WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical locomotion science

  1. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions. PMID:27037383

  2. Locomotion through Morphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    still not the case. One of the reasons for this is that science does still not fully understand the principles of dynamic locomotion which is a requirement for them to move around in our environment with stairs, obstacles etc. In this thesis the focus will be on the creation of the modular robotic...

  3. Transition questions in clinical practice - validity and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2008-01-01

    Transition questions in CLINICAL practice - validity and reproducibility Lauridsen HH1, Manniche C3, Grunnet-Nilsson N1, Hartvigsen J1,2 1   Clinical Locomotion Science, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. e-mail: hlauridsen......@health.sdu.dk 2   Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Odense, Denmark 3   Backcenter Funen, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Ringe, Denmark   Abstract  Understanding a change score is indispensable for interpretation of results from clinical studies...

  4. Undulatory Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Netta

    2009-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is a means of self-propulsion that relies on the generation and propagation of waves along a body. As a mode of locomotion it is primitive and relatively simple, yet can be remarkably robust. No wonder then, that it is so prevalent across a range of biological scales from motile bacteria to gigantic prehistoric snakes. Key to understanding undulatory locomotion is the body's interplay with the physical environment, which the swimmer or crawler will exploit to generate propulsion, and in some cases, even to generate the underlying undulations. This review focuses by and large on undulators in the low Reynolds numbers regime, where the physics of the environment can be much more tractable. We review some key concepts and theoretical advances, as well as simulation tools and results applied to selected examples of biological swimmers. In particular, we extend the discussion to some simple cases of locomotion in non-Newtonian media as well as to small animals, in which the nervous system, mo...

  5. Translating orthopaedic basic science into clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Madry, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In orthopaedic and trauma surgery, the rapid evolution of biomedical research has fundamentally changed the perception of the musculoskeletal system. Here, the rigor of basic science and the art of musculoskeletal surgery have come together to create a new discipline -experimental orthopaedics- that holds great promise for the causative cure of many orthopaedic conditions. The Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics intends to bridge the gap between orthopaedic basic science and clinical relevan...

  6. Pharmacogenetics : the science of predictive clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Fenech, Anthony G; Grech, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    The study of pharmacogenetics has expanded from what were initially casual family-based clinical drug response observations, to a fully-fledged science with direct therapeutic applications, all within a time-span of less than 60 years. A wide spectrum of polymorphisms, located within several genes, are now recognised to influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the majority of drugs within our therapeutic armamentarium. This information forms the basis for the new development of ...

  7. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates of students' competence. The unique integration questions of the ISPE were judged to have good content validity from experts and students, suggestive that integration, a most crucial element of clinical competence, while done in the mind of the

  8. Electrokinetic Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jeffrey Lawrence

    occurring in the interfacial layer near the particle/solution interface, which play a key role in the locomotion. The model enables one to understand how the rods' motion depends on the properties of their environment, such as hydrogen peroxide concentration, solution electrical conductivity, and solution viscosity. The numerical simulations are complemented with a scaling analysis based on the governing equations, which makes definite, verifiable predictions of these dependences. One of the most important trends that has been observed experimentally is the significant decrease in speed induced by adding sub-millimolar concentrations of inert electrolyte. It is important to understand the physical reasons for the electrolyte-induced speed decrease, in order to know whether it is fundamental to this propulsion mechanism, or if there is some feasible means to circumvent it. Successful completion of this research will result in an improved understanding of the capabilities, as well as the risks and limits of applicability, of the bimetallic nanomotors for applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Potential applications of the rods include the targeted delivery of drugs in the human body, sensing of chemical impurities in drinking water, and as engines to drive fabrication of microscale structures.

  9. LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004137 Distant bone metastasis of osteosarcoma: a report of 5 cases. XING Ruwei (邢汝维), et al. Dept Bone & Soft Tissue Tumour, Tianjin Cancer Hosp, Tianjin 300060. Chin J Clin Oncol 2003; 30(11) :786-788.Objective: To explore the clinical manifestation, diagnosis , treatment and prognosis of distant bone metastasis of osteosarcoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis and study on

  10. The locomotive Re 465

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel MOISA

    2002-01-01

    In paper is described the force schema of locomotives Re 460 and Re 465, the function, the parameters who works and the differences between this, as well as the each advantages and disadvantages. Is presented in short the novelty that introduces the locomotive Re 465 in electric energy economises. For final is indicating, such as, the novelty of locomotive Re 465 command-control system and the principle thereupon action. At last, was insisting under the mode that can be interchanged these ...

  11. Dynamic modeling and control of a hybrid locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid locomotion vehicle(HLV) system is developed in KAIST(Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), to overcome the handicaps of other types of mobile robots(wheeled type and legged type). The vehicle has six locomotion devices, each of which has three degrees of freedom: leg lifting, wheel driving, and wheel steering. These hybrid locomotion devices enable flexible locomotion such as stepping over rises and going up and down stairs in a plant. In this study, kinematics and dynamics of the HLV are analyzed for plane motion and algorithms for a model based servo control are established. Computer simulation shows the path tracking performance of the control system. (Author)

  12. Ocular diseases at geriatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro: social and epidemiological considerations among patients with motor locomotion deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr A. Damasceno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the causes of low visual acuity and systemic morbidities that limit ambulation and access to eye care in geriatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 187 patients from three geriatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro between January 2010 and January 2011. The inclusion criteria were individuals with a visual acuity of less than of equal to 20/200 in either eye (118 individuals, without optical correction. The exclusion criteria were individuals who refused to participate and those unable to undergo screening because of mental disabilities (6 individuals. Of the 187 individuals evaluated, 63 had visual acuity above 20/200. Results: A total of 118 individuals with a visual acuity of ≤20/200 effectively participated in the study after meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In addition, 57 participants (48.3% presented systemic disabling morbidities. Of the 118 individuals with low visual acuity, 27.96% had cataract and 26.27% had refractive errors. Conclusion: Most of the patients from geriatric clinics experienced ocular morbidities, but their proper treatment resulted in improved visual acuity. A more socially oriented problem associated with eye care involved the difficulty of access to ophthalmologic consultations.

  13. Simulation of Salamander Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Viazzi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    As part of the research on locomotion controller that aims to produce robots whose design is inspired by Nature, this thesis intends to develop a simulator of the salamander locomotion. It investigates, in particular, what type of circuitry can produce and modulate the neural activity for swimming and trotting. In water, the animal moves by propagating a traveling wave of muscular contractions along the body while holding the limbs against it in an undulatory gait. On the ground, instead, the...

  14. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  15. From Medical Records to Clinical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Aickin, Mikel; Elder, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Medical records contain an abundance of information, very little of which is extracted and put to clinical use. Increasing the flow of information from medical records to clinical practice requires methods of analysis that are appropriate for large nonintervention studies. The purpose of this article is to explain in nontechnical language what these methods are, how they differ from conventional statistical analyses, and why the latter are generally inappropriate. This is important because of...

  16. Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

  17. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  18. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe): An Informatics Foundation for the Science of Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Ida; Tu, Samson W.; Carini, Simona; Lehmann, Harold P.; Pollock, Brad H.; Peleg, Mor; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2013-01-01

    To date, the scientific process for generating, interpreting, and applying knowledge has received less informatics attention than operational processes for conducting clinical studies. The activities of these scientific processes — the science of clinical research — are centered on the study protocol, which is the abstract representation of the scientific design of a clinical study. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) is an OWL 2 model of the entities and relationships of study design pr...

  19. The enhancement of clinical competence through caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Malmberg, Rika; Hilli, Yvonne

    2014-12-01

    This theoretical research attempts to create a new basis for dialogue between two independent research fields that are connected by an inseparable link. The first, nursing science, is a body of professional knowledge, while the second, caring as an independent body of pure knowledge, conducts basic research with an aspiration towards applicability. This theoretical research uses the guidelines of the Buberian dialogue, which provides new meaning to the concept of clinical competence. The results emphasise the need to adopt abstract knowledge into the nursing field in order to improve the graduate's clinical capabilities. The combination of assessing clinical capability in a judgmental manner together with the dialogical humanistic approach of caring science may create a genuine platform and meeting event as a maturing process, which is intended to promote educational goals, which subsequently receive new meaning, that is, a different type of assessment. However, this assessment cannot be measured since a wide range of ethical moral aspects regarding both the student and the patient will have to be included. Nevertheless, this dialogue between nursing science and caring science can implement evidence on the basis of trust and can be used as a dialogical tool for evaluating clinical skills with the goal of empowering the educational field in nursing. Consequently, this clinical competence is called 'caring maturing means', and the goal is to convert the learning process into a meaningful event with the aim of improvement. PMID:24308907

  20. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... Hotel. A. Aging and Clinical Geriatrics........ November 28, 2012...... *VA Central Office....

  1. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... City Hotel. Clinical Application of Genetics....... December 5, 2013 *VA Central Office....

  2. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  3. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  4. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

  5. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  6. 77 FR 75045 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...: locomotive brake maintenance, pilot height, headlight operation, danger markings placement, load meter settings, reorganization of steam generator requirements, and the establishment locomotive electronics... regulations containing safety standards for locomotives. In response to the petitions, this document...

  7. Locomotion: Dealing with friction

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    1998-01-01

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature’s stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans’ imitations and inv...

  8. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  9. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Roycroft, A.; Mayor, R.

    2015-01-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  10. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. PMID:22326455

  11. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology...

  12. Autonomy and Privacy in Clinical Laboratory Science Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies coupled with growth in testing options and choices mandate the development of evidence-based testing algorithms linked to the care paths of the major chronic diseases and health challenges encountered most frequently. As care paths are evaluated, patient/consumers become partners in healthcare delivery. Clinical laboratory scientists find themselves firmly embedded in both quality improvement and clinical research with an urgent need to translate clinical laboratory information into knowledge required by practitioners and patient/consumers alike. To implement this patient-centered care approach in clinical laboratory science, practitioners must understand their roles in (1) protecting patient/consumer autonomy in the healthcare informed consent process and (2) assuring patient/consumer privacy and confidentiality while blending quality improvement study findings with protected health information. A literature review, describing the current ethical environment, supports a consultative role for clinical laboratory scientists in the clinical decision-making process and suggests guidance for policy and practice regarding the principle of autonomy and its associated operational characteristics: informed consent and privacy. PMID:26084151

  13. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  14. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one hour at...

  15. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  16. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  17. Artificial locomotion control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Christine; Poignet, Philippe; Espiau, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the simultaneous synthesis and control of walking gaits for biped robots. The goal is to propose an adaptable and reactive control law for two-legged machines. The problem is addressed with human locomotion as a reference. The starting point of our work is an analysis of human...... walking from descriptive (biomechanics) as well as explicative (neuroscience and physiology) points of view, the objective being to stress the relevant elements for the approach of robot control. The adopted principles are then: no joint trajectory tracking; explicit distinction and integration of...... postural and walking control; use of evolutive optimization objectives; on-line event handling and environment adaptation and anticipation. This leads to the synthesis of an original control scheme based on non-linear model predictive control: Trajectory Free NMPC. The movement is specified implicitly...

  18. Evaluation Guidelines for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William M.; Rubio, Doris M.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2014-01-01

    The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, currently funds the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), a national consortium of 61 medical research institutions in 30 states and the District of Columbia. The program seeks to transform the way biomedical research is conducted, speed the translation of laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients, engage communities in clinical research efforts, and train a new generation of clinical and translational researchers.. An endeavor as ambitious and complex as the CTSA program requires high-quality evaluations in order to show that the program is well implemented, efficiently managed, and demonstrably effective. In this article, the Evaluation Key Function Committee of the CTSA Consortium presents an overall framework for evaluating the CTSA program and offers policies to guide the evaluation work. The guidelines set forth are designed to serve as a tool for education within the CTSA community by illuminating key issues and practices that should be considered during evaluation planning, implementation, and utilization. Additionally, these guidelines can provide a basis for ongoing discussions about how the principles articulated in this article can most effectively be translated into operational reality. PMID:23919366

  19. 77 FR 21311 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., locomotive cab securement, equipping new and remanufactured locomotive cabs with air conditioning units, and... equipping new locomotives with air conditioning units inside the locomotive cab and maintaining those units... all air brake filtering devices to be changed annually and the air ] compressor to be overhauled...

  20. Legless locomotion in lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about interactions between an animal body and complex terrestrial terrain like sand and boulders during legless, undulatory travel (e.g. snake locomotion). We study the locomotor performance of Mojave shovel-nosed snakes (Chionactisoccipitalis , ~ 35 cm long) using a simplified model of heterogeneous terrain: symmetric lattices of obstacles. To quantify performance we measure mean forward speed and slip angle, βs, defined as the angle between the instantaneous velocity and tangent vectors at each point on the body. We find that below a critical peg density the presence of granular media results in high speed (~ 60 cm/s), low average slip (βs ~6°) snake performance as compared to movement in the same peg densities on hard ground (~ 25 cm/s and βs ~15°). Above this peg density, performance on granular and hard substrates converges. Speed on granular media decreases with increasing peg density to that of the speed on hard ground, while speed on hard ground remains constant. Conversely, βs on hard ground trends toward that on granular media as obstacle density increases.

  1. Prospects for a clinical science of mindfulness-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidjian, Sona; Segal, Zindel V

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are at a pivotal point in their future development. Spurred on by an ever-increasing number of studies and breadth of clinical application, the value of such approaches may appear self-evident. We contend, however, that the public health impact of MBIs can be enhanced significantly by situating this work in a broader framework of clinical psychological science. Utilizing the National Institutes of Health stage model (Onken, Carroll, Shoham, Cuthbert, & Riddle, 2014), we map the evidence base for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction as exemplars of MBIs. From this perspective, we suggest that important gaps in the current evidence base become apparent and, furthermore, that generating more of the same types of studies without addressing such gaps will limit the relevance and reach of these interventions. We offer a set of 7 recommendations that promote an integrated approach to core research questions, enhanced methodological quality of individual studies, and increased logical links among stages of clinical translation in order to increase the potential of MBIs to impact positively the mental health needs of individuals and communities. PMID:26436311

  2. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following three panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science.... Clinical Research Program will meet on June 7-8, 2012, at *VA Central Office and not at Sheraton...

  3. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Plaza Clinical Research Program December 3, 2010 *VA Central Office Mental Hlth & Behav Sci-A December...

  4. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... June 7, 2013 U.S. Access Board. Aging and Clinical Geriatrics........ June 10, 2013 VA Central...

  5. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services.... Neurobiology-A June 1, 2012..... Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. Clinical Application of June 1,...

  6. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and ] Development Services Scientific Merit.... Clinical Research Program June 9, 2010 *VA Central Office. Oncology June 10-11, 2010....... L'Enfant...

  7. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services.... Neurobiology-A June 1, 2012........ Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. Clinical Application of June 1,...

  8. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit.... Clinical Research Program June 13, 2011 VA Central Office.* Gastroenterology June 13, 2011 L'Enfant...

  9. Design on hopping locomotion mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-kui; WU Yue-hua; YANG Jie; Hisayuki AOYAMA

    2005-01-01

    A new type of locomotion mechanism is introduced in this paper. With vibrating motors used in controling the movement of the hopping locomotion mechanism, the simple hopping locomotion mechanism had two motors, when the current went through the vertical motor, the vertical motor would vibrate to cause the mechanism to go forward, and when the current went through the horizontal motor, the mechanism will go around itself. A spring was added to the mechanism to change the natural frequency of the mechanism, when the frequency of the motor was equal to the natural frequency of the mechanism, the mechanism would hop resonantly. With the resonant hopping, the load of the mechanism was greatly enlarged, and some sensors could be added to the mechanism. Optical sensors were used to detect the infrared source, the current that went through the sensors related to the distance between the infrared light. Three optical sensors was put on the left, right and the front the mechanism, when the mechanism detect the special infrared source, it would turn itself to the light, and go forward to the light. The experiments of the mechanism shown that the mechanism could work well on different surfaces freely, and the resonant hopping locomotion mechanism with infrared sensors could move to the special light by automatic regulation. Experimental results and theoretical studies demonstrate that the innovative design for hopping locomotion mechanism is superior.

  10. Dynamics of biped locomotion robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Acts Simulation Program, HASP in short, started in 1987 at JAERI. In the HASP, the motion of a human shaped robot is being simulated numerically. First, focusing on one of most fundamental human motions, biped locomotion has been simulated. The model of human biped locomotion in this study is based on the model of Prof. Vukobratovic, Yugoslavia. The steady walking has been simulated on flat floor and go up and down the stairs. However the gait is not only for these simple motions but also for complicated ones such as starting, stopping and turning motions. In order to simulate the motions of a human shaped robot, it is necessary to set up the equations of motions and their restrictions from the point of view of mechanical analysis of human motions. This paper shows equations of motion and their restrictions when the biped locomotion robot starts and stops walking. (author)

  11. 77 FR 42746 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  12. 78 FR 58314 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  13. 78 FR 42966 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  14. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  15. 77 FR 41790 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  16. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  17. 75 FR 10488 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  18. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  19. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  20. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebin Arries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have undergone major transformation over the past few years. In the clinical field, community nurses and undergraduate students are representative of the different races and language and ethnic groups in the South African population, with each group espousing different value systems. Both parties – students and community nurses – report that, due to these differences, value conflicts are experienced during clinical accompaniment and that this has negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science.

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study.

    The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were

  1. 76 FR 3912 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... how to optimally utilize mechanistic biomarkers and apply clinical pharmacology tools, such...

  2. Information-seeking behavior of nursing students and clinical nurses: implications for health sciences librarians*

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Cheryl; Stanley, Ellen E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This research was conducted to provide new insights on clinical nurses' and nursing students' current use of health resources and libraries and deterrents to their retrieval of electronic clinical information, exploring implications from these findings for health sciences librarians.

  3. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  4. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... location changes have been made for the following panel meetings of the of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit...

  5. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  6. Coupling of cytoskeleton functions for fibroblast locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Lenn, M; Rees, D A

    1985-01-01

    Using a chick cell phenotype specialised for locomotion with morphometric measurements made possible by modern instrumentation technology, we have reinvestigated motile functions in fibroblast locomotion. Quantitative analysis of rapid fluctuations in cell form and organelle distribution during l...... function of microtubules to direct the flow towards multiple foci on the leading edge, and so determine cell polarity. Such a mechanism of locomotion for fibroblasts has many features consistent with evidence for other cell types, especially amoebae and leukocytes....

  7. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of valida...

  8. Modeling limbless locomotion using ADAMS software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Limbless locomotion has the potential of meeting transportation requirements, particularly in challenging environments. Snakes can traverse a variety of surfaces...

  9. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. (a)(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of...

  10. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  11. The Decline of Clinical Laboratory Science Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Janet Brown

    2000-01-01

    Enrollment in clinical laboratory science has declined over 50% since 1980. Reasons include lagging salaries, limited advancement opportunities, lack of doctoral-level faculty, and the expense of operating programs. Strategic organizational changes are needed to revive the field. (SK)

  12. The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.

    OpenAIRE

    Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S

    1999-01-01

    Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books...

  13. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  14. Using TOSCE (Team Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the second national medical sciences olympiad in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Amini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Second National Medical Sciences Olympiad was done in Shiraz in August 2010 with aim of indentifying scientifically talented individuals, motivating students and orienting extracurricular activities. This Olympiad was done in 3 areas, basic sciences, clinical sciences and management. In clinical sciences, we used TOSCE (Team Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In this article we report the details of this exam and participants′ satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This Olympiad in Clinical Medical Sciences was held in 2 levels: Individual and team. In the team stage, 9 teams from 9 universities participated. We used TOSCE for measuring clinical competency of teams. Each team consisted of 3 students. We designed 12 stations based on emergency medicine in medical and surgical fields. The time considered for each station was 15 min, after doing this exam the view of students was measured using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: Most of the students believed that TOSCE was a useful examination for measuring competency. More than 50% of students reported that success in this exam needs clinical competency, team work and problem solving ability. Nearly, half (48.1% of students believed that 15 min is not enough for each station and they need more time. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that this kind of exam is useful for measuring clinical competency from students′ viewpoint .

  15. An Experimental Clinical Science Fellowship in Cardiovascular-Renal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasis, Herbert; Campbell, Charles I.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the New York Heart Association's experimental program aimed at evaluating a method of developing physicians disciplined by research and competent both as teachers and in the care of patients (clinical scientists). (Author)

  16. The investigation of the locomotive boiler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the history of narrow-gauge railway system is described. The other information about the steam locomotive construction, as well as the technical regulations of its construction and exploitation are also done. The results of the studies of the locomotive boiler material are presented. (authors)

  17. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... horn that was replaced and the mounting location and type of mounting are the same. (c) Testing of the..., such as barriers, hills, billboards, tractor trailers or other large vehicles, locomotives or rail...

  18. 77 FR 1696 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... pharmacology aspects of pediatric clinical trial design and dosing to optimize pediatric drug development....

  19. 75 FR 8368 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... certain drugs; (2) a new patient-centric clinical pharmacology approach to drug safety; (3) the design...

  20. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  1. A First-Year, Student-Managed Course to Correlate Basic Sciences with Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Murray; Yeasting, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A course, designed to illustrate the correlation of the biochemistry and physiology content of the curriculum with clinical applications, is described. The entire presentation, from introduction and interview of the patient to the correlation of the clinical application with the basic sciences, was managed by the students. (Author/MLW)

  2. Ideology in medical science: class in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U

    1989-01-01

    The class character of medicine is most easily discerned in the inequitable organization of health services. Capital's shaping of the patterns of disease and our medical/scientific responses is less apparent but equally strong. We illustrate this point by reviewing some recent history of cardiovascular diseases and therapies. Hitherto unknown afflictions have become commonplace. Our diagnostic and therapeutic concepts are the crystallization of a long history of scientific effort--an effort dominated and directed by capitalist imperatives. The work of the clinician rests on this scientific substrate, and recognition or rejection of its class nature provides a potential basis for a new medical science but not the needed results. The socialist transformation of medicine will require a recognition of the capitalist specificity of current science, and the painstaking construction of alternative modes of thought. PMID:2660277

  3. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  4. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Clinical Laboratory Science/Biotechnology Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for clinical laboratory occupations programs. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process used to develop the…

  5. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine O Petrof

    2009-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features...

  6. [Compatibility of science and clinical aspects. Between realism and utopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, R; Perl, M; Münzberg, M; Histing, T

    2013-01-01

    The working environment for young residents in orthopedic surgery has changed tremendously over the past 10 years. Due to cumulative clinical requirements and increasing demands on work-life balance research activity has become less attractive. Successful incorporation of research into the career of residents is a challenging project for the future. The young forum of the German Association for Orthopedics and Traumatology (DGOU) provides different approaches to enhance the quality of research and to help young orthopedists and trauma surgeons. PMID:23325157

  7. Post-genome integrative biology: so that's what they call clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J

    2001-01-01

    Medical science is increasingly dominated by slogans, a characteristic reflecting its growing bureaucratic and corporate structure. Chief amongst these slogans is the idea that genomics will transform the public health. I believe this view is mistaken. Using studies of the genetics of skin cancer and the genetics of skin pigmentation, I describe how recent discoveries have contributed to our understanding of these topics and of human evolution. I contrast these discoveries with insights gained from other approaches, particularly those based on clinical studies. The 'IKEA model of medical advance'--you just do the basic science in the laboratory and self-assemble in the clinic--is not only damaging to clinical advance, but reflects a widespread ignorance about the nature of disease and how clinical discovery arises. We need to think more about disease and less about genes; more in the clinic and less in the laboratory. PMID:11706887

  8. Autophoretic locomotion from geometric asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among the few methods which have been proposed to create small-scale swimmers, those relying on self-phoretic mechanisms present an interesting design challenge in that chemical gradients are required to generate net propulsion. Building on recent work, we propose that asymmetries in geometry are sufficient to induce chemical gradients and swimming. We illustrate this idea using two different calculations. We first calculate exactly the self-propulsion speed of a system composed of two spheres of unequal sizes but identically chemically homogeneous. We then consider arbitrary, small-amplitude, shape deformations of a chemically-homogeneous sphere, and calculate asymptotically the self-propulsion velocity induced by the shape asymmetries. Our results demonstrate how geometric asymmetries can be tuned to induce large locomotion speeds without the need of chemical patterning.

  9. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  10. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model...

  11. Retention of Basic Sciences Knowledge at Clinical Years of Medical Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić, Elvira; Dujmović, Josip; Hren, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between the knowledge of basic (physiology and biochemistry) and clinical sciences (internal medicine) among medical students, and determine the level of retained basic science knowledge at the fifth year of medical studies. Methods: Medical students attending the second (n = 145, response rate 60%) or the fifth year (n = 176, response rate 73%) of medical studies at the Zagreb University School of Medicine in Croatia were given an anonymous knowledge test w...

  12. A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kolluru, Srikanth; Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

  13. The Role of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program in Improving the Quality and Efficiency of Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Alving, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the need to increase the efficiency and quality of translating basic discovery into treatment and prevention strategies for patients and the public, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) in 2006. Academic health centers that competed successfully for these awards agreed to work as a consortium and in cooperation with the NIH to improve the translation process by training the next generation of investigators to work ...

  14. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  15. Clinical consequences of a formal mode of science of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R; Badalamenti, A

    1992-10-01

    The paper has presented some ways in which existing formal-mode science results are of importance to the practicing clinician. Stress was placed on the quantification and mathematical identification of countertransference difficulties. Formal science results allow for deep insight into the effects of various approaches to doing psychotherapy that have not been previously available. By adding a new dimension to psychoanalytic observation and understanding, formal science studies of the deeper nature of the human mind and of the therapeutic interaction should help in time to lead to major revisions in clinical theory and practice. PMID:1443289

  16. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Zhiwei; Elfring, Gwynn J

    2015-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swi...

  17. Kinematics Analysis of Two Parallel Locomotion Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ping

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents the kinematics study on two cases of parallel locomotion mechanisms. A parallel locomotion mechanism can be defined as â a mechanism with parallel configuration and discrete contact with respect to the ground which renders a platform the ability to moveâ . The first case is a tripedal robot and the second case is an actuated spoke wheel robot. The kinematics study on these two mobile robots mainly includes mobility, inverse and forward kinematics, i...

  18. The role of locomotion in psychological development

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David C.; Dahl, Audun; Rivera, Monica; He, Minxuan; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The psychological revolution that follows the onset of independent locomotion in the latter half of the infant's first year provides one of the best illustrations of the intimate connection between action and psychological processes. In this paper, we document some of the dramatic changes in perception-action coupling, spatial cognition, memory, and social and emotional development that follow the acquisition of independent locomotion. We highlight the range of converging research operations ...

  19. The role of locomotion in psychological development

    OpenAIRE

    DavidIanAnderson; JosephJ.Campos; DavidC.Witherington; MonicaRivera; IchiroUchiyama; MarianneBarbu-Roth

    2013-01-01

    The psychological revolution that follows the onset of independent locomotion in the latter half of the infant’s first year provides one of the best illustrations of the intimate connection between action and psychological processes. In this paper, we document some of the dramatic changes in perception-action coupling, spatial cognition, memory, and social and emotional development that follow the acquisition of independent locomotion. We highlight the range of converging research operations ...

  20. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  1. Development of Underwater Microrobot with Biomimetic Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Microrobots have powerful applications in biomedical and naval fields. They should have a compact structure, be easy to manufacture, have efficient locomotion, be driven by low voltage and have a simple control system. To meet these purposes, inspired by the leg of stick insects, we designed a novel type of microrobot with biomimetic locomotion with 1-DOF (degree of freedom legs. The locomotion includes two ionic conducting polymer film (ICPF actuators to realize the 2-DOF motion. We developed several microrobots with this locomotion. Firstly, we review a microrobot, named Walker-1, with 1-DOF motion. And then a new microrobot, named Walker-2, utilizing six ICPF actuators, with 3-DOF motion is introduced. It is 47 mm in diameter and 8 mm in height (in static state. It has 0.61 g of dried weight. We compared the two microrobot prototypes, and the result shows that Walker-2 has some advantages, such as more flexible moving motion, good balance, less water resistance, more load-carrying ability and so on. We also compared it with some insect-inspired microrobots and some microrobots with 1-DOF legs, and the result shows that a microrobot with this novel type of locomotion has some advantages. Its structure has fewer actuators and joints, a simpler control system and is compact. The ICPF actuator decides that it can be driven by low voltage (less than 5 V and move in water. A microrobot with this locomotion has powerful applications in biomedical and naval fields.

  2. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  3. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings The Department of Veterans Affairs gives notice under the Public Law 92-463...

  4. Framing in Cognitive Clinical Interviews about Intuitive Science Knowledge: Dynamic Student Understandings of the Discourse Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Lee, Victor R.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the science education community make extensive use of cognitive clinical interviews as windows into student knowledge and thinking. Despite our familiarity with the interviews, there has been very limited research addressing the ways that students understand these interactions. In this work, we examine students' behaviors and speech…

  5. 77 FR 61767 - The Science of Small Clinical Trials; Notice of Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Science of Small Clinical Trials; Notice of Course AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), together with the National Institutes of Health...

  6. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  7. Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae. PMID:17611090

  8. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  9. The return of science to education in clinical psychology: a reply to Snyder and Elliott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kevin L

    2005-09-01

    Clinical psychology currently exists in a state of isolation from the other scientific domains. This disconnect is explained, in part, by the continued adherence to mind-body dualism by many clinical psychologists and the rift between researchers and practitioners within the discipline. However, natural science researchers are reasserting the connection between physical and biological properties and psychological phenomena. As a result, knowledge and skill pertaining to the scientific method will become increasingly important in the education of future clinical psychologists. Modifications to both undergraduate and graduate training are suggested. PMID:15965945

  10. A model for faculty practice teaching clinics developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hollaren, M T; Romm, C L; Cooney, T G; Bardana, E J; Walker, J; Martin, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 the Oregon Health Sciences University established its first faculty practice teaching clinic wherein physicians in training were incorporated into a faculty private practice clinic; this pilot project proved very successful and has been subsequently adopted as the model for essentially all outpatient clinics (both medical and surgery) in the university system. The model encourages efficiency, overhead control, and appropriate staffing; it also compensates faculty members for their additional time spent teaching. The authors conclude this model may help other academic training centers adapt to the changing demands of medical education. PMID:1729995

  11. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lipogems, a Reverse Story: from Clinical Practice to Basic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Carlo; Ricordi, Camillo; Caplan, Arnold I; Ventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The idea that basic science should be the starting point for modern clinical approaches has been consolidated over the years, and emerged as the cornerstone of Molecular Medicine. Nevertheless, there is increasing concern over the low efficiency and inherent costs related to the translation of achievements from the bench to the bedside. These burdens are also perceived with respect to the effectiveness of translating basic discoveries in stem cell biology to the newly developing field of advanced cell therapy or Regenerative Medicine. As an alternative paradigm, past and recent history in Medical Science provides remarkable reverse stories in which clinical observations at the patient's bedside have fed major advances in basic research which, in turn, led to consistent progression in clinical practice. Within this context, we discuss our recently developed method and device, which forms the core of a system (Lipogems) for processing of human adipose tissue solely with the aid of mild mechanical forces to yield a microfractured tissue product. PMID:27236668

  13. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  14. Sexuality of Disabled Athletes Depending on the Form of Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plinta Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine sexuality of disabled athletes depending on the form of locomotion. The study included 170 disabled athletes, aged between 18 and 45. The entire population was divided into 3 research groups depending on the form of locomotion: moving on wheelchairs (n=52, on crutches (n=29 and unaided (n=89. The research tool was a questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously completed by the respondents of the research groups. The questionnaire was composed of a general part concerning the socio-demographic conditions, medical history, health problems, a part dedicated to physical disability as well as the Polish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI evaluating sexual life. STATISTICA 10.0 for Windows was used in the statistical analysis. Subjects moving on crutches were significantly older than ones moving on wheelchairs and unaided (34.41 ±11.00 vs. 30.49 ±10.44 and 27.99 ±10.51 years, respectively (p=0.018. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in athletes moving on wheelchairs (70.27%, followed by athletes moving on crutches and moving unaided (60% and 35.42%, respectively; p=0.048. Clinical sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed on a similar level among all female athletes. It was concluded that the form of locomotion may determine sexuality of disabled men. Males on wheelchair revealed the worst sexual functioning. Female athletes moving on wheelchairs, on crutches and moving unaided were comparable in the aspect of their sexual life.

  15. Management and Analysis of Biological and Clinical Data: How Computer Science May Support Biomedical and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Pierangelo

    The use of computer based solutions for data management in biology and clinical science has contributed to improve life-quality and also to gather research results in shorter time. Indeed, new algorithms and high performance computation have been using in proteomics and genomics studies for curing chronic diseases (e.g., drug designing) as well as supporting clinicians both in diagnosis (e.g., images-based diagnosis) and patient curing (e.g., computer based information analysis on information gathered from patient). In this paper we survey on examples of computer based techniques applied in both biology and clinical contexts. The reported applications are also results of experiences in real case applications at University Medical School of Catanzaro and also part of experiences of the National project Staywell SH 2.0 involving many research centers and companies aiming to study and improve citizen wellness.

  16. Evolution of neural controllers for salamanderlike locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijspeert, Auke J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which evolutionary algorithms are used for the development of neural controllers for salamander locomotion. The aim of the experiment is to investigate which kind of neural circuitry can produce the typical swimming and trotting gaits of the salamander, and to develop a synthetic approach to neurobiology by using genetic algorithms as design tool. A 2D bio-mechanical simulation of the salamander's body is developed whose muscle contraction is determined by the locomotion controller simulated as continuous-time neural networks. While the connectivity of the neural circuitry underlying locomotion in the salamander has not been decoded for the moment, the general organization of the designed neural circuits corresponds to that hypothesized by neurobiologist for the real animal. In particular, the locomotion controllers are based on a body central pattern generator (CPG) corresponding to a lamprey-like swimming controller as developed by Ekeberg, and are extended with a limb CPG for controlling the salamander's body. A genetic algorithm is used to instantiate synaptic weights of the connections within the limb CPG and from the limb CPG to the body CPG given a high level description of the desired gaits. A set of biologically plausible controllers are thus developed which can produce a neural activity and locomotion gaits very similar to those observed in the real salamander. By simply varying the external excitation applied to the network, the speed, direction and type of gait can be varied.

