WorldWideScience

Sample records for climbing flight

  1. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  2. Climb and flight speeds of shorebirds embarking on an intercontinental flight; Do they achieve the predicted optimal behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Hedenstrom, A; Bruggemann, JH; Hedenström, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Most Arctic-breeding waders wintering in West Africa cover the first 4000 km of their northward journey in spring by a single flight to western Europe. We examined the extent to which waders economize their night behaviour during departure by comparing climb rates and forward night speeds with predi

  3. 14 CFR 31.17 - Performance: Climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance: Climb. 31.17 Section 31.17... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.17 Performance: Climb. (a) Each balloon must be capable of climbing at least 300 feet in the first minute after takeoff with a steady rate of...

  4. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  5. 14 CFR 25.117 - Climb: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: general. 25.117 Section 25.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.117 Climb: general. Compliance with...

  6. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  7. 14 CFR 29.67 - Climb: One engine inoperative (OEI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: One engine inoperative (OEI). 29.67... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.67 Climb: One engine inoperative... path, the following apply: (1) The steady rate of climb without ground effect, 200 feet above...

  8. 14 CFR 27.65 - Climb: all engines operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: all engines operating. 27.65 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.65 Climb: all engines operating. (a) For rotorcraft other than helicopters— (1) The steady rate of climb, at V Y, must be determined—...

  9. 14 CFR 29.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 29.65 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.65 Climb: All engines operating. (a) The steady rate of climb must be determined— (1) With maximum continuous power; (2) With...

  10. 14 CFR 27.67 - Climb: one engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: one engine inoperative. 27.67... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.67 Climb: one engine inoperative. For multiengine helicopters, the steady rate of climb (or descent), at V y (or at the speed...

  11. 14 CFR 25.121 - Climb: One-engine-inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: One-engine-inoperative. 25.121... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.121 Climb: One... steady gradient of climb must be positive for two-engine airplanes, and not less than 0.3 percent...

  12. Acoustic Climb to Cruise Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Flight test film footage of three different aircraft testing the acoustical noise levels during take-off, climb, maneuvers, and touch and go landings are described. These sound tests were conducted on two fighter aircraft and one cargo aircraft. Results from mobile test vehicle are shown.

  13. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating. In the landing configuration, the steady gradient of climb may not be less...

  14. 14 CFR 23.63 - Climb: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: General. 23.63 Section 23.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.63...

  15. Lifting as You Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  16. Multiscale Theory of Dislocation Climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; Appolaire, Benoît; Finel, Alphonse

    2015-12-31

    Dislocation climb is a ubiquitous mechanism playing a major role in the plastic deformation of crystals at high temperature. We propose a multiscale approach to model quantitatively this mechanism at mesoscopic length and time scales. First, we analyze climb at a nanoscopic scale and derive an analytical expression of the climb rate of a jogged dislocation. Next, we deduce from this expression the activation energy of the process, bringing valuable insights to experimental studies. Finally, we show how to rigorously upscale the climb rate to a mesoscopic phase-field model of dislocation climb. This upscaling procedure opens the way to large scale simulations where climb processes are quantitatively reproduced even though the mesoscopic length scale of the simulation is orders of magnitude larger than the atomic one.

  17. Galsang Cering Climbs Cho Oyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEWENXIAN

    2004-01-01

    Gongbo is one of the three Chinese mountaineers who climbed Qomolangma, the highest peak of the world, from the northern side for the first time. Nowadays his son, Galsang Cering,last autumn successfully climbed Cho Oyu, which is the world's sixth highest peak at 8.201 meters.

  18. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  19. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self-transcendence. Yet how adults can purposefully ascend Maslow’s pyramid through satisfying unfilled needs remains elusive. This brief article challenges this on the theory’s 70th anniversary by presenting a new image of the needs hierarchy, based on ecological design principles to support adults’ purposeful endeavors to climb the needs pyramid.

  20. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  1. Onboard near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A.; Cliff, G.; Kelley, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies optimal and near-optimal trajectories of high-performance aircraft in symmetric flight. Onboard, real-time, near-optimal guidance is considered for the climb-dash mission, using some of the boundary-layer structure and hierarchical ideas from singular perturbations. In the case of symmetric flight, this resembles neighborhood-optimal guidance using energy-to-go as the running variable. However, extension to three-dimensional flight is proposed, using families of nominal paths with heading-to-go as the additional running variable. Some computational results are presented for the symmetric case.

  2. Optimal turning climb-out and descent of commercial jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal turning climb-out and descent flight-paths from and to runway headings are derived to provide the missing elements of a complete flight-path optimization for minimum fuel consumption. The paths are derived by generating a field of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control. Results show that the speed profiles for straight and turning flight are essentially identical, except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turn. The optimal turns, which require no abrupt maneuvers, could easily be integrated with present climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms.

  3. Biomechanics of climbing palms and how they climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Nick; Isnard, Sandrine

    2009-09-01

    Climbing plants have fascinated botanists since the pioneering works of Darwin and his contemporaries in the 19(th) century. Diverse plants have evolved different ways of climbing and a wide range of attachment devices and stem biomechanics to cope with the particular physical demands of life as a climber. We investigated the biomechanics of attachment in a range of climbing palms, including true rattans from Southeast Asia and the genus Desmoncus from South America. We found that hook strength and orientation is coordinated with rachis geometry and rigidity. These findings support the notion of a ratchet-type attachment mechanism and partly explain why these spiny plants are so catchy and efficient at attaching to supports.

