala while consumers estimate selling prices versus buying prices, suggesting that loss aversion is associated with the processing of negative emotion. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. Pulsed nuclear-electronic magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Gavin W; Mohammady, M Hamed; Aeppli, Gabriel; Kay, Christopher W M; Jeschke, Gunnar; Monteiro, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed magnetic resonance is a wide-reaching technology allowing the quantum state of electronic and nuclear spins to be controlled on the timescale of nanoseconds and microseconds respectively. The time required to flip either dilute electronic or nuclear spins is orders of magnitude shorter than their decoherence times, leading to several schemes for quantum information processing with spin qubits. We investigate instead the novel regime where the eigenstates approximate 50:50 superpositions of the electronic and nuclear spin states forming "nuclear-electronic" qubits. Here we demonstrate quantum control of these states, using bismuth-doped silicon, in just 32 ns: orders of magnitude shorter than previous experiments where pure nuclear states were used. The coherence times of our states are over four orders of magnitude longer, being 1 ms or more at 8 K, and are limited by the naturally-occurring 29Si nuclear spin impurities. There is quantitative agreement between our experiments and no-free-parameter anal...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with panhypopituitarism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Ist. di Radiologia, Univ. di Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Frezza, F. [Ist. di Radiologia, Univ. di Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Magnaldi, S. [Ist. di Radiologia, Univ. di Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Proto, G. [Servizio di Endocrinologia, Ospedale Civile di Udine (Italy)

    1992-02-01

    Primary panhypopituitarism consists of functional deficiency of the anterior pituitary lobe, which appears during infancy or adolescence. The magnetic resonance findings in 10 patients with a history of primary hypopituitarism are presented. The findings include: reduced pituitary size in all cases; partially (8 cases) or totally (2 cases) empty sella; thin (4 cases), partially visible (3 cases) or absent (2 cases) pituitary stalk; absence of the posterior lobe in 9 cases; bright spot corresponding to an ectopic posterior lobe in 8 cases. These findings are similar to those already reported in pituitary dwarfism and may help understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, which seems to be related to a pituitary stalk lesion. (orig.)