  17. Twist-related locomotion of a snake-like robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Changlong; Ma Shugen; Li Bin; Wang Yuechao; Jing Tao

    2006-01-01

    As a hyper-redundant robot, a 3D snake-like robot can perform many other configurations and types of locomotion adapted to environment except for mimicking the natural snake locomotion. The natural snake locomotion usually limits locomotion capability of the robot because of inadequacy in the mechanism and actuation to imitate characters of natural snake such as the too many DOFs and the characteristics of the muscle. In order to apply snake-like robots to the unstructured environment, the researchers have designed many gaits for increasing the adaptability to a variety of surroundings. The twist-related locomotion is an effective gait achieved by jointly driving the pitching-DOF and yawing-DOF, with which the snakelike robot can move on rough ground and even climb up some obstacles. In this paper, the twist-related locomotion function is firstly solved, and simplified to be expressible by sine or cosine function. The 2D locomotion such as V-shape and U-shape is achieved. Also by applying it to the serpentine locomotion or other types of locomotion, the snake-like robot can complete composite locomotion that combines the serpentine locomotion or others with twist-related locomotion. Then we extend the twist-related locomotion to 3D space. Finally, the experimental results are presented to validate all above analyses.

  18. Passive appendages aid locomotion through symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Shervin; Lacis, Ugis; Mazzino, Andrea; Kellay, Hamid; Brosse, Nicolas; Lundell, Fredrik; Ingremeau, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs, fins, and other types of appendages to aid locomotion. Despite their enormous variation, passive appendages may contribute to locomotion by exploiting the same physical mechanism. We present a new mechanism that applies to body appendages surrounded by a separated flow, which often develops behind moving bodies larger than a few millimeters. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that bodies with protrusions turn and drift by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in flowing fluid is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming fluid flow direction. The discovery suggests a new mechanism of locomotion that may be relevant for certain organisms; for example, how plumed seeds may drift without wind and how motile animals may passively reorient themselves.

  19. Stability of Periodic Locomotion in Potential Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Fangxu

    2013-01-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. In this paper, we examine the stability of periodic locomotion due to sideways flapping in unbounded potential flow. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. Here, we consider a simplified model where the swimmer is a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping. We obtain closed-form solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping a...

  20. Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Suzanne N; Safadi, Ziad; Milad, Mohammad R

    2013-01-01

    In March, 2012 we held the first Mideast conference on "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back", at the University of Amman, Jordan. This event brought together both clinical and basic scientists with expertise in depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. The meeting took place in a large lecture hall at the University of Jordan Medical School. The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants. PMID:23497694

  1. Theoretical models in low-Reynolds-number locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, On Shun

    2014-01-01

    The locomotion of microorganisms in fluids is ubiquitous and plays an important role in numerous biological processes. In this chapter we present an overview of theoretical modeling for low-Reynolds-number locomotion.

  2. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on an inclined plane. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes---triangular and sinusoidal waves---across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficient, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling-wave motions with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  3. Locomotion of Paramecium in patterned environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jik; Eddins, Aja; Kim, Junil; Yang, Sung; Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-10-01

    Ciliary organisms like Paramecium Multimicronucleatum locomote by synchronized beating of cilia that produce metachronal waves over their body. In their natural environments they navigate through a variety of environments especially surfaces with different topology. We study the effects of wavy surfaces patterned on the PDMS channels on the locomotive abilities of Paramecium by characterizing different quantities like velocity amplitude and wavelength of the trajectories traced. We compare this result with the swimming characteristics in straight channels and draw conclusions about the effects of various patterned surfaces.

  4. Large and limbless: the locomotion of snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, David

    2008-03-01

    In efforts to understand snake locomotion, we consider one of their various gaits. By contracting and extending their bodies unidirectionally like a slinky, large snakes propel themselves in a straight line. In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we here report on the dynamics of a boa constrictor alongside the analysis of an n-linked extensible crawler model. Constraints on their locomotion are quantified and discussed, such as the elasticity, frictional anisotropy and abrasive wear of their skin. Also presented are certain snake behaviors that culminate in their tying themselves into knots.

  5. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  6. Security and confidentiality approach for the Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, D.; Singleton, P; Ingram, D.; Milan, J.; Mackay, J.; Detmer, D.; Rector, A.

    2005-01-01

    CLEF is an MRC sponsored project in the E-Science programme that aims to establish policies and infrastructure for the next generation of integrated clinical and bioscience research. One of the major goals of the project is to provide a pseudonymised repository of histories of cancer patients that can be accessed by researchers. Robust mechanisms and policies are needed to ensure that patient privacy and confidentiality are preserved while delivering a repository of such med...

  7. MENTOR TRAINING WITHIN ACADEMIC HEALTH CENTERS WITH CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE AWARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J.; Richards, Boyd F.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only 4 AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent ...

  8. Obstacle Avoidance in Groping Locomotion of a Humanoid Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ohka; Kazuhisa Mitobe; Yasuo Nasu; Mitsuhiro Yamano; Hanafiah Yussof

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an autonomous obstacle-avoidance method that operates in conjunction with groping locomotion on the humanoid robot Bonten-Maru II. Present studies on groping locomotion consist of basic research in which humanoid robot recognizes its surroundings by touching and groping with its arm on the flat surface of a wall. The robot responds to the surroundings by performing corrections to its orientation and locomotion direction. During groping locomotion, howev...

  9. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  10. SNF Project Locomotion: Progress report 2008-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Matej; Ziegler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Summary of results (project period 1. 10. 2008 - 30. 9. 2009) of SNFS Project "From locomotion to cognition" The research that we have been involved in, and will continue to do, starts from the insight that in order to understand and design intelligent behavior, we must adopt an embodied perspective, i.e. we must take the entire agent, including its shape or morphology, the materials out of which it is built, and its interaction with the environment into account, in addition to the neural control. A lot of our research in the past has been on relatively low-level sensory-motor tasks such as locomotion (e.g. walking, running, jumping), navigation, and grasping. While this research is of interest in itself, in the context of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, this leads to the question of what these kinds of tasks have to do with higher levels of cognition, or to put it more provocatively, "What does walking have to do with thinking?" This question is of course reminiscent of the notorious "symbol g...

  11. SNF Project Locomotion: Final report 2009-2010

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Matej; Ziegler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Summary of results in last project period (1. 10. 2009 - 30. 9. 2010) of SNFS Project "From locomotion to cognition" The research that we have been involved in, and will continue to do, starts from the insight that in order to understand and design intelligent behavior, we must adopt an embodied perspective, i.e. we must take the entire agent, including its shape or morphology, the materials out of which it is built, and its interaction with the environment into account, in addition to the neural control. A lot of our research in the past has been on relatively low-level sensory-motor tasks such as locomotion (e.g. walking, running, jumping), navigation, and grasping. While this research is of interest in itself, in the context of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, this leads to the question of what these kinds of tasks have to do with higher levels of cognition, or to put it more provocatively, "What does walking have to do with thinking?" This question is of course reminiscent of the notorious "...

  12. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  13. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  14. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  15. Passive mechanics in jellyfish-like locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Megan; Eldredge, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to identify possible benefits of passive flexibility in biologically-inspired locomotion. Substantial energy savings are likely achieved in natural locomotion by allowing a mix of actively controlled and passively responsive deformation. The jellyfish is a useful target of study, due to its relatively simple structure and the availability of recent kinematics and flow-field measurements. In this investigation, the jellyfish consists of a two-dimensional articulated system of rigid bodies linked by hinges. The kinematics -- expressed via the hinge angles -- are adapted from experimentally measured motion. The free swimming system is explored via high-fidelity numerical simulation with a viscous vortex particle method with coupled body dynamics. The computational tool allows the arbitrary designation of individual hinges as ``active'' or ``passive,'' to introduce a mix of flexibility into the system. In some cases, replacing an active hinge with a passive spring can enhance the mean swimming speed, thus reducing the power requirements of the system. Varying the stiffness and damping coefficients of the spring yield different locomotive results. The numerical solution is used to compute the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) throughout the field. The FTLE fields reveal manifolds in the flow that act as transport barriers, uncovering otherwise unseen geometric characteristics of the flow field that add new insight into the locomotion mechanics.

  16. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... operation, danger markings placement, load meter settings, reorganization of steam generator requirements... locomotive operations. See 66 FR 10340, Notice of Safety Advisory 2001-01, Docket No. FRA-2000-7325. By... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional...

  17. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Eileen [School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge.

  18. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge

  19. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  20. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fulceri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000 and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS and a parent interview about adaptive skills. Results: Results revealed a substantial impairment in locomotion and grasping skills. Both fine and gross motor skills were significantly correlated with non verbal IQ and adaptive behaviours (p<0.01 but not with chronological age or ADOS scores. Children with weaker motor skills have greater cognitive and adaptive behaviours deficits. Conclusions: Motor development in ASD can be detected at preschool age and locomotion and grasping skills are substantially the most impaired area. These findings support the need to assess motor skills in preschoolers with ASD in addition to other developmental skill areas. Along with the increasingly acknowledged importance of motor skills for subsequent social, cognitive, and communicative development our findings support the need to consider motor intervention as a key area in therapeutic program to improve outcome in preschoolers with ASD.

  1. Haulage and transport, with particular reference to locomotive haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, R.G.

    1982-02-01

    The role of locomotive haulage is examined against the requirements for transportation of mineral, men and materials The trends of locomotive deployment over the period 1940 1980 are demonstrated and related to changing factors within colliery practice. The comparative costs of mineral transport by conveyor and locomotive systems are discussed and the conclusion drawn that in UK conditions future locomotive deployment will be mainly to materials transport and to long-haul manriding. Developments in underground locomotive design are identified. High-speed bogie locomotives, floor-mounted and suspended trapped-rail locomotives, rack locomotives and trolley locomotives are discussed, as is the development of the self-propelled train principle and that of dual power sources for locomotives. The importance of high track standards and their dependence on the facilities for monitoring and maintenance is emphasized, along with the development of vehicles specifically designed for the safe carriage of the heavy loads implicit in modern mining technology. The availability and increasing deployment of mechanized handling equipment is welcomed. Alternatives to locomotive transport are shown to be high-speed rope-haulages (with remote control or radio communication facilities), and the new generation of free-steered vehicles. The relationship between improved transport system efficiency and increased safety is stressed, as is the importance of the joint approach of management, inspectorate and manufacturer, to the programmes of transport systems improvement. (20 refs.)

  2. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiye Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utilized locomotives. The MLSP is nondeterministic polynomial (NP hard. Therefore, we convert the multilocomotive traction problem into a single-locomotive traction problem. Then, the single-locomotive traction problem (SLTP can be converted into an assignment problem. The Hungarian algorithm is applied to solve the model and obtain the optimal locomotive schedule. We use the variance of detention time of locomotives at stations to evaluate the stability of locomotive schedule. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model, case studies for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains on Da-qin Railway are both conducted. Compared to the current schedules, the optimal schedules from the proposed models can save 62 and 47 locomotives for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains, respectively. Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed model and its solution algorithm are both valid.

  3. Development of a Novel Locomotion Algorithm for Snake Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel algorithm for snake robot locomotion is developed and analyzed in this paper. Serpentine is one of the renowned locomotion for snake robot in disaster recovery mission to overcome narrow space navigation. Several locomotion for snake navigation, such as concertina or rectilinear may be suitable for narrow spaces, but is highly inefficient if the same type of locomotion is used even in open spaces resulting friction reduction which make difficulties for snake movement. A novel locomotion algorithm has been proposed based on the modification of the multi-link snake robot, the modifications include alterations to the snake segments as well elements that mimic scales on the underside of the snake body. Snake robot can be able to navigate in the narrow space using this developed locomotion algorithm. The developed algorithm surmount the others locomotion limitation in narrow space navigation

  4. Emotion malleability beliefs, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: Integrating affective and clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S

    2016-04-01

    Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review. PMID:27086086

  5. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres. PMID:25231655

  6. A psychometric investigation of "macroscopic" speech measures for clinical and psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Renshaw, Tyler L; Mitchell, Kyle R; Kim, Yunjung

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of vocal expression is a critical endeavor for psychological and clinical sciences and is an increasingly popular application for computer-human interfaces. Despite this, and despite advances in the efficiency, affordability, and sophistication of vocal analytic technologies, there is considerable variability across studies regarding what aspects of vocal expression are studied. Vocal signals can be quantified in a myriad of ways, and their underlying structure, at least with respect to "macroscopic" measures from extended speech, is presently unclear. To address this issue, we evaluated the psychometric properties-notably, the structural and construct validity-of a systematically defined set of global vocal features. Our analytic strategy focused on (a) identifying redundant variables among this set, (b) employing principal components analysis (PCA) to identify nonoverlapping domains of vocal expression, (c) examining the degrees to which the vocal variables are modulated as a function of changes in speech task, and (d) evaluating the relationship between the vocal variables and cognitive (i.e., verbal fluency) and clinical (i.e., depression, anxiety, and hostility) variables. Spontaneous speech samples from 11 independent studies of young adults (>60 s in length), employing one of three different speaking tasks, were examined (N = 1,350). Confounding variables (i.e., sex, ethnicity) were statistically controlled for. The PCA identified six distinct domains of vocal expression. Collectively, vocal expression (defined in terms of these domains) was modulated as a function of speech task and was related to the cognitive and clinical variables. These findings provide empirically grounded implications for the study of vocal expression in psychological and clinical sciences. PMID:25862539

  7. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  8. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G. Peacock

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients’ social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course.

  9. Locomotion of a Running Quadruped Robotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley Savon

    2010-01-01

    Very little is known about the locomotion of quadruped robotic systems. In Latin, the term quadruped means 'having four feet'. The robotic system analyzed in this project was a software simulation program modeled after a horse. Simulation data was recorded to resolve the relationship between foot position and impulses required to accelerate or to decelerate the system while trotting. These sets of data were then analyzed in MATLAB to produce graphical representations which allowed for a bette...

  10. Data driven models of legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzen, Shai; Kvalheim, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Legged locomotion is a challenging regime both for experimental analysis and for robot design. From biology, we know that legged animals can perform spectacular feats which our machines can only surpass on some specially controlled surfaces such as roads. We present a concise review of the theoretical underpinnings of Data Driven Floquet Analysis (DDFA), an approach for empirical modeling of rhythmic dynamical systems. We provide a review of recent and classical results which justify its use in the analysis of legged systems.

  11. Locomotive and Wagon Scheduling in Freight Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Homfeld, Henning; Huck, Andreas; Martin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We present a new model for a strategic locomotive scheduling problem arising at the Deutsche Bahn AG. The model is based on a multi-commodity min-cost flow formulation that is also used for public bus scheduling problems. However, several new aspects have to be additionally taken into account, such as cyclic departures of the trains, time windows on starting and arrival times, network-load dependend travel times, and a transfer of wagons between trains. The ...

  12. Exotendons for assistance of human locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bogert Antonie J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered robotic exoskeletons for assistance of human locomotion are currently under development for military and medical applications. The energy requirements for such devices are excessive, and this has become a major obstacle for practical applications. Legged locomotion in many animals, however, is very energy efficient. We propose that poly-articular elastic mechanisms are a major contributor to the economy of locomotion in such specialized animals. Consequently, it should be possible to design unpowered assistive devices that make effective use of similar mechanisms. Methods A passive assistive technology is presented, based on long elastic cords attached to an exoskeleton and guided by pulleys placed at the joints. A general optimization procedure is described for finding the best geometrical arrangement of such "exotendons" for assisting a specific movement. Optimality is defined either as minimal residual joint moment or as minimal residual joint power. Four specific exotendon systems with increasing complexity are considered. Representative human gait data were used to optimize each of these four systems to achieve maximal assistance for normal walking. Results The most complex exotendon system, with twelve pulleys per limb, was able to reduce the joint moments required for normal walking by 71% and joint power by 74%. A simpler system, with only three pulleys per limb, could reduce joint moments by 46% and joint power by 47%. Conclusion It is concluded that unpowered passive elastic devices can substantially reduce the muscle forces and the metabolic energy needed for walking, without requiring a change in movement. When optimally designed, such devices may allow independent locomotion in patients with large deficits in muscle function.

  13. Locomotion gait optimization for a quadruped robot

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Miguel; Santos, Cristina; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Costa, L.; Ana Maria A. C. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of a gait optimization system that allows a fast but stable robot quadruped crawl gait. We focus in the development of a quadruped robot walking gait locomotion that combine bio-inspired Central Patterns Generators (CPGs) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). The CPGs are modelled as autonomous differential equations, that generate the necessary limb movement to perform the walking gait, and the Genetic Algorithm perform the search of the CPG...

  14. Cooling system for modern trunk diesel locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Мошенцев, Ю. Л.; Гогоренко, А. А.; Минчев, Д. С.

    2011-01-01

    The existing and alternative schemes of engine cooling system for modern trunk diesel locomotives are considered. The method for comparison of various schemes of cooling system with the purpose to find the most compact and effective of them is offered. Slow flow systems are the most appropriate as it is shown. The optimal scheme of cooling system, that permits to increase supercharging air-cooling efficiency to 0,94…0,96 it is been selected.

  15. Clinical medical sciences for undergraduate dental students in the United Kingdom and Ireland - a curriculum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mighell, A J

    2011-08-01

    The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.

  16. Evaluation and the NIH clinical and translational science awards: a "top ten" list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Abedin, Zainab; Blank, Arthur E; Mazmanian, Paul E

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, a total of 61 Clinical and Translational Science Institutes (CTSAs) have been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with the aim of reducing translation time from a bench discovery to when it impacts patients. This special issue of Evaluation & the Health Professions focuses on evaluation within and across the large, complex system of the CTSA Program of NIH. Through insights gained by reading the articles in this special edition and the experience of the authors, a "top ten" list of lessons learned and insights gained is presented. The list outlines issues that face those who evaluate the influence of the CTSA Program, as they work to anticipate what will be needed for continuing success. Themes include (1) considering the needs of stakeholders, (2) the perspective of the evaluators, (3) the importance of service improvement, (4) the importance of teams and people, (5) costs and return on investments, (6) methodology considerations to evaluate the CTSA enterprise, (7) innovation in evaluation, (8) defining the transformation of research, (9) evaluating the long-term impact of the CTSAs on public health, and (10) contributing to science policy formulation and implementation. The establishment of the CTSA Program, with its mandated evaluation component, has not only influenced the infrastructure and nature of translational research but will continue to impact policy and management in science. PMID:24214661

  17. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity. PMID:27440675

  18. Advanced aftertreatment systems for locomotive applications; Moderne Abgasnachbehandlungssysteme fuer Lokomotiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Paul [Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Bruestle, Claus [Emitec Inc., Rochester Hill, MI (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Tier 4 legislation for locomotives, starting in 2015, will require significant reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxide tail pipe emissions. To reduce nitrogen oxide emissions of line-haul locomotives at least to the level of Tier 4, Caterpillar has developed an aftertreatment system. Here, for the first time an SCR system was used for diesel locomotive engines with an urea dosing system. (orig.)

  19. A hybrid model of obstacle-aided snake robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Liljeback, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2010-01-01

    A snake can traverse cluttered and irregular environments by using irregularities around its body as push-points to aid the propulsion. This characteristic feature of biological snake locomotion, denoted obstacle-aided locomotion, is investigated for snake robot locomotion purposes in this paper. The paper presents a hybrid model of the dynamics of a planar snake robot interacting with obstacles in its environment. Obstacle contact forces are calculated by formulating and solving a linear com...

  20. Locomotive assignment problem with train precedence using genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Noori, Siamak; Ghannadpour, Seyed

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study the locomotive assignment problem which is very important for railway companies, in view of high cost of operating locomotives. This problem is to determine the minimum cost assignment of homogeneous locomotives located in some central depots to a set of pre-scheduled trains in order to provide sufficient power to pull the trains from their origins to their destinations. These trains have different degrees of priority for servicing, and the high class of trains should...

  1. A historical, clinical, and ethical overview of the emerging science of facial transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a total of 16 facial transplantation surgeries have been performed in France, China, Spain, and the United States. Facial transplantation has become a surgical option in clinical situations in which soft tissue and bone loss is accompanied by severe cosmetic, sensory, and functional deficiencies due to disease, trauma, or congenital malformations. With the introduction of facial tissue transplantation surgery came complex clinical, technological, and ethical patient care issues. These complex issues included determining patient selection criteria, refining donor tissue procurement techniques, predicting expected functional outcomes, appreciating the limitations of obtaining a fully informed consent for an innovative procedure, and deliberating the immunological response and postoperative immunosuppressant requirements of the recipient. In addition, psychological implications for the patient, societal consequences, and ethical concerns have been discussed. The short-term results have been positive. Results to date indicate that the clinical, technical, and immunological patient care issues in this emerging science appear to mirror those of other reconstructive and organ transplantation procedures. The long-term physical, emotional, and psychological effects on the recipient patient, as well as long-term consequences to the donor's family, are yet to be validated. PMID:22157604

  2. Assessing Competencies in a Master of Science in Clinical Research Program: The Comprehensive Competency Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Moore, Charity G; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2015-12-01

    Competencies in Master of Science Clinical Research programs are becoming increasingly common. However, students and programs can only benefit fully from competency-based education if students' competence is formally assessed. Prior to a summative assessment, students must have at least one formative, formal assessment to be sure they are developing competence appropriate for their stage of training. This paper describes the comprehensive competency review (CCR), a milestone for MS students in Clinical Research at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Clinical Research Education. The CCR involves metacognitive reflection of the student's learning as a whole, written evidence of each competency, a narrative explaining the choice of evidence for demonstrating competencies, and a meeting in which two faculty members review the evidence and solicit further oral evidence of competence. CCRs allow for individualized feedback at the midpoint in degree programs, providing students with confidence that they will have the means and strategies to develop competence in all areas by the summative assessment of competence at their thesis defense. CCRs have also provided programmatic insight on the need for curricular revisions and additions. These benefits outweigh the time cost on the part of students and faculty in the CCR process. PMID:26332763

  3. Perceptions of Students and Clinical Instructors of Academic Learning Environments at Yazd University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Montazeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this cross sectional study is to gain insight into the students and clinical instructors’ perception of learning environments at Yazd medical University in 2012. Various aspects of environment are compared between courses, gender and age. Students and instructors’ perspectives are reported. Methods: The sample consisted of 158 undergraduate students in their final year of graduation in the nursing, anesthesia, operating room, laboratory, radiology, midwifery courses and their 20 clinical instructors at Yazd University. Data were obtained using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Scores were compared across grouping variables identified via demographic information. Results: Scores were fairly high for both students and clinical instructors (M=110.0; SD=21.2 and M=93.1; SD=10.3 respectively, indicating an overall positive perception of learning environments between both groups. The perception of atmosphere subscale (PA received the highest mean grade by both groups. Total DREEM scores didn’t vary significantly between courses (p>0.05 but the results of ANOVA test showed significant differences only for perception of teaching and perception of atmosphere domains. There was not a significant association between females and males regarding total DREEM score (p>0.05. Conclusions: The more positive than negative perception held by the Yazd University health science students and instructors is hopefully indicative of a favorable teaching-learning environment. Overall; teachers’ attention to principles of educational design and setting a favorable environment to promote better learning is recommended.

  4. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Bohm, V; Popp, J [TU Ilmenau, Fak. f. Maschinenbau, FG Technische Mechanik, Max-Planck-Ring 12, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)], E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  5. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  6. Industry review: Locomotive dynamic characterization test-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Data are given relative to tests performed on locomotive components. Dynamic characteristics related to safety are described. Suspension systems, shock absorbers, data processing, bearings, and damping are discussed.

  7. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230... exhaust aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of...

  9. Guiding locomotion in complex dynamic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R Fajen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Locomotion in complex dynamic environments is an integral part of many daily activities, including walking in crowded spaces, driving on busy roadways, and playing sports. Many of the tasks that humans perform in such environments involve interactions with moving objects -- that is, they require people to coordinate their own movement with the movements of other objects. A widely adopted framework for research on the detection, avoidance, and interception of moving objects is the bearing angle model, according to which observers move so as to keep the bearing angle of the object constant for interception and varying for obstacle avoidance. The bearing angle model offers a simple, parsimonious account of visual control but has several significant limitations and does not easily scale up to more complex tasks. In this paper, I introduce an alternative account of how humans choose actions and guide locomotion in the presence of moving objects. I show how the new approach addresses the limitations of the bearing angle model and accounts for a variety of behaviors involving moving objects, including (1 choosing whether to pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle, (2 perceiving whether a gap between a pair of moving obstacles is passable, (3 avoiding a collision while passing through single or multiple lanes of traffic, (4 coordinating speed and direction of locomotion during interception, (5 simultaneously intercepting a moving target while avoiding a stationary or moving obstacle, and (6 knowing whether to abandon the chase of a moving target. I also summarize data from recent studies that support the new approach.

  10. Optimal locomotion of mechanical rectifier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Justin T.

    Vehicles utilizing animal locomotion mechanisms may possess increased performance parameters and the ability to overcome more difficult terrain than conventional wheel or propeller driven vehicles. The essential mechanism underlying animal locomotion can be viewed as mechanical rectification that converts periodic body movements to thrust force through interactions with the environment. This dissertation defines a general class of mechanical rectifiers as multi-body systems equipped with such thrust generation mechanisms. A general model is developed from the Euler-Lagrange equation and simplified by assuming small body oscillations around a given nominal posture. The model reveals that the rectifying dynamics can be captured by a bilinear (but not linear) term of body shape variables. An optimal gait problem is formulated for the bilinear rectifier model as a minimization of a quadratic cost function over the set of periodic functions subject to a constraint on the average locomotion velocity. We prove that a globally optimal solution is given by a harmonic gait that can be found by generalized eigenvalue computation with a line search over cycle frequencies. We verify the solution method through case studies of a two dimensional chain of links for which snake-like undulations and jellyfish-like flapping gaits are found to be optimal, and obtain analytical insights into determinants of optimal gaits from a simple disk-mass rectifier system. Lastly, we develop a dynamic model for batoid swimming featuring a 6 degree-of-freedom main body (position and orientation), with independent wing deformation (described as the motion of many discrete points in the body-fixed coordinate frame), and calculate various gaits. Multiple wing shapes and optimality criteria are considered, such as the maximum thrust to deflection ratio or minimum input power, and the resulting gaits are compared.

  11. Guiding locomotion in complex, dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajen, Brett R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion in complex, dynamic environments is an integral part of many daily activities, including walking in crowded spaces, driving on busy roadways, and playing sports. Many of the tasks that humans perform in such environments involve interactions with moving objects-that is, they require people to coordinate their own movement with the movements of other objects. A widely adopted framework for research on the detection, avoidance, and interception of moving objects is the bearing angle model, according to which observers move so as to keep the bearing angle of the object constant for interception and varying for obstacle avoidance. The bearing angle model offers a simple, parsimonious account of visual control but has several significant limitations and does not easily scale up to more complex tasks. In this paper, I introduce an alternative account of how humans choose actions and guide locomotion in the presence of moving objects. I show how the new approach addresses the limitations of the bearing angle model and accounts for a variety of behaviors involving moving objects, including (1) choosing whether to pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle, (2) perceiving whether a gap between a pair of moving obstacles is passable, (3) avoiding a collision while passing through single or multiple lanes of traffic, (4) coordinating speed and direction of locomotion during interception, (5) simultaneously intercepting a moving target while avoiding a stationary or moving obstacle, and (6) knowing whether to abandon the chase of a moving target. I also summarize data from recent studies that support the new approach. PMID:23885238

  12. Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Feng, Ling; Du, Liang; Zhang, Anxiang; Tang, Tian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is defined as severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on clinical treatment of facial paralysis using rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture using Web of Science from 1992 to 2011. DESIGN: Bibliometric approach. DATA RETRIEVAL: A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as “...

  13. Hamiltonian mechanics and planar fishlike locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott; Xiong, Hailong; Burgoyne, Will

    2007-11-01

    A free deformable body interacting with a system of point vortices in the plane constitutes a Hamiltonian system. A free Joukowski foil with variable camber shedding point vortices in an ideal fluid according to a periodically applied Kutta condition provides a model for fishlike locomotion which bridges the gap between inviscid analytical models that sacrifice realism for tractability and viscous computational models inaccessible to tools from nonlinear control theory. We frame such a model in the context of Hamiltonian mechanics and describe its relevance both to the study of hydrodynamic interactions within schools of fish and to the realization of model-based control laws for biomimetic autonomous robotic vehicles.

  14. Modeling Emotional Aspects in Human Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Felis, Martin Leonhard

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional body language has been the effort of many scientists for more than 200 years, from areas such as psychology, neuroscience, biology, and others. A lot of work has focused on the analysis of the kinematics, while the study of the underlying dynamics is still largely unexplored. In this thesis we model human walking as a nonlinear multi-phase optimal control problem to investigate the dynamics of full-body emotional expressions in human locomotion. Our approach is based on...

  15. Locomotion forces generated by a polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

    OpenAIRE

    Usami, S; Wung, S L; Skierczynski, B A; Skalak, R; Chien, S

    1992-01-01

    There have been very few studies which have measured the physical forces generated by cells during active movements. A special micropipette system has been designed to make it possible to observe cell motion within the pipette and to apply a pressure to counter the chemotactic migration of the cell. This provides a direct measure of the locomotion force generated by the cell. The average velocity of forward motion is 0.33 microns/s in the absence of counter-pressure. The application of a posi...

  16. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  17. Multiplex assays for biomarker research and clinical application: translational science coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qin; Schoenhoff, Florian S; Savage, William J; Zhang, Pingbo; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade, translational science has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The quest for suitable biomarkers that will significantly change clinical practice has become one of the biggest challenges in translational medicine. Quantitative measurement of proteins is a critical step in biomarker discovery. Assessing a large number of potential protein biomarkers in a statistically significant number of samples and controls still constitutes a major technical hurdle. Multiplexed analysis offers significant advantages regarding time, reagent cost, sample requirements and the amount of data that can be generated. The two contemporary approaches in multiplexed and quantitative biomarker validation, antibody-based immunoassays and MS-based multiple (or selected) reaction monitoring, are based on different assay principles and instrument requirements. Both approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages and therefore have complementary roles in the multi-staged biomarker verification and validation process. In this review, we discuss quantitative immunoassay and multiple reaction monitoring/selected reaction monitoring assay principles and development. We also discuss choosing an appropriate platform, judging the performance of assays, obtaining reliable, quantitative results for translational research and clinical applications in the biomarker field. PMID:21137048

  18. THE DYNAMICS AND TRACTION ENERGY METRICS LOCOMOTIVE VL40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Pylypenko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of dynamic running and traction-energy tests of the electric locomotive VL40U are presented. In accordance with the test results a conclusion about the suitability of electric locomotive of such a type for operation with trains containing up to 15 passenger coaches inclusive is made.

  19. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  20. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  1. The SF4 bogie for Vectron {sup copyright} locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, Roland [Siemens AG Oesterreich, Graz (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    The SF4 bogie was developed for use in the new electric Vectron {sup copyright} locomotives built by Siemens. Based on time-tested solution concepts and proven components, the non order-related development resulted in a bogie that is well equipped for future requirements in the dynamic European locomotive market. (orig.)

  2. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe...

  3. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education. PMID:22507118

  4. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  5. Environmental engineering simplifies subterranean locomotion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Darya; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesize that ants engineer habitats which reduce locomotion control requirements. We studied tunnel construction, and locomotion, in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, body length L = 0 . 35 +/- 0 . 05). In their daily life, ants forage for food above ground and return resources to the nest. This steady-state tunnel traffic enables high-throughput biomechanics studies of tunnel climbing. In a laboratory experiment we challenged fire ants to climb through 8 cm long glass tunnels (D = 0.1 - 0.9 cm) that separated a nest from an open arena with food and water. During ascending and descending climbs we induced falls by a motion-activated rapid, short, downward translation of the tunnels. Normalized tunnel diameter (D / L) determined the ability of ants to rapidly recover from perturbations. Fall arrest probability was unity for small D / L , and zero for large D / L . The transition from successful to unsuccessful arrest occurred at D / L = 1 . 4 +/- 0 . 3 . Through X-Ray computed tomography study we show that the diameter of ant-excavated tunnels is independent of soil-moisture content (studied from 1-20%) and particle size (50-595 μm diameter), and has a mean value of D / L = 1 . 06 +/- 0 . 23 . Thus fire ants construct tunnels of diameter near the onset of fall instability.

  6. Locomotion of a flapping flexible plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ru-Nan; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2013-12-01

    The locomotion of a flapping flexible plate in a viscous incompressible stationary fluid is numerically studied by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid and a finite element method for the plate. When the leading-edge of the flexible plate is forced to heave sinusoidally, the entire plate starts to move freely as a result of the fluid-structure interaction. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the plate are elucidated. Three distinct states of the plate motion are identified and can be described as forward, backward, and irregular. Which state to occur depends mainly on the heaving amplitude and the bending rigidity of the plate. In the forward motion regime, analysis of the dynamic behaviors of the flapping flexible plate indicates that a suitable degree of flexibility can improve the propulsive performance. Moreover, there exist two kinds of vortex streets in the downstream of the plate which are normal and deflected wake. Further the forward motion is compared with the flapping-based locomotion of swimming and flying animals. The results obtained in the present study are found to be consistent with the relevant observations and measurements and can provide some physical insights into the understanding of the propulsive mechanisms of swimming and flying animals.