  4. Climbing fiber signaling and cerebellar gain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ohtsuki (Gen); C. Piochon (Claire); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe physiology of climbing fiber signals in cerebellar Purkinje cells has been studied since the early days of electrophysiology. Both the climbing fiber-evoked complex spike and the role of climbing fiber activity in the induction of long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-Purkinje

  5. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  6. Ben-Hur Staircase Climbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, John; Simoson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    How many ways may one climb an even number of stairs so that left and right legs are exercised equally, that is, both legs take the same number of strides, take the same number of total stairs, and take strides of either 1 or 2 stairs at a time? We characterize the solution with a difference equation and find its generating function.

  7. The physiological effect of a 'climb assist' device on vertical ladder climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Peter James; Burgess, Katherine; Cooper, Kay; Stewart, Arthur D

    2016-10-15

    'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p climb assist with [Formula: see text]O2 decreasing by 22.5%, HR by 14.8% and RPE decreasing by a mean of 2.3 units on the 10-point Borg scale. When descending the ladder [Formula: see text]O2 decreased by a mean of 42% compared to that ascending. At the minimal acceptable climbing speed climb assist decreases the physiological strain on climbers, as demonstrated by reduced [Formula: see text]O2, HR and perceived exertion. Practitioner Summary: 'Climb assist' systems claim to reduce strain when climbing, however; no research has yet been published to substantiate this. A crossover study compared [Formula: see text]O2, HR and RPE at a minimal acceptable climbing speed with and without climb assist. Climb assist significantly reduced all variables confirming it reduces strain when climbing.

  8. Altitude transitions in energy climbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft energy-climb trajectory for configurations with a sharp transonic drag rise is well known to possess two branches in the altitude/Mach-number plane. Transition in altitude between the two branches occurs instantaneously, a 'corner' in the minimum-time solution obtained with the energy-state model. If the initial and final values of altitude do not lie on the energy-climb trajectory, then additional jumps (crude approximations to dives and zooms) are required at the initial and terminal points. With a singular-perturbation approach, a 'boundary-layer' correction is obtained for each altitude jump, the transonic jump being a so-called 'internal' boundary layer, different in character from the initial and terminal layers. The determination of this internal boundary layer is examined and some computational results for an example presented.

  9. The behavioural ecology of climbing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Vines that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Therefore, the location of a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Numerous studies on climbing plant behaviour have elucidated mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-find...

  10. Efficacy of pre-ascent climbing route visual inspection in indoor sport climbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, X.; Lambert, Ph; Jones, G.; Llewellyn, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-ascent climbing route visual inspection (route preview) has been suggested as a key climbing performance parameter although its role has never been verified experimentally. We examined the efficacy of this perceptual-cognitive skill on indoor sport climbing performance. Twenty-nine male climbers

  11. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  12. Robot Would Climb Steep Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brett; Ganino, Anthony; Aghazarian, Hrand; Hogg, Robert; McHerny, Michael; Garrett, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes the steep terrain access robot (STAR) -- a walking robot that has been proposed for exploring steep terrain on remote planets. The STAR would be able to climb up or down on slopes as steep as vertical, and even beyond vertical to overhangs. Its system of walking mechanisms and controls would be to react forces and maintain stability. To enable the STAR to anchor itself in the terrain on steep slopes to maintain stability and react forces, it would be necessary to equip the tips of the walking legs with new ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs) and to develop sensors and control algorithms to enable robust utilization of the USDCs.

  13. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  14. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  15. Flight Engineer, AFSC 113X0B/C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    AIRCRAFT DISCREPANCIES 97 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER REMOVAL PRIOR TO FLIGHT OR INSTALLED AFTER FLIGHT 97 1273 COMPUTE CLIMB, CRUISE OR DESCENT...CLIMB, CRUISE OR DESCENT DATA 96 S797 MONITOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS 96 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER REMOVAL PRIOR TO FLIGHT OR INSTALLED...OPERATE AUTOMATIC AIRCRAFT PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 95 N521 MONITOR AUTOMATIC AIRCRAFT PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 94 G228 VERIFY SAFETY PIN OR STREAMER

  16. Evaporative instabilities in climbing films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, A. E.; Bush, John W. M.

    2001-09-01

    We consider flow in a thin film generated by partially submerging an inclined rigid plate in a reservoir of ethanol or methanol water solution and wetting its surface. Evaporation leads to concentration and surface tension gradients that drive flow up the plate. An experimental study indicates that the climbing film is subject to two distinct instabilities. The first is a convective instability characterized by flattened convection rolls aligned in the direction of flow and accompanied by free-surface deformations; in the meniscus region, this instability gives rise to pronounced ridge structures aligned with the mean flow. The second instability, evident when the plate is nearly vertical, takes the form of transverse surface waves propagating up the plate.