  7. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  8. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  9. Cholinergic Mechanisms in Spinal Locomotion - Potential Target for Rehabilitation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments implicate cholinergic brainstem and spinal systems in the control of locomotion. Our results demonstrate that the endogenous cholinergic propriospinal system, acting via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, is capable of consistently producing well-coordinated locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal preparation, placing it in a position to contribute to normal locomotion and to provide a basis for recovery of locomotor capability in the absence of descending pathways. Tests of these suggestions, however, reveal that the spinal cholinergic system plays little if any role in the induction of locomotion, because MLR-evoked locomotion in decerebrate cats is not prevented by cholinergic antagonists. Furthermore, it is not required for the development of stepping movements after spinal cord injury, because cholinergic agonists do not facilitate the appearance of locomotion after spinal cord injury, unlike the dramatic locomotion-promoting effects of clonidine, a noradrenergic α-2 agonist. Furthermore, cholinergic antagonists actually improve locomotor activity after spinal cord injury, suggesting that plastic changes in the spinal cholinergic system interfere with locomotion rather than facilitating it. Changes that have been observed in the cholinergic innervation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury do not decrease motoneuron excitability, as expected. Instead, the development of a hyper-cholinergic state after spinal cord injury appears to enhance motoneuron output and suppress locomotion. A cholinergic suppression of afferent input from the limb after spinal cord injury is also evident from our data, and this may contribute to the ability of cholinergic antagonists to improve locomotion. Not only is a role for the spinal cholinergic system in supressing locomotion after SCI suggested by our results, but an obligatory contribution of a brainstem cholinergic relay to reticulospinal locomotor command systems is not confirmed

  10. Factors Enhancing Manpower Efficiency from the Viewpoint of Clinical and Non-clinical Faculty Members at Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Mehrabian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are various factors that affect manpower efficiency. Identification of the most important and influential factors on efficiency is quite essential. Analysis of factors affecting manpower efficiency from the viewpoint of clinical and non-clinical faculty members at Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2011.Methods: This descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was performed in October and November in 2011. The study sample consisted of 186 faculty members, including 128 clinical and 58 non-clinical. Instruments used to collect library data were questionnaire and field studies. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation was utilized to determine the factors influencing manpower efficiency as well as loading level of each of the variables. Results: Among clinical faculty members, 70.66% of changes in manpower efficiency, and among non-clinical faculty members, 79.57% of changes in manpower efficiency were explained by 9 and 8 factors, respectivelyConclusion: Staff empowerment and organizational culture were recognized as the most important factors enhancing manpower efficiency from the viewpoint of clinical and non-clinical faculty members, respectively.

  11. Crossing Over: The Lived Experiences of Clinical Laboratory Science Education Teachers as They Transition from Traditional to Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological study was undertaken to understand and describe the nature and meaning of the live experiences of faculty transition from traditional to teaching online clinical laboratory science courses. In order to gain insight into the lived experiences of faculty, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 faculty members. The task of the…

  12. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  13. Cannabinoid-Induced Hyperemesis: A Conundrum—From Clinical Recognition to Basic Science Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissar A. Darmani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are used clinically on a subacute basis as prophylactic agonist antiemetics for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutics. Cannabinoids prevent vomiting by inhibition of release of emetic neurotransmitters via stimulation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cannabis-induced hyperemesis is a recently recognized syndrome associated with chronic cannabis use. It is characterized by repeated cyclical vomiting and learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Although considered rare, recent international publications of numerous case reports suggest the contrary. The syndrome appears to be a paradox and the pathophysiological mechanism(s underlying the induced vomiting remains unknown. Although some traditional hypotheses have already been proposed, the present review critically explores the basic science of these explanations in the clinical setting and provides more current mechanisms for the induced hyperemesis. These encompass: (1 pharmacokinetic factors such as long half-life, chronic exposure, lipid solubility, individual variation in metabolism/excretion leading to accumulation of emetogenic cannabinoid metabolites, and/or cannabinoid withdrawal; and (2 pharmacodynamic factors including switching of the efficacy of Δ9-THC from partial agonist to antagonist, differential interaction of Δ9-THC with Gs and Gi signal transduction proteins, CB1 receptor desensitization or downregulation, alterations in tissue concentrations of endocannabinoid agonists/inverse agonists, Δ9-THC-induced mobilization of emetogenic metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade, brainstem versus enteric actions of Δ9-THC, and/or hypothermic versus hyperthermic actions of Δ9-THC. In addition, human and animal findings suggest that chronic exposure to cannabis may not be a prerequisite for the induction of vomiting but is required for the intensity of emesis.

  14. Mentor training within academic health centers with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J; Richards, Boyd F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-10-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only four AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent at the KL2 level, whereas formal face-to-face training was most prevalent at the institutional level. Despite differences in format usage, there was general consensus at both the KL2 and institutional level about the topics of focus of face-to-face training sessions. Lower-resource training formats utilized at the KL2 level may reveal a preference for preselection of qualified mentors, while institutional selection of resource-heavy formats may be an attempt to raise the mentoring qualifications of the academic community as a whole. The present work fits into the expanding landscape of academic mentoring literature and sets the framework for future longitudinal, outcome studies focused on identifying the most efficient strategies to develop effective mentors. PMID:24127925

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Science and Clinical Efficacy: Physiology, Imaging, and Modeling of Aerosols in the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Fleming, John S; Katz, Ira; Martin, Andrew R; Schroeter, Jeffry; Usmani, Omar S; Venegas, Jose; Schmid, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Development of a new drug for the treatment of lung disease is a complex and time consuming process involving numerous disciplines of basic and applied sciences. During the 2015 Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, a group of experts including aerosol scientists, physiologists, modelers, imagers, and clinicians participated in a workshop aiming at bridging the gap between basic research and clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. This publication summarizes the current consensus on the topic. It begins with a short description of basic concepts of aerosol transport and a discussion on targeting strategies of inhaled aerosols to the lungs. It is followed by a description of both computational and biological lung models, and the use of imaging techniques to determine aerosol deposition distribution (ADD) in the lung. Finally, the importance of ADD to clinical efficacy is discussed. Several gaps were identified between basic science and clinical efficacy. One gap between scientific research aimed at predicting, controlling, and measuring ADD and the clinical use of inhaled aerosols is the considerable challenge of obtaining, in a single study, accurate information describing the optimal lung regions to be targeted, the effectiveness of targeting determined from ADD, and some measure of the drug's effectiveness. Other identified gaps were the language and methodology barriers that exist among disciplines, along with the significant regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome for novel drugs and/or therapies to reach the marketplace and benefit the patient. Despite these gaps, much progress has been made in recent years to improve clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. Also, the recent efforts by many funding agencies and industry to support multidisciplinary networks including basic science researchers, R&D scientists, and clinicians will go a long way to further reduce the gap between science and clinical efficacy. PMID:26829187

  16. Locomotion of a Running Quadruped Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Savon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the locomotion of quadruped robotic systems. In Latin, the term quadruped means 'having four feet'. The robotic system analyzed in this project was a software simulation program modeled after a horse. Simulation data was recorded to resolve the relationship between foot position and impulses required to accelerate or to decelerate the system while trotting. These sets of data were then analyzed in MATLAB to produce graphical representations which allowed for a better understanding of the robot's motion in the simulation environment. A function was fit to the graph of discrete data values measured in the simulation. This function provided a model of the necessary ground reaction forces and foot position at touchdown of the system.

  17. Fish Locomotion: Recent Advances and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V.

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  18. Undulatory Locomotion of Magnetic Multilink Nanoswimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bumjin; Gutman, Emiliya; Stucki, Nicolai; Seitz, Benedikt F; Wendel-García, Pedro D; Newton, Taylor; Pokki, Juho; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Or, Yizhar; Nelson, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    Micro- and nanorobots operating in low Reynolds number fluid environments require specialized swimming strategies for efficient locomotion. Prior research has focused on designs mimicking the rotary corkscrew motion of bacterial flagella or the planar beating motion of eukaryotic flagella. These biologically inspired designs are typically of uniform construction along their flagellar axis. This work demonstrates for the first time planar undulations of composite multilink nanowire-based chains (diameter 200 nm) induced by a planar-oscillating magnetic field. Those chains comprise an elastic eukaryote-like polypyrrole tail and rigid magnetic nickel links connected by flexible polymer bilayer hinges. The multilink design exhibits a high swimming efficiency. Furthermore, the manufacturing process enables tuning the geometrical and material properties to specific applications. PMID:26029795

  19. Locomotion of Microscopic Robots in Viscous Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic robots could perform tasks with high spatial precision, such as acting in biological tissues on the scale of individual cells, provided they can reach precise locations. This paper evaluates the feasibility of in vivo locomotion for micron-size robots. Two appealing methods rely only on surface motions: steady tangential motion and small amplitude oscillations. These methods contrast with common microorganism propulsion based on flagella or cilia, which are more likely to damage nearby cells if used by robots made of stiff materials. The power available to robots, e.g., from oxygen and glucose in tissue, is sufficient to support speeds ranging from one to hundreds of microns per second, over the range of viscosities found in biological tissue. We discuss design trade-offs among propulsion method, speed, power, shear forces and robot shape, and relate those choices to robot task requirements.

  20. Embodied Sensorimotor Interaction for Hexapod Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambe, Yuichi; Aoi, Shinya; Nachstedt, Timo;

    2016-01-01

    is still unclear. Recent studies in biology suggest that a functional motor output during walking is formed by the interaction between central pattern generators (CPGs) and sensory feedbacks. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a hexapod robot model whose legs are driven by distributed...... oscillators with a local sensory feedback from neuromechanical point of view. This feedback changes the oscillation period of the oscillator depending solely on the timing of the contact between the foot and the ground. The results of dynamic simulations and real robot experiments show that due to the local...... sensory feedback the robot produces continuous stable gaits depending on the locomotion speed as a result of self-organization, one of which are similar to those of insects. These results reveal that the neuromechanical interaction induced by the local sensory feedback plays an important role...

  1. Locomotion of C elegans in structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Trushant; Keaveny, Eric; Shelley, Michael; Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    We have established a combined experimental and numerical platform to study the swimming dynamics of an undulating worm in structured environments (fluid-filled micro-pillar arrays). We have shown that the worm (C. elegans) swims with different velocity and frequency depending on the lattice spacing and our purely mechanistic simulations (elastically linked bead-chain) reproduce the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, including ``life-like'' trajectories the worm exhibits. We build upon this platform to investigate more complex environments, such as linear and radial lattices, with gradients in spacing. In addition, we study C. elegans mutants to investigate the role of length of the worm, frequency of undulations, and mechano-sensation on the resultant dynamics. We also examine the worm moving through a lattice with random distribution of obstacles - a model soil-like environment. Our combined experimental and simulations approach allows us to gain insights into the dynamics of locomotion of undulating microorganisms in realistic complex environments.

  2. Locomotion by Tandem and Parallel Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Yoshimichi

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on the locomotion by tandem and parallel wings in relation to the free flight of dragonflies and beetles, remarking the mutual interference between fore and hind wings. The results obtained are summarized as follows: In the case of tandem wings, (1)High thrust and propulsive efficiency can be achieved when the forewing oscillates with a definite phase lag behind the hindwing, as in the case of real dragonflies, (2)Somewhat smaller amplitude of hindwing leads to optimum condition for work sharing of two wings, (3)The hard forewing does not serve for the thrust and propulsive efficiency, whereas the hard hindwing does for the augmentation of them; In the case of parallel wings, (4)The hard wing placed near the soft wing acts nearly as an infinite plate, as for the ground effect, increasing both thrust and propulsive efficiency.

  3. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Pisotta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing—the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized—has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because of cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed.

  4. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing-the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized-has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed. PMID:25009490

  5. Theory of locomotion through complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria often swim in fluid environments that cannot be classified as Newtonian. Many biological fluids contain polymers or other heterogeneities which may yield complex rheology. For a given set of boundary conditions on a moving organism, flows can be substantially different in complex fluids, while non-Newtonian stresses can alter the gait of the microorganisms themselves. Heterogeneities in the fluid may also be characterized by length scales on the order of the organism itself leading to additional dynamic complexity. In this chapter we present a theoretical overview of small-scale locomotion in complex fluids with a focus on recent efforts quantifying the impact of non-Newtonian rheology on swimming microorganisms.

  6. A template for the exploration of chaotic locomotive patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted pendulum and spring-mass models have been successfully used to explore the dynamics of the lower extremity for animal and human locomotion. These models have been classified as templates that describe the biomechanics of locomotion. A template is a simple model with all the joint complexities, muscles and neurons of the locomotor system removed. Such templates relate well to the observed locomotive patterns and provide reference points for the development of more elaborate dynamical systems. In this investigation, we explored if a passive dynamic double pendulum walking model, that walks down a slightly sloped surface (γ<0.0189 rad), can be used as a template for exploring chaotic locomotion. Simulations of the model indicated that as γ was increased, a cascade of bifurcations were present in the model's locomotive pattern that lead to a chaotic attractor. Positive Lyapunov exponents were present from 0.01839 rad <γ<0.0189 rad (Lyapunov exponent range=+0.002 to +0.158). Hurst exponents for the respective γ confirmed the presence of chaos in the model's locomotive pattern. These results provide evidence that a passive dynamic double pendulum walking model can be used as a template for exploring the biomechanical control parameters responsible for chaos in human locomotion

  7. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  8. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file with the FRA Regional... the boiler. Whenever welded or riveted repairs are performed on stayed portions of a steam...

  9. Chemotactic peptide modulation of actin assembly and locomotion in neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the state of actin polymerization in neutrophils and the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- induced changes in the locomotive behavior of neutrophils, the mean rate of locomotion (mROL), the percent G-actin, and the relative F- actin content of neutrophils were determined. The mROL was quantified by analysis of the locomotion of individual cells; the percentage of total actin as G-actin was measured by DNase I inhibition; and the F- actin was d...

  10. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research art...

  11. Science Translational Medicine - improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, K

    2010-01-01

    Science Translational Medicine 's mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling . The journal features peer-reviewed researc...

  12. Vibrational Locomotion Enabling Subsurface Exploration of Unconsolidated Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The idea of vibrational locomotion is based on vibrational-fluidization in ISRU reactor systems, which has proven very effective for regolith mixing. The vibrating...

  13. Electric locomotive EH500; EH500 gata denki kikansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The advanced AC/DC electric locomotive delivered to Japan Freight Railway Co. is in wagon traction test on real lines after confirmation of the basic performance. The locomotive adopts a PWM converter using IGBT devices for the main circuit equipment to reduce harmonics and improve a power factor, and also adopts vector control by fast MPU to attain high-adhesion control and excellent traction performance. The locomotive allows through operation over the DC/AC section from Tokyo to Hokkaido without any locomotive exchange with expectation of fast freight transport. Main specifications are as follows: (1) Electric system: DC 1,500V, AC 20kV-50/60Hz, (2) Axle arrangement type: (Bo-Bo)- (Bo-Bo) (Bo: double driving axle bogie), (3) Total operation mass: 134.4t, (4) Rated output: 4,000kW (one hour), and (5) Maximum operation speed: 110km/h. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Climbing, falling and jamming during ant locomotion in confined environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Daria; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion emerges from effective interactions of an individual with its environment. Principles of biological terrestrial locomotion have been discovered on unconfined vertical and horizontal substrates. However a diversity of organisms construct, inhabit, and move within confined spaces. Such animals are faced with locomotor challenges including limited limb range of motion, crowding, and visual sensory deprivation. Little is known about how these organisms accomplish their locomotor tasks,...

  15. Cholinergic Mechanisms in Spinal Locomotion - Potential Target for Rehabilitation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, L M; Noga, B. R.; Cabaj, A. M.; J Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments implicate cholinergic brainstem and spinal systems in the control of locomotion. Our results demonstrate that the endogenous cholinergic propriospinal system, acting via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, is capable of consistently producing well-coordinated locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal preparation, placing it in a position to contribute to normal locomotion and to provide a basis for recovery of locomotor capability in the absence of descending pathways. Test...

  16. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUKOVYTSKYY I.V.; KLIUSHNYK I.A.; OCHKASOV O.B.; KORENIYK R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of...

  17. Cerebellar Control of Locomotion in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vinueza Veloz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Modern neuroscience is paving the way for new insight into cerebellar functions including the control of cognitive, autonomic and emotional processes. Yet, how the cerebellum contributes to complex motor behaviors, such as locomotion, is still only partially understood. Here, we have investigated the contribution of the cerebellum to locomotion from the perspective of studies performed on mutant mouse lines generated through genetic engineering techniques. Specifi...

  18. Energetic Extremes in Aquatic Locomotion by Coral Reef Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Christopher J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Steffensen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquat...

  19. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  20. Functions of intermittent locomotion in mustached tamarins ( Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Stojan-Dolar, Mojca; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many animals interrupt their moving with brief pauses, which appear to serve several different functions. We examined the function of such intermittent locomotion in wild living mustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax), small arboreal New World primates that form mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). We investigated how different environmental and social factors affect pausing during locomotion and used these data to infer the function of this behavior. As measures...

  1. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies

  2. The Kinematics of Treadmill Locomotion in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Buczek, F. L.; Burgess-Milliron, M. J.; Davis, B. L.

    1997-01-01

    Locomotion on a treadmill in 0 G will probably remain a centerpiece of NASA's exercise countermeasures programme. This form of physical activity has the potential to cause large bone and muscle forces as well as loading during a period of continuous treadmill exercise. A critical concern is the provision of a treadmill which can approximate 1 G performance in space. At this point, no adequate objective measurements of in-flight treadmill kinetics or of the human response to this activity have been made. Interpretation of the results obtained in the present study is limited by the following: (1) bungee tensions were not measured; (2) ground reaction forces were not measured in parallel with the kinematic measurements; and (3) the instrumentation used to film the astronauts could itself have been affected by microgravity. Despite these shortcomings, what is apparent is that exercise during NASA missions STS 7 and STS 8 resulted in leg motions that were similar to those found during 1 G locomotion on an inclined passive treadmill and on an active treadmill at an even steeper grade. In addition, it was apparent that the majority of the loads were transmitted through the forefoot, and one can surmise that this style of running would result in physiologically significant tensions in the calf musculature and resultant ankle compressive loading. Further speculation regarding limb loading is complicated by the fact that varying amounts of force are transmitted through (1) the treadmill handle and (2) bungee cords that act as a tether. New generations of treadmills are being manufactured that could provide I important information for planners of long-duration space missions. If these types of treadmill are flown on future missions, it will be possible to control bungee tensions more precisely, control for grade and speed, and, most importantly, provide data on the rates and magnitudes of limb loading. These data could then be incorporated into biomechanical models of the

  3. Should MD-PhD Programs Encourage Graduate Training in Disciplines Beyond Conventional Biomedical or Clinical Sciences?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mara, Ryan J.; Hsu, Stephen I.; Wilson, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of MD–PhD training programs is to produce physician–scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician–scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD–PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This quest...

  4. Evaluation of the Young Children with Neurodevelopmental Disability: A Prospective Study at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZI, Afshin; Leila KHEZRIAN; Zohreh KHERADMAND; DAMADI, Somayeh; Ali KHAJEH

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Kheizrian L, Kheradmand Z, Damadi S, Khajeh A. Evaluation of the Young Children with Neurodevelopmental Disability: A Prospective Study at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Clinics. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1):29-33. ObjectiveDevelopmental impairment is a common problem in children health that occurs in approximately 5–10% of the childhood population. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic yield of subspecialists’ evaluation ...

  5. Multi-modal locomotion: from animal to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of robotic vehicles that can be found today are bound to operations within a single media (i.e. land, air or water). This is very rarely the case when considering locomotive capabilities in natural systems. Utility for small robots often reflects the exact same problem domain as small animals, hence providing numerous avenues for biological inspiration. This paper begins to investigate the various modes of locomotion adopted by different genus groups in multiple media as an initial attempt to determine the compromise in ability adopted by the animals when achieving multi-modal locomotion. A review of current biologically inspired multi-modal robots is also presented. The primary aim of this research is to lay the foundation for a generation of vehicles capable of multi-modal locomotion, allowing ambulatory abilities in more than one media, surpassing current capabilities. By identifying and understanding when natural systems use specific locomotion mechanisms, when they opt for disparate mechanisms for each mode of locomotion rather than using a synergized singular mechanism, and how this affects their capability in each medium, similar combinations can be used as inspiration for future multi-modal biologically inspired robotic platforms. (topical review)

  6. Quality of Ambulatory Education from the Viewpoint of the Clinical Medical Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Niroumand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ambulatory education is an integral part of medical education. The present study was carried out to evaluate the quality of ambulatory education from the viewpoint of clinical medical students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the study sample included medical externs externs and interns of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences that were selected through census sampling technique in the academic year 2012-2013. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software using descriptive statistics. Results: 65 (50% externs and 75 (65% interns participated in the study and 1588 questionnaires were completed via self-administered technique. The mean of the teachers’ quality of ambulatory education at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences was 22.6±5.2 and the mean for the clinics’ quality of physical environment was 19±5.13, indicating favorable and semi-favorable status, respectively. Qualitative evaluation of ambulatory education from the viewpoint of externs and interns showed a significant difference with more satisfaction from the part of the interns (p<0.001. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the teachers’ quality of ambulatory education at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences was favorable, but the physical condition of the clinics indicated a semi-favorable status.

  7. A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Design. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students’ understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. Conclusions. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises. PMID:22438605

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION TESTS AT LOCOMOTIVE REPAIR PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Bodnar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In difficult economic conditions, cost reduction of electricity consumption for the needs of production is an urgent task for the country’s industrial enterprises. Technical specifications of enterprises, which repair diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission, recommend conducting a certain amount of evaluation and regulatory tests to monitor their condition after repair. Experience shows that a significant portion of hydraulic transmission defects is revealed by bench tests. The advantages of bench tests include the ability to detect defects after repair, ease of maintenance of the hydraulic transmission and relatively low labour intensity for eliminating defects. The quality of these tests results in the transmission resource and its efficiency. Improvement of the technology of plant post-repairs hydraulic tests in order to reduce electricity consumption while testing. Methodology. The possible options for hydraulic transmission test bench improvement were analysed. There was proposed an energy efficiency method for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission testing in locomotive repair plant environment. This is achieved by installing additional drive motor which receives power from the load generator. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis the necessity of improving the plant stand testing of hydraulic transmission was proved. The variants of the stand modernization were examined. The test stand modernization analysis was conducted. Originality. The possibility of using electric power load generator to power the stand electric drive motor or the additional drive motor was theoretically substantiated. Practical value. A variant of hydraulic transmission test stand based on the mutual load method was proposed. Using this method increases the hydraulic transmission load range and power consumption by stand remains unchanged. The additional drive motor will increase the speed of the input shaft that in its turn wil allow testing in

  9. Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a

  10. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost

  11. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods

  12. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  13. Intramuscular Pressure Measurement During Locomotion in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ricard E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of ten volunteers during, treadmill walking, and running using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking (181 +/- 69 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.) and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer in two subjects produced linear relationships (r = 0.97). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-165 Nm/Kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 Nm/Kg during running. IMP results from local muscle tissue deformations caused by muscle force development and thus, provides a direct, practical index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  14. Water surface locomotion in tropical canopy ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, S P; Frederick, D N

    2014-06-15

    Upon falling onto the water surface, most terrestrial arthropods helplessly struggle and are quickly eaten by aquatic predators. Exceptions to this outcome mostly occur among riparian taxa that escape by walking or swimming at the water surface. Here we document sustained, directional, neustonic locomotion (i.e. surface swimming) in tropical arboreal ants. We dropped 35 species of ants into natural and artificial aquatic settings in Peru and Panama to assess their swimming ability. Ten species showed directed surface swimming at speeds >3 body lengths s(-1), with some swimming at absolute speeds >10 cm s(-1). Ten other species exhibited partial swimming ability characterized by relatively slow but directed movement. The remaining species showed no locomotory control at the surface. The phylogenetic distribution of swimming among ant genera indicates parallel evolution and a trend toward negative association with directed aerial descent behavior. Experiments with workers of Odontomachus bauri showed that they escape from the water by directing their swimming toward dark emergent objects (i.e. skototaxis). Analyses of high-speed video images indicate that Pachycondyla spp. and O. bauri use a modified alternating tripod gait when swimming; they generate thrust at the water surface via synchronized treading and rowing motions of the contralateral fore and mid legs, respectively, while the hind legs provide roll stability. These results expand the list of facultatively neustonic terrestrial taxa to include various species of tropical arboreal ants. PMID:24920838

  15. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  16. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  17. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  18. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  19. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives. PMID:27182669

  20. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  1. Science is the fuel for the engine of technology and clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Snead, Malcolm L.; Slavkin, Harold C.

    2009-01-01

    The biological, chemical, behavioral and physical sciences provide the fuel for the engine of innovation and discovery that continuously improve the quality of the human condition. Dramatic breakthroughs in computer power derived from the digital revolution, provides extraordinary computational capacity for diagnostic imaging, bioinformatics (the science of information), and numerous aspects of how we practice dentistry in the 21st century. Moreover, the biological revolution with the elucida...

  2. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; King, Melissa; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-09-01

    Few quantitative data exist to describe the activity of the distal muscles of the equine forelimb during locomotion, and there is an incomplete understanding of the functional roles of the majority of the forelimb muscles. Based on morphology alone it would appear that the larger proximal muscles perform the majority of work in the forelimb, whereas the smaller distal muscles fulfil supplementary roles such as stabilizing the joints and positioning the limb for impact with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except the extensor carpi radialis (ECR), were activated just prior to hoof-strike and deactivated during stance. Only the ECR was activated during swing. The amplitudes of muscle activation typically increased as gait speed increased. However, the amplitudes of muscle activation were not proportional to the net joint torques, indicating that passive structures may also contribute significantly to torque generation. Our results suggest that the smaller distal muscles help to stabilize the forelimb in early stance, in preparation for the passive structures (tendons and ligaments) to be stretched. The distal forelimb muscles remain active throughout stance only during canter, when the net torques acting about the distal forelimb joints are highest. The larger proximal muscles activate in a complex coordination to position and stabilize the shoulder and elbow joints during ground contact. PMID:22875767

  3. Perfusion Preservation of the Donor Heart: Basic Science to Pre-Clinical

    OpenAIRE

    Rivard, Andrew L; Gallegos, Robert; Ogden, Irene M.; Bianco, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    As a consequence of technology improvements and refinement, perfusion of the donor heart has moved from the research laboratory to clinical studies. Multiple investigators are currently leading pre-clinical trials of devices using perfusion preservation, and one device is now in European clinical trials. One major problem with the donor heart is the high metabolism relative to other organs, and depletion of ATP leads rapidly to acidosis and necrosis of the myocardium. Two techniques in develo...

  4. A review on locomotion robophysics: the study of movement at the intersection of robotics, soft matter and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, Jeffrey; Qian, Feifei; Kingsbury, Mark; McInroe, Benjamin; Mazouchova, Nicole; Li, Chen; Maladen, Ryan; Gong, Chaohui; Travers, Matt; Hatton, Ross L; Choset, Howie; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2016-01-01

    In this review we argue for the creation of a physics of moving systems -- a locomotion "robophysics" -- which we define as the pursuit of the discovery of principles of self generated motion. Robophysics can provide an important intellectual complement to the discipline of robotics, largely the domain of researchers from engineering and computer science. The essential idea is that we must complement study of complex robots in complex situations with systematic study of simplified robophysical devices in controlled laboratory settings and simplified theoretical models. We must thus use the methods of physics to examine successful and failed locomotion in simplified (abstracted) devices using parameter space exploration, systematic control, and techniques from dynamical systems. Using examples from our and other's research, we will discuss how such robophysical studies have begun to aid engineers in the creation of devices that begin to achieve life-like locomotor abilities on and within complex environments, ...

  5. Biomimetic Experimental Research on Hexapod Robot's Locomotion Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lin; HAN Bao-ling; LUO Qing-sheng; ZHANG Chun-lin; XU Jia

    2009-01-01

    To provide hexapod robots with strategies of locomotion planning,observation experiments were operated on a kind of ant with the use of high speed digital photography and computer assistant analysis.Through digitalization of original analog video,locomotion characters of ants were obtained,the biomimetic foundation was laid for polynomial trajectory planning of multi-legged robots,which was deduced with mathematics method.In addition,five rules were concluded,which apply to hexapod robots marching locomotion planning.The first one is the fundamental strategy of multi-legged robots' leg trajectory planning.The second one helps to enhance the static and dynamic stability of multi-legged robots.The third one can improve the validity and feasibility of legs' falling points.The last two give criterions of multi-legged robots' toe trajectory figures and practical recommendatory constraints.These five rules give a good method for marching locomotion planning of multi-legged robots,and can be expended to turning planning and any other special locomotion.

  6. Segmental Kinematic Coupling of the Human Spinal Column during Locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-ru Zhao; Lei Ren; Lu-quan Ren; John R.Hutchinson; Li-mei Tian; Jian S.Dai

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important daily motor activities, human locomotion has been investigated intensively in recent decades. The locomotor functions and mechanics of human lower limbs have become relatively well understood. However, so far our understanding of the motions and functional contributions of the human spine during locomotion is still very poor and simul-taneous in-vivo limb and spinal column motion data are scarce. The objective of this study is to investigate the delicate in-vivo kinematic coupling between different functional regions of the human spinal column during locomotion as a stepping stone to explore the locomotor function of the human spine complex. A novel infrared reflective marker cluster system was constructed using stereophotogrammetry techniques to record the 3D in-vivo geometric shape of the spinal column and the segmental position and orientation of each functional spinal region simultaneously. Gait measurements of normal walking were conducted. The preliminary results show that the spinal column shape changes periodically in the frontal plane during locomotion. The segmental motions of different spinal functional regions appear to be strongly coupled, indicating some synergistic strategy may be employed by the human spinal column to facilitate locomotion. In contrast to traditional medical imaging-based methods, the proposed technique can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the spinal column, hence providing more insight into the functional biomechanies of the human spine.

  7. Locomotion of neutrally buoyant fish with flexible caudal fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosilevskii, Gil

    2016-06-21

    Historically, burst-and-coast locomotion strategies have been given two very different explanations. The first one was based on the assumption that the drag of an actively swimming fish is greater than the drag of the same fish in motionless glide. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by swimming actively during a part of the swimming interval, and gliding through the remaining part. The second one was based on the assumption that muscles perform efficiently only if their contraction rate exceeds a certain threshold. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by using an efficient contraction rate during a part of the swimming interval, and gliding through the remaining part. In this paper, we suggest yet a third explanation. It is based on the assumption that propulsion efficiency of a swimmer can increase with thrust. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by alternating high thrust, and hence more efficient, bursts with passive glides. The paper presents a formal analysis of the respective burst-and-coast strategy, shows that the locomotion efficiency can be practically as high as the propulsion efficiency during burst, and shows that the other two explanations can be considered particular cases of the present one. PMID:27067246

  8. Obstacle Avoidance in Groping Locomotion of a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ohka

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an autonomous obstacle-avoidance method that operates in conjunction with groping locomotion on the humanoid robot Bonten-Maru II. Present studies on groping locomotion consist of basic research in which humanoid robot recognizes its surroundings by touching and groping with its arm on the flat surface of a wall. The robot responds to the surroundings by performing corrections to its orientation and locomotion direction. During groping locomotion, however, the existence of obstacles within the correction area creates the possibility of collisions. The objective of this paper is to develop an autonomous method to avoid obstacles in the correction area by applying suitable algorithms to the humanoid robot's control system. In order to recognize its surroundings, six-axis force sensors were attached to both robotic arms as end effectors for force control. The proposed algorithm refers to the rotation angle of the humanoid robot's leg joints due to trajectory generation. The algorithm relates to the groping locomotion via the measured groping angle and motions of arms. Using Bonten-Maru II, groping experiments were conducted on a wall's surface to obtain wall orientation data. By employing these data, the humanoid robot performed the proposed method autonomously to avoid an obstacle present in the correction area. Results indicate that the humanoid robot can recognize the existence of an obstacle and avoid it by generating suitable trajectories in its legs.

  9. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  10. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal – Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field Science Research: 2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary The proper design and implementation of a study as well as a balanced and well-supported evaluation and interpretation of its main findings are of crucial importance when reporting and disseminating research. Also accountability, funding acknowledgement and adequately declaring any conflict of interest play a major role in science. Since the Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (MLTJ) is committed to the highest scientific and ethical standards, we encourage all Authors to take into account and to comply, as much as possible, to the contents and issues discussed in this official editorial. This could be useful for improving the quality of the manuscripts, as well as to stimulate interest and debate and to promote constructive change, reflecting upon uses and misuses within our disciplines belonging to the field of “Clinical and Sport - Science Research”. PMID:27331026

  11. Climbing, falling and jamming during ant locomotion in confined environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gravish, Nick; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion emerges from effective interactions of an individual with its environment. Principles of biological terrestrial locomotion have been discovered on unconfined vertical and horizontal substrates. However a diversity of organisms construct, inhabit, and move within confined spaces. Such animals are faced with locomotor challenges including limited limb range of motion, crowding, and visual sensory deprivation. Little is known about how these organisms accomplish their locomotor tasks, and such environments challenge human-made devices. To gain greater insight into how animals move within confined spaces we study the confined locomotion of the fire ant {\\em Solenopsis invicta}, which constructs subterranean tunnel networks (nests). Laboratory experiments reveal that ants construct tunnels with diameter, D, comparable to bodylength, L=3.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 mm. Ants can move rapidly (> 9 bodylengths/sec) within these environments; their tunnels allow for effective limb, body, and antennae interaction with walls ...

  12. Failure analysis in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAVNEET SINGH1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakage of brake riggings in WAP7 locomotives has been a matter of concern since 2004, almost afterits commencement of manufacturing, which is having same bogie design as that in WAG9 locomotives. Both ofthese bogies are having TBU/PBU assembly for brakes, but breakage of brake hangers in WAG9 locomotivesare unheard off. Both the inner as well as outer hangers are breaking. However, the cases of breakage of innerhangers towards bogie frame are much more with 80% of the total failures. This paper deliberates to understandthe various failures in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger and on root cause analysis for the failure of Brakehanger. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of brake hanger using FEA software.The goal of the project is to develop a high-speed train system capable of reaching the maximum speedand to secure its key technologies, one of which is the braking technology.

  13. Posture and Locomotion Coupling: A Target for Rehabilitation Interventions in Persons with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Creath, Robert A.; Prettyman, Michelle G.; Johnson Hilliard, Marjorie; Martinez, Katherine M.; MacKinnon, Colum D.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of posture, balance, and gait are debilitating motor manifestations of advancing Parkinson's disease requiring rehabilitation intervention. These problems often reflect difficulties with coupling or sequencing posture and locomotion during complex whole body movements linked with falls. Considerable progress has been made with demonstrating the effectiveness of exercise interventions for individuals with Parkinson's disease. However, gaps remain in the evidence base for specific interventions and the optimal content of exercise interventions. Using a conceptual theoretical framework and experimental findings, this perspective and review advances the viewpoint that rehabilitation interventions focused on separate or isolated components of posture, balance, or gait may limit the effectiveness of current clinical practices. It is argued that treatment effectiveness may be improved by directly targeting posture and locomotion coupling problems as causal factors contributing to balance and gait dysfunction. This approach may help advance current clinical practice and improve outcomes in rehabilitation for persons with Parkinson's disease. “. . .postural activity should be regarded as a function in its own right and not merely as a component of movement. . .” James Purdon Martin PMID:22295253

  14. Universal Design for Learning and Its Application to Clinical Placements in Health Science Courses (Practice Brief)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Ann; Halligan, Phil; Quirke, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Ireland's Association for Higher Education, Access and Disability (AHEAD), in partnership with the School of Nursing University College Dublin (UCD), hosted a summer school for professionals working in the Health Sciences sector who have responsibility for including students with disabilities in the health professions, including clinical…

  15. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  16. 77 FR 66848 - Minimum Clinically Important Difference: An Outcome Metric in Orthopaedic Device Science and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Technology's Translational Research Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Science ] (TRIBES). The purpose... within these diverse populations and particular target subgroups of interest. 3. Methodology for... Internet at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/default.htm . (Select...

  17. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  18. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious dise...

  19. Experimentation of Fish Swimming Based on Tracking Locomotion Locus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yan; Yu-min Su; Liang Yang

    2008-01-01

    There are many kinds of swimming mode in the fish world, and we investigated two of them, used by cyprinids and bulltrout. In this paper we track the locomotion locus by marks in different flow velocity from 0.2 m.s-1 to 0.8 m's-1. By fit the data above we could find out the locomotion mechanism of the two kinds of fish and generate a mathematical model of fish kinematics. The cyprinid fish has a greater oscillation period and amplitude compared with the bulltrout, and the bulltrout changes velocity mainly by controlling frequency of oscillation.

  20. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  1. 3-D Locomotion control for a biomimetic robot fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHANG; Shuo WANG; Min TAN

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns with 3-D locomotion control methods for a biomimetic robot fish. The system architecture of the fish is firstly presented based on a physical model of carangiform fish. The robot fish has a flexible body, a rigid caudal fin and a pair of pectoral fins, driven by several servomotors. The motion control of the robot fish are then divided into speed control, orientation control, submerge control and transient motion control, corresponding algorithms are detailed respectively.Finally, experiments and analyses on a 4-1ink, radio-controlled robot fish prototype with 3-D locomotion show its good performance.

  2. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  3. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... III railroad, including a tourist or excursion railroad, and controlled by a locomotive not equipped... controlling locomotive being equipped with an onboard PTC system after December 31, 2020, and each...

  4. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long... locomotive enters the crossing. It shall not constitute a violation of this section if, acting in good...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.25 - Locomotive servicing facilities (account XX-19-27).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive servicing facilities (account XX-19-27... Structures § 1242.25 Locomotive servicing facilities (account XX-19-27). Separate common expenses according to distribution of common expenses in the following accounts: Locomotive Fuel (XX-51-67 and...

  6. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  7. Design and Research for Intelligent Battery Locomotive Used in Coal Mine%智能矿用蓄电池电机车设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋; 王红军; 王庆亮; 荐波涛

    2015-01-01

    Has analyzed the present research situation of mine accumulator locomotive, aimed at the requirements of high performance and intelligence for the battery locomotive in our country, battery locomotive chopper control system, battery intelligent charging system, brake system, sanding device and intelligent scheduling system were analyzed in Xuzhou Custer Electrical and Mechanical Science and Technology Ltd., and a new mine high performance, intelligent battery locomotive was developed, by which, the cost of system was reduced as much as possible, while efficient and safe operation of battery locomotive was achieved, so as to promote the reform of battery locomotive used in mine.%对目前矿用蓄电池电机车的研究现状进行了分析,针对国家对电机车高性能及智能化要求,徐州凯思特机电科技有限公司对矿用蓄电池电机车的斩波控制系统、电机车蓄电池智能充电系统、制动系统、撒沙装置及井下智能调度系统进行了研究,开发了一种新型矿用高性能、智能化蓄电池电机车装置,在尽可能减少系统建设成本的基础上,实现矿用蓄电池电机车的高效安全运营,从而推动矿用隔爆型蓄电池电机车的技术改革。

  8. Evidence based dentistry – between the science and the clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Pandilova, Maja; Kovacevska, Ivona; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Georgiev, Zlatko

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the more experience a physician or a dentist possess better the quality of health care delivery. However, recent studies had shown that there is in fact an inverse relationship between the number of years of practice and the quality of care provided. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a process that restructures the way in which we think about clinical problems. It is an approach to clinical problem solving that has evolved from a self-directed and problem based a...

  9. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  10. Patient-Derived Prostate Cancer: from Basic Science to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risbridger, Gail P; Taylor, Renea A

    2016-08-01

    Systems that model cancer form the backbone of research discovery, and their accuracy and validity are a key determinant to ensure successful translation. In many tumour types, patient-derived specimens are an important model of choice for pre-clinical drug development. In this review, we consider why this has been such a challenge for prostate cancer, resulting in relatively few patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of prostatic tumours compared to breast cancers, for example. Nevertheless, with only a few patient specimens and PDXs, we exemplify in three vignettes how important new clinical insights were obtained resulting in benefit for future men with prostate cancer. PMID:27177552

  11. Should MD-PhD programs encourage graduate training in disciplines beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce. PMID:25354071

  12. The use of reflective journaling as a learning strategy during the clinical rotations of students from the faculty of health sciences: an action-research study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz López, Montserrat; Rodríguez García, Marta; González Villanueva, Purificación; Márquez Cava, Montserrat; García Mateos, Mónica; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; Herrera Sánchez, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Reflective practice contributes significantly to the assimilation of knowledge in undergraduate health students. Reflective journals constitute a learning strategy that promotes student reflection during clinical practice. The overall aim of the study was to explore teachers' perceptions and experiences regarding the use of reflective clinical journals as a learning tool for students in order to improve the implementation of clinical journal writing in all the Health Science degrees offered b...

  13. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  14. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  15. Clinical profile and outcome of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES patients treated in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhjung J Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute encephalitis syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was thought to be a major cause for acute encephalitis syndrome, more non-Japanese encephalitis virus cases are reported. The outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome is variable. Our study was designed to study the clinical profile and outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome managed in tertiary care center in central Nepal. Methods: The record of patients admitted with diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome,from January 2010 to December 2010 in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH was reviewed. They were classified clinically as meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. The clinical details and reports of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Total of 85 cases of meningitis and encephalitis were identified. Mean age was 19.18 years. Fifty-six (65.9% patients were males and 29 (34.1% were females. Sixty (70.58% patients had meningitis, 8 (9.41% had encephalitis, and 17 (20.0% had meningoencephalitis. JE serology was positive in 4 patients (4.7%. Seventy-two (84.7% patients made full recovery and were discharged from hospital. Thirteen (15.3% patients left against medical advice (LAMA. Conclusion: Acute encephalitis syndrome is still a major public health problem in Nepal. Few of these patients have Japanese Encephalitis. There is a trend towards improved outcome because of availability of improved health services. However, financial constraint remains a challenge in management of acute encephalitis syndrome. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 31-37 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9685

  16. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fulton

    Full Text Available Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1 while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting, streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed.

  17. Online measurement for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaihua; Li, Zhengjie; Ban, Tao

    2009-11-01

    Locomotive is the most important parts of a train. Wheel set is the major running components of a locomotive. Wheel set tread is the contacting part with the rail and tread will be worn down gradually. The wearing degree of the wheel set tread is one of the main factors that influence the safety and stability of running train. The measurement of wheel set wear is usually static and by handwork, which limits the accuracy and reliability. An automatic measurement method for geometrical parameters of locomotive wheel set based on optoelectronic technique was proposed. Geometrical parameters include flange thickness, flange height and rim inside distance. Linear structured laser light was projected on the wheel tread surface. The geometrical parameters can be deduced from the profile image. An online image acquisition system was designed based on asynchronous reset of CCD. Precision hardware time-delay and asynchronous reset pulse generation circuits were designed. The entire time sequence of asynchronous reset was researched. Images were acquired only when wheel sets moved into the designed position. The image acquisition was fulfilled by hardware interrupt mode. The measuring system was installed along the straight railway section. When the locomotive was running in a limited speed, the devices placed alone railway line can measure the geometrical parameters automatically.

  18. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J. C.; Stoy, K.

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et al. [1...

  19. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Christopher J; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F

    2013-01-01

    Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1)) while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting), streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed. PMID:23326566

  20. Locomotion in Stroke Subjects: Interactions between Unaffected and Affected Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloter, Evelyne; Wirz, Markus; Dietz, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensorimotor interactions between unaffected and affected sides of post-stroke subjects during locomotion. In healthy subjects, stimulation of the tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase is followed by electromyography responses not only in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior, but also in the proximal arm…

  1. Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, D M

    1997-04-01

    The African apes are a group of closely related taxa that differ considerably in body size. In spite of the large body size difference, the African apes are similar in many aspects of their morphology; it has been suggested that most of their differences result from selection for these body size differences (Shea, 1988). The influence of body size on locomotion has been well-documented, but what is less clear, is whether these behavioral differences occur throughout ontogeny because few studies have directly addressed the influence of ontogeny (and changing body size) on locomotion. This study documents the ontogeny of mountain gorilla locomotion and compares it with that of chimpanzees in order to consider how changing body size during ontogeny influences locomotion in the two species. Results indicate that gorilla locomotor development is greatly accelerated compared with chimpanzees, and that much of the interspecific variation in age can be explained by body size. When chimpanzees and gorillas are at similar sizes (although widely disparate ages), they perform very similar locomotor activities. However, it is incorrect to view a gorilla as a faster growing and ultimately larger chimpanzee. Throughout ontogeny, gorillas have broader scapulae and relatively shorter phalanges and metacarpals than chimpanzees (Susman, 1979; Shea, 1981; Jungers & Susman, 1984; Inouye, 1992) which are associated differences in mountain gorilla and chimpanzee suspensory behavior; gorillas never show as high an incidence of suspensory behavior as chimpanzees during ontogeny. PMID:9085185

  2. Optimal trajectory planning for natural biped walking locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣强; 焦映厚; 陈照波

    2003-01-01

    An optimal trajectory planning method has been proposed for the walking locomotion of a biped me-c hanical system with thighs, shanks and small feet, which is modelled as a 3-DOF link system consisting of aninverted pendulum and a 2-DOF swing leg. The locomotion of swing and supporting legs is solved by the optimaltrajectory planning based on function approximation. The optimal trajectory planning based on function approxi-mation. The optimal walking locomotion solution with minimum square of input torque exhibits a natural walkinggait with one step period of 0.64 s similar to the human walking gait by using the link parameters of an adult'sleg. It is concluded from the computation results that the method proposed in this paper has been proved to bean effective tool for solving the optimal walking locomotion and joint control torque problems for a 3-DOF bipedmechanism; when the ankle joint of the supporting leg is a passive joint, a nearly, optimal walking solution canbe obtained at t1 = 0. 49 s and t2 = 10 s, and however, when the knee is a passive joint, it is impossible to ob-tain a solution which satisfies the constraint condition; for the link parameters used in this paper, the length ofan optimal stride is 0.3 m.

  3. Using Jacqueline Woodson's "Locomotion" with Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Mary; Ritholz, Emily Rose

    2009-01-01

    Motivation is an essential component in developing a love of reading in middle level struggling students. For these readers, novels in verse bridge the gap to more challenging pieces of literature. In this article, Title One students explored Locomotion by Jacqueline Woodson and learned that they, too, are poets. (Contains 9 figures.)

  4. Kinematics of treadmill versus overground locomotion in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H H; Savelberg, H H; Schamhardt, H C; Merkens, H W; Barneveld, A

    1994-05-01

    A kinematic analysis was carried out to compare treadmill and overground locomotion in horses at the trot. Stride variables and limb and trunk movements of 10 Dutch Warmblood horses were measured using the CODA-3 gait analysis system. Overground recordings were made on a rubber ground surface and on an asphalt track. Treadmill recordings were taken after a controlled habituation programme and at the same velocities as measured overground. On asphalt, a shorthened stride duration and a decreased vertical displacement of the withers were found compared with those on rubber ground. On the treadmill, stance duration of the forelimbs was longer than for either overground condition. Correspondingly, the hind limbs were placed earlier than the forelimbs in making diagonal ground contact in overground locomotion, but this changed to preceding forelimbs on the treadmill. Both forelimbs and hind limbs were moved more caudally during the retraction phase on the treadmill, while no differences were found in the protraction angle. The vertical movement of the hooves as well as the withers was smaller on the treadmill than on rubber ground. Treadmill belt velocity decreased by 9% during the stance phase. This is supposed to be an important reason for the differences in biomechanics and kinematics between treadmill and overground locomotion, which must be kept in mind when data obtained during treadmill locomotion have to be extrapolated to overground conditions. PMID:7801509

  5. Cerebellar Control of Locomotion in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Vinueza Veloz (Maria)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Modern neuroscience is paving the way for new insight into cerebellar functions including the control of cognitive, autonomic and emotional processes. Yet, how the cerebellum contributes to complex motor behaviors, such as locomotion, is still only partially understood.

  6. Energetics of terrestrial locomotion of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F E; Frappell, P B; Baudinette, R V; MacFarlane, P M

    2001-02-01

    The platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Shaw displays specializations in its limb structure for swimming that could negatively affect its terrestrial locomotion. Platypuses walked on a treadmill at speeds of 0.19-1.08 m x s(-1). Video recordings were used for gait analysis, and the metabolic rate of terrestrial locomotion was studied by measuring oxygen consumption. Platypuses used walking gaits (duty factor >0.50) with a sprawled stance. To limit any potential interference from the extensive webbing on the forefeet, platypuses walk on their knuckles. Metabolic rate increased linearly over a 2.4-fold range with increasing walking speed in a manner similar to that of terrestrial mammals, but was low as a result of the relatively low standard metabolic rate of this monotreme. The dimensionless cost of transport decreased with increasing speed to a minimum of 0.79. Compared with the cost of transport for swimming, the metabolic cost for terrestrial locomotion was 2.1 times greater. This difference suggests that the platypus may pay a price in terrestrial locomotion by being more aquatically adapted than other semi-aquatic or terrestrial mammals. PMID:11171362

  7. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in un- known terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et. la [3...

  8. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F; Göpfert, Martin C; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-06-28

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC's roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs. PMID:27298354

  9. Designing presence for real locomotion in immersive virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for designing systems for real locomotion in virtual environments (VEs) in order to achieve an intense sense of presence. The main outcome of the present research is a list of design features that the virtual reality technology should have in order to achieve such...

  10. Changes in gravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N. R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Risin, D.; McIntyre, B. W.; Pizzini, R. P.; Cooper, D.; Baker, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunity relies on the circulation of lymphocytes through many different tissues including blood vessels, lymphatic channels, and lymphoid organs. The ability of lymphocytes to traverse the interstitium in both nonlymphoid and lymphoid tissues can be determined in vitro by assaying their capacity to locomote through Type I collagen. In an attempt to characterize potential causes of microgravity-induced immunosuppression, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on human lymphocyte function in vitro using a specialized rotating-wall vessel culture system developed at the Johnson Space Center. This very low shear culture system randomizes gravitational vectors and provides an in vitro approximation of microgravity. In the randomized gravity of the rotating-wall vessel culture system, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not locomote through Type I collagen, whereas static cultures supported normal movement. Although cells remained viable during the entire culture period, peripheral blood lymphocytes transferred to unit gravity (static culture) after 6 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system were slow to recover and locomote into collagen matrix. After 72 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system and an additional 72 h in static culture, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not recover their ability to locomote. Loss of locomotory activity in rotating-wall vessel cultures appears to be related to changes in the activation state of the lymphocytes and the expression of adhesion molecules. Culture in the rotating-wall vessel system blunted the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to polyclonal activation with phytohemagglutinin. Locomotory response remained intact when peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 prior to introduction into the rotating-wall vessel culture system. Thus, in addition to the systemic stress factors that may affect immunity, isolated lymphocytes respond to gravitational changes

  11. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  12. Configuration Synthesis and Performance Evaluation Metrics of Lunar Rover Locomotion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zongquan; ZHANG Peng; GAO Haibo; HU Ming

    2009-01-01

    A method of topology synthesis based on graph theory and mechanism combination theory was applied to the configuration design of locomotion systems of lunar exploration rovers (LER).Through topology combination of wheel structural unit,suspension unit,and connecting device unit between suspension and load platform,some new locomotion system configurations were proposed and the metrics and indexes to evaluate the performance of the new locomotion system were analyzed.Performance evaluation and comparison between two LER with locomotion systems of different configurations were analyzed.The analysis results indicate that the new locomotion system configuration has good trafficability performance.

  13. The self-regulating brain and neurofeedback: Experimental science and clinical promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback, one of the primary examples of self-regulation, designates a collection of techniques that train the brain and help to improve its function. Since coming on the scene in the 1960s, electroencephalography-neurofeedback has become a treatment vehicle for a host of mental disorders; however, its clinical effectiveness remains controversial. Modern imaging technologies of the living human brain (e.g., real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging) and increasingly rigorous research protocols that utilize such methodologies begin to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that may facilitate more effective clinical applications. In this paper we focus on recent technological advances in the field of human brain imaging and discuss how these modern methods may influence the field of neurofeedback. Toward this end, we outline the state of the evidence and sketch out future directions to further explore the potential merits of this contentious therapeutic prospect. PMID:26706052

  14. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    OpenAIRE

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC,...

  15. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex Matter

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery&development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. hTe conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. hTe importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. hTe most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. hTe factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery&development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials.

  16. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Michelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  17. Radiation-induced inhibition of splenocyte locomotion and its protection by C. parvum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal C57/BL mice were stimulated by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) prior to sublethal whole-body or local (leg) irradiation. At different times after irradiation, spleens were removed and the direct leukocyte migration assay carried out in comparison with unirradiated controls. CP causes enlarged spleens with white pulp depleted of germinal centers, and red pulp increased due to nucleated cell proliferation. X irradiation causes depletion both in white and red pulp, and a reduction in splenocyte locomotion ability. Reduction in splenocyte locomotion due to whole-body irradiation was significantly less in CP-treated than in control mice. A factor of 1.5 to 3.3 for protection of migration by CP was obtained, depending upon timing between CP stimulation, whole-body irradiation, and migration assay. The largest protection factor 1 day postirradiation was observed when migration was 7 to 14 days post-CP treatment. It is postulated that nonspecific immune adjuvant stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system by CP induces greater repopulation of the radiation-depleted spleen by leukocytes having migration capability. These findings may have relevance to the clinical use of local radiation therapy combined with CP stimulation of host immune response

  18. Understanding immunology: fun at an intersection of the physical, life, and clinical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the immune system works is a grand challenge in science with myriad direct implications for improving human health. The immune system protects us from infectious pathogens and cancer, and maintains a harmonious steady state with essential microbiota in our gut. Vaccination, the medical procedure that has saved more lives than any other, involves manipulating the immune system. Unfortunately, the immune system can also go awry to cause autoimmune diseases. Immune responses are the product of stochastic collective dynamic processes involving many interacting components. These processes span multiple scales of length and time. Thus, statistical mechanics has much to contribute to immunology, and the oeuvre of biological physics will be further enriched if the number of physical scientists interested in immunology continues to increase. I describe how I got interested in immunology and provide a glimpse of my experiences working on immunology using approaches from statistical mechanics and collaborating closely with immunologists.

  19. [Application of personal drug (P-drug) seminar to clinical pharmacy education in the graduate school of pharmaceutical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi; Mimura, Yasuhiko; Adachi, Isao; Takeguchi, Noriaki

    2002-10-01

    The P-drug seminar, a novel method of teaching the process of rational pharmacotherapy, was introduced in 2000 into the practice program of the clinical pharmacy course in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University (TMPU). The P-drug concept is evidence-based drug selection according to criteria (i.e., efficacy, safety, suitability and cost) deter mined in advance and rational prescribing by each physician. The P-drug seminar originated from educational courses for medical students at the University of Groningen and has been propagated by the WHO Action Programme on Essential Drugs world wide. In the TMPU, the seminar consists of 5 half-days before the start of bedside teaching during clinical pharmacy practice. Each term, 8 graduate students licensed as pharmacists form one seminar group, and 32 students have completed it successfully in the past 2 years. Problem-based learning and self-awareness methods are applied through discussion among students. The same teaching materials as those used in the WHO P-drug workshop and the English textbook Guide to Good Prescribing were adopted. A short lecture on the pharmacist's role in the rational use of drugs was added to modify the original P-drug workshop for medical students since this was considered suitable for graduate students in clinical pharmacy. Our graduate students were able to learn the process of pharmacotherapy by following the steps of P-drug selection and rational treatment under the P-drug concept and also understand the viewpoint of prescribers and pharmacists' roles as medical staff. In conclusion, this is the first report on application of the P-drug method to clinical pharmacy education. PMID:12400163

  20. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical sciences: A description of a radiological anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Anna; Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz J; Lisiecka, Justyna; Pietrzyk, Łukasz; Czekajlo, Michael; Arancibia, Carlos U; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Torres, Kamil

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of medical imaging techniques pervade modern medicine, and the changing portability and performance of tools like ultrasound imaging have brought these medical imaging techniques into the everyday practice of many specialties outside of radiology. However, proper interpretation of ultrasonographic and computed tomographic images requires the practitioner to not only hone certain technical skills, but to command an excellent knowledge of sectional anatomy and an understanding of the pathophysiology of the examined areas as well. Yet throughout many medical curricula there is often a large gap between traditional anatomy coursework and clinical training in imaging techniques. The authors present a radiological anatomy course developed to teach sectional anatomy with particular emphasis on ultrasonography and computed tomography, while incorporating elements of medical simulation. To assess students' overall opinions about the course and to examine its impact on their self-perceived improvement in their knowledge of radiological anatomy, anonymous evaluation questionnaires were provided to the students. The questionnaires were prepared using standard survey methods. A five-point Likert scale was applied to evaluate agreement with statements regarding the learning experience. The majority of students considered the course very useful and beneficial in terms of improving three-dimensional and cross-sectional knowledge of anatomy, as well as for developing practical skills in ultrasonography and computed tomography. The authors found that a small-group, hands-on teaching model in radiological anatomy was perceived as useful both by the students and the clinical teachers involved in their clinical education. In addition, the model was introduced using relatively few resources and only two faculty members. Anat Sci Educ 9: 295-303. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26599321

  1. Oral health knowledge among pre-clinical students of International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Oral health is an important issue in public health with a great impact on individuals’ general health status. A good access to oral healthcare services and a good knowledge of it play a key role in the oral disease prevention. A better health attitude and practice require a better knowledge. The aims of this study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge among the International students branch (Kish of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-12.   Materials and Methods: 159 pre-clinical students in medicine (54 students, dentistry (69 students and pharmacy (36 students participated in this research. A standard questionnaire was used as the main tool of research to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of students about the oral health. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.   Results: According to the results, dental students had the best level of knowledge and pharmacy students had a better knowledge level compared to the medical students. The results also showed a significant relationship between students’ oral health knowledge and their field and duration of study and the place of their secondary school (P0.05.   Conclusion: The results showed that the students at the International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had a relatively good knowledge of oral health. Students’ knowledge level can be improved by providing students with educational materials, organized workshops and seminars.

  2. Evaluation of the Young Children with Neurodevelopmental Disability: A Prospective Study at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopmental impairment is a common problem in children health that occurs in approximately 5–10% of the childhood population. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic yield of subspecialists’ evaluation of young children with developmental disability.Materials & MethodsAll children aged between 2 months and 5 years referred over a 15-month period to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences subspecialty services for initial evaluation of a suspected developmental Disability, were enrolled in the present study. Diagnostic yield was determined after the completion of clinical assessments and laboratory tests requested by the evaluating physician.ResultsA total of 198 children (129 boys and 69 girls were eligible for our study.108 children had global developmental delay and 90 children had isolated developmental delay. Approximately ¼ of all patients did not have any specific etiology for developmental disability. Cerebral palsy (CP was the most common clinical syndrome in all patients (41.4%. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (13.8%, brain dysgenesis (13%, genetic disorder (13%, and neurodegenerative diseases (11% were determined in more than one half of all children with global developmental disability. in our study, “developmental speech delay” was the common cause of isolated speech delay.ConclusionDetermination of an underlying etiology is an essential part of specialty evaluation of young children with developmental disability. The results of this study were similar closely to the results of other studies.

  3. Fluid elasticity increases the locomotion of flexible swimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Garcia, Julian; Zenit, Roberto; 10.1063/1.4795166

    2013-01-01

    We conduct experiments with flexible swimmers to address the impact of fluid viscoelasticity on their locomotion. The swimmers are composed of a magnetic head actuated in rotation by a frequency-controlled magnetic field and a flexible tail whose deformation leads to forward propulsion. We consider both viscous Newtonian and glucose-based Boger fluids with similar viscosities. We find that the elasticity of the fluid systematically enhances the locomotion speed of the swimmer, and that this enhancement increases with Deborah number. Using Particle Image Velocimetry to visualize the flow field, we find a significant difference in the amount of shear between the rear and leading parts of the swimmer head. We conjecture that viscoelastic normal stresses lead to a net elastic forces in the swimming direction and thus a faster swimming speed.

  4. Spinal corollary discharge modulates motion sensing during vertebrate locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Banchi, Roberto; Simmers, John; Straka, Hans

    2015-01-01

    During active movements, neural replicas of the underlying motor commands may assist in adapting motion-detecting sensory systems to an animal's own behaviour. The transmission of such motor efference copies to the mechanosensory periphery offers a potential predictive substrate for diminishing sensory responsiveness to self-motion during vertebrate locomotion. Here, using semi-isolated in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus, we demonstrate that shared efferent neural pathways to hair cells of vestibular endorgans and lateral line neuromasts express cyclic impulse bursts during swimming that are directly driven by spinal locomotor circuitry. Despite common efferent innervation and discharge patterns, afferent signal encoding at the two mechanosensory peripheries is influenced differentially by efference copy signals, reflecting the different organization of body/water motion-detecting processes in the vestibular and lateral line systems. The resultant overall gain reduction in sensory signal encoding in both cases, which likely prevents overstimulation, constitutes an adjustment to increased stimulus magnitudes during locomotion. PMID:26337184

  5. A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1126/science.1229163

    2013-01-01

    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in granular media, and used this "terradynamics" to predict a small legged robot's locomotion on granular media using various leg shapes and stride frequencies. Our study reveals a complex but generic dependence of stresses in granular media on intruder depth, orientation, and movement direction and gives insight into the effects of leg morphology and kinematics on movement.

  6. Hybrid control and motion planning of dynamical legged locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    "This book provides a comprehensive presentation of issues and challenges faced by researchers and practicing engineers in motion planning and hybrid control of dynamical legged locomotion. The major features range from offline and online motion planning algorithms to generate desired feasible periodic walking and running motions and tow-level control schemes, including within-stride feedback laws, continuous time update laws and event-based update laws, to asymptotically stabilize the generated desired periodic orbits. This book describes the current state of the art and future directions across all domains of dynamical legged locomotion so that readers can extend proposed motion planning algorithms and control methodologies to other types of planar and 3D legged robots".

  7. Exosomes as Intercellular Signaling Organelles Involved in Health and Disease: Basic Science and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ciccia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell communication is essential for the coordination and proper organization of different cell types in multicellular systems. Cells exchange information through a multitude of mechanisms such as secreted growth factors and chemokines, small molecules (peptides, ions, bioactive lipids and nucleotides, cell-cell contact and the secretion of extracellular matrix components. Over the last few years, however, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has demonstrated the occurrence of a sophisticated method of cell communication based on the release of specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles termed exosomes. Exosome biogenesis involves the endosomal compartment, the multivesicular bodies (MVB, which contain internal vesicles packed with an extraordinary set of molecules including enzymes, cytokines, nucleic acids and different bioactive compounds. In response to stimuli, MVB fuse with the plasma membrane and vesicles are released in the extracellular space where they can interact with neighboring cells and directly induce a signaling pathway or affect the cellular phenotype through the transfer of new receptors or even genetic material. This review will focus on exosomes as intercellular signaling organelles involved in a number of physiological as well as pathological processes and their potential use in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  8. Professional competencies in health sciences education: from multiple intelligences to the clinic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F

    2010-03-01

    Nontechnical competencies identified as essential to the health professional's success include ethical behavior, interpersonal, self-management, leadership, business, and thinking competencies. The literature regarding such diverse topics, and the literature regarding "professional success" is extensive and wide-ranging, crossing educational, psychological, business, medical and vocational fields of study. This review is designed to introduce ways of viewing nontechnical competence from the psychology of human capacity to current perspectives, initiatives and needs in practice. After an introduction to the tensions inherent in educating individuals for both biomedical competency and "bedside" or "cageside" manner, the paper presents a brief overview of the major lines of inquiry into intelligence theory and how theories of multiple intelligences can build a foundation for conceptualizing professional and life skills. The discussion then moves from broad concepts of intelligence to more specific workplace skill sets, with an emphasis on professional medical education. This section introduces the research on noncognitive variables in various disciplines, the growing emphasis on competency based education, and the SKA movement in veterinary education. The next section presents the evidence that nontechnical, noncognitive or humanistic skills influence achievement in academic settings, medical education and clinical performance, as well as the challenges faced when educational priorities must be made. PMID:19585247

  9. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets. PMID:27532883

  10. A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero—the energy conserving and marginally stable special case—to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. (paper)

  11. Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a semi-aquatic turtle, Trachemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Tobias; Mailhot, Jeffrey D; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2009-10-01

    It is reasonable to presume that locomotion should have a mechanical effect on breathing in turtles. The turtle shell is rigid, and when the limbs protract and retract, air in the lungs should be displaced. This expectation was met in a previous study of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas; breathing completely ceased during terrestrial locomotion (Jackson and Prange, 1979. J Comp Physiol 134:315-319). In contrast, another study found no direct effect of locomotion on ventilation in the terrestrial box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Landberg et al., 2003. J Exp Biol 206:3391-3404). In this study we measured lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a semi-aquatic turtle, the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta. Sliders breathed almost continuously during locomotion and during brief pauses between locomotor bouts. Tidal volume was relatively small (approximately 1 mL) during locomotion and approximately doubled during pauses. Minute ventilation was, however, not significantly smaller during locomotion because breath frequency was higher than that during the pauses. We found no consistent evidence for phase coupling between breathing and locomotion indicating that sliders do not use locomotor movements to drive breathing. We also found no evidence for a buccal-pump mechanism. Sliders, like box turtles, appear to use abdominal musculature to breathe during locomotion. Thus, locomotion affects lung ventilation differently in the three turtle species studied to date: the terrestrial Te. carolina shows no measurable effect of locomotion on ventilation; the semi-aquatic Tr. scripta breathes with smaller tidal volumes during locomotion; and the highly aquatic C. mydas stops breathing completely during terrestrial locomotion. PMID:18623107

  12. Attitude of Dental Prostheses Residents of Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafezeqoran; Elnaz Moslehifard; Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is one of the most authentic ways to evaluate clinical skills. The present study aimed at evaluating the attitude of dental prostheses residents of the faculty of dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences toward this kind of examination. Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study, two questionnaires were designed. One questionnaire dealt with nature of OSCE and the other dealt with the attitude of residents ab...

  13. Spinal corollary discharge modulates motion sensing during vertebrate locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Banchi, Roberto; Simmers, John; Straka, Hans

    2015-01-01

    During active movements, neural replicas of the underlying motor commands may assist in adapting motion-detecting sensory systems to an animal's own behaviour. The transmission of such motor efference copies to the mechanosensory periphery offers a potential predictive substrate for diminishing sensory responsiveness to self-motion during vertebrate locomotion. Here, using semi-isolated in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus, we demonstrate that shared efferent neural pathways to hair cells ...

  14. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums: The Adaptations of Wetland Organisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Wetlands are repositories of unique biodiversity. Wetlandorganisms are well adapted to their habitat, lying at theinterface of aquatic and terrestrial environments. In order tounderstand their adaptations in a better way, it is essential tograsp the basic properties of the medium in which variousorganisms live. This is attempted here by first examining theproperties of the two contrasting environments, terrestrialand aquatic. We focus primarily on locomotion, touchingupon related life processes like respiration, body size andmaintaining body balance by employing basic principles ofbiology and physics.

  15. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  16. Decoding the organization of spinal circuits that control locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehn, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Unravelling the functional operation of neuronal networks and linking cellular activity to specific behavioural outcomes are among the biggest challenges in neuroscience. In this broad field of research, substantial progress has been made in studies of the spinal networks that control locomotion. Through united efforts using electrophysiological and molecular genetic network approaches and behavioural studies in phylogenetically diverse experimental models, the organization of locomotor netwo...

  17. Renewable fluid dynamic energy derived from aquatic animal locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dabiri, John O.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic animals swimming in isolation and in groups are known to extract energy from the vortices in environmental flows, significantly reducing muscle activity required for locomotion. A model for the vortex dynamics associated with this phenomenon is developed, showing that the energy extraction mechanism can be described by simple criteria governing the kinematics of the vortices relative to the body in the flow. In this way, we need not make direct appeal to the fluid dynamics, which can ...

  18. The role of vortices in animal locomotion in fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the significance of vortices in animal locomotion in fluids on two deliberately chosen examples. The first example concerns lift generation by bird and insect wings, the second example briefly mentiones swimming and walking on water. In all the examples, the vortices generated by the moving animal impart the necessary momentum to the surrounding fluid, the reaction to which is the force moving or lifting the animal.

  19. Understanding sex differences in the cost of terrestrial locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, John J.; Nudds, Robert L.; Folkow, Lars P.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Codd, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Little is known regarding the physiological consequences of the behavioural and morphological differences that result from sexual selection in birds. Male and female Svalbard rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta hyperborea) exhibit distinctive behavioural differences during the breeding season. In particular, males continuously compete for and defend territories in order to breed successfully, placing large demands on their locomotor system. Here, we demonstrate that male birds have improved locomot...