  17. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  18. Correlates of simulated hill climb cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, R C; Swan, D; Coleman, D; Bird, S

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between several commonly used aerobic and anaerobic cycle ergometer tests and performance during a treadmill cycling hill climb. Eight competitive cyclists (age 27+/-7 years; body mass 73.2+/-5.2 kg; height 177+/-6 cm; mean +/- s) completed six tests in random order: a lactate minimum test; a Wingate anaerobic power test; and two 6-km climbs at 6% and two 1-km climbs at 12% gradient performed on a motorized treadmill. The mean times and power outputs for the 6-km and 1-km climbs were 16:30+/-1:08 min: s and 330+/-17.8 W, and 4:19+/-0:27 min: s and 411+/-24.4 W, respectively. The best individual predictor of 6-km and 1-km performance times was the time for the corresponding climb at the other distance (r = 0.97). The next strongest predictor of both hill climb performances was the average power produced during the Wingate test divided by body mass. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the two variables contributing most to the prediction equation for both climbs were the Wingate average power per unit of body mass and maximal aerobic power divided by total mass (rider + bike), which together accounted for 92 and 96% of the variability in the 6-km and 1-km climbs. In conclusion, among competitive cyclists, the Wingate average power per unit of body mass was the best single predictor of simulated cycling hill climb performance at the distance and gradient used.

  19. 14 CFR 23.69 - Enroute climb/descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enroute climb/descent. 23.69 Section 23.69... climb/descent. (a) All engines operating. The steady gradient and rate of climb must be determined at...; (3) The wing flaps retracted; and (4) A climb speed not less than 1.3 VS1. (b) One engine...

  20. The behavioural ecology of climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2015-02-12

    Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Vines that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Therefore, the location of a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Numerous studies on climbing plant behaviour have elucidated mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-finding behaviour and the factors that affect it. Without this knowledge, little progress can be made in the understanding of the evolution of support-finding behaviour in climbers. Here I review studies addressing ecological causes and consequences of support finding and use by climbing plants. I also propose the use of behavioural ecology theoretical frameworks to study climbing plant behaviour. I show how host tree attributes may determine the probability of successful colonization for the different types of climbers, and examine the evidence of environmental and genetic control of circumnutation behaviour and phenotypic responses to support availability. Cases of oriented vine growth towards supports are highlighted. I discuss functional responses of vines to the interplay between herbivory and support availability under different abiotic environments, illustrating with one study case how results comply with a theoretical framework of behavioural ecology originally conceived for animals. I conclude stressing that climbing plants are suitable study subjects for the application of behavioural-ecological theory. Further research under this framework should aim at characterizing the different stages of the support-finding process in terms of their fit with the different climbing modes and environmental settings. In particular, cost-benefit analysis of climbing plant behaviour should be helpful to infer the selective pressures that have operated to shape current climber ecological

  1. Experimental study of flight noise on AS350B2 helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaming; ZHANG Qiang; HU Zhangwei; BAO Jinsong

    2005-01-01

    A joint flight experiment is conducted by China Aviation Establishment and German Aerospace Center on an Aerospatiale AS350B2 helicopter to investigate rotorcraft flight acoustics at Pingfang airport, Harbing City, China. This paper briefly introduces the methodologies and facilities used in the flight tests. The flight exposure noise levels for ten test flight conditions are showed in the paper and harmonic spectrum and wavelet analysis methods are used for the noise test data processing, which are measured in the flight test in taking off, climbing, forward and descent flight conditions. Results show that the flight noise levels are relatively higher in the climbing and descending flight conditions. The flight noise comes mainly from the tail rotor for the climbing and from the main rotor due to the blade vortex interaction (BVI) for the descending flight conditions. The highest noise level occurs in the forward rotating blade side when the helicopter flys at moderate speed with about 6° descending slide angle.

  2. Hand Injury in Rock Climbing: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, A; Pivato, G; Pegoli, L

    2016-02-01

    With the amazing increasing in number of participants, rock climbing has become a popular sport in the last decade. A growing number of participants, with different skill level, inevitably leads to an increased number of injuries related to this practice. The kind of lesions that can be observed in rock-climbers is very specific and often involves the hand. For this reason is very important for any hand surgeon that is exposed to sport injuries to know which and the most common injuries related to this sport and which are the basic principles for the treatment of those. The aim of this article is to review the literature that has been published in the last ten year in this topic. On the NCBI database 22 articles where found that where related to rock climbing lesion affecting the hand or the whole body. Differences where found according to kind of rock climbing activity that was analyzed, alpine climb leads to more serious injuries, often affecting the lower limb, while in sport and recreational rock climbing the upper limb and the hand are definitely the most affected parts. Flexor pulley lesions, followed by fractures and strains are the most common lesions affecting the hand that are related to this practice.

  3. Rope Climbing Robot with Surveillance Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanza Zafar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past different engineers and researcher developed robots capable of climbing for various purposes. In this paper we have developed a robot capable of rope climbing in both horizontal and vertical direction. Furthermore, the robot has the ability to perform surveillance using a camera mounted on top of the robot. The quality of the transmitted video from the camera to the computer is clear and stable. Hence the developed robot is a good choice for surveillance purposes. In addition, it can be used to traverse floors of a building. It uses an IR sensor to sense strips attached at each floor. Once the strips are sensed, a dropping mechanism is activated in which a specific object is dropped to the targeted floor or location. The robot can work in automatic mode or manual through RF signals from an RF transmitter. Finally the robot is cost effective compared to many other developed robots for rope climbing.

  4. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wheelchair. (a) Identification. A stair-climbing wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended for... to climb stairs by means of two endless belt tracks that are lowered from under the chair...

  5. Predicting dislocation climb: Classical modeling versus atomistic simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Clouet, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The classical modeling of dislocation climb based on a continuous description of vacancy diffusion is compared to recent atomistic simulations of dislocation climb in body-centered cubic iron under vacancy supersaturation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 095501 (2010)]. A quantitative agreement is obtained, showing the ability of the classical approach to describe dislocation climb. The analytical model is then used to extrapolate dislocation climb velocities to lower dislocation...