  20. A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in ...

  1. Visual exploration during locomotion limited by fear of heights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Kugler

    Full Text Available Visual exploration of the surroundings during locomotion at heights has not yet been investigated in subjects suffering from fear of heights.Eye and head movements were recorded separately in 16 subjects susceptible to fear of heights and in 16 non-susceptible controls while walking on an emergency escape balcony 20 meters above ground level. Participants wore mobile infrared eye-tracking goggles with a head-fixed scene camera and integrated 6-degrees-of-freedom inertial sensors for recording head movements. Video recordings of the subjects were simultaneously made to correlate gaze and gait behavior.Susceptibles exhibited a limited visual exploration of the surroundings, particularly the depth. Head movements were significantly reduced in all three planes (yaw, pitch, and roll with less vertical head oscillations, whereas total eye movements (saccade amplitudes, frequencies, fixation durations did not differ from those of controls. However, there was an anisotropy, with a preference for the vertical as opposed to the horizontal direction of saccades. Comparison of eye and head movement histograms and the resulting gaze-in-space revealed a smaller total area of visual exploration, which was mainly directed straight ahead and covered vertically an area from the horizon to the ground in front of the feet. This gaze behavior was associated with a slow, cautious gait.The visual exploration of the surroundings by susceptibles to fear of heights differs during locomotion at heights from the earlier investigated behavior of standing still and looking from a balcony. During locomotion, anisotropy of gaze-in-space shows a preference for the vertical as opposed to the horizontal direction during stance. Avoiding looking into the abyss may reduce anxiety in both conditions; exploration of the "vertical strip" in the heading direction is beneficial for visual control of balance and avoidance of obstacles during locomotion.

  2. Kinematics of treadmill locomotion in mice raised in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojados, Mickael; Herbin, Marc; Jamon, Marc

    2013-05-01

    The study compared the motor performance of adult C57Bl/6J mice previously exposed to a 2G gravity environment during different periods of their development. 12 mice were housed in a large diameter centrifuge from the conception to Postnatal day 10 (P10). Another group of 10 mice was centrifuged form P10 to P30, and a third group of 9 mice was centrifuged from conception to P30. Their gait parameters, and kinematics of joint excursions were compared with 11 control mice, at the age of 2 months using a video-radiographic apparatus connected to a motorized treadmill. The mice that returned to Earth gravity level at the age of P10 showed a motor pattern similar to control mice. At variance the two groups that were centrifuged from P10 to P30 showed a different motor pattern with smaller and faster strides to walk at the same velocity as controls. On the other hand all the centrifuged mice showed significant postural changes, particularly with a more extended ankle joint, but the mice centrifuged during the whole experimental period differed even more. Our results showed that the exposure to hypergravity before P10 sufficed to modify the posture, suggesting that postural control starts before the onset of locomotion, whereas the gravity constraint perceived between P10 and P30 conditioned the tuning of quadruped locomotion with long term consequences. These results support the existence of a critical period in the acquisition of locomotion in mice. PMID:23352767

  3. PROBABILISTIC-STATISTICAL MODELING THE INTERFERENCES FROM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The movements of electric locomotives create the interferences affecting the wired link. The creation of sufficiently technical effective and at the same time cost-effective means of protection from wireline interferences generated traction networks assumes as a preparatory phase to develop mathematical models of interference caused by electric locomotives. We have developed a probabilistic-statistical model of interferences caused by electric locomotives. The asymptotic distribution of the total interference is the distribution of the length of the two-dimensional random vector whose coordinates - independent normally distributed random variables with mean 0 and variance 1. Limit theorem is proved for the expectation of the total amplitude of the interferences. Monte-Carlo method is used to study the rate of convergence of the expectation of the total amplitude of the interferences to the limiting value. We used an algorithm of mixing developed by MacLaren-Marsaglia (M-algorithm. Five sets of amplitudes are analyzed, selected in accordance with the recommendations of experts in the field of traction AC networks. The most rapid convergence to the limit takes place in the case of equal amplitudes. It was found that the maximum possible average value of the amplitude of the random noise by 7.4% less than the previously used value, which promises a significant economic impact

  4. Clinical implementation of genetic testing in medicine: a US regulatory science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Lawrence J; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Heterogeneity of treatment effects in unselected patient populations has stimulated various strategic approaches to reduce variability and uncertainty and improve individualization of drug selection and dosing. The rapid growth of DNA sequencing and related technologies has ramped up progress in interpreting germline and somatic mutations and has begun to reshape medicine, especially in oncology. Over the past decade, regulatory agencies realized that they needed to be proactive and not reactive if personalized medicine was to become a reality. The US Food and Drug Administration, in particular, took steps to nurture the field through peer-reviewed publications, co-sponsoring public workshops and issuing guidance for industry. The following two major approaches to personalized medicine were taken: (i) encouragement of de novo co-development of drug-genetic test combinations by industry; and (ii) retrospective assessment of legacy genetic data for the purpose of updating drug labels. The former strategy has been more successful in getting new targeted therapies to the marketplace with successful adoption, while the latter, as evidenced by the low adoption rate of pharmacogenetic testing, has been less successful. This reflection piece makes clear that several important things need to happen to make personalized medicine diffuse in more geographical areas and among more therapeutic specialties. The debate over clinical utility of genetic tests needs to be resolved with consensus on evidentiary standards. Physicians, as gatekeepers of prescription medicines, need to increase their knowledge of genetics and the application of the information to patient care. An infrastructure needs to be developed to make access to genetic tests and decision-support tools available to primary practitioners and specialists outside major medical centres and metropolitan areas. PMID:24286486

  5. Recent developments for Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: clinical and basic science challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaccines have made dramatic impacts upon morbidity and mortality caused by a number of common pathogens, but a vaccine to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infections has proven to be illusive. With successful bacterial vaccines, the organisms are all part of the transient flora, whereas, S. aureus is part of the normal human flora. This means that S. aureus has had a prolonged time to adapt to the host milieu and its defences. The failure of several staphylococcal antigens to protect humans from infection in vaccine clinical trials using active or passive immunisation has stimulated a re-examination of the fundamental assumptions about staphylococcal immunity in humans vs. animals, especially rodents. This has spurred an active debate about the appropriate models for vaccine development and an examination of our current understanding of the protective immunity in humans. A major factor in the development of previous bacterial vaccines was a biomarker that predicted human protection, e.g., antibodies to tetanus toxoid or to pneumococcal polysaccharide. While antibodies against a number of staphylococcal antigens have proven to be an excellent biomarker for protection in rodents, these have not been translated to human infections. Thus, while much work remains, there is a growing consensus that T-cell immunity plays an important role in protecting humans. Moreover, the presence of anti-staphylococcal toxin antibodies correlates with reduced disease severity in humans. The most important recent advances concerning potential biomarkers, and the role of pre-existing immune status of vaccines in vaccine-associated mortality are considered in this review. PMID:26629971

  6. Surgical outcome and clinical profile of emergency versus elective cases of colorectal cancer in College of Medical Sciences, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo emergency colorectal cancer surgery has poor outcome compared to elective surgery, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Approximately 15 to 30% of colorectal cancers present as an emergency, most often as obstruction or perforation. Objective: To compare surgical outcome and clinical profiles of emergency and elective cases for colorectal cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 34 cases who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer between December 2011 to January 2013was carried out and their surgical outcomes, clinical presentation, demographic profile were analyzed. Results: The total numbers of patients included in this study were 34. Out of which 52.94 %( n=18 were emergency cases and 47.05 %( n=16 were elective. Male female ratio was 3:1 in emergency cases and 2.6:1 in elective cases. Per rectal bleeding (56% and altered bowel habit (31.25% was predominant clinical presentation in elective cases whereas intestinal obstruction (55.55% and peritonitis (22.22% were predominant clinical presentation in emergency cases. In emergency cases most of the tumors were located in left side (77.77% and in elective cases rectum was common site (37.5%. Left hemicolectomy was the commonest surgery performed (72.22% in emergency set up. In elective cases, right hemicolectomy, left hemicolectomy, APR and LAR was done in 31.25%, 31.25%, 25% and 25% cases respectively. In the emergency group 11.11% (n=2 developed enterocutaneous fistula and early mortality within 30 days was observed in 5% (n=1 of emergency cases only. Conclusion: In emergency conditions, colorectal cancer presented with intestinal obstruction where as elective cases presented with per rectal bleeding and altered bowel habits. Compared with the elective patients, the emergency patients had higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Because of higher incidence of colorectal cancer in our institution, in all emergency cases who presents with features of

  7. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  8. Computer Simulation of the Neural Control of Locomotion in the Cat and the Salamander

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    Locomotion is an integral part of a whole range of animal behaviours. The basic rhythm for locomotion in vertebrates has been shown to arise from local networks residing in the spinal cord and these networks are known as central pattern generators (CPG). However, during the locomotion, these centres are constantly interacting with the sensory feedback signals coming from muscles, joints and peripheral skin receptors in order to adapt the stepping or swimming to varying environmental condition...

  9. SIMULATION OF DRIVER’S LOCOMOTIVE-HANDLING ACTIVITY USING THE THEORY OF FUZZY GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Butko; O. M. Horobchenko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The efficiency and safety of locomotive control improving is important and relevant scientific and practical problem. Every driver during the trains-handling bases on his experience and knowledge, that is why the compilation and detection the most efficient ways to control the locomotive-handling is one of the stages of measures development to reduce transportation costs. The purpose of this paper is a formalization process description of locomotive-handling and quality parameters de...

  10. Hybrid Modelling and Control of Obstacle-Aided Snake Robot Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Liljeback, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2010-01-01

    A snake can traverse cluttered and irregular environments by using irregularities around its body as push points to aid the propulsion. This characteristic feature of biological snake locomotion, which is denoted as obstacle-aided locomotion, is investigated for snake robot locomotion purposes in this paper. The paper presents a hybrid model of the dynamics of a planar snake robot interacting with obstacles in its environment. Obstacle contact forces are calculated by formulating and solving ...

  11. Behavioural toxicity assessment of silver ions and nanoparticles on zebrafish using a locomotion profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ašmonaitė, Giedrė; Boyer, Scott; Souza, Karine Bresolin de; Wassmur, Britt; Sturve, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is not only a widely used species in the Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test but also an emerging model in behavioural ecotoxicology. By using automatic behaviour tracking technology, locomotion of developing zebrafish (ZF) larvae can be accurately recorded and potentially used in an ecotoxicological context to detect toxicant-induced behavioural alterations. In this study, we explored if and how quantitative locomotion data can be used for sub-lethal toxicity testing within the FET framework. We exposed ZF embryos to silver ions and nanoparticles, which previously have been reported to cause neurodevelopmental toxicity and behavioural retardation in early-life stages of ZF. Exposure to a broad range of silver (Ag(+) and AgNPs) concentrations was conducted, and developmental toxicity was assessed using FET criteria. For behavioural toxicity assessment, locomotion of exposed ZF eleutheroembryos (120hpf) was quantified according to a customised behavioural assay in an automatic video tracking system. A set of repeated episodes of dark/light stimulation were used to artificially stress ZF and evoke photo-motor responses, which were consequently utilized for locomotion profiling. Our locomotion-based behaviour profiling approach consisted of (1) dose-response ranking for multiple and single locomotion variables; (2) quantitative assessment of locomotion structure; and (3) analysis of ZF responsiveness to darkness stimulation. We documented that both silver forms caused adverse effects on development and inhibited hatchability and, most importantly, altered locomotion. High Ag(+) and AgNPs exposures significantly suppressed locomotion and a clear shift in locomotion towards inactivity was reported. Additionally, we noted that low, environmentally relevant Ag(+) concentrations may cause subordinate locomotive changes (hyperactivity) in developing fish. Overall, it was concluded that our locomotion-based behaviour-testing scheme can be used jointly

  12. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asnafi, Alireza [Hydro-Aeronautical Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahzoon, Mojtaba, E-mail: asnafi@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: arasnafi@yahoo.com, E-mail: mahzoon@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

  13. Management factors associated with impaired locomotion in dairy cows in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Z E; Amory, J R; Wright, J L; Blowey, R W; Green, L E

    2007-07-01

    Forty-nine farms in England and Wales were visited on 4 occasions between February 2003 and March 2004. A total of 21,693 scores of locomotion were assigned to 7,722 cattle. Locomotion was assessed on a 3-point scale by observing the posture of a cow's back while standing and walking (1 = sound, 2 = not sound, 3 = lame). Data on measurable factors potentially associated with locomotion were collected from all farms using direct observations of the farm environment and a comprehensive farmer interview. The mean herd locomotion score was 1.77 +/- 0.02. There was no significant difference in mean herd locomotion scores between 5 herds housed in straw yards (1.72 +/- 0.02) and 44 herds housed in free stalls (1.78 +/- 0.02), possibly because of lack of power. A GLM was produced using data from the 44 herds housed in free stalls, with the mean farm locomotion score of all cows examined on all 4 visits as the outcome variable. Factors associated with an elevated locomotion score were dry cows kept in straw yards compared with free stalls (increase in locomotion score = 0.06 +/- 0.03), pregnant heifers kept with milking cows in winter compared with being kept with dry cows (increase in locomotion score = 0.09 +/- 0.03), aisle widths of or = 3 m (increase in locomotion score = 0.06 +/- 0.02), a curb height of 15 cm (increase in locomotion score = 0.07 +/- 0.03), routine trimming of hooves of all cows by a hoof trimmer or by the farmer compared with no routine hoof trimming (increase in locomotion score = 0.18 +/- 0.04 and 0.13 +/- 0.03 respectively), feeding corn silage to milking cows compared with feeding other forage types (increase in locomotion score = 0.10 +/- 0.03), and the use of automatic scrapers in the free-stall barn compared with tractor scrapers (increase in locomotion score = 0.10 +/- 0.03). These variables were correlated with many other management variables. The use of automatic scrapers was correlated with the use of sawdust on rubber mats in free stalls

  14. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

  15. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  16. Climbing, falling, and jamming during ant locomotion in confined environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Daria; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I

    2013-06-11

    Locomotion emerges from effective interactions of an individual with its environment. Principles of biological terrestrial locomotion have been discovered on unconfined vertical and horizontal substrates. However, a diversity of organisms construct, inhabit, and move within confined spaces. Such animals are faced with locomotor challenges including limited limb range of motion, crowding, and visual sensory deprivation. Little is known about how these organisms accomplish their locomotor tasks, and such environments challenge human-made devices. To gain insight into how animals move within confined spaces, we study the locomotion of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, which constructs subterranean tunnel networks (nests). Laboratory experiments reveal that ants construct tunnels with diameter, D, comparable to body length, L = 3.5 ± 0.5 mm. Ants can move rapidly (> 9 bodylengths per s) within these environments; their tunnels allow for effective limb, body, and antennae interaction with walls, which facilitate rapid slip-recovery during ascending and descending climbs. To examine the limits of slip-recovery in artificial tunnels, we perform perturbations consisting of rapid downward accelerations of the tunnels, which induce falls. Below a critical tunnel diameter, Ds = 1.31 ± 0.02 L, falls are always arrested through rapid interaction of appendages and antennae with tunnel walls to jam the falls. Ds is comparable to the size of incipient nest tunnels (D = 1.06 ± 0.23 L), supporting our hypothesis that fire ants construct environments that simplify their control task when moving through the nest, likely without need for rapid nervous system intervention. PMID:23690589

  17. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  18. Comparative energetics of mammalian locomotion: humans are not different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; White, C R

    2012-11-01

    Debates about the evolution of human bipedality sometimes include discussion on the energy costs of terrestrial locomotion of extinct and extant hominins. However, comparative analyses of hominin transport costs conducted to date have been limited and potentially misinforming, in part because they fail to consider phylogenetic history. In the present study, we compare the measured costs of pedestrian locomotion in humans and the estimated costs for Australopithecus afarensis (an early bipedal hominin), to a database of locomotory costs for mammals. Using data for 81 species of mammal, we demonstrate significant phylogenetic signal in both log-transformed body mass (logMass) and log-transformed net cost of transport (logNCOT), but no phylogenetic signal in residuals of the relationship between logNCOT and logMass. We then used this relationship to generate a prediction line for NCOT based on body mass, and compared this prediction with published measured data for NCOT of running and walking in humans, and estimated NCOT of walking in A. afarensis. The cost of human walking was 25% lower than predicted, while the cost of running was 27% higher. The cost of A. afarensis walking was 32% lower than predicted. However, all of these data points fall within the 95% prediction interval for mammals, indicating that they are not significantly lower or higher than predicted for other mammals of similar mass. Moreover, the difference between humans and our closest living relative the common chimpanzee is comparable to differences between other similarly closely related species. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence from metabolic data that humans, or A. afarensis, have/had a reduced energy cost of pedestrian locomotion compared to other mammals in general. PMID:22963931

  19. Depletion of TDP-43 affects Drosophila motoneurons terminal synapsis and locomotive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiguin, Fabian; Godena, Vinay K; Romano, Giulia; D'Ambrogio, Andrea; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E

    2009-05-19

    Pathological modifications in the highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein TDP-43 were recently associated to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a late-onset disorder that affects predominantly motoneurons [Neumann, M. et al. (2006) Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 314, 130-133, Sreedharan, J. et al. (2008) TDP-43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 319, 1668-1672, Kabashi, E. et al. (2008) TARDBP mutations in individuals with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat. Genet. 40, 572-574]. However, the function of TDP-43 in vivo is unknown and a possible direct role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. Here, we report that flies lacking Drosophila TDP-43 appeared externally normal but presented deficient locomotive behaviors, reduced life span and anatomical defects at the neuromuscular junctions. These phenotypes were rescued by expression of the human protein in a restricted group of neurons including motoneurons. Our results demonstrate the role of this protein in vivo and suggest an alternative explanation to ALS pathogenesis that may be more due to the lack of TDP 43 function than to the toxicity of the aggregates. PMID:19379745

  20. Track B Clinical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrychenko, T.; Dubynska, G.; Koval, T.; Kaidashev, I; Korshenko, V.; Rono, K.; Kibuuka, H.; Maganga, L; Kosgei, J.; Sekiziyivu, A.; Sanga, E.; Ngetich, E.; Bolen Valenzuela, A.; Michael, N.; Robb, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients. Methods The presence of TLR4 Asp299Gly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was determined in a cohort of 180 ant...

  1. Locomotive micro-implant with active electromagnetic propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonka, Daniel; Poon, Ada S Y; Meng, Teresa H

    2009-01-01

    An active locomotive technique requiring only an external power source and a static magnetic field is presented, and its operation is analyzed and simulated. For a modest static MRI magnetic field of 1 T, the results show that a 1-mm cube achieves roughly 3 cm/sec of lateral motion using less than 20.4 microW of power. Current-carrying wires generate the forces, resulting in highly controllable motion. Existing solutions trade off size and power: passive solutions are small but impractical, and mechanical solutions are inefficient and large. The presented solution captures the advantages of both systems, and has much better scalability. PMID:19964695

  2. Incorporating compliant elastomers for jumping locomotion in microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerratt, Aaron P.; Bergbreiter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Small insects and other animals use a multitude of materials to realize specific functions, including locomotion. This paper demonstrates application of the first microfabrication process to incorporate high aspect ratio compliant elastomer structures in-plane with traditional silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By incorporating these new materials, compact energy storage systems based on elastomer springs for small jumping robots have been demonstrated. Results include a 4 mm×4 mm jumping mechanism that has reached heights of 32 cm, × 80 its own height, and an on-chip actuated mechanism that has been used to propel a 1.4 mg projectile over 7 cm.

  3. Incorporating compliant elastomers for jumping locomotion in microrobots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small insects and other animals use a multitude of materials to realize specific functions, including locomotion. This paper demonstrates application of the first microfabrication process to incorporate high aspect ratio compliant elastomer structures in-plane with traditional silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By incorporating these new materials, compact energy storage systems based on elastomer springs for small jumping robots have been demonstrated. Results include a 4 mm×4 mm jumping mechanism that has reached heights of 32 cm, × 80 its own height, and an on-chip actuated mechanism that has been used to propel a 1.4 mg projectile over 7 cm. (paper)

  4. A Bionic Neural Network for Fish-Robot Locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai-bing Zhang; De-wen Hu; Lin-cheng Shen; Hai-bin Xie

    2006-01-01

    A bionic neural network for fish-robot locomotion is presented. The bionic neural network inspired from fish neural network consists of one high level controller and one chain of central pattern generators (CPGs). Each CPG contains a nonlinear neural Zhang oscillator which shows properties similar to sine-cosine model. Simulation results show that the bionic neural network presents a good performance in controlling the fish-robot to execute various motions such as startup,stop,forward swimming,backward swimming,turn right and turn left.

  5. Propulsion by sinusoidal locomotion: A motion inspired by Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Xialing

    Sinusoidal locomotion is commonly seen in snakes, fish, nematodes, or even the wings of some birds and insects. This doctoral thesis presents the study of sinusoidal locomotion of the nematode C. elegans in experiments and the application of the state-space airloads theory to the theoretical forces of sinusoidal motion. An original MATLAB program has been developed to analyze the video records of C. elegans' movement in different fluids, including Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The experimental and numerical studies of swimming C. elegans has revealed three conclusions. First, though the amplitude and wavelength are varying with time, the motion of swimming C. elegans can still be viewed as sinusoidal locomotion with slips. The average normalized wavelength is a conserved character of the locomotion for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Second, fluid viscosity affects the frequency but not the moving speed of C. elegans, while fluid elasticity affects the moving speed but not the frequency. Third, by the resistive force theory, for more elastic fluids the ratio of resistive coefficients becomes smaller. Inspired by the motion of C. elegans and other animals performing sinusoidal motion, we investigated the sinusoidal motion of a thin flexible wing in theory. Given the equation of the motion, we have derived the closed forms of propulsive force, lift and other generalized forces applying on the wing. We also calculated the power required to perform the motion, the power lost due to the shed vortices and the propulsive efficiency. These forces and powers are given as functions of reduced frequency k, dimensionless wavelength z, dimensionless amplitude A/b, and time. Our results show that a positive, time-averaged propulsive force is produced for all k>k0=pi/ z. At k=k0, which implies the moment when the moving speed of the wing is the same as the wave speed of its undulation, the motion reaches a steady state with all forces being zero. If there were no

  6. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  7. Design of a driving module for a hybrid locomotion robot

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges in today’s mobile robotics is the design of high mobility and maneuverability robots. In this work we present the design and construction of a new concept of a locomotion system for mobile robots. It consists of a hybrid leg-wheel module that can be attached to the main body of a robot in a similar way to a conventional wheel. The mechanical configuration of the driving module is described, emphasizing the characteristics which make it different from other hy...

  8. Locomotion trajectory with cooperative metrics in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ning-ning; ZHANG Lin; SHAN Xiu-ming; XU Bao-guo

    2007-01-01

    Detection coverage control is one of the most important topics in the intrusion detection problem of wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, its converse, i.e., to design an object locomotion trajectory in WSN, has not received enough attention. This article proposes a heuristic algorithm, namely, the security & speed (SS) algorithm, to depict such a trajectory that takes into consideration both security and speed. The merit of the SS algorithm is its topology independency. When compared with traditional algorithms, the SS algorithm approaches the optimal trajectory better, and enjoys considerably lower computational load, and a better and adjustable tradeoff between trajectory security and speed.

  9. Locomotive and reptation motion induced by internal force and friction

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ishihara, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanical model of locomotion induced by internal force and friction. We first construct a system of two elements as an analog of the bipedal motion. The internal force does not induce a directional motion by itself because of the action-reaction law, but a directional motion becomes possible by the control of the frictional force. The efficiency of these model systems is studied using an analogy to the heat engine. As a modified version of the two-elements model, we cons...

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  11. Self organized locomotion via polyhedral geometry: a minimal example

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Shankar; Bhattacharya, S; Nitsure, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we establish a geometrical route to self-organisation. We show that the relevant underlying geometry of the configuration space is a curvilinear polyhedral region. The energetics over the polyhedral region localizes the available space within the close proximity of a corner of this polyhedra. This results into a stronger entrapment of the state which provides it the observed geometrical shape, functionality, and maintains its stability. These theoretical considerations are borne out in the experiments where we study the case of an uphill locomotion of a self organised dumbbell pair placed in a rotating cylinder.

  12. Evaluation of the Young Children with Neurodevelopmental Disability: A Prospective Study at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Kheizrian L, Kheradmand Z, Damadi S, Khajeh A. Evaluation of the Young Children with Neurodevelopmental Disability: A Prospective Study at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Clinics. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:29-33. ObjectiveDevelopmental impairment is a common problem in children health that occurs in approximately 5–10% of the childhood population. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic yield of subspecialists’ evaluation of young children with developmental disability.Materials & MethodsAll children aged between 2 months and 5 years referred over a 15-month period to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences subspecialty services for initial evaluation of a suspected developmental Disability, were enrolled in the present study. Diagnostic yield was determined after the completion of clinical assessments and laboratory tests requested by the evaluating physician.ResultsA total of 198 children (129 boys and 69 girls were eligible for our study.108 children had global developmental delay and 90 children had isolated developmental delay. Approximately ¼ of all patients did not have any specific etiology for developmental disability. Cerebral palsy (CP was the most common clinical syndrome in all patients (41.4%. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (13.8%, brain dysgenesis (13%, genetic disorder (13%, and  neurodegenerative  diseases  (11%  were  determined  in  more  than one half of all children with global developmental disability. in our study, “developmental speech delay” was the common cause of isolated speech delay.ConclusionDetermination of an underlying etiology is an essential part of specialty evaluation of young children with developmental disability. The results of this study were similar closely to the results of other studies. ReferencesBernard LM. Current Management in Child Neurology. 3rd ed. London: BC Decker Inc; 2005. pp. 3-8 and 246-50.Cleary M A

  13. 49 CFR 1242.22 - Shop buildings-locomotives (account XX-19-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-locomotives (account XX-19-24... Structures § 1242.22 Shop buildings—locomotives (account XX-19-24). Separate common expenses according to distribution of common expenses in the following accounts: Machinery Repair (XX-26-40) Locomotive—Repair...

  14. Design and analysis of an optimal hopper for use in resonance-based locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ivor; Folkertsma, Gerrit A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Quadrupedal running is an efficient form of locomotion found in nature, which serves as an inspiration for robotics. We believe that a resonance-based approach is the path towards energy-efficient legged locomotion and running robots. The first step in working towards this goal is creating an energy

  15. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  16. Fluid Flow Simulation and Energetic Analysis of Anomalocarididae Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne

    2014-11-01

    While an abundance of animal locomotion simulations have been performed modeling the motions of living arthropods and aquatic animals, little quantitative simulation and reconstruction of gait parameters has been done to model the locomotion of extinct animals, many of which bear little physical resemblance to their modern descendants. To that end, this project seeks to analyze potential swimming patterns used by the anomalocaridid family, (specifically Anomalocaris canadensis, a Cambrian Era aquatic predator), and determine the most probable modes of movement. This will serve to either verify or cast into question the current assumed movement patterns and properties of these animals and create a bridge between similar flexible-bodied swimmers and their robotic counterparts. This will be accomplished by particle-based fluid flow simulations of the flow around the fins of the animal, as well as an energy analysis of a variety of sample gaits. The energy analysis will then be compared to the extant information regarding speed/energy use curves in an attempt to determine which modes of swimming were most energy efficient for a given range of speeds. These results will provide a better understanding of how these long-extinct animals moved, possibly allowing an improved understanding of their behavioral patterns, and may also lead to a novel potential platform for bio-inspired underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs).

  17. Level locomotion in wood ants: evidence for grounded running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In order to better understand the strategies of locomotion in small insects, we have studied continuous level locomotion of the wood ant species Formica polyctena. We determined the three-dimensional centre of mass kinematics during the gait cycle and recorded the ground reaction forces of single legs utilising a self-developed test site. Our findings show that the animals used the same gait dynamics across a wide speed range without dissolving the tripodal stride pattern. To achieve higher velocities, the ants proportionally increased stride length and stepping frequency. The centre of mass energetics indicated a bouncing gait, in which horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy fluctuated in close phase. We determined a high degree of compliance especially in the front legs, as the effective leg length was nearly halved during the contact phase. This leads to only small vertical oscillations of the body, which are important in maintaining ground contact. Bouncing gaits without aerial phases seem to be a common strategy in small runners and can be sufficiently described by the bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model. Thus, with our results, we provide evidence that wood ants perform 'grounded running'. PMID:24744414

  18. Terrestrial locomotion imposes high metabolic requirements on bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Borrisov, Ivailo M; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2012-12-15

    The evolution of powered flight involved major morphological changes in Chiroptera. Nevertheless, all bats are also capable of crawling on the ground and some are even skilled sprinters. We asked if a highly derived morphology adapted for flapping flight imposes high metabolic requirements on bats when moving on the ground. We measured the metabolic rate during terrestrial locomotion in mastiff bats, Molossus currentium, a species that is both a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat and an agile crawler on the ground. Metabolic rates of bats averaged 8.0±4.0 ml CO(2) min(-1) during a 1-min period of sprinting at 1.3±0.6 km h(-1). With rising average speed, mean metabolic rates increased, reaching peak values that were similar to those of flying conspecifics. Metabolic rates of M. currentium were higher than those of similar-sized rodents that sprinted at similar velocities under steady-state conditions. When M. currentium sprinted at peak velocities, its aerobic metabolic rate was 3-5 times higher than those of rodent species running continuously in steady-state conditions. Costs of transport (J kg(-1) m(-1)) were more than 10 times higher for running than for flying bats. We conclude that at the same speed bats experience higher metabolic rates during short sprints than quadruped mammals during steady-state terrestrial locomotion, yet running bats achieve higher maximal mass-specific aerobic metabolic rates than non-volant mammals such as rodents. PMID:22972883

  19. Coal-fueled diesel engines for locomotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, B.D.; Najewicz, D.J.; Cook, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    GE Transportation Systems (GE/TS) completed a two and one half year study into the economic viability of a coal fueled locomotive. The coal fueled diesel engine was deemed to be one of the most attractive options. Building on the BN-NS study, a proposal was submitted to DOE to continue researching economic and technical feasibility of a coal fueled diesel engine for locomotives. The contract DE-AC21-85MC22181 was awarded to GE Corporate Research and Development (GE/CRD) for a three year program that began in March 1985. This program included an economic assessment and a technical feasibility study. The economic assessment study examined seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal fueled diesels. These areas included impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The results of the study indicated the merits for development of a coal-water slurry (CWS) fueled diesel engine. The technical feasibility study examined the combustion of CWS through lab and bench scale experiments. The major accomplishments from this study have been the development of CWS injection hardware, the successful testing of CWS fuel in a full size, single cylinder, medium speed diesel engine, evaluation of full scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions.

  20. Multi-limbed locomotion systems for space construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, K. J.; Klein, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    A well developed technology of coordination of multi-limbed locomotory systems is now available. Results from a NASA sponsored study of several years ago are presented. This was a simulation study of a three-limbed locomotion/manipulation system. Each limb had six degrees of freedom and could be used either as a locomotory grasping hand-holds, or as a manipulator. The focus of the study was kinematic coordination algorithms. The presentation will also include very recent results from the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle Project. The Adaptive Suspension Vehicle (ASV) is a legged locomotion system designed for terrestrial use which is capable of operating in completely unstructured terrain in either a teleoperated or operator-on-board mode. Future development may include autonomous operation. The ASV features a very advanced coordination and control system which could readily be adapted to operation in space. An inertial package with a vertical gyro, and rate gyros and accelerometers on three orthogonal axes provides body position information at high bandwidth. This is compared to the operator's commands, injected via a joystick to provide a commanded force system on the vehicle's body. This system is, in turn, decomposed by a coordination algorithm into force commands to those legs which are in contact with the ground.

  1. Hopping locomotion at different gravity: metabolism and mechanics in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto E

    2016-05-15

    Previous literature on the effects of low gravity on the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion already dealt with walking, running, and skipping. The aim of the present study is to obtain a comprehensive view on that subject by including measurements of human hopping in simulated low gravity, a gait often adopted in many Apollo Missions and documented in NASA footage. Six subjects hopped at different speeds at terrestrial, Martian, and Lunar gravity on a treadmill while oxygen consumption and 3D body kinematic were sampled. Results clearly indicate that hopping is too metabolically expensive to be a sustainable locomotion on Earth but, similarly to skipping (and running), its economy greatly (more than ×10) increases at lower gravity. On the Moon, the metabolic cost of hopping becomes even lower than that of walking, skipping, and running, but the general finding is that gaits with very different economy on Earth share almost the same economy on the Moon. The mechanical reasons for such a decrease in cost are discussed in the paper. The present data, together with previous findings, will allow also to predict the aerobic traverse range/duration of astronauts when getting far from their base station on low gravity planets. PMID:26635350

  2. [Vestibular influences on human locomotion: results obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbkov, Iu K; Gerasimenko, Iu P

    2014-06-01

    Locomotion is the most important mode of our movement in space. The role of the vestibular system during human locomotion is not well studied, mainly due to problems associated with its isolation stimulation. It is difficult to stimulate this system in isolation during locomotion because the real movement of the head to activate the vestibular end-organs inevitably leads to the activation of other sensory inputs. Galvanic stimulation is not a natural way to stimulate the vestibular system, but it has the advantage providing an isolated stimulation of the vestibular inputs. This technique is relatively novel in the examination of vestibular contributions during human locomotion. In our review we consider the current data regarding the effect of vestibular signals on human locomotion by using galvanic vestibular stimulation. PMID:25665394

  3. Multibody system dynamics for bio-inspired locomotion: from geometric structures to computational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a set of generic tools for multibody system dynamics devoted to the study of bio-inspired locomotion in robotics. First, archetypal examples from the field of bio-inspired robot locomotion are presented to prepare the ground for further discussion. The general problem of locomotion is then stated. In considering this problem, we progressively draw a unified geometric picture of locomotion dynamics. For that purpose, we start from the model of discrete mobile multibody systems (MMSs) that we progressively extend to the case of continuous and finally soft systems. Beyond these theoretical aspects, we address the practical problem of the efficient computation of these models by proposing a Newton-Euler-based approach to efficient locomotion dynamics with a few illustrations of creeping, swimming, and flying. PMID:25811531

  4. DEFINITION OF LOCOMOTIVE TRACTION FORCE WITH REGARD TO UNEVEN LOADING OF WHEEL-MOTOR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the most common methods for determining the locomotive traction force. Solving the tasks of traction calculations involves determination of the forces influencing the train at every point of the way. When choosing a rational trajectory of the train motion and the development of operational regulations of train driving it is necessary to determine the actual value of the locomotive traction force. Considering various factors, power value of traction electric motor of locomotive may have significant differences. Advancement of the operational definition system of the locomotive traction force during the calculations by electrical parameters of traction electric motor with regard to uneven load of wheel-motor block is the purpose of the article. Methodology. The method of determining the traction force of locomotives and diesel locomotives with electric transmission, which is based on primary data acquisition of traction electric engines of direct current behavior, was proposed. Sensors and their integration into the electrical circuitry of the locomotive in order to get the data in digital form and for operational calculation of the each traction motor mode and the definition of locomotive traction force are presented. Findings. The experimental investigation of the system of locomotive traction force determination with the electric traction motor ED-105 was offered. A comparison of electrical and mechanical power of the electric motor was conducted. Originality. The system of locomotives power operational definition, which takes into account the variable electro-mechanical factors of wheel and motor blocks and increases the accuracy of the calculations, was proposed. Practical value. The system is a part of an onboard complex in definition of energy-efficient regimes for trains movement and provides the definition of accelerating and decelerating forces.

  5. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters (400 feet) on a receiving property....

  6. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  7. Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science Comparison between rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoge Zhang; Ling Feng; Liang Du; Anxiang Zhang; Tian Tang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is defined as severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on clinical treatment of facial paralysis using rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture using Web of Science from 1992 to 2011. DESIGN: Bibliometric approach.DATA RETRIEVAL: A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as "facial paralysis", "rehabilitation", "physiotherapy" and "acupuncture". INCLUSIVE CRITERIA: (1) Research articles on the clinical treatment of facial paralysis using acupuncture or physiotherapy (e.g. exercise, electro-stimulation) and other rehabilitation methods; (2) researches on human and animal fundamentals, clinical trials and case reports; (3) Article types: article, review, proceedings paper, note, letter, editorial material, discussion, book chapter. (4) Publication year: 1992-2011 inclusive. Exclusion criteria: (1) Articles on the causes and diagnosis on facial paralysis; (2) Type of articles: correction; (3) Articles from following databases: all databases related to social science and chemical databases in Web of Science.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Overall number of publications; (2) number of publications annually; (3) number of citations received annually; (4) top cited paper; (5) subject categories of publication; (6) the number of countries in which the article is published; (7) distribution of output in journals.RESULTS: Overall population stands at 3 543 research articles addressing the clinical treatment of facial paralysis in Web of Science during the study period. There is also a markedly increase in the number of publications on the subject "facial paralysis treatments using rehabilitation" during the first decade of the 21st century, except in 2004 and 2006 when there are perceptible drops in the number of articles published. The only other year during the

  8. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  9. An alternative path to improving university Earth science teaching and developing the geoscience workforce: Postdoctoral research faculty involvement in clinical teacher preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Sessa, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Ebel, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2020 relative to 2009, there will be 28% more Earth Science jobs paying ≥ $75,000/year1 in the U.S.A. These jobs will require advanced degrees, but compared to all arts and science advanced degrees, the number of physical science M.S. and Ph.D. awarded per year decreased from 2.5% in 1980 to 1.5% in 20092. This decline is reflected on a smaller scale and at a younger age: in the New York City school system only 36% of all 8th graders have basic proficiency in science 3. These figures indicate that the lack achievement in science starts at a young age and then extends into higher education. Research has shown that students in grades 7 - 12 4,5 and in university level courses 6 both respond positively to high quality science teaching. However, much attention is focused on improving science teaching in grades 7- 12, whereas at many universities lower level science courses are taught by junior research and contingent faculty who typically lack formal training, and sometimes interest, in effective teaching. The danger here is that students might enter university intending to pursue geoscience degrees, but then encounter ineffective instructors, causing them to lose interest in geoscience and thus pursue other disciplines. The crux of the matter becomes how to improve the quality of university-level geoscience teaching, without losing sight of the major benchmark of success for research faculty - scholarly publications reporting innovative research results. In most cases, it would not be feasible to sidetrack the research goals of early career scientists by placing them into a formal teacher preparation program. But what happens when postdoctoral research scientists take an active role in clinical teacher preparation as part of their research appointments? The American Museum of Natural History's Masters of Arts in Teaching (AMNH-MAT) urban residency pilot program utilizes a unique approach to grade 7 - 12 Earth Science teacher

  10. Locomotion Performance of Biomimetic Fish-like Swimming Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden P.; Valdivia Y Alvarado, Pablo; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2007-11-01

    The swimming performance of a biomimetic, fish-like swimming device, designed to exploit the natural dynamics of its compliant body to achieve locomotion, is studied experimentally. A theoretical model combines beam-bending stress analysis and unsteady hydrodynamic forcing with known material properties of the robot to reveal desired geometry distributions and actuation modes. Swimming kinematics and corresponding performance of the device are also predicted and tested for a carangiform prototype device in a quiescent tank of water. Experimental swimming tests show good agreement with the simplified theoretical models. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the wake behind the device are investigated using time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) over a range of tail beat frequencies, from 1 to 4 Hz, to asses vortical wake patterns and hydrodynamic forces. PIV data are compared to theoretical model predictions. Reynolds numbers for the swimming device are between 2500 and 8500 based on body length.

  11. Fluid elasticity enhances the locomotion of multi-tail swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, F. A.; Gomez, S.; Zenit, R.; Lauga, E.

    2013-11-01

    We conducted experiments on the locomotion of magnetic robots with multiple rigid flagella to evaluate the impact of fluid viscoelasticity on their swimming performance. Each swimmer was composed of a air-filled cylindrical head with a permanent magnet attached at one of its ends. At the other end, two or more rigid helices were glued on the outer surface of the cylinder maintaining the same distance from each other along the periphery and remaining parallel to the rotation axis. The robots were driven by an external magnetic field allowing to vary the swimming speed. Each swimmer was tested in two different fluids with the same shear viscosity: a Newtonian and a Boger fluid. The single-flagellum device showed essentially the same velocity in both fluids. In contrast, multi-flagella robots swam in the Boger fluid at much higher speeds than in the equivalent Newtonian case. These results are discussed in the last of past similar studies.

  12. Humanoid manipulation and locomotion with real-time footstep optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Duong

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur la réalisation des tâches avec la locomotion sur des robots humanoïdes. Grâce à leurs nombreux degrés de liberté, ces robots possèdent un très haut niveau de redondance. D’autre part, les humanoïdes sont sous-actionnés dans le sens où la position et l’orientation ne sont pas directement contrôlées par un moteur. Ces deux aspects, le plus souvent étudiés séparément dans la littérature, sont envisagés ici dans un même cadre. En outre, la génération d’un mouvement complexe ...

  13. System Design and Locomotion of Superball, an Untethered Tensegrity Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Caluwaerts, Ken; Manovi, Pavlo; Firoozi, Roya Fallah; Dobi, Sarah; Agogino, Alice M.; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2015-01-01

    The Spherical Underactuated Planetary Exploration Robot ball (SUPERball) is an ongoing project within NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group and the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab (DTRL). The current SUPERball is the first full prototype of this tensegrity robot platform, eventually destined for space exploration missions. This work, building on prior published discussions of individual components, presents the fully-constructed robot. Various design improvements are discussed, as well as testing results of the sensors and actuators that illustrate system performance. Basic low-level motor position controls are implemented and validated against sensor data, which show SUPERball to be uniquely suited for highly dynamic state trajectory tracking. Finally, SUPERball is shown in a simple example of locomotion. This implementation of a basic motion primitive shows SUPERball in untethered control.

  14. Undulatory locomotion of finite filaments: lessons from C. elegans

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, R; Sznitman, J; Leshansky, A

    2013-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is a widespread propulsion strategy adopted by many small-scale organisms including various single-cell eukaryotes and nematodes. In this work, we report a comprehensive study of undulatory locomotion of a finite filament using (i) approximate resistive force theory (RFT) assuming a local nature of hydrodynamic interaction between the filament and the surrounding viscous liquid, and (ii) particle-based numerical computations taking into account the intra-filament hydrodynamic interaction. Using the ubiquitous model of a propagating sinusoidal waveform, we identify the limit of applicability of the RFT and determine the optimal propulsion gait in terms of (i) swimming distance per period of undulation and (ii) hydrodynamic propulsion efficiency. The occurrence of the optimal swimming gait maximizing hydrodynamic efficiency at finite wavelength in particle-based computations diverges from the prediction of the RFT. To compare the model swimmer powered by sine wave undulations to biological u...

  15. Locomotive and reptation motion induced by internal force and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ishihara, Taisuke

    2011-06-01

    We propose a simple mechanical model of locomotion induced by internal force and friction. We first construct a system of two elements as an analog of the bipedal motion. The internal force does not induce a directional motion by itself because of the action-reaction law, but a directional motion becomes possible by the control of the frictional force. The efficiency of these model systems is studied using an analogy to the heat engine. As a modified version of the two-element model, we construct a model that exhibits a bipedal motion similar to kinesin’s motion of molecular motor. Next, we propose a linear chain model and a ladder model as an extension of the original two-element model. We find a transition from a straight to a snake-like motion in a ladder model by changing the strength of the internal force.

  16. Bipedal Robot Locomotion on a Terrain with Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tabrizizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a locomotion control system for bipedal robot is proposed to provide desirable walking on a terrain and skipping over a pitfall preventing the robot from falling in it. The proposed strategy is a combination of motion optimization based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and utilization of mode switching at the higher level controller. The model for bipedal robot is a compass gait model but the presented method is general and could be appropriately extended and generalized for other complicated models. Principles of minimalistic designs are also respected and simple central pattern generator and simple mechanical feedback control are used to produce and maintain desirable motion patterns of the robot.

  17. Dynamic control of biped locomotion robot using optimal regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For moving in indoor space, it is generally recognized that biped locomotion is suitable. This paper proposes a hierarchical control strategy for the lower level where the position control or the force control at each joint is implemented. In the upper level control, the robot motion is divided into a sagittal plane and a lateral plane. We applied the optimal control algorithm to the motion control in the lateral plane in order to improve the robustness of the control system. The effects of these control schemes are shown by the experiments using the new walking robot BLR-G 1 and the parallel calculation system. BLR-G 1 has 9 degrees of freedom and equips the foot-pressure-sensors and a rate gyroscope. Complete dynamic walking is realized, in which the cycle for each step is about 1.0 second. (author)

  18. A quantifiably complete repertoire of C. elegans locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andre; Schwarz, Roland; Branicky, Robyn; Schafer, William

    2014-03-01

    Visible phenotypes have played a critical role in understanding the molecular basis of behaviour in model organisms. However, most current descriptions of behaviour are based on manually identified events or a limited set of quantitative parameters. Here we report an extension of the concept of behavioural motifs to exhaustively catalogue C. elegans locomotion and derive a repertoire that is quantifiably complete. A repertoire learned for spontaneous behaviour in wild-type worms can be used to fit data from mutants or worms in different environmental conditions and provides a sensitive measure of phenotypic similarity. Repertoire comparison can also be used to assess inter-individual variation and the compositionality of behaviour, that is, the extent to which behavioural adaptation involves the creation of novel repertoire elements or the reuse of existing elements in novel sequences. Repertoire derivation is general, so that given a representation of posture, our approach will apply to other organisms.

  19. Stepper motor drive for on load tapchanger in electric locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruna Kumar, G.V.D.; Kumar, S.; Mishra, P.; Wadhonkar, N.K. [Indian Railway Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Nasik (India)

    1995-12-31

    Indian Railways have a fleet of 2,200 electrical locomotives running on 25 KV ac traction. An on-load tap changer is used to select voltage for speed control of dc traction motor. A four stroke reciprocating type air motor is used presently to drive the tap changer (GR). Complex gear and camshaft mechanism is used to move tap changer and to generate various logic signals for safe loco operation. The annual failure rate for tap changer and its drive is of the order of 20%. A microprocessor controlled stepper motor drive has been designed and constructed to drive the on-load tap changer. A current controlled chopper is used to drive the motor and control logic has been generated through an optimum hardware and software combination. The assembly has been tested on a prototype tap changer in the laboratory.

  20. Interplay between shear stress and adhesion on neutrophil locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee A; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Haun, Jered B; Hammer, Daniel A

    2007-01-15

    Leukocyte locomotion over the lumen of inflamed endothelial cells is a critical step, following firm adhesion, in the inflammatory response. Once firmly adherent, the cell will spread and will either undergo diapedesis through individual vascular endothelial cells or will migrate to tight junctions before extravasating to the site of injury or infection. Little is known about the mechanisms of neutrophil spreading or locomotion, or how motility is affected by the physical environment. We performed a systematic study to investigate the effect of the type of adhesive ligand and shear stress on neutrophil motility by employing a parallel-plate flow chamber with reconstituted protein surfaces of E-selectin, E-selectin/PECAM-1, and E-selectin/ICAM-1. We find that the level and type of adhesive ligand and the shear rate are intertwined in affecting several metrics of migration, such as the migration velocity, random motility, index of migration, and the percentage of cells moving in the direction of flow. On surfaces with high levels of PECAM-1, there is a near doubling in random motility at a shear rate of 180 s(-1) compared to the motility in the absence of flow. On surfaces with ICAM-1, neutrophil random motility exhibits a weaker response to shear rate, decreasing slightly when shear rate is increased from static conditions to 180 s(-1), and is only slightly higher at 1000 s(-1) than in the absence of flow. The random motility increases with increasing surface concentrations of E-selectin and PECAM-1 under static and flow conditions. Our findings illustrate that the endothelium may regulate neutrophil migration in postcapillary venules through the presentation of various adhesion ligands at sites of inflammation. PMID:17071667

  1. Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Aiello, L C

    2004-01-01

    We review the evolution of human bipedal locomotion with a particular emphasis on the evolution of the foot. We begin in the early twentieth century and focus particularly on hypotheses of an ape-like ancestor for humans and human bipedal locomotion put forward by a succession of Gregory, Keith, Morton and Schultz. We give consideration to Morton's (1935) synthesis of foot evolution, in which he argues that the foot of the common ancestor of modern humans and the African apes would be intermediate between the foot of Pan and Hylobates whereas the foot of a hypothetical early hominin would be intermediate between that of a gorilla and a modern human. From this base rooted in comparative anatomy of living primates we trace changing ideas about the evolution of human bipedalism as increasing amounts of postcranial fossil material were discovered. Attention is given to the work of John Napier and John Robinson who were pioneers in the interpretation of Plio-Pleistocene hominin skeletons in the 1960s. This is the period when the wealth of evidence from the southern African australopithecine sites was beginning to be appreciated and Olduvai Gorge was revealing its first evidence for Homo habilis. In more recent years, the discovery of the Laetoli footprint trail, the AL 288-1 (A. afarensis) skeleton, the wealth of postcranial material from Koobi Fora, the Nariokotome Homo ergaster skeleton, Little Foot (Stw 573) from Sterkfontein in South Africa, and more recently tantalizing material assigned to the new and very early taxa Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus ramidus and Sahelanthropus tchadensis has fuelled debate and speculation. The varying interpretations based on this material, together with changing theoretical insights and analytical approaches, is discussed and assessed in the context of new three-dimensional morphometric analyses of australopithecine and Homo foot bones, suggesting that there may have been greater diversity in human bipedalism in the earlier phases

  2. Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Aiello, L C

    2004-05-01

    We review the evolution of human bipedal locomotion with a particular emphasis on the evolution of the foot. We begin in the early twentieth century and focus particularly on hypotheses of an ape-like ancestor for humans and human bipedal locomotion put forward by a succession of Gregory, Keith, Morton and Schultz. We give consideration to Morton's (1935) synthesis of foot evolution, in which he argues that the foot of the common ancestor of modern humans and the African apes would be intermediate between the foot of Pan and Hylobates whereas the foot of a hypothetical early hominin would be intermediate between that of a gorilla and a modern human. From this base rooted in comparative anatomy of living primates we trace changing ideas about the evolution of human bipedalism as increasing amounts of postcranial fossil material were discovered. Attention is given to the work of John Napier and John Robinson who were pioneers in the interpretation of Plio-Pleistocene hominin skeletons in the 1960s. This is the period when the wealth of evidence from the southern African australopithecine sites was beginning to be appreciated and Olduvai Gorge was revealing its first evidence for Homo habilis. In more recent years, the discovery of the Laetoli footprint trail, the AL 288-1 (A. afarensis) skeleton, the wealth of postcranial material from Koobi Fora, the Nariokotome Homo ergaster skeleton, Little Foot (Stw 573) from Sterkfontein in South Africa, and more recently tantalizing material assigned to the new and very early taxa Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus ramidus and Sahelanthropus tchadensis has fuelled debate and speculation. The varying interpretations based on this material, together with changing theoretical insights and analytical approaches, is discussed and assessed in the context of new three-dimensional morphometric analyses of australopithecine and Homo foot bones, suggesting that there may have been greater diversity in human bipedalism in the earlier phases

  3. Muscles do more positive than negative work in human locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul; Helseth, Joseph; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    Summary Muscle work during level walking and ascent and descent ramp and stairway walking was assessed in order to explore the proposition that muscles perform more positive than negative work during these locomotion tasks. Thirty four healthy human adults were tested while maintaining a constant average walking velocity in the five gait conditions. Ground reaction force and sagittal plane kinematic data were obtained during the stance phases of these gaits and used in inverse dynamic analyses to calculate joint torques and powers at the hip, knee and ankle. Muscle work was derived as the area under the joint power vs time curves and was partitioned into positive, negative and net components. Dependent t-tests were used to compare positive and negative work in level walking and net joint work between ascent and descent gaits on the ramp and stairs (Pdifference in magnitude being statistically significant (Pascent was 25% greater than the magnitude of net work in ramp descent (89 vs −71 J m−1, Pstair ascent was 43% greater than the magnitude of net work in stair descent (107 vs −75 J step−1, Pstair descent compared to ascent, which reduced the load on the muscular tissues and their energy dissipating response, and (3) despite the need to produce negative muscle work in descending gaits, both ramp and stair descent also had positive muscle work to propel the lower extremity upward and forward into the swing phase movement trajectory. We used these data to formulate two novel hypotheses about human locomotion. First, level walking requires muscles to generate a net positive amount of work per gait cycle to overcome energy losses by other tissues. Second, skeletal muscles generate more mechanical energy in gait tasks that raise the center of mass compared to the mechanical energy they dissipate in gait tasks that lower the center of mass, despite equivalent changes in total mechanical energy. PMID:17872990

  4. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  5. Kinematics of the coordination of pointing during locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Chiovetto

    Full Text Available In natural motor behaviour arm movements, such as pointing or reaching, often need to be coordinated with locomotion. The underlying coordination patterns are largely unexplored, and require the integration of both rhythmic and discrete movement primitives. For the systematic and controlled study of such coordination patterns we have developed a paradigm that combines locomotion on a treadmill with time-controlled pointing to targets in the three-dimensional space, exploiting a virtual reality setup. Participants had to walk at a constant velocity on a treadmill. Synchronized with specific foot events, visual target stimuli were presented that appeared at different spatial locations in front of them. Participants were asked to reach these stimuli within a short time interval after a "go" signal. We analysed the variability patterns of the most relevant joint angles, as well as the time coupling between the time of pointing and different critical timing events in the foot movements. In addition, we applied a new technique for the extraction of movement primitives from kinematic data based on anechoic demixing. We found a modification of the walking pattern as consequence of the arm movement, as well as a modulation of the duration of the reaching movement in dependence of specific foot events. The extraction of kinematic movement primitives from the joint angle trajectories exploiting the new algorithm revealed the existence of two distinct main components accounting, respectively, for the rhythmic and discrete components of the coordinated movement pattern. Summarizing, our study shows a reciprocal pattern of influences between the coordination patterns of reaching and walking. This pattern might be explained by the dynamic interactions between central pattern generators that initiate rhythmic and discrete movements of the lower and upper limbs, and biomechanical factors such as the dynamic gait stability.

  6. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments. PMID:9025816

  7. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  8. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicholas W.; Apte, Joshua S.; Martien, Philip T.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  9. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  10. State of Clinical Education at Tehran University of Medical Sciences from the Viewpoint of Students of Nursing & Midwifery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Baraz Pardenjani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Clinical education is considered as the heart of medicine and health care due to the importance of training expert manpower. To achieve this goal, education quality should be promoted, this requiring its continuous evaluation. In this regard, application of appropriate educational strategies by competent clinical trainers or instructors leads to an improvement in the clinical education outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the learning method of clinical skills and its barriers from the viewpoint of students of midwifery. Materials & Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 employed BS midwives in Yazd Province who had a 6-month working experience using a questionnaire including demographic information and items on the common clinical skills grading, skills learning methods, and barriers to clinical learning. Having collected the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The findings of the study revealed that the rate of clinical skills was at a good level for most of the subjects (56.5%, at an intermediate level for 30.7 %, and at a low level for 12.8% of the subjects. The correlation coefficients were statistically significant between subjects' level of clinical skills and age, department, and clinical experience. In studying the learning methods of clinical skills, 46.6% of learning was attributed to trainers, while 69.3% of the learning barriers were attributed to lack of sufficient cases during education, and 68.6% were attributed to insufficient practical training. Conclusion : Although the graduates had an acceptable level of clinical skills, the need for improving clinical education and administering continuous education programs for controlling and warranting care quality was markedly obvious. As the subjects reported, learning was attributed to trainers, while learning barriers were attributed to lack of sufficient cases during training, and insufficient practical

  11. Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Tobias; Mailhot, Jeffrey D; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2003-10-01

    The limb girdles and lungs of turtles are both located within the bony shell, and therefore limb movements during locomotion could affect breathing performance. A mechanical conflict between locomotion and lung ventilation has been reported in adult green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, in which breathing stops during terrestrial locomotion and resumes during pauses between bouts of locomotion. We measured lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion using pneumotach masks in three individual Terrapene carolina (mass 304-416 g) and found no consistent mechanical effects of locomotion on breathing performance. Relatively small tidal volumes (2.2+/-1.4 ml breath(-1); mean +/- S.D., N=3 individuals) coupled with high breath frequencies (36.6+/-26.4 breaths min(-1); mean +/- S.D., N=3 individuals) during locomotion yield mass-specific minute volumes that are higher than any previously reported for turtles (264+/-64 ml min kg(-1); mean +/- S.D., N=3 individuals). Minute volume was higher during locomotion than during recovery from exercise (P0.05; two-way ANOVA). Since locomotion does not appear to conflict with breathing performance, the mechanism of lung ventilation must be either independent of, or coupled to, the stride cycle. The timing of peak airflow from breaths occurring during locomotion does not show any fixed phase relationship with the stride cycle. Additionally, the peak values of inhalatory and exhalatory airflow rates do not differ consistently with respect to the stride cycle. Together, these data indicate that T. carolina is not using respiratory-locomotor coupling and limb and girdle movements do not contribute to lung ventilation during locomotion. X-ray video recordings indicate that lung ventilation is achieved via bilateral activity of the transverse (exhalatory) and oblique (inhalatory) abdominal muscles. This specialized abdominal ventilation mechanism may have originally circumvented a mechanical conflict between breathing and locomotion in the

  12. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluisio, James T.

    1980-01-01

    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  13. Reformulation of a clinical-dose system for carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2015-04-01

    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 8,000 patients have been treated for various tumors with carbon-ion (C-ion) radiotherapy in the past 20 years based on a radiobiologically defined clinical-dose system. Through clinical experience, including extensive dose escalation studies, optimum dose-fractionation protocols have been established for respective tumors, which may be considered as the standards in C-ion radiotherapy. Although the therapeutic appropriateness of the clinical-dose system has been widely demonstrated by clinical results, the system incorporates several oversimplifications such as dose-independent relative biological effectiveness (RBE), empirical nuclear fragmentation model, and use of dose-averaged linear energy transfer to represent the spectrum of particles. We took the opportunity to update the clinical-dose system at the time we started clinical treatment with pencil beam scanning, a new beam delivery method, in 2011. The requirements for the updated system were to correct the oversimplifications made in the original system, while harmonizing with the original system to maintain the established dose-fractionation protocols. In the updated system, the radiation quality of the therapeutic C-ion beam was derived with Monte Carlo simulations, and its biological effectiveness was predicted with a theoretical model. We selected the most used C-ion beam with αr = 0.764 Gy-1 and β = 0.0615 Gy-2 as reference radiation for RBE. The C-equivalent biological dose distribution is designed to allow the prescribed survival of tumor cells of the human salivary gland (HSG) in entire spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region, with consideration to the dose dependence of the RBE. This C-equivalent biological dose distribution is scaled to a clinical dose distribution to harmonize with our clinical experiences with C-ion radiotherapy. Treatment plans were made with the original and the updated clinical-dose systems, and both

  14. Integration of Basic-Clinical Sciences, PBL, CBL, and IPE in U.S. Dental Schools' Curricula and a Proposed Integrated Curriculum Model for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Venugopalan, Shankar Rengasamy; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Weistroffer, Paula; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2016-03-01

    The integration of basic and clinical sciences in dental curricula enhances the application of basic science principles to clinical decision making and improves students' critical thinking. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of U.S. dental schools' curricula with regard to level of course integration and degree of incorporation of problem-based and case-based learning. A second aim was to propose a dental curriculum that supports effective integration of courses and addresses some of the concerns facing academic dentistry. A survey was sent to 58 academic deans in U.S. dental schools. The survey included questions about integrating courses in the schools' curricula and major changes in curricular structure or teaching pedagogy that respondents anticipated in the immediate future. A total of 31 schools responded to the survey, for a 53.4% response rate. The results showed that three-quarters of the responding schools still teach basic and clinical sciences separately, although 61.3% reported having an integrated curriculum. Among the responding schools, 16 had a PBL component integrated into their curricula (two had integrated PBL in all courses and 14 used a hybrid PBL approach). Two schools had CBL integrated in all courses, and ten had CBL integrated in >75% of courses. Only slightly more than half agreed that their curricula foster students' thinking "outside the box." Faculty shortages and lack of protected time and resources were the most frequent reasons given for a lack of integrated courses. The integrated model proposed in this article has the potential to provide a low stress environment for students and to address important issues like faculty shortages. PMID:26933103

  15. Assessing and understanding quality of care in a labour ward: a pilot study combining clinical and social science perspectives in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchforth, Emma; Lilford, Richard J; Kebede, Yigzaw; Asres, Getahun; Stanford, Charlotte; Frost, Jodie

    2010-11-01

    Ensuring high quality intrapartum care in developing countries is a crucial component of efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Conceptual frameworks for understanding quality of care have broadened to reflect the complexity of factors affecting quality of health care provision. Yet, the role of social sciences within the assessment and understanding of quality of care in this field has focused primarily on seeking to understand the views and experiences of service users and providers. In this pilot study we aimed to combine clinical and social science perspectives and methods to best assess and understand issues affecting quality of clinical care and to identify priorities for change. Based in one referral hospital in Ethiopia, data collection took place in three phases using a combination of structured and unstructured observations, interviews and a modified nominal group process. This resulted in a thorough and pragmatic methodology. Our results showed high levels of knowledge and compliance with most aspects of good clinical practice, and non-compliance was affected by different, inter-linked, resource constraints. Considering possible changes in terms of resource implications, local stakeholders prioritised five areas for change. Some of these changes would have considerable resources implications whilst others could be made within existing resources. The discussion focuses on implications for informing quality improvement interventions. Improvements will need to address health systems issues, such as supply of key drugs, as well as changes in professional practice to promote the rational use of drugs. Furthermore, the study considers the need to understand broader organizational factors and inter-professional relationships. The potential for greater integration of social science perspectives as part of currently increasing monitoring and evaluation activity around intrapartum care is highlighted. PMID:20855142

  16. STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF TRACTION INVERTER FOR MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structural reliability of different variants of structured schemes of the steady-state converter for traction drive of promising multi-system electric locomotives with asynchronous traction engines is compared.

  17. IMPROVING OF ENERGY AND OTHER INDICATORS OF RECEIVING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTING OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Loza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of determination of equivalent load current in tests of electric locomotive traction engines without forced ventilation with use of the results of qualification test of engines of certain types are offered in the article.

  18. Kinematics and the Implementation of a Modular Caterpillar Robot in Trapezoidal Wave Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Wei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of bionic engineering, research into bionic robots has become a popular topic. In this field, the design of robotic mechanisms to realize the locomotion of insects forms a significant research branch. The current paper presents a caterpillar robotic mechanism that is composed of our newly-developed\tself-assembly\tmodular\trobots (Sambot. A trapezoidal wave locomotion gait is planned for the caterpillar mechanism and the kinematics equations are established and solved analytically for such locomotion. The variations of the kinematics quantities are illustrated and discussed. The variation of the jump of the angular acceleration indicates that it is better to apply the trapezoidal wave gait to low velocity situations. Finally, the obtained data of the kinematics quantities is used to perform the gait control locomotion experiment and the errors of the experimental data are analysed in depth.

  19. Arousal and locomotion make distinct contributions to cortical activity patterns and visual encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinck, Martin; Batista-Brito, Renata; Knoblich, Ulf; Cardin, Jessica A

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity is highly state-dependent, yet relatively little is known about transitions between distinct waking states. Patterns of activity in mouse V1 differ dramatically between quiescence and locomotion, but this difference could be explained by either motor feedback or a change in arousal levels. We recorded single cells and local field potentials from area V1 in mice head-fixed on a running wheel and monitored pupil diameter to assay arousal. Using naturally occurring and induced state transitions, we dissociated arousal and locomotion effects in V1. Arousal suppressed spontaneous firing and strongly altered the temporal patterning of population activity. Moreover, heightened arousal increased the signal-to-noise ratio of visual responses and reduced noise correlations. In contrast, increased firing in anticipation of and during movement was attributable to locomotion effects. Our findings suggest complementary roles of arousal and locomotion in promoting functional flexibility in cortical circuits. PMID:25892300

  20. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies. PMID:27222228

  1. A great pioneer of clinical science remembered: introduction to the special issue in honor of Paul E. Meehl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Waller, Niels G

    2005-10-01

    In this special issue, the seminal contributions to clinical psychology of Paul E. Meehl, who passed away in 2003, are commemorated. The nine articles comprising this special issue chronicle Meehl's remarkable intellectual biography and examine his influence on diverse domains of psychology, including the clinical versus actuarial prediction debate, the cognitive activity of the clinician, personality assessment and trait theory, the etiology of schizophrenia, the shortcomings of statistical significance testing, and the use of metascientific methods to evaluate competing models of human nature. These articles illustrate not only Meehl's legendary brilliance but also his pivotal role in forcing clinical psychologists to think more clearly and incisively about their subject matter. PMID:16041777

  2. Concurrent Optimization of Mechanical Design and Locomotion Control of a Legged Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Digumarti, K. M.; Gehring, C; Coros, S.; Hwangbo, J.; Siegwart, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously optimize design and control parameters for legged robots to improve the performance of locomotion based tasks. The morphology of a quadrupedal robot was optimized for a trotting and bounding gait to achieve a certain speed while tuning the control parameters of a robust locomotion controller at the same time. The results of the optimization show that a change of the structure of the robot can help increase its admissable top speed while using t...

  3. Effects of Pollutant Diesel Fuels on Neurobehavioral Performance among Workers in Locomotive Depot

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Ithnin; Radiah A.H. Shaari; Mazrura Sahani; Anuar M. Mokhtar; Azhar A. Halim; Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Diesel fuel contains various combinations of hydrocarbons such as cyclohexane, n-hexane, benzene and toluene which can cause health problems in major exposure of that pollutant in locomotive depots. Studies were conducted to evaluate the exposure towards diesel fuel pollutant and the effect on neurobehavioral performances among workers in locomotive depots. Approach: Method used was questionnaire form and neurobehavioral performances were measured by ...

  4. A natural movement database for management, documentation, visualization, mining and modeling of locomotion experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Theunissen, Leslie; Hertrich, Michael; Wiljes, Cord; Zell, Eduard; Behler, Christian; Krause, André Frank; Bekemeier, Holger; Cimiano, Philipp; Botsch, Mario; Dürr, Volker; Duff, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, experimental data on natural, un-restrained locomo-tion of animals has strongly increased in complexity and quantity. This is due to novel motion-capture techniques, but also to the combination of several meth-ods such as electromyography or force measurements. Since much of this data is of great value for the development, modeling and benchmarking of technical locomotion systems, suitable data management, documentation and visualiza-tion are essential. Here, we usan example ...

  5. Kinematics and the Implementation of a Modular Caterpillar Robot in Trapezoidal Wave Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxing Wei; Yuanyang Cui; Haiyuan Li; Jindong Tan; Yong Guan; Yong-Dong Li

    2013-01-01

    With the development of bionic engineering, research into bionic robots has become a popular topic. In this field, the design of robotic mechanisms to realize the locomotion of insects forms a significant research branch. The current paper presents a caterpillar robotic mechanism that is composed of our newly-developed self-assembly modular robots (Sambot). A trapezoidal wave locomotion gait is planned for the caterpillar mechanism and the kinematics equations are established and solved analy...

  6. Identification of a brainstem circuit regulating visual cortical state in parallel with locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, A. Moses; Hoy, Jennifer L.; Bonci, Antonello; Wilbrecht, Linda; Stryker, Michael P; Niell, Cristopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing is dependent upon behavioral state. In mice, locomotion is accompanied by changes in cortical state and enhanced visual responses. Although recent studies have begun to elucidate the intrinsic cortical mechanisms underlying this effect, the neural circuits that initially couple locomotion to cortical processing are unknown. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been shown to be capable of initiating running and is associated with the ascending reticular activating sy...

  7. Development of generalized dynamic model of oscillations of cylinder case of diesel engine of locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina YUTKINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An engineering method of design, worked out by the authors, is considered in the paper. It allows to carry out design of amplitude-frequency specter and vibration loading of cylinder cases of the diesel engine of locomotive with account of cavitation-erosion damage. Offered method of design of parameters of cavitation-erosion damage may be used in design of new structures of diesel engines of locomotives and systems of cooling.

  8. Abnormal gait sequence in locomotion after atropine treatment of catecholamine-deficient akinetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; Chesire, R M; Rowland, N; Teitelbaum, P

    1987-01-01

    Excessive, abnormal locomotion occurs after a high dose (25-50 mg/kg) of atropine sulfate to rats already akinetic due to catecholamine deficiency from intraventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. This abnormal locomotion involves an abnormal gait sequence [right (R) hindleg (H), left (L) foreleg (F), LH, RF] instead of the normal gait sequence (RH, RF, LH, LF). In such animals atropine progressively (i) decreases hindleg step size, (ii) decreases arching of the trunk, and (iii) incr...