  6. Distribution and diversity of climbing plants in temperate East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu

    2011-01-01

    The composition and geographic distribution of climbing plants are important aspects of ecological study, but research on temperate climbing plants is relatively limited. We compared the family and genera- level composition, floristic element type, growth forms, diversity and geographical distribution of climbing plants in nine districts of temperate East Asia, including Northeast China, Japan, Mongolia and the Korean Peninsula. A total of 304 climbing plant species were documented, belonging...

  7. Characteristic model based control of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle in its climbing phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Bin; WU HongXin; LIN ZongLi; LI Guo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a characteristic model based longitudinal control design for the trans-aerosphere vehicle X-34 In its transonic and hypersonic climbing phase is proposed.The design is based on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle and the curves it is to track in this climbing phase.Through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics during this climbing phase,an explicit description of the tracking curve for the flight path angle is derived.On the basis of this tracking curve,the tracking curves for the two short-period variables,the angle of attack and the pitch rate,are designed.An all-coefficient adaptive controller is then designed,based on the characteristic modeling,to cause these two short-period variables to follow their respective tracking curves.The proposed design does not require multiple working points,making the design procedure simple.Numerical simulation is performed to validate the performance of the controller.The simulation results Indicate that the resulting control law ensures that the vehicle climbs up successfully under the restrictions on the pitch angle and overloading.

  8. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine-powered airplane of 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight must have a steady climb gradient at sea level...

  9. 14 CFR 23.67 - Climb: One engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: One engine inoperative. 23.67... Climb: One engine inoperative. (a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine... knots must be able to maintain a steady climb gradient of at least 1.5 percent at a pressure altitude...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1045 - Climb cooling test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb cooling test procedures. 29.1045... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Cooling § 29.1045 Climb cooling test procedures. (a) Climb cooling tests must be conducted under this section for— (1) Category...

  11. Bergsteigen in den Alpen (Mountain Climbing in the Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrysz, Ilse; Budzinski, Elisabeth

    German second language instructional materials contain a short text in German on mountain climbing in the Alps, a vocabulary list with translation, a simple German climbing song, a recipe for goulash soup in English, and a short text in English on mountain climbing. (MSE)

  12. The tree-climbing crabs of Trinidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, von Heinrich-Otto

    1977-01-01

    An annotated list of the brachyuran (12) and anomuran (1) tree-climbing crabs of Trinidad (West Indies) is presented (see Table 1 for species names). Some of the species mentioned (e.g. Aratus pisonii, Goniopsis cruentata) are well-known treeclimbers, in others (e.g. Sesarma roberti, S. ricordi) thi

  13. Bouldering : an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support sur-face by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species...

  14. THERMODYNAMIC VARIATIONAL APPROACH FOR CLIMB OF AN EDGE DISLOCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxin Gao; A.C.F. Cocks

    2009-01-01

    A general thermodynamic variational approach is applied to study the force on an edge dislocation, which drives the dislocation to climb. Our attention is focused on the physical mechanism responsible for dislocation climb. A dislocation in a material element climbs as a result of vacancies diffusing into or out from the dislocation core, with the dislocation acting as a source or a sink for vacancy diffusion in the material element. The basic governing equations for dislocation climb and the climb forces on the dislocation are obtained naturally as a result of the present thermodynamic variational approach.

  15. Dust exposure in indoor climbing halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Dirsch, Thomas; Ebert, Martin; Hofmann, Heiko; Kandler, Konrad

    2008-05-01

    The use of hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide (magnesia alba) for drying the hands is a strong source for particulate matter in indoor climbing halls. Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured with an optical particle counter in 9 indoor climbing halls and in 5 sports halls. Mean values for PM10 in indoor climbing halls are generally on the order of 200-500 microg m(-3). For periods of high activity, which last for several hours, PM10 values between 1000 and 4000 microg m(-3) were observed. PM(2.5) is on the order of 30-100 microg m(-3) and reaches values up to 500 microg m(-3), if many users are present. In sports halls, the mass concentrations are usually much lower (PM10 sport in which magnesia alba is also used) similar dust concentrations as for indoor climbing were observed. The size distribution and the total particle number concentration (3.7 nm-10 microm electrical mobility diameter) were determined in one climbing hall by an electrical aerosol spectrometer. The highest number concentrations were between 8000 and 12 000 cm(-3), indicating that the use of magnesia alba is no strong source for ultrafine particles. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that virtually all particles are hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide. In-situ experiments in an environmental scanning electron microscope showed that the particles do not dissolve at relative humidities up to 100%. Thus, it is concluded that solid particles of magnesia alba are airborne and have the potential to deposit in the human respiratory tract. The particle mass concentrations in indoor climbing halls are much higher than those reported for schools and reach, in many cases, levels which are observed for industrial occupations. The observed dust concentrations are below the current occupational exposure limits in Germany of 3 and 10 mg m(-3) for respirable and inhalable dust. However, the dust concentrations exceed the German guide

  16. Droplets climbing a rotating helical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois

    2015-01-01

    A liquid droplet is placed on a rotating helical fiber. We find that the droplet may slide down, attach or climb up the fiber. We inspect experimentally the domain of existence of these three behaviors as a function of the geometrical characteristics of the fiber, its angle relatively to the horizontal, the wetting properties of the fluid and the rotating speed of the helix. A theoretical model is proposed in order to capture the boundaries of the experimental phase diagram.

  17. Tree Climbing Robot Design, Kinematics and Motion Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Tin Lun

    2012-01-01

    Climbing robot is a challenging research topic that has gained much attention from researchers. Most of the robots reported in the literature are designed to climb on manmade structures, but seldom robots are designed for climbing natural environment such as trees. Trees and manmade structures are very different in nature. It brings different aspects of technical challenges to the robot design. In this book, you can find a collection of the cutting edge technologies in the field of tree-climbing robot and the ways that animals climb. It provides a valuable reference for robot designers to select appropriate climbing methods in designing tree-climbing robots for specific purposes. Based on the study, a novel bio-inspired tree-climbing robot with several breakthrough performances has been developed and presents in this book. It is capable of performing various actions that is impossible in the state-of-the-art tree-climbing robots, such as moving between trunk and branches. This book also proposes several appro...

  18. A Star-Wheel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Bo; JIN Ai-min; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHENG Yu-fei; ZHANG Shuai

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair climb stairs function, this paper designs a star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism. Through the effect of the lock coupling, the star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism is formed to be fixed axis gear train or planetary gear train achieving flat-walking and stair-climbing functions. Crossing obstacle analysis obtains the maximum height and minimum width of obstacle which the wheelchair can cross. Stress-strain analysis in Solidworks simulation is performed to verify material strength.

  19. ClimbAware: Investigating Perception and Acceptance of Wearables in Rock Climbing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmalla, Felix; Wiehr, Frederik; Daiber, Florian;

    2016-01-01

    Wearable sports devices like GPS watches and heart rate monitors are ubiquitous in sports like running or road cycling and enable the users to receive real-time performance feedback. Although rock climbing is a trending sport, there are little to no consumer electronics available to support rock...

  20. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed.

  1. Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r

  2. On a New Method for Evaluation of Wheel Climb Derailment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a new derailment index λ for evaluation of wheel climb derailment is proposed which is based on primary suspension forces. It is easy to apply because of its minimum criterion characteristic and can also be applied to explain the reason why wheel climb derailments are almost always accompanied by some wheel unloadings.

  3. Leaf damage induces twining in a climbing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2005-08-01

    Successful climbing by vines not only prevents shading by neighbouring vegetation, but also may place the vines beyond ground herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that herbivory might enhance climbing in a vine species, and that such induced climbing should be greater in the shade. We assessed field herbivory in climbing and prostrate ramets of the twining vine Convolvulus arvensis. We evaluated plant climbing after mechanical damage in a glasshouse under both sun and shade conditions, and determined whether control and damaged plants differed in growth rate or photosynthetic capacity. Plants experienced greater herbivory when growing prostrate than when climbing onto companion plants, in both an open habitat and a shaded understorey. Experimental plants increased their twining rate on a stake after suffering leaf damage, in both high- and low-light conditions, and this induced climbing was not coupled to an increase in growth rate. Increased photosynthesis was associated with enhanced twining rate only in the shade. Herbivory may be an ecological factor promoting the evolution of a climbing habit in plants.

  4. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  5. Comparison of lactate sampling sites for rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, S; Draper, N; Dickson, T; Blackwell, G; Winter, D; Ellis, G

    2011-06-01

    Comparisons of capillary blood lactate concentrations pre and post climb have featured in the protocols of many rock climbing studies, with most researchers obtaining samples from the fingertip. The nature of rock climbing, however, places a comparatively high physiological loading on the foreaand fingertips. Indeed, the fingertips are continually required for gripping and this makes pre-climb sampling at this site problematic. The purpose of our study was to examine differences in capillary blood lactate concentrations from samples taken at the fingertip and first (big) toe in a rock climbing context. 10 participants (9 males and 1 female) completed climbing bouts at 3 different angles (91°, 100° and 110°). Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously from the fingertip and first toe pre and post climb. A limit of agreement plot revealed all data points to be well within the upper and lower bounds of the 95% population confidence interval. Subsequent regression analysis revealed a strong relationship (R (2)=0.94, y=0.940x + 0.208) between fingertip and first toe capillary blood lactate concentrations. Findings from our study suggest that the toe offers a valid alternative site for capillary blood lactate concentration analysis in a rock climbing context.

  6. Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-10-07

    Key innovations are traits that are associated with the particular evolutionary 'success' of some taxonomic groups. Climbing plants depend on the availability of physical support to reach the canopy and thereby prevent shading by neighbouring plants. The present article shows that the evolution of a climbing habit in flowering plants constitutes a key innovation. A literature survey identified 48 pairs of sister groups from 45 families of flowering plants for which information on phylogenetic relationships, growth habit and species richness was available. In 38 cases, the climbing taxa were more diverse than their non-climbing sister groups. This pattern was highly significant. The same result was found when separate analyses were carried out for herbaceous and woody climbing plants, which differ in their constraints for successfully reaching a support.