  9. Adaptation to a cortex controlled robot attached at the pelvis and engaged during locomotion in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weiguo; Giszter, Simon F.

    2011-01-01

    Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs) should ideally show robust adaptation of the BMI across different tasks and daily activities. Most BMIs have used over-practiced tasks. Little is known about BMIs in dynamic environments. How are mechanically body-coupled BMIs integrated into ongoing rhythmic dynamics, e.g., in locomotion? To examine this we designed a novel BMI using neural discharge in the hindlimb/trunk motor cortex in rats during locomotion to control a robot attached at the pelvis. We test...

  10. Intermittent Food Absence Motivates Reallocation of Locomotion and Feeding in Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amrita; Malik, Shalie; Yadav, Garima; Rani, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Daily feeding and locomotion are interrelated behaviours. The time spent in feeding and rate of food intake depends on food availability. In low food condition, the birds would show intense movement (locomotion) for a longer time throughout the day however during abundant food supply they may chose higher activity and food intake in the morning and evening only. In the present study we hypothesized that in Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata), intermittent food availability during ...

  11. Evidence for a Mass Dependent Step-Change in the Scaling of Efficiency in Terrestrial Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.; William I Sellers

    2009-01-01

    A reanalysis of existing data suggests that the established tenet of increasing efficiency of transport with body size in terrestrial locomotion requires re-evaluation. Here, the statistical model that described the data best indicated a dichotomy between the data for small (1 kg). Within and between these two size groups there was no detectable difference in the scaling exponents (slopes) relating metabolic (E met) and mechanical costs (E mech, CM) of locomotion to body mass (M b). Therefore...

  12. A Systemic Approach Integrating Driving Cycles for the Design of Hybrid Locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Amine; Sareni, Bruno; Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Driving cycles are essential in hybrid locomotive design by conditioning their size and performance. This paper introduces a new systemic approach to hybrid locomotive design, taking real-world driving cycles into account. The proposed approach first exploits clustering analysis with the aim of identifying classes corresponding to particular sets of driving cycles. Then, a synthesis process of a reduced and representative profile from each class of driving cycles is presented. Both approaches...

  13. Unmet Needs in Cardiovascular Science and Medicine: Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Mechanisms, Clinical Features, and Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Kavita; Kass, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical syndrome comprised of heart failure symptoms but with a left ventricular ejection fraction that is not diminished, e.g. heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is increasingly the predominant form of HF in the developed world, and soon to reach epidemic proportions. It remains among the most challenging of clinical syndromes for the practicing clinician and scientist alike, with a multitude of proposed mechanisms involving the heart and other organs and complex ...

  14. Locomotion Generation and Motion Library Design for an Anguilliform Robotic Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelei Niu; Jianxin Xu; Qinyuan Ren; Qingguo Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,modeling,locomotion generation,motion library design and path planning for a real prototype of an Anguilliform robotic fish are presented.The robotic fish consists of four links and three joints,and the driving forces are the torques applied to the joints.Considering kinematic constraints and hydrodynamic forces,Lagrangian formulation is used to obtain the dynamic model of the fish.Using this model,three major locomotion patterns of Anguilliform fish,including forward locomotion,backward locomotion and turning locomotion are investigated.It is found that the fish exhibits different locomotion pattems by giving different reference joint angles,such as adding reversed phase difference,or adding deflections to the original reference angles.The results are validated by both simulations and experiments.Furthermore,the relations among the speed of the fish,angular frequency,undulation amplitude,phase difference,as well as the relationship between the turning radius and deflection angle are investigated.These relations provide an elaborated motion library that can be used for motion planning of the robotic fish.

  15. Locomotion of inchworm-inspired robot made of smart soft composite (SSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft-bodied robot made of smart soft composite with inchworm-inspired locomotion capable of both two-way linear and turning movement has been proposed, developed, and tested. The robot was divided into three functional parts based on the different functions of the inchworm: the body, the back foot, and the front foot. Shape memory alloy wires were embedded longitudinally in a soft polymer to imitate the longitudinal muscle fibers that control the abdominal contractions of the inchworm during locomotion. Each foot of the robot has three segments with different friction coefficients to implement the anchor and sliding movement. Then, utilizing actuation patterns between the body and feet based on the looping gait, the robot achieves a biomimetic inchworm gait. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the robot’s locomotive performance for both linear locomotion and turning movement. Results show that the proposed robot’s stride length was nearly one third of its body length, with a maximum linear speed of 3.6 mm s−1, a linear locomotion efficiency of 96.4%, a maximum turning capability of 4.3 degrees per stride, and a turning locomotion efficiency of 39.7%. (paper)

  16. The medial preoptic area modulates cocaine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Ryan G; Martz, Julia R; Dominguez, Juan M

    2016-05-15

    Cocaine-induced locomotion is mediated by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Recent evidence indicates that the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region in the rostral hypothalamus, modulates cocaine-induced dopamine in the NAc. Specifically, rats with lesions of the mPOA experienced a greater increase in dopamine following cocaine administration than rats with sham lesions. Whether the mPOA similarly influences cocaine-induced locomotion is not known. Here we examined whether radiofrequency or neurotoxic lesions of the mPOA in male rats influence changes in locomotion that follow cocaine administration. Locomotion was measured following cocaine administration in male rats with neurotoxic, radiofrequency, or sham lesions of the mPOA. Results indicate that bilateral lesions of the mPOA facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion. This facilitation was independent of lesion type, as increased locomotion was observed with either approach. These findings support a role for the mPOA as an integral region in the processing of cocaine-induced behavioral response, in this case locomotor activity. PMID:26947755

  17. Locomotion-learning behavior relationship in Caenorhabditis elegans following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learning impairment following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is an important potential risk in manned space missions. We previously reported the modulatory effects of IR on salt chemotaxis learning in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, little is known about the effects of IR on the functional relationship in the nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of γ-ray exposure on the relationship between locomotion and salt chemotaxis learning behavior. We found that effects of pre-learning irradiation on locomotion were significantly correlated with the salt chemotaxis learning performance, whereas locomotion was not directly related to chemotaxis to NaCl. On the other hand, locomotion was positively correlated with salt chemotaxis of animals which were irradiated during learning, and the correlation disappeared with increasing doses. These results suggest an indirect relationship between locomotion and salt chemotaxis learning in C. elegans, and that IR inhibits the innate relationship between locomotion and chemotaxis, which is related to salt chemotaxis learning conditioning of C. elegans. (author)

  18. The leg stiffnesses animals use may improve the stability of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, ZhuoHua; Seipel, Justin

    2015-07-21

    Despite a wide diversity of running animals, their leg stiffness normalized by animal size and weight (a relative leg stiffness) resides in a narrow range between 7 and 27. Here we determine if the stability of locomotion could be a driving factor for the tight distribution of animal leg stiffness. We simulated an established physics-based model (the actuated Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum model) of animal running and found that, with the same energetic cost, perturbations to locomotion are optimally corrected when relative leg stiffness is within the biologically observed range. Here we show that the stability of locomotion, in combination with energetic cost, could be a significant factor influencing the nearly universally observed animal relative leg stiffness range. The energetic cost of locomotion has been widely acknowledged as influencing the evolution of physiology and locomotion behaviors. Specifically, its potential importance for relative leg stiffness has been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that stability of locomotion may also be a significant factor influencing relative leg stiffness. PMID:25908205

  19. Locomotion Strategy Selection for a Hybrid Mobile Robot Using Time of Flight Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Saudabayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a mobile robot can be improved by utilizing different locomotion modes in various terrain conditions. This creates the necessity of having a supervisory controller capable of recognizing different terrain types and changing the locomotion mode of the robot accordingly. This work focuses on the locomotion strategy selection problem for a hybrid legged wheeled mobile robot. Supervisory control of the robot is accomplished by the terrain recognizer, which classifies depth images obtained from a commercial time of flight depth sensor and selects different locomotion mode subcontrollers based on the recognized terrain type. For the terrain recognizer, a database is generated consisting of five terrain classes (Uneven, Level Ground, Stair Up, Stair Down, and Nontraversable. Depth images are enhanced using confidence map based filtering. The accuracy of the terrain classification using Support Vector Machine classifier for the testing database in five-class terrain recognition problem is 97%. Real-world experiments assess the locomotion abilities of the quadruped and the capability of the terrain recognizer in real-time settings. The results of these experiments show depth images processed in real time using machine learning algorithms can be used for the supervisory control of hybrid robots with legged and wheeled locomotion capabilities.

  20. Robotic and mathematical modeling reveal general principles of appendage control and coordination in terrestrial locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Gong, Chaohui; Kawano, Sandy; Schiebel, Perrin; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial life presented new challenges to early walkers, necessitating robust locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand, mud). Locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to limb morphology and kinematics. Although early walker morphologies are known, principles of appendage control remain elusive. To reveal limb control strategies that facilitated the invasion of land, we study both robotic and mathematical models. Robot experiments show that an active tail is critical for robust locomotion on granular media, enabling locomotion even with poor foot placement and limited ability to lift the body. Using a granular resistive force theory model, we construct connection vector fields that reveal how appendage coordination and terrain inclination impact locomotor performance. This model replicates experimental results, showing that moving limbs/tail in phase is most effective (suggesting a locomotor template). Varying limb trajectories and contacts, we find gaits for which tail use can be neutral or harmful, suggesting limb-tail coordination to be a nontrivial aspect of locomotion. Our findings show that robot experiments coupled with geometric mechanics provide a general framework to reveal principles of robust terrestrial locomotion. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  1. The Correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and Academic Achievement of Preclinical and Clinical Medical Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Sepahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical thinking skill is an essential factor for success in today’s rapidly developing world. The present study was carried out to compare the association between critical thinking disposition and academic achievement in preclinical and clinical medical students. Methods: This study was descriptive-correlational in which the sample included 259 medical students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences selected through stratified random sampling. The standard critical thinking disposition inventory (with validity of 0.8 and the students’ report card grades as criterion for academic achievement was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Kolmogrov-Smirnov and correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean of critical thinking disposition in the preclinical stage was 209.08±26.24 indicating a significant correlation with academic achievement (p=0.003, r=-2.64. In the clinical stage, however, the mean of critical thinking disposition was 214.07±28.15 which showed no significant correlation with academic achievement. Moreover, the mean of critical thinking disposition and its components in preclinical and clinical stages revealed not significant correlation and merely curiosity component showed a significant correlation (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed no correlation between critical thinking disposition and academic achievement in the clinical stage; however, this correlation was negatively significant in the preclinical stage.

  2. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. PMID:26365704

  3. Magneto-mechanical actuation model for fin-based locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajal, Juan Pablo; 10.2495/DN100331

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results from the analysis of a numerical model used for the design of a magnetic linear actuator with applications to fin-based locomotion. Most of the current robotic fish generate bending motion using rotary motors which implies at least one mechanical conversion of the motion. We seek a solution that directly bends the fin and, at the same time, is able to exploit the magneto-mechanical properties of the fin material. This strong fin-actuator coupling blends the actuator and the body of the robot, allowing cross optimization of the system's elements. We study a simplified model of an elastic element, a spring-mass system representing a flexible fin, subjected to nonlinear forcing, emulating magnetic interaction. The dynamics of the system is studied under unforced and periodic forcing conditions. The analysis is focused on the limit cycles present in the system, which allows the periodic bending of the fin and the generation of thrust. The frequency, maximum amplitude and cente...

  4. Bristle-Bots: a model system for locomotion and swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomi, Luca; Hawley-Weld, Nico; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    The term swarming describes the ability of a group of similarly sized organisms to move coherently in space and time. This behavior is ubiquitous among living systems: it occurs in sub-cellular systems, bacteria, insects, fish, birds, pedestrians and in general in nearly any group of individuals endowed with the ability to move and sense. Here we address the problem of the origin of collective behavior in systems of self-propelled agents whose only social capability is given by aligning contact interactions. Our model system consists of a collection of Bristle-Bots, simple automata made from a toothbrush and the vibrating device of a cellular phone. When Bristle-Bots are confined in a limited space, increasing their number drives a transition from a disordered and uncoordinated motion to an organized collective behavior. This can occur through the formation of a swirling cluster of robots or a collective dynamical arrest, according to the type of locomotion implemented in the single devices. It is possible to move between these two major regimes by adjusting a single construction parameter.

  5. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Irvin Sellers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective.

  6. Human locomotion and heat loss: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique in many respects including being furless, striding bipeds that excel at walking and running long distances in hot conditions. This review summarizes what we do and do not know about the evolution of these characteristics, and how they are related. Although many details remain poorly known, the first hominins (species more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees) apparently diverged from the chimpanzee lineage because of selection for bipedal walking, probably because it improved their ability to forage efficiently. However, because bipedal hominins are necessarily slow runners, early hominins in open habitats likely benefited from improved abilities to dump heat in order to forage safely during times of peak heat when predators were unable to hunt them. Endurance running capabilities evolved later, probably as adaptations for scavenging and then hunting. If so, then there would have been strong selection for heat-loss mechanisms, especially sweating, to persistence hunt, in which hunters combine endurance running and tracking to drive their prey into hyperthermia. As modern humans dispersed into a wide range of habitats over the last few hundred thousand years, recent selection has helped populations cope better with a broader range of locomotor and thermoregulatory challenges, but all humans remain essentially adapted for long distance locomotion rather than speed, and to dump rather than retain heat. PMID:25589265

  7. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Clark, J, E-mail: schmitjo@engr.orst.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  8. Flank crack detection in locomotive wheels with NDE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczynski, Marie; Jayaraman, Subash B.; Halter, Ryan; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2001-08-01

    There is a need to analyze locomotive wheels for flank cracks in a non-destructive manner in order to prevent catastrophic failures. Flaw, shape, and size are desired parameters in establishing the quality of commercial tires. A variety of defects such as voids, inclusions, surface and internal cracks, or the like, must be discerned in order to prevent failure. This paper exhibits and compares the benefits of a number of different techniques used for flaw detection. Non-destructive evaluation techniques used consist of a magnetic particle, dye penetrant, eddy current, electro-magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), and longitudinal and shear wave ultrasonic inspection. The techniques vary in their ability to ascertain the flaw characteristics. Surface, sub-surface, and internal defects were visualized using the various methodologies. Magnetic particle, dye penetrant, and eddy current inspection techniques are viable methods for looking at surface flaws. Depending on the penetration depth, sub- surface flaws were also detectable via these methods. EMAT and ultrasonic transducer methods can be used to find surface, subsurface, and internal flaws based on the configuration utilized.

  9. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  10. Flapping locomotion of a flexible wing with heaving motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-11-01

    The flapping locomotion of a freely heaving flexible wing was experimentally explored in a merry-go-round equipment. Two rectangular wings were attached at the both ends of a horizontal support bar submerged in a dodecagonal water tank. The center of the support bar was connected to the vertically flapping axis which is freely rotating. This experimental apparatus generated a pure heaving motion in the vertical direction to the flapping wings in the frequency range of 0 to 5 Hz. The propulsion due to the heaving wing was expressed by a horizontally rotating speed of the support bar. The heaving motion and the rotating speed were retained with a laser displacement sensor and a rotary encoder. The rotating speed according to the heaving frequency was measured with different experimental parameters. Compared to a rigid wing, the flexible wing in the heaving motion showed a better propulsive performance in some conditions. The effects of the flexibility, the aspect ratio, and the thickness of the heaving wing on the propulsive performance were examined. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2015-001828) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  11. Reinforcement learning of periodical gaits in locomotion robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinin, Mikhail; Yamada, Kazuyaki; Ushio, S.; Ueda, Kanji

    1999-08-01

    Emergence of stable gaits in locomotion robots is studied in this paper. A classifier system, implementing an instance- based reinforcement learning scheme, is used for sensory- motor control of an eight-legged mobile robot. Important feature of the classifier system is its ability to work with the continuous sensor space. The robot does not have a prior knowledge of the environment, its own internal model, and the goal coordinates. It is only assumed that the robot can acquire stable gaits by learning how to reach a light source. During the learning process the control system, is self-organized by reinforcement signals. Reaching the light source defines a global reward. Forward motion gets a local reward, while stepping back and falling down get a local punishment. Feasibility of the proposed self-organized system is tested under simulation and experiment. The control actions are specified at the leg level. It is shown that, as learning progresses, the number of the action rules in the classifier systems is stabilized to a certain level, corresponding to the acquired gait patterns.

  12. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  13. The impact of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2: What role do public-private partnerships have in pushing the boundaries of clinical and basic science research on Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Davis, Dorothy M; Buckholtz, Neil

    2015-07-01

    In the growing landscape of biomedical public-private-partnerships, particularly for Alzheimer's disease, the question is posed as to their value. What impacts do public-private-partnerships have on clinical and basic science research in Alzheimer's disease? The authors answer the question using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) as a test case and example. ADNI is an exemplar of how public-private-partnerships can make an impact not only on clinical and basic science research and practice (including clinical trials), but also of how similar partnerships using ADNI as an example, can be designed to create a maximal impact within their fields. PMID:26194319

  14. Factors in the Development of Clinical Informatics Competence in Early Career Health Sciences Professionals in Australia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying essential clinical informatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their…

  15. Management of Holding and Evaluating Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams (Sajab in the Sixth Nationwide Medical Sciences Students Olympiad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Khoshbaten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Nationwide Medical Sciences Students purpose of the Olympiad is to discover student’s talents and encourage them to study. It seems that holding regional Olympiad exams to select students for the National Olympiad can help us to maintain fairness. The aim of this study is Management of Holding and Evaluating Clinical Reasoning Exams Using a Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams. Methods: Study was carried out in 2013 at the University of Medical Sciences on 750 students, 250 question designers, 37 responsibles. The nationwide universities held regional exams for the Student Olympiad in the area of clinical reasoning on specific dates and times. A quality review of the exams was done to study the strengths and weaknesses and to eliminate shortcomings and problems. Therefore, a researcher created a questionnaire with a reliability of R= 0.86 and validity was confirmed by experts, which was then loaded into the system. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics (Percent, Average, standard deviation. Results: The multimedia educational quality of the system, with an average of 69.36 ±22.79, the students and faculty members evaluated as good, with averages of 64.30 ±23.48 and 67.28 ± 22.43, respectively. The quality of the exam was evaluated as excellent by faculty members, with an average of 94.63 ±16.60 and 59.52 ±27.46, by the students. Conclusion: Evaluating the quality of the system’s performance and its ability to assess students will lead to a clarification of its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, result in the creation of a high quality evaluation system.

  16. Open source tracking and analysis of adult Drosophila locomotion in Buridan's paradigm with and without visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have been among the most widely used model systems for studying the control of locomotion by nervous systems. In Drosophila, we implemented a simple test for locomotion: in Buridan's paradigm, flies walk back and forth between two inaccessible visual targets [1]. Until today, the lack of easily accessible tools for tracking the fly position and analyzing its trajectory has probably contributed to the slow acceptance of Buridan's paradigm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a package of open source software designed to track a single animal walking in a homogenous environment (Buritrack and to analyze its trajectory. The Centroid Trajectory Analysis (CeTrAn software is coded in the open source statistics project R. It extracts eleven metrics and includes correlation analyses and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA. It was designed to be easily customized to personal requirements. In combination with inexpensive hardware, these tools can readily be used for teaching and research purposes. We demonstrate the capabilities of our package by measuring the locomotor behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster (whose wings were clipped, either in the presence or in the absence of visual targets, and comparing the latter to different computer-generated data. The analysis of the trajectories confirms that flies are centrophobic and shows that inaccessible visual targets can alter the orientation of the flies without changing their overall patterns of activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using computer generated data, the analysis software was tested, and chance values for some metrics (as well as chance value for their correlation were set. Our results prompt the hypothesis that fixation behavior is observed only if negative phototaxis can overcome the propensity of the flies to avoid the center of the platform. Together with our companion paper, we provide new tools to promote Open Science as well as the collection and

  17. Towards Dynamic Trot Gait Locomotion---Design, Control and Experiments with Cheetah-cub, a Compliant Quadruped Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sproewitz, Alexander; Tuleu, Alexandre; Vespignani, Massimo; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Badri, Emilie; IJSPEERT, AUKE

    2013-01-01

    We present robot design and results from locomotion experiments with a novel, compliant quadruped robot: Cheetah-cub. The robot's leg configuration is based on a spring-loaded, panthograph-mechanism with multiple segments. A dedicated open-loop, joint-space locomotion controller was derived and implemented. Experimentally, we found high speed and dynamic gaits, and evaluated the robot's locomotion characteristics. Experiments were run in simulation and in hardware on flat terrain, and at a st...

  18. Genome-Wide Scan for Bats and Dolphin to Detect Their Genetic Basis for New Locomotive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Zhou, Wei-ping; Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Zeng, Yan-Ni; Li, Gui-Mei; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    For most mammals, running is their major locomotive style, however, cetaceans and bats are two mammalian groups that have independently developed new locomotive styles (swimming and flying) from their terrestrial ancestors. In this study, we used a genome-wide comparative analysis in an attempt to identify the selective imprint of the development of new locomotive styles by cetaceans and bats to adapt to their new ecological niches. We found that an elevated proportion of mitochondrion-associ...

  19. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malwela, Thivhulawi; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives. Setting The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini. Methods A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method. Result One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards. Conclusion Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  20. Posture, locomotion, spatial orientation, and motion sickness as a function of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.; Layne, C.; McDonald, V.

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes a variety of newly published findings obtained by the Neuroscience Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and attempts to place this work within a historical framework of previous results on posture, locomotion, motion sickness, and perceptual responses that have been observed in conjunction with space flight. In this context, we have taken the view that correct transduction and integration of signals from all sensory systems is essential to maintaining stable vision, postural and locomotor control, and eye-hand coordination as components of spatial orientation. The plasticity of the human central nervous system allows individuals to adapt to altered stimulus conditions encountered in a microgravity environment. However, until some level of adaptation is achieved, astronauts and cosmonauts often experience space motion sickness, disturbances in motion control and eye-hand coordination, unstable vision, and illusory motion of the self, the visual scene, or both. Many of the same types of disturbances encountered in space flight reappear immediately after crew members return to earth. The magnitude of these neurosensory, sensory-motor and perceptual disturbances, and the time needed to recover from them, tend to vary as a function of mission duration and the space travelers prior experience with the stimulus rearrangement of space flight. To adequately chart the development of neurosensory changes associated with space flight, we recommend development of enhanced eye movement systems and body position measurement. We also advocate the use of a human small radius centrifuge as both a research tool and as a means of providing on-orbit countermeasures that will lessen the impact of living for long periods of time with out exposure to altering gravito-inertial forces. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Non-science majors gain valuable insight studying clinical trials literature: an evidence-based medicine library assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Janet S; Martin, Lucy; Curtin, Dara; Penhale, Sara; Trueblood, Nathan A

    2004-12-01

    When faced with a diagnosis, it is empowering to be able to assess the evidence of treatment effectiveness and safety. To teach this skill to non-science majors, we assigned the "Responsible Patienthood Project" (RPP). For the RPP, students studied an array of disease and treatment literature: the final product of their work was a poster presentation, in which they did an in-depth analysis of one primary article, thus encouraging critical evaluation of experimental design, methods, and conclusions. Post-RPP, there was a 35% decrease in the student perception that they would unquestioningly accept a recommended treatment for a hypothetical diagnosis, and a 40% increase in the perception that they would consult a combination of resources, including primary articles. We recommend this project based on our results that suggest 1) non-science majors are able to successfully access and assess primary scientific literature, 2) students felt empowered by the RPP, and 3) skills in information gathering, via library instruction, may serve as a particularly helpful lifelong learning tool. PMID:15545347

  2. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  3. The integrated function of muscles and tendons during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J

    2002-12-01

    The mechanical roles of tendon and muscle contractile elements during locomotion are often considered independently, but functionally they are tightly integrated. Tendons can enhance muscle performance for a wide range of locomotor activities because muscle-tendon units shorten and lengthen at velocities that would be mechanically unfavorable for muscle fibers functioning alone. During activities that require little net mechanical power output, such as steady-speed running, tendons reduce muscular work by storing and recovering cyclic changes in the mechanical energy of the body. Tendon stretch and recoil not only reduces muscular work, but also allows muscle fibers to operate nearly isometrically, where, due to the force-velocity relation, skeletal muscle fibers develop high forces. Elastic energy storage and recovery in tendons may also provide a key mechanism to enable individual muscles to alter their mechanical function, from isometric force-producers during steady speed running to actively shortening power-producers during high-power activities like acceleration or uphill running. Evidence from studies of muscle contraction and limb dynamics in turkeys suggests that during running accelerations work is transferred directly from muscle to tendon as tendon stretch early in the step is powered by muscle shortening. The energy stored in the tendon is later released to help power the increase in energy of the body. These tendon length changes redistribute muscle power, enabling contractile elements to shorten at relatively constant velocities and power outputs, independent of the pattern of flexion/extension at a joint. Tendon elastic energy storage and recovery extends the functional range of muscles by uncoupling the pattern of muscle fiber shortening from the pattern of movement of the body. PMID:12485693

  4. The hippocampus participates in the control of locomotion speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ruiz, J R; Osuna Carrasco, L P; López Valenzuela, C L; Franco Rodríguez, N E; de la Torre Valdovinos, B; Jiménez Estrada, I; Dueñas Jiménez, J M; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2015-12-17

    The hippocampus role in sensory-motor integration remains unclear. In these experiments we study its function in the locomotor control. To establish the connection between the hippocampus and the locomotor system, electrical stimulation in the CA1 region was applied and EMG recordings were obtained. We also evaluated the hindlimbs and forelimbs kinematic patterns in rats with a penetrating injury (PI) in the hippocampus as well as in a cortex-injured group (CI), which served as control. After the PI, tamoxifen a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been described as a neuroprotector and antiinflammatory drug, or vehicle was administered. Electrical stimulation in the hippocampus produces muscle contractions in the contralateral triceps, when 6 Hz or 8 Hz pulse trains were applied. The penetrating injury in the hippocampus reduced the EMG amplitude after the electrical stimulation. At 7 DPI (days post-injury) we observed an increase in the strides speed in all four limbs of the non-treated group, decreasing the correlation percentage of the studied joints. After 15 DPI the strides speed in the non-treated returned to normal. These changes did not occur in the tamoxifen group nor in cortex-injured group. After 30 days, the nontreated group presented a reduction in the number of pyramidal cell layer neurons at the injury site, in comparison to the tam-treated group. The loss of neurons, may cause the interruption of the trisynaptic circuit and changes in the locomotion speed. Tamoxifen preserves the pyramidal neurons after the injury, probably resulting in the strides speed recovery. PMID:26597762

  5. Walking on inclines: energetics of locomotion in the ant Camponotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Alexandra; Wolf, Harald; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2005-02-01

    To assess energetic costs during rest and locomotion in a small insect, we measured metabolic rate in freely moving ants Camponotus sp. (average body mass 11.9 mg). The animals ran in a straight respirometric chamber in which locomotor speed and CO2 release were monitored simultaneously using flow-through respirometry and conventional video analysis. In resting intact ants, standard metabolic rate was on average 0.32 ml CO2 g(-1) body mass h(-1). During walking, the ants breathed continuously and metabolic rate increased between 4.3 times (level walking at 0-5 mm s(-1)) and 6.9 times (30 degrees ascent at 85-95 mm s(-1)) over resting rates. Metabolic rate increased linearly with increasing walking speed but superficially leveled off beyond speeds of about 70 mm s(-1). Walking on incline (uphill) or decline slopes (downhill) of up to 60 degrees had only a small effect on energy consumption compared to level walking. During slope walking, total metabolic rate averaged over all running speeds ranged from a minimum of 1.55+/-0.4 (horizontal running) to a maximum of 1.89+/-0.7 ml CO2 h(-1) g(-1) body mass (30 degrees downhill). The mean cost of transport in Camponotus was approximately 130 J g(-1) km(-1). The metabolic requirements in the comparatively small insect Camponotus for walking were mostly in the range expected from data obtained from other insects and small poikilotherms, and from allometric scaling laws. PMID:15695763

  6. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  7. Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds

  8. Energetics of foraging and locomotion in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, P; Munks, S; Nicol, S

    2001-08-01

    We measured the energy requirements of platypuses foraging, diving and resting in a swim tank using flow-through respirometry. Also, walking metabolic rates were obtained from platypuses walking on a conventional treadmill. Energy requirements while foraging were found to depend on water temperature, body weight and dive duration and averaged 8.48 W kg(-1). Rates for subsurface swimming averaged 6.71 W kg(-1). Minimal cost of transport for subsurface swimming platypuses was 1.85 J N(-1)m(-1) at a speed of 0.4 m s(-1). Aerobic dive limit of the platypus amounted to 59 s. Metabolic rate of platypuses resting on the water surface was minimal with 3.91 W kg(-1) while minimal RMR on land was 2.08 W kg(-1). The metabolic rate for walking was 8.80 W kg(-1) and 10.56 W kg(-1) at speeds of 0.2 m s(-1) and 0.3 m s(-1), respectively. A formula was derived, which allows prediction of power requirements of platypuses in the wild from measurements of body weight, dive duration and water temperature. Platypuses were found to expend energy at only half the rate of semiaquatic eutherians of comparable body sizes during both walking and diving. However, costs of transport at optimal speed were in line with findings for eutherians. These patterns suggest that underwater locomotion of semiaquatic mammals have converged on very similar efficiencies despite differences in phylogeny and locomotor mode. PMID:11585262

  9. BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF CREATION ONBOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS OF LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE. B. Bodnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages between different units of management systems and on-board diagnostic systems was selected. Properties which are required high data rate, high reliability and low error rate of information transfer. Originality. The main principles of building on-board diagnostic systems which ensure compliance locomotives accumulation of accurate and adequate information about the technical condition which is necessary to organize its maintenance and repair were formulated. Practical value. Diagnostic equipment designed with use of requirements set forth above and principles will affect the technical condition of the engine, increasing the likelihood of uptime, productivity and locomotive repair teams. The introduction of on-board diagnostic systems and stationary locomotives will significantly improve the system and optimize their maintenance costs of maintenance and repairs. Besides, information about diagnostic parameters changing accumulated with the aim of airborne systems will be used in order to create mathematical models that, in turn, will organize a system of maintenance and predict the technical condition of locomotives

  10. Walking like dinosaurs: chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grossi

    Full Text Available Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.

  11. Advantage of straight walk instability in turning maneuver of multilegged locomotion: a robotics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Fujiki, Soichiro; Funato, Tetsuro; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Multilegged locomotion improves the mobility of terrestrial animals and artifacts. Using many legs has advantages, such as the ability to avoid falling and to tolerate leg malfunction. However, many intrinsic degrees of freedom make the motion planning and control difficult, and many contact legs can impede the maneuverability during locomotion. The underlying mechanism for generating agile locomotion using many legs remains unclear from biological and engineering viewpoints. The present study used a centipede-like multilegged robot composed of six body segments and twelve legs. The body segments are passively connected through yaw joints with torsional springs. The dynamic stability of the robot walking in a straight line changes through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation due to the body axis flexibility. We focused on a quick turning task of the robot and quantitatively investigated the relationship between stability and maneuverability in multilegged locomotion by using a simple control strategy. Our experimental results show that the straight walk instability does help the turning maneuver. We discuss the importance and relevance of our findings for biological systems and propose a design principle for a simple control scheme to create maneuverable locomotion of multilegged robots. PMID:27444746

  12. The influence of body size on the intermittent locomotion of a pelagic schooling fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takuji; Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki

    2016-06-15

    There is a potential trade-off between grouping and the optimizing of the energetic efficiency of individual locomotion. Although intermittent locomotion, e.g. glide and upward swimming (GAU), can reduce the cost of locomotion at the individual level, the link between the optimization of individual intermittent locomotion and the behavioural synchronization in a group, especially among members with different sizes, is unknown. Here, we continuously monitored the schooling behaviour of a negatively buoyant fish, Pacific bluefin tuna (N = 10; 21.0 ∼ 24.5 cm), for 24 h in an open-sea net cage using accelerometry. All the fish repeated GAU during the recording periods. Although the GAU synchrony was maintained at high levels (overall mean = 0.62 for the cross-correlation coefficient of the GAU timings), larger fish glided for a longer duration per glide and more frequently than smaller fish. Similar-sized pairs showed significantly higher GAU synchrony than differently sized pairs. Our accelerometry results and the simulation based on hydrodynamic theory indicated that the advantage of intermittent locomotion in energy savings may not be fully optimized for smaller animals in a group when faced with the maintenance of group cohesion, suggesting that size assortative shoaling would be advantageous. PMID:27252017

  13. Design of a cyclic inhibitory CPG controller for the locomotion of a snakelike robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhen-li; MA Shu-gen; LI Bin; WANG Yue-chao

    2006-01-01

    The rhythmic locomotion of a creature is a serf-excitation behavior of the CPG (central pattern generator),which makes it supremely adapted for environment.Based on this fact,firstly,a snake-like robot controller with cyclic inhibitory CPG model was designed,and then the stability of a single neuron,CPG model and the NON(neuron oscillator network) was analyzed.By implementing this control architecture to a simulator based on the mechanical dynamics of a real snake-like robot named Perambulator-I,we presented preliminary rules for parameter setting of the CPG controller to modulate the number of S shapes,the curve of the body shape,locomotion velocity,and the curve of the locomotion trajectory for serpentine locomotion.Moreover,we demonstrated that Perambulator-I can successfully exhibit serpentine locomotion by using the output of the proposed CPG controller.The results of this paper provide a realistic approach for designing an artificial CPG controller.