  7. Dislocation climb models from atomistic scheme to dislocation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaohua; Luo, Tao; Lu, Jianfeng; Xiang, Yang

    2017-02-01

    We develop a mesoscopic dislocation dynamics model for vacancy-assisted dislocation climb by upscalings from a stochastic model on the atomistic scale. Our models incorporate microscopic mechanisms of (i) bulk diffusion of vacancies, (ii) vacancy exchange dynamics between bulk and dislocation core, (iii) vacancy pipe diffusion along the dislocation core, and (iv) vacancy attachment-detachment kinetics at jogs leading to the motion of jogs. Our mesoscopic model consists of the vacancy bulk diffusion equation and a dislocation climb velocity formula. The effects of these microscopic mechanisms are incorporated by a Robin boundary condition near the dislocations for the bulk diffusion equation and a new contribution in the dislocation climb velocity due to vacancy pipe diffusion driven by the stress variation along the dislocation. Our climb formulation is able to quantitatively describe the translation of prismatic loops at low temperatures when the bulk diffusion is negligible. Using this new formulation, we derive analytical formulas for the climb velocity of a straight edge dislocation and a prismatic circular loop. Our dislocation climb formulation can be implemented in dislocation dynamics simulations to incorporate all the above four microscopic mechanisms of dislocation climb.

  8. Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando

    2014-05-05

    Mimicry refers to adaptive similarity between a mimic organism and a model. Mimicry in animals is rather common, whereas documented cases in plants are rare, and the associated benefits are seldom elucidated [1, 2]. We show the occurrence of leaf mimicry in a climbing plant endemic to a temperate rainforest. The woody vine Boquila trifoliolata mimics the leaves of its supporting trees in terms of size, shape, color, orientation, petiole length, and/or tip spininess. Moreover, sequential leaf mimicry occurs when a single individual vine is associated with different tree species. Leaves of unsupported vines differed from leaves of climbing plants closely associated with tree foliage but did not differ from those of vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Consistent with an herbivory-avoidance hypothesis, leaf herbivory on unsupported vines was greater than that on vines climbing on trees but was greatest on vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Thus, B. trifoliolata gains protection against herbivory not merely by climbing and thus avoiding ground herbivores [3] but also by climbing onto trees whose leaves are mimicked. Unlike earlier cases of plant mimicry or crypsis, in which the plant roughly resembles a background or color pattern [4-7] or mimics a single host [8, 9], B. trifoliolata is able to mimic several hosts.

  9. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the 'rearing stage,' inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the 'rising stage,' maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed.

  10. Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Plasma Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Classical plasma waves are predicted to exhibit quantumlike ladder climbing, which is achieved by chirped modulations of the background density. An equivalence with the quantum particle in a box is identified and used to calculate the efficiency and the rate of this effect. In the limit of densely spaced spectrum, ladder climbing transforms into continuous autoresonance; plasmons may then be manipulated by chirped background modulations much like electrons are autoresonantly manipulated by chirped fields. Such ladder climbing and autoresonance effects are also predicted for other classical waves by means of a unifying Lagrangian theory.

  11. Energy-modelled climb and climb-dash - The Kaiser technique. [reviewed for Me 262 jet fighter aircraft trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, S. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    F. Kaiser's germinal 1944 report on his 'resultant-height' concept, now known as energy modelling, is reviewed. The data base for the Me. 262 jet fighter is recreated via spline-lattice representation of specific excess power. Minimum-time and 'distance'-climb trajectories are generated in an attempt to check Kaiser's results. Agreement is good for the minimum-time calculations but only qualitative agreement is obtained for the mysterious 'distance climbs' whose documentation is fragmentary. The character of optimal climb-dash trajectories in energy approximation is examined and illustrated.

  12. A Biomimetic Climbing Robot Based on the Gecko

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo Menon; Metin Sitti

    2006-01-01

    The excellent climbing performance of the gecko is inspiring engineers and researchers for the design of artificial systems aimed at moving on vertical surfaces. Climbing robots could perform many useful tasks such as surveillance, inspection, repair,cleaning, and exploration. This paper presents and discusses the design, fabrication, and evaluation of two climbing robots which mimic the gait of the gecko. The first robot is designed considering macro-scale operations on Earth and in space. The second robot, whose motion is controlled using shape memory alloy actuators, is designed to be easily scaled down for micro-scale applications. Proposed bionic systems can climb up 65 degree slopes at a speed of 20 mm·s-1.

  13. Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S. Prescription painkillers and heroin lead the increase, latest government data ... fatalities linked to the illicit use of prescription painkillers, new government statistics reveal. Drug overdose deaths increased ...

  14. A Survey of Wall Climbing Robots: Recent Advances and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke Nansai; Rajesh Elara Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, skyscrapers, as represented by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, have been built due to the improvements of construction technologies. Even in such newfangled skyscrapers, the façades are generally cleaned by humans. Wall climbing robots, which are capable of climbing up vertical surfaces, ceilings and roofs, are expected to replace the manual workforce in façade cleaning works, which is both hazardous and laborious work. Such tasks require these rob...

  15. Effect of an On-Sight Lead on the Physiological and Psychological Responses to Rock Climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Draper; Jones, Glenys A.; Simon Fryer; Chris Hodgson; Gavin Blackwell

    2008-01-01

    Rock climbing is a multi-discipline activity that encompasses forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on natural and artificial climbing surfaces. A major focus of research has been explanation of physiological functioning. More recent research indicates that anxiety levels are elevated for less experienced climbers and in response to lead climbing ascents. Research regarding the demands of rock climbing has placed a lesser focus on the interaction of psychological and physiolo...