  14. Advantage of straight walk instability in turning maneuver of multilegged locomotion: a robotics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Fujiki, Soichiro; Funato, Tetsuro; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Multilegged locomotion improves the mobility of terrestrial animals and artifacts. Using many legs has advantages, such as the ability to avoid falling and to tolerate leg malfunction. However, many intrinsic degrees of freedom make the motion planning and control difficult, and many contact legs can impede the maneuverability during locomotion. The underlying mechanism for generating agile locomotion using many legs remains unclear from biological and engineering viewpoints. The present study used a centipede-like multilegged robot composed of six body segments and twelve legs. The body segments are passively connected through yaw joints with torsional springs. The dynamic stability of the robot walking in a straight line changes through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation due to the body axis flexibility. We focused on a quick turning task of the robot and quantitatively investigated the relationship between stability and maneuverability in multilegged locomotion by using a simple control strategy. Our experimental results show that the straight walk instability does help the turning maneuver. We discuss the importance and relevance of our findings for biological systems and propose a design principle for a simple control scheme to create maneuverable locomotion of multilegged robots. PMID:27444746

  15. Locomotion Control of MEMS Micro Robot Using Pulse-Type Hardware Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ken; Okazaki, Kazuto; Ogiwara, Tatsuya; Takato, Minami; Saeki, Katsutoshi; Sekine, Yoshifumi; Uchikoba, Fumio

    This paper presents the locomotion control of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) micro robot. MEMS micro robot demonstrates the locomotion control by the pulse-type hardware neural networks (P-HNN). P-HNN generates oscillatory patterns of electrical activity such as living organisms. The basic component of P-HNN is pulse-type hardware neuron model (P-HNM). P-HNM has same basic features of biological neurons such as threshold, refractory period, spatio-temporal summation characteristics and enables the generation of continuous action potentials. P-HNN was constructed by MOSFETs, can be integrated by CMOS technology. Same as the living organisms P-HNN realized the robot control without using software programs, or A/D converters. The size of micro robot fabricated by the MEMS technology was 4×4×3.5 [mm]. The frame of robot was made of silicon wafer, equipped with rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and 6 legs. MEMS micro robot emulated the locomotion method and the neural networks of the insect by rotary actuators, link mechanisms and P-HNN. As a result, we show that P-HNN can control the forward and backward locomotion of fabricated MEMS micro robot, and also switched the direction by inputting the external trigger pulse. The locomotion speed was 19.5 [mm/min] and the step width was 1.3 [mm].

  16. Advantage of straight walk instability in turning maneuver of multilegged locomotion: a robotics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Fujiki, Soichiro; Funato, Tetsuro; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Multilegged locomotion improves the mobility of terrestrial animals and artifacts. Using many legs has advantages, such as the ability to avoid falling and to tolerate leg malfunction. However, many intrinsic degrees of freedom make the motion planning and control difficult, and many contact legs can impede the maneuverability during locomotion. The underlying mechanism for generating agile locomotion using many legs remains unclear from biological and engineering viewpoints. The present study used a centipede-like multilegged robot composed of six body segments and twelve legs. The body segments are passively connected through yaw joints with torsional springs. The dynamic stability of the robot walking in a straight line changes through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation due to the body axis flexibility. We focused on a quick turning task of the robot and quantitatively investigated the relationship between stability and maneuverability in multilegged locomotion by using a simple control strategy. Our experimental results show that the straight walk instability does help the turning maneuver. We discuss the importance and relevance of our findings for biological systems and propose a design principle for a simple control scheme to create maneuverable locomotion of multilegged robots.

  17. Diencephalic regulation of respiration and arterial pressure during actual and fictive locomotion in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Eldridge, F L; Waldrop, T G; Kiley, J P

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine by experimentation the hypothesis that the respiratory and circulatory responses during exercise are attributable to command signals that emanate from the suprapontine brain. We studied the relations between locomotion (exercise) and phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure in cats that walked or ran on a treadmill and in animals during fictive locomotion, i.e., locomotor activity in motor nerves to legs. Anesthetized cats with intact brains and unanesthetized decorticated cats were used. All preparations exhibited spontaneous actual and fictive locomotion. Electrical stimulation or microinjection of picrotoxin, a GABA antagonist, of the subthalamic locomotor areas always caused locomotion to develop. Phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure increased in proportion to the level of locomotor activity despite control or ablation of feedback signals from chemoreceptors and vagal receptors. Similar relations were measured during fictive locomotion despite the absence of muscular contraction and limb movement and the lack of change in metabolic rate. These findings provide experimental support for the central command hypothesis for the genesis of the respiratory hyperpnea and increased cardiovascular function that occur during exercise. We believe that the command signals emanate from the subthalamic locomotor area of the diencephalon. PMID:3652403

  18. Human Motion Video Analysis in Clinical Practice (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Borzikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new rehabilitation approaches to neurological and traumatological patients requires understanding of normal and pathological movement patterns. Biomechanical analysis of video images is the most accurate method of investigation and quantitative assessment of human normal and pathological locomotion. The review of currently available methods and systems of optical human motion analysis used in clinical practice is presented here. Short historical background is provided. Locomotion kinematics analysis using passive marker based systems is reviewed with special attention to the gait analysis. Clinical application of optical motion capture and analysis systems in the diagnosis of locomotion impairment, in Parkinson’s disease with movement control disorders, stroke sequelae, monitoring of motor function rehabilitation in patients with infantile cerebral paralysis, limb joint endo- and exoprosthetics and some other disorders is described.

  19. The good-enough science-and-politics of anthropological collaboration with evidence-based clinical research: Four ethnographic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messac, Luke; Ciccarone, Dan; Draine, Jeffrey; Bourgois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The apolitical legitimacy of "evidence-based medicine" offers a practical means for ethnography and critical social-science-and-humanities-of-health theory to transfer survival resources to structurally vulnerable populations and to engage policy and services audiences with urgent political problems imposed on the urban poor in the United States that harm health: most notably, homelessness, hyperincarceration, social service cut-backs and the War on Drugs. We present four examples of collaborations between ethnography and clinical research projects that demonstrate the potentials and limits of promoting institutional reform, political debate and action through distinct strategies of cross-methodological dialog with epidemiological and clinical services research. Ethnographic methods alone, however, are simply a technocratic add-on. They must be informed by critical theory to contribute effectively and transformatively to applied health initiatives. Ironically, technocratic, neoliberal logics of cost-effectiveness can sometimes render radical service and policy reform initiatives institutionally credible, fundable and capable of generating wider political support, even though the rhetoric of economic efficacy is a double-edged sword. To extend the impact of ethnography and interdisciplinary theories of political-economic, cultural and disciplinary power relations into applied clinical and public health research, anthropologists - and their fellow travelers - have to be able to strategically, but respectfully learn to see through the positivist logics of clinical services research as well as epidemiological epistemology in order to help clinicians achieve - and extend - their applied priorities. In retrospect, these four very differently-structured collaborations suggest the potential for "good-enough" humble scientific and political strategies to work for, and with, structurally vulnerable populations in a punitive neoliberal era of rising social inequality

  20. Pilot study on proximal femur strains during locomotion and fall-down scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klodowski, Adam, E-mail: adam.klodowski@lut.fi; Valkeapaeae, Antti, E-mail: antti.valkeapaa@lut.fi; Mikkola, Aki, E-mail: aki.mikkola@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    The most common and severe type of fracture among the elderly is known as a proximal femur fracture. Aging-related bone loss is one of the major contributing factors to increased likelihood of bone fracture. Specific exercises can be used to strain bones and increase bone strength to counter the effects of bone loss. The flexible multibody simulation approach can be used as a non-invasive method for estimating bone strains caused by physical activity. This method was recently used to analyze the strain of locomotion in regard to human femur and tibia leg bones. The current study focuses on strain analysis of the femoral neck. The research test person was a clinically healthy 65-year old Caucasian male. The computed tomography was used to build a geometrically accurate finite element model of the femur with inhomogeneous material properties derived from the voxel data. The anthropometric data was used to model the musculoskeletal system of the test person. The multibody skeletal model was utilized to estimate loading on the femoral neck during walking, which represents a routine daily activity. The flexible multibody simulation results were compared to strains that occurred during a simulated fall onto the greater trochanter of the femur. The fall simulation was made entirely using finite element software. Results from the finite element analysis were compared with the previous study showing that the test person does not belong to the high-risk hip fracture group. Finally, the estimated strains gathered from the walking simulation were compared to the strain values from the simulated fall-down scenario.

  1. Pilot study on proximal femur strains during locomotion and fall-down scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common and severe type of fracture among the elderly is known as a proximal femur fracture. Aging-related bone loss is one of the major contributing factors to increased likelihood of bone fracture. Specific exercises can be used to strain bones and increase bone strength to counter the effects of bone loss. The flexible multibody simulation approach can be used as a non-invasive method for estimating bone strains caused by physical activity. This method was recently used to analyze the strain of locomotion in regard to human femur and tibia leg bones. The current study focuses on strain analysis of the femoral neck. The research test person was a clinically healthy 65-year old Caucasian male. The computed tomography was used to build a geometrically accurate finite element model of the femur with inhomogeneous material properties derived from the voxel data. The anthropometric data was used to model the musculoskeletal system of the test person. The multibody skeletal model was utilized to estimate loading on the femoral neck during walking, which represents a routine daily activity. The flexible multibody simulation results were compared to strains that occurred during a simulated fall onto the greater trochanter of the femur. The fall simulation was made entirely using finite element software. Results from the finite element analysis were compared with the previous study showing that the test person does not belong to the high-risk hip fracture group. Finally, the estimated strains gathered from the walking simulation were compared to the strain values from the simulated fall-down scenario.

  2. Bio-inspired Optimal Locomotion Reconfigurability of Quadruped Rovers using Central Pattern Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Murtaza

    Legged rovers are often considered as viable solutions for traversing unknown terrain. This work addresses the optimal locomotion reconfigurability of quadruped rovers, which consists of obtaining optimal locomotion modes, and transitioning between them. A 2D sagittal plane rover model is considered based on a domestic cat. Using a Genetic Algorithm, the gait, pose and control variables that minimize torque or maximize speed are found separately. The optimization approach takes into account the elimination of leg impact, while considering the entire variable spectrum. The optimal solutions are consistent with other works on gait optimization, and are similar to gaits found in quadruped animals as well. An online model-free gait planning framework is also implemented, that is based on Central Pattern Generators is implemented. It is used to generate joint and control trajectories for any arbitrarily varying speed profile, and shown to regulate locomotion transition and speed modulation, both endogenously and continuously.

  3. Establishing the Range of Perceptually Natural Visual Walking Speeds for Virtual Walking-In-Place Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    virtual motion. This paper describes two within-subjects studies performed with the intention of establishing the range of perceptually natural walking speeds for WIP locomotion. In both studies, subjects performed a series of virtual walks while exposed to visual gains (optic flow multipliers) ranging...... from 1.0 to 3.0. Thus, the slowest speed was equal to an estimate of the subjects normal walking speed, while the highest speed was three times greater. The perceived naturalness of the visual speed was assessed using self-reports. The first study compared four different types of movement, namely, no...... leg movement, walking on a treadmill, and two forms of gestural input for WIP locomotion. The results suggest that WIP locomotion is accompanied by a perceptual distortion of the speed of optic flow. The second study was performed using a 4×2 factorial design and compared four different display field...

  4. [Changes in the parameters of locomotion following partial extirpation of the motor cortex in white rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkov, D N; Vereshchak, N I

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative locomotion changes have been studied in the norm and in different periods after local ablation of motor projection of hind paw in the right hemisphere of 5-16 weeks white rats. The length and width of step gradually increase with the age, and coefficients of gait asymmetry reflecting individual characteristics, are relatively stable in intact animals. Local decortication is accompanied by significant shifts of all locomotion parameters clearly expressed in the first days after ablation. The most sensitive characteristic of gait anomaly is the standard deviation of half-step. In 5 weeks after ablation a lag is observed of operated rats behind the control ones in all parameters. Load application contributes to revealing of locomotion parameters shifts from the norm in later periods after decortication. In 9 and 11 weeks after surgery, the signs of supercompensation are observed in a number of parameters. PMID:2735116

  5. A New Self-Loading Locomotion Mechanism for Wall Climbing Robots Employing Biomimetic Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amirpasha Peyvandi; Parviz Soroushian; Jue Lu

    2013-01-01

    A versatile locomotion mechanism is introduced and experimentally verified.This mechanism comprises four rectangular wheels (legs) with rotational phase difference which enables the application of pressure to each contacting surface for securing it to the surface using bio-inspired or pressure-sensitive adhesives.In this mechanism,the adhesives are applied to two rigid plates attached to each wheel via hinges incorporating torsional springs.The springs force the plates back to their original position after the contact with the surface is lost in the course of locomotion.The wheels are made of low-modulus elastomers,and the pressure applied during contact is controlled by the elastic modulus,geometry and phase difference of wheels.This reliable adhesion system does not rely upon gravity for adhering to surfaces,and provides the locomotion mechanism with the ability to climb walls and transition from horizontal to vertical surfaces.

  6. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  7. TRANSPORT LOCOMOTIVE AND WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-31

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a

  8. Establishing the range of perceptually natural visual walking speeds for virtual walking-in-place locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques make it possible to facilitate relatively natural locomotion within immersive virtual environments that are larger than the physical interaction space. However, in order to facilitate natural walking experiences one needs to know how to map steps in place to virtual motion. This paper describes two within-subjects studies performed with the intention of establishing the range of perceptually natural walking speeds for WIP locomotion. In both studies, subjects performed a series of virtual walks while exposed to visual gains (optic flow multipliers) ranging from 1.0 to 3.0. Thus, the slowest speed was equal to an estimate of the subjects normal walking speed, while the highest speed was three times greater. The perceived naturalness of the visual speed was assessed using self-reports. The first study compared four different types of movement, namely, no leg movement, walking on a treadmill, and two forms of gestural input for WIP locomotion. The results suggest that WIP locomotion is accompanied by a perceptual distortion of the speed of optic flow. The second study was performed using a 4×2 factorial design and compared four different display field-of-views (FOVs) and two types of movement, walking on a treadmill and WIP locomotion. The results revealed significant main effects of both movement type and field of view, but no significant interaction between the two variables. Particularly, they suggest that the size of the display FOV is inversely proportional to the degree of underestimation of the virtual speeds for both treadmill-mediated virtual walking and WIP locomotion. Combined, the results constitute a first attempt at establishing a set of guidelines specifying what virtual walking speeds WIP gestures should produce in order to facilitate a natural walking experience. PMID:24650984

  9. USING THE INFORMATION OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of increase of efficiency of information processing by оn-board systems of diagnostics of locomotives are considered. The examples of information processing by the on-board system of diagnostics of electric locomotives DE1 are presented. The suggestions on improvement of systematization and processing of information by on-board systems of diagnostics are given.

  10. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement on receiving property of the noise emission levels from switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR...

  11. USING THE INFORMATION OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ye. Bodnar; V. K. Varchenko; O.B.Ochkasov; M. A. Gryshchenko

    2008-01-01

    The issues of increase of efficiency of information processing by оn-board systems of diagnostics of locomotives are considered. The examples of information processing by the on-board system of diagnostics of electric locomotives DE1 are presented. The suggestions on improvement of systematization and processing of information by on-board systems of diagnostics are given.

  12. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  13. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hong; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Chen, Shuyi; Li, Wei; Xu, Guo-Tong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Kang; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Liu, Yizhi; Xie, Ting; Chan, Chi-Chao; Zack, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases. PMID:27102165

  14. Low dose pramipexole causes D3 receptor-independent reduction of locomotion and responding for a conditioned reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, P N; Fletcher, P J; Wilson, V S; Browne, J D C; Nobrega, J N; Remington, G J

    2015-02-01

    Pramipexole is a clinically important dopamine receptor agonist with reported selectivity for dopamine D3 receptors over other dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic sites. Many of its behavioural effects are therefore attributed to D3 receptor activity. Here we relate pramipexole's ex vivo D2 and D3 receptor binding (measured using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding experiments) to its effects on locomotion and operant responding for primary and conditioned reinforcers. We show that pramipexole has inhibitory behavioural effects on all three behaviours at doses that occupy D3 but not D2 receptor. However, these effects are 1) not inhibited by a D3 selective dose of the antagonist SB-277011-A, and 2) present in D3 receptor knockout mice. These results suggest that a pharmacological mechanism other than D3 receptor activity must be responsible for these behavioural effects. Finally, our receptor binding results also suggest that these behavioural effects are independent of D2 receptor activity. However, firmer conclusions regarding D2 involvement would be aided by further pharmacological or receptor knock-out experiments. The implications of our findings for the understanding of pramipexole's behavioural and clinical effects are discussed. PMID:25283483

  15. Dose-response characteristics of ketamine effect on locomotion, cognitive function and central neuronal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imre, G; Fokkema, DS; Den Boer, JA; Ter Horst, GJ

    2006-01-01

    The present dose-response study sought to determine the effects of subanesthetic dosages (4-16 mg/kg) of ketamine on locomotion, sensorimotor gating (PP1), working memory, as well as c-fos expression in various limbic regions implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In addition, we examined

  16. THE ORGANIZATION OF EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF HOLDING INSULATION OF TRACTION ENGINES AND DC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for determination of remaining resource of insulation of the locomotive hauling electric machines, taking into account its initial electric durability and minimum expenses on implementation of restoration works with the purpose of construction of the rational system of its maintenance, is offered.

  17. ENERGETIC EXTREMES IN A HOSTILE HABITAT: FISH LOCOMOTION ON WAVE-SWEPT CORAL REEFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Fulton, C.J., Johansen, J. L. and Steffensen, J.F. Abstract: Shallow wave-swept habitats are a major challenge for fish locomotion, where crashing waves produce water flows equivalent to cyclone-force winds. Here we document the exceptional locomotor energetics of Bluelined wrasse (Stethojulis...

  18. Quadrupedal Robot Locomotion: A Biologically Inspired Approach and Its Hardware Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, A.; Rostro-Gonzalez, H.; Carpio, M.; Guerra-Hernandez, E. I.; Ornelas-Rodriguez, M.; Puga-Soberanes, H. J.; Sotelo-Figueroa, M. A.; Melin, P.

    2016-01-01

    A bioinspired locomotion system for a quadruped robot is presented. Locomotion is achieved by a spiking neural network (SNN) that acts as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) producing different locomotion patterns represented by their raster plots. To generate these patterns, the SNN is configured with specific parameters (synaptic weights and topologies), which were estimated by a metaheuristic method based on Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE). The system has been implemented and validated on two robot platforms; firstly, we tested our system on a quadruped robot and, secondly, on a hexapod one. In this last one, we simulated the case where two legs of the hexapod were amputated and its locomotion mechanism has been changed. For the quadruped robot, the control is performed by the spiking neural network implemented on an Arduino board with 35% of resource usage. In the hexapod robot, we used Spartan 6 FPGA board with only 3% of resource usage. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed system in both cases. PMID:27436997

  19. Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruzzone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The world market of mobile robotics is expected to increase substantially in the next 20 yr, surpassing the market of industrial robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security, surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture. The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments is generally complex, particularly when they are required to move on uneven or soft terrains, or to climb obstacles. This paper sets out to analyse the state-of-the-art of locomotion mechanisms for ground mobile robots, focussing on solutions for unstructured environments, in order to help designers to select the optimal solution for specific operating requirements. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled – W, tracked – T and legged – L and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by combining these main locomotion systems are discussed with reference to maximum speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains, energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness. The current and future trends of mobile robotics are also outlined.

  20. A survey report for the biped locomotion robot compensating three-axis moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic walking simulation of biped locomotion robots based on the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) criterion is being conducted at JAERI. The ZMP criterion to obtain the stable walking patterns is that respective sums of moments around pitch-axis and roll-axis which act on the robot are equal to zero. So far, as for the rest moment around yaw-axis, the moment is balanced to frictional force, assuming that the frictional force between robot's sole and floor is sufficiently large in our study. According to a recent paper, however, slipping around yaw-axis between robot's sole and floor has occurred as the walking speed becomes faster, and the slipping has made the walking unstable. So influence of this moment can not be ignored for the fast walking. A survey has been performed for collecting relevant information from already existing biped locomotion robots. This is a survey report for the biped locomotion robot compensating three-axis moment by a trunk motion: the WL-12RV designed and developed at Waseda University. The WL-12RV has been realized 1.5 times as fast as dynamic walking compared with a biped locomotion robot compensating two-axis moment (e.g. WL-12RIV). This report includes the machine model, control method and results of walking experiments of the WL-12RV. (author)

  1. Survey of locomotion control of legged robots inspired by biological concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiDi; LIU ChengJu; ZHANG JiaQi; CHEN QiJun

    2009-01-01

    Compared with wheeled mobile robots, legged robots can easily step over obstacles and walk through rugged ground. They have more flexible bodies and therefore, can deal with complex environment. Nev-ertheless, some other issues make the locomotion control of legged robots a much complicated task, such as the redundant degree of freedoms and balance keeping. From literatures, locomotion control has been solved mainly based on programming mechanism. To use this method, walking trajectories for each leg and the gaits have to be designed, and the adaptability to an unknown environment cannot be guaranteed. From another aspect, studying and simulating animals' walking mechanism for engi-neering application is an efficient way to break the bottleneck of locomotion control for legged robots. This has attracted more and more attentions. Inspired by central pattern generator (CPG), a control method has been proved to be a successful attempt within this scope. In this paper, we will review the biological mechanism, the existence evidences, and the network properties of CPG. From the en-gineering perspective, we will introduce the engineering simulation of CPG, the property analysis, and the research progress of CPG inspired control method in locomotion control of legged robots. Then, in our research, we will further discuss on existing problems, hot issues, and future research directions in this field.

  2. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  3. Transition of pattern generation: the phenomenon of post-scratching locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, A; Tapia, J A; De la Torre Valdovinos, B; Huidobro, N; Flores, G; Flores-Hernandez, J; Flores, A; Manjarrez, E

    2015-03-12

    A fundamental problem in neurophysiology is the understanding of neuronal mechanisms by which the central nervous system produces a sequence of voluntary or involuntary motor acts from a diverse repertory of movements. These kinds of transitions between motor acts are extremely complex; however, they could be analyzed in a more simple form in decerebrate animals in the context of spinal central pattern generation. Here, we present for the first time a physiological phenomenon of post-scratching locomotion in which decerebrate cats exhibit a compulsory locomotor activity after an episode of scratching. We found flexor, extensor and intermediate single interneurons rhythmically firing in the same phase during both scratching and the subsequent post-scratching locomotion. Because no changes in phase of these neurons from scratching to post-scratching locomotion were found, we suggest that in the lumbar spinal cord there are neurons associated with both motor tasks. Moreover, because of its high reproducibility we suggest that the study of post-scratching fictive locomotion, together with the unitary recording of neurons, could become a useful tool to study neuronal mechanisms underlying transitions from one rhythmic motor task to another, and to study in more detail the central pattern generator circuitry in the spinal cord. PMID:25556832

  4. 19 CFR 123.12 - Entry of foreign locomotives and equipment in international traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of foreign locomotives and equipment in international traffic. 123.12 Section 123.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.12 Entry of...

  5. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign...

  6. Analyzing variable behavioral contingencies: are certain complex skills homologous with locomotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2009-06-01

    This paper considers behavioral contingencies that change as a function of time, of the individual's own behavior (as in locomotion and reading), of the behavior of other parties or of interactions with them. A detailed analysis of locomotion and of reading out loud shows that the behavioral contingencies for these are virtually the same. The terrain being traversed and the locomotion behavior involved are shown to be analogous to a segment of text being read and the articulation of the words. In both cases, successive upcoming segments are perceived and processed, and during the processing phases, motor behavior is formulated. In both, the smooth concatenation of the motor phases for successive segments requires buffering. Both involve corrective or digressive actions in response to obstacles or unanticipated stimuli encountered. Both involve looking ahead at the upcoming segment and processing it while the motor phase of the prior segment is still in progress. For both, the size, entropy, familiarity, and other attributes of the upcoming segment are parameters of the performance. It is suggested that locomotion has similar parallels with certain other complex skills, such as listening, copying, receiving Morse code, simultaneous interpreting, and certain types of performance, and may therefore be their phylogenetic prototype and biological homologue. PMID:19124062

  7. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  8. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schoofs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors.

  9. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14116.001 PMID:27222228

  10. THE ASSESSMENT OF BASIC TECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE LOCOMOTIVE DISK BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Biloborodova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article a thermal (constructive calculation of the liquid-air recuperative heat exchanger is executed. Its purpose was an estimation of the areas of heat-exchange surfaces and the consumption of heat carriers necessary for dissipation of thermal energy generated by a locomotive disk brake.

  11. The Seasonal Acclimatisation of Locomotion in a Terrestrial Reptile, Plestiodon chinensis (Scincidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baojun Sun; Wenqi Tang; Zhigao Zeng; Weiguo Du

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the seasonal acclimatisation of behavioural and physiological processes usually focus on aquatic or semi-aquatic ectotherms and focus less effort on terrestrial ectotherms that experience more thermally heterogeneous environments. We conducted comparative studies and thermal acclimation experiments on the locomotion of the Chinese skink (Plestiodon chinensis) to test whether seasonal acclimatisation in locomotion exists in these terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates, and whether seasonal acclimatisation is predominantly induced by thermal environments. In natural populations, skinks ran faster during the summer season than during the spring season at high-test temperatures ranging from 27°C to 36°C but not at low-test temperatures ranging from 18°C to 24°C. In contrast, the thermal acclimation experiments showed that the cold-acclimated skinks ran faster than the warm-acclimated skinks at the low-test temperatures but not at high-test temperatures. Therefore, the seasonal acclimatisation occurs to P. chinensis, and may be induced by temperature as well as other factors like food availability, as indicated by the seasonal variation in the thermal dependence of locomotion, and the discrepancy between seasonal acclimatisation and thermal acclimation on locomotion.

  12. Echolocation Reconsidered: Using Spatial Variations in the Ambient Sound Field To Guide Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H.; Wall, Robert S.; Eaton, Susan B.; Ebinger, Kiara A.; Snook-Hill, Mary-Maureen; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Presents an acoustical model and evidence from four experiments that children with visual impairments use the buildup of low-frequency sound along walls to guide locomotion. The model differs from the concept of echolocation by emphasizing sound that is ambient, rather than self-produced, and of low frequency. (Author/CR)

  13. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  14. Forward Dynamics Simulations Provide insight into Muscle Mechanical Work during Human Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Neptune, Richard R.; McGowan, Craig P.; Kautz, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Complex musculoskeletal models and computer simulations can provide critical insight into muscle mechanical work output during locomotion. Simulations provide both a consistent mechanical solution that can be interrogated at multiple levels (muscle fiber, musculotendon, net joint moment and whole body work) and an ideal framework to identify limitations with different estimates of muscle work and the resulting implications for metabolic cost and efficiency.

  15. Development of quadruped walking locomotion gait generator using a hybrid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth, in many areas is hardly reachable by the wheeled or tracked locomotion system. Thus, walking locomotion system is becoming a favourite option for mobile robot these days. This is because of the ability of walking locomotion to move on the rugged and unlevel terrains. However, to develop a walking locomotion gait for a robot is not a simple task. Central Pattern Generator (CPGs) method is a biological inspired method that is introduced as a method to develop the gait for the walking robot recently to tackle the issue faced by the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory based method. However, research shows that even the CPG method do have some limitations. Thus, in this paper, a hybrid method that combines CPG and the pre-designed trajectory based method is introduced to develop a walking gait for quadruped walking robot. The 3-D foot trajectories and the joint angle trajectories developed using the proposed method are compared with the data obtained via the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory to confirm the performance

  16. Attitude of Dental Prostheses Residents of Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafezeqoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is one of the most authentic ways to evaluate clinical skills. The present study aimed at evaluating the attitude of dental prostheses residents of the faculty of dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences toward this kind of examination. Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study, two questionnaires were designed. One questionnaire dealt with nature of OSCE and the other dealt with the attitude of residents about OSCE. After holding the OSCE in July 2012, 2013, and 2014, the questionnaires were delivered to all dental prostheses residents of the Tabriz dental faculty. In total, 40 questionnaires were filled out within three years. Questions included five-choice items based on a Likert scale. Furthermore, the students’ scores in each exam were recorded to evaluate any possible relationship between the acquired grade and the student’s attitude toward the exam. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS17 software (α=5%. Results: Most residents (62.5% referred to the large number of questions as a positive factor. In addition, a majority of residents (90% suffered from high levels of stress during OSCE. There was a close relation between the grade acquired by the residents in the examination and their attitude to OSCE as well as their evaluation about the examination. The students with better grades had more positive attitudes toward OSCE. Conclusion: Considering the satisfaction level of the students in this study, OSCE was held efficiently and may be considered as part of the training program of the residents.

  17. SIMULATION OF DRIVER’S LOCOMOTIVE-HANDLING ACTIVITY USING THE THEORY OF FUZZY GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Butko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The efficiency and safety of locomotive control improving is important and relevant scientific and practical problem. Every driver during the trains-handling bases on his experience and knowledge, that is why the compilation and detection the most efficient ways to control the locomotive-handling is one of the stages of measures development to reduce transportation costs. The purpose of this paper is a formalization process description of locomotive-handling and quality parameters determination of this process. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal the theory of fuzzy probabilistic graphs was used. Vertices of the graph correspond to the events start and end operations at train-handling. The graph arcs describe operations on train-handling. Graph consists of thirteen peaks corresponding to the main control actions of the engine-driver. The weighting factors of transitions between vertices are assigned by fuzzy numbers. Their values were obtained by expert estimates. Fuzzy probabilities and transition time are presented as numbers with trapezoidal membership function. Findings. Using successive merging of parallel arcs, loops and vertices elimination, the equivalent fuzzy graph of train-handling and the corresponding L-matrix were obtained. Equivalent graph takes into account separately activity of the driver during normal operation and during emergency situations. Originality. The theoretical foundations of describing process formalization in driver’s locomotive-handling activity were developed using the fuzzy probabilistic graph. The parameters characterizing the decision-making process of engineer were obtained. Practical value. With the resulting model it is possible to estimate the available reserves for the quality improvement of locomotive-handling. Reduction in the time for decision-making will lead to the approximation the current mode of control to the rational one and decrease costs of hauling operations. And reduction

  18. Rotation axes of the head during positioning, head shaking, and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Mikhail; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore

    2007-11-01

    Static head orientations obey Donders' law and are postulated to be rotations constrained by a Fick gimbal. Head oscillations can be voluntary or generated during natural locomotion. Whether the rotation axes of the voluntary oscillations or during locomotion are constrained by the same gimbal is unknown and is the subject of this study. Head orientation was monitored with an Optotrak (Northern Digital). Human subjects viewed visual targets wearing pin-hole goggles to achieve static head positions with the eyes centered in the orbit. Incremental rotation axes were determined for pitch and yaw by computing the velocity vectors during head oscillation and during locomotion at 1.5 m/s on a treadmill. Static head orientation could be described by a generalization of the Fick gimbal by having the axis of the second rotation rotate by a fraction, k, of the angle of the first rotation without a third rotation. We have designated this as a k-gimbal system. Incremental rotation axes for both pitch and yaw oscillations were functions of the pitch but not the yaw head positions. The pivot point for head oscillations was close to the midpoint of the interaural line. During locomotion, however, the pivot point was considerably lower. These findings are well explained by an implementation of the k-gimbal model, which has a rotation axis superimposed on a Fick-gimbal system. This could be realized physiologically by the head interface with the dens and occipital condyles during head oscillation with a contribution of the lower spine to pitch during locomotion. PMID:17898142

  19. From Beetles in Nature to the Laboratory: Actuating Underwater Locomotion on Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchasik, Bat-El; Steinkühler, Jan; Wuytens, Pieter; Skirtach, Andre G; Fratzl, Peter; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2015-12-29

    The controlled wetting and dewetting of surfaces is a primary mechanism used by beetles in nature, such as the ladybird and the leaf beetle for underwater locomotion.1 Their adhesion to surfaces underwater is enabled through the attachment of bubbles trapped in their setae-covered legs. Locomotion, however, is performed by applying mechanical forces in order to move, attach, and detach the bubbles in a controlled manner. Under synthetic conditions, however, when a bubble is bound to a surface, it is nearly impossible to maneuver without the use of external stimuli. Thus, actuated wetting and dewetting of surfaces remain challenges. Here, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is used for the manipulation of bubble-particle complexes on unpatterned surfaces. Bubbles nucleate on catalytic Janus disks adjacent to a hydrophobic surface. By changing the wettability of the surface through electrowetting, the bubbles show a variety of reactions, depending on the shape and periodicity of the electrical signal. Time-resolved (μs) imaging of bubble radial oscillations reveals possible mechanisms for the lateral mobility of bubbles on a surface under electrowetting: bubble instability is induced when electric pulses are carefully adjusted. This instability is used to control the surface-bound bubble locomotion and is described in terms of the change in surface energy. It is shown that a deterministic force applied normal can lead to a random walk of micrometer-sized bubbles by exploiting the phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis. Finally, bubble use in nature for underwater locomotion and the actuated bubble locomotion presented in this study are compared. PMID:26633751

  20. Afferent control of central pattern generators: experimental analysis of locomotion in the decerebrate cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, K V; Esipenko, V B; Shimansky YuP

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the motor activity of the spinal locomotor generator evoked by tonic and phasic peripheral afferent signals during fictitious locomotion of both slow and fast rhythms were analysed in the cat. The tonic afferent inflow was conditioned by the position of the hindlimb. The phasic afferent signals were imitated by electrical stimulation of hindlimb nerves. The correlation between the kinematics of hindlimb locomotor movement and sensory inflow was investigated during actual locomotion. Reliable correlations between motor activity parameters during fictitious locomotion were revealed in cases of both slow and fast "locomotor" rhythms. The main difference between these cases was that correlations "duration-intensity" were positive in the first and negative in the second case. The functional role of "locomotor" pattern dependence on tonic sensory inflow consisted of providing stability for planting the hindlimb on the ground. For any investigated afferent input the phase moments in the "locomotor" cycle were found, in which an afferent signal caused no rearrangement in locomotor generator activity. These moments corresponded to the transitions between "flexion" and "extension" phases and to the bursts of integral afferent activity observed during real locomotion. The data obtained are compared with the results previously described for the scratching generator. The character of changes in "locomotor" activity in response to tonic and phasic sensory signals was similar to that of such changes in "scratching" rhythm in the case of fast "locomotion". Intensification of the "flexion" phase caused by phasic high-intensity stimulation of cutaneous afferents during low "locomotor" rhythm was changed to inhibition (such as observed during "scratching") when this rhythm was fast. It is concluded that the main regularities of peripheral afferent control for both the locomotor and scratching generators are the same. Moreover, these central pattern generators are just