  16. Minimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories Modeled for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed U.S. High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will revolutionize commercial air travel by providing economical supersonic passenger service to destinations worldwide. Unlike the high-bypass turbofan engines that propel today's subsonic airliners, HSCT engines will have much higher jet exhaust speeds. Jet noise, caused by the turbulent mixing of high-speed exhaust with the surrounding air, poses a significant challenge for HSCT engine designers. To resolve this challenge, engineers have designed advanced mixer rejector nozzles that reduce HSCT jet noise to airport noise certification levels by entraining and mixing large quantities of ambient air with the engines' jet streams. Although this works well during the first several minutes of flight, far away from the airport, as the HSCT gains speed and climbs, poor ejector inlet recovery and ejector ram drag contribute to poor thrust, making it advantageous to turn off the ejector. Doing so prematurely, however, can cause unacceptable noise levels to propagate to the ground, even when the aircraft is many miles from the airport. This situation lends itself ideally to optimization, where the aircraft trajectory, throttle setting, and ejector setting can be varied (subject to practical aircraft constraints) to minimize the noise propagated to the ground. A method was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center that employs a variation of the classic energy state approximation: a trajectory analysis technique historically used to minimize climb time or fuel burned in many aircraft problems. To minimize the noise on the ground at any given throttle setting, high aircraft altitudes are desirable; but the HSCT may either climb quickly to high altitudes using a high, noisy throttle setting or climb more slowly at a lower, quieter throttle setting. An optimizer has been programmed into NASA's existing aircraft and noise analysis codes to balance these options by dynamically choosing the best altitude-velocity path and

  17. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  18. Therapeutic use of sport climbing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport climbing is a form of exercise that requires complex and variable movement. Because of the use of the so-called "top-rope system", this is a safe activity appropriate for individuals with physical disabilities. Therefore, climbing might prove to be an effective form of therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease that may include motor and cognitive deficits as well as affective disturbances. The illness is characterized by multifocal areas of brain damage (plaques, as consequence of autoimmune inflammation. Sport climbing might be a potentially useful activity for treating spasticity, improving a person's self image and certain aspects of cognition, such as attention and executive functions, as well as for managing emotional disturbances. All of the above are areas where patients with multiple sclerosis might be in need of assistance. The article also describes the experience of a patient with multiple sclerosis who was enrolled in our climbing program. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of climbing therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  19. A Survey of Wall Climbing Robots: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nansai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, skyscrapers, as represented by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, have been built due to the improvements of construction technologies. Even in such newfangled skyscrapers, the façades are generally cleaned by humans. Wall climbing robots, which are capable of climbing up vertical surfaces, ceilings and roofs, are expected to replace the manual workforce in façade cleaning works, which is both hazardous and laborious work. Such tasks require these robotic platforms to possess high levels of adaptability and flexibility. This paper presents a detailed review of wall climbing robots categorizing them into six distinct classes based on the adhesive mechanism that they use. This paper concludes by expanding beyond adhesive mechanisms by discussing a set of desirable design attributes of an ideal glass façade cleaning robot towards facilitating targeted future research with clear technical goals and well-defined design trade-off boundaries.

  20. Predicting dislocation climb and creep from explicit atomistic details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mukul; Lau, Timothy T; Rodney, David; Yip, Sidney; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2010-08-27

    Here we report kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of dislocation climb in heavily deformed, body-centered cubic iron comprising a supersaturation of vacancies. This approach explicitly incorporates the effect of nonlinear vacancy-dislocation interaction on vacancy migration barriers as determined from atomistic calculations, and enables observations of diffusivity and climb over time scales and temperatures relevant to power-law creep. By capturing the underlying microscopic physics, the calculated stress exponents for steady-state creep rates agree quantitatively with the experimentally measured range, and qualitatively with the stress dependence of creep activation energies.

  1. Nanoparticles secreted from ivy rootlets for surface climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjun; Liu, Maozi; Prest, Harry; Fischer, Steve

    2008-05-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, we observed ivy secretes nanoparticles through adhering disks of the ivy aerial rootlets which allow the plant to affix to a surface. We analyzed the organic composition of the secretions using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and were able to determine the formula of 19 compounds. This study suggests that the nanoparticles play a direct and important role for ivy surface "climbing". Weak adhesion and hydrogen bonding seem to be the forces for the climbing mechanism. This ivy secretion mechanism may inspire new methods for synthesizing nanoparticles biologically or new approaches to adhesion mechanisms for engineering applications.

  2. The CLASSIC/CLIMB Data Reduction: The Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brummelaar, T.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter describes the methods used to extract closure phase from CLIMB data and visibility amplitude from both the CLASSIC and CLIMB beam combiners. It also includes a rather exhaustive description of the theory behind these methods. This high degree of detail is partly because previous publications of this theory contain errors, and partly because having done all this work it*s nice to have it written up in full somewhere, and being slightly beyond the thesis writing stage, this is only possible for me in a chapter like this.

  3. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. 23... Performance § 23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category... airplanes in the normal, utility, and acrobatic category, the steady gradient of climb or descent must...

  4. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 360 and 361 Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper... noxious weed regulations by adding Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum (Cavanilles) R. Brown... Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum (Cavanilles) R. Brown) and maidenhair creeper...

  5. Vibrational ladder climbing in NO using ultrashort IR laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D. J.; Duncan, D. I.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van der Zande, W. J.; Noordam, L. D.; Lambropoulos, P.; Walther, H.

    1997-01-01

    Chirped excitation of an electronic ladder system has shown complete transfer of the population to the top-level of the ladder system. Similar excitation of vibrational ladders in molecules may provide a tool for state-selective chemistry. Experimental results on the climbing of the anharmonic vibra

  6. Project Hill-Climb: Drafting and Design in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowl, William F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Hill-Climb project of a second level Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) class. The author primarily designed the activity to increase student understanding of the assembly drawing process and its components. The emphasis on problem solving adds a dimension that can aid students in their other classes as well. By…

  7. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  8. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The p

  9. Spontaneous Helix Hand Reversal and Tendril Perversion in Climbing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, Alain; Tabor, Michael

    1998-02-01

    The helix hand reversal exhibited by the tendrils of climbing plants when attached to a support is investigated. Modeled as a thin elastic rod with intrinsic curvature, a linear and nonlinear stability analysis shows the problem to be a paradigm for curvature induced morphogenesis in which symmetry breaking is constrained by a global invariant.

  10. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The presence of an ant-plant piper in West New Guinea is noted.

  11. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  12. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only tax

  13. Tight coordination of aerial flight maneuvers and sonar call production in insectivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Benjamin; Kasnadi, Joseph; Moss, Cynthia F

    2015-11-01

    Echolocating bats face the challenge of coordinating flight kinematics with the production of echolocation signals used to guide navigation. Previous studies of bat flight have focused on kinematics of fruit and nectar-feeding bats, often in wind tunnels with limited maneuvering, and without analysis of echolocation behavior. In this study, we engaged insectivorous big brown bats in a task requiring simultaneous turning and climbing flight, and used synchronized high-speed motion-tracking cameras and audio recordings to quantify the animals' coordination of wing kinematics and echolocation. Bats varied flight speed, turn rate, climb rate and wingbeat rate as they navigated around obstacles, and they adapted their sonar signals in patterning, duration and frequency in relation to the timing of flight maneuvers. We found that bats timed the emission of sonar calls with the upstroke phase of the wingbeat cycle in straight flight, and that this relationship changed when bats turned to navigate obstacles. We also characterized the unsteadiness of climbing and turning flight, as well as the relationship between speed and kinematic parameters. Adaptations in the bats' echolocation call frequency suggest changes in beam width and sonar field of view in relation to obstacles and flight behavior. By characterizing flight and sonar behaviors in an insectivorous bat species, we find evidence of exquisitely tight coordination of sensory and motor systems for obstacle navigation and insect capture.

  14. CFD analysis of turboprop engine oil cooler duct for best rate of climb condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Saurabh; CA, Vinay; Hegde, Suresh M.

    2016-09-01

    Turboprop engines are widely used in commuter category airplanes. Aircraft Design bureaus routinely conduct the flight tests to confirm the performance of the system. The lubrication system of the engine is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubrication oil to the engine bearings, the reduction gears, the torque-meter, the propeller and the accessory gearbox. The oil lubricates, cools and also conducts foreign material to the oil filter where it is removed from further circulation. Thus a means of cooling the engine oil must be provided and a suitable oil cooler (OC) and ducting system was selected and designed for this purpose. In this context, it is relevant to study and analyse behaviour of the engine oil cooler system before commencing actual flight tests. In this paper, the performance of the oil cooler duct with twin flush NACA inlet housed inside the nacelle has been studied for aircraft best rate of climb (ROC) condition using RANS based SST K-omega model by commercial software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. From the CFD analysis results, it is found that the mass flow rate captured and pressure drop across the oil cooler for the best ROC condition is meeting the oil cooler manufacturer requirements thus, the engine oil temperature is maintained within prescribed limits.

  15. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  16. Optimum climb and descent trajectories for airline missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating cost (DOC). The state variable is range to go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (400 n. mi. and less), a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur.

  17. Steepest Ascent Hill Climbing For A Mathematical Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Siby; Sanyal, Sugata; Sanglikar, Mukund

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes artificial intelligence technique called hill climbing to find numerical solutions of Diophantine Equations. Such equations are important as they have many applications in fields like public key cryptography, integer factorization, algebraic curves, projective curves and data dependency in super computers. Importantly, it has been proved that there is no general method to find solutions of such equations. This paper is an attempt to find numerical solutions of Diophantine equations using steepest ascent version of Hill Climbing. The method, which uses tree representation to depict possible solutions of Diophantine equations, adopts a novel methodology to generate successors. The heuristic function used help to make the process of finding solution as a minimization process. The work illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology using a class of Diophantine equations given by a1. x1 p1 + a2. x2 p2 + ...... + an . xn pn = N where ai and N are integers. The experimental results vali...

  18. Climbing favours the tripod gait over alternative faster insect gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Thandiackal, Robin; Cherney, Raphael; Asselborn, Thibault; Benton, Richard; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Floreano, Dario

    2017-02-01

    To escape danger or catch prey, running vertebrates rely on dynamic gaits with minimal ground contact. By contrast, most insects use a tripod gait that maintains at least three legs on the ground at any given time. One prevailing hypothesis for this difference in fast locomotor strategies is that tripod locomotion allows insects to rapidly navigate three-dimensional terrain. To test this, we computationally discovered fast locomotor gaits for a model based on Drosophila melanogaster. Indeed, the tripod gait emerges to the exclusion of many other possible gaits when optimizing fast upward climbing with leg adhesion. By contrast, novel two-legged bipod gaits are fastest on flat terrain without adhesion in the model and in a hexapod robot. Intriguingly, when adhesive leg structures in real Drosophila are covered, animals exhibit atypical bipod-like leg coordination. We propose that the requirement to climb vertical terrain may drive the prevalence of the tripod gait over faster alternative gaits with minimal ground contact.

  19. Watching Charlotte Climb: Little Steps toward Big Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W. Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about big questions of meaning and value that young people pose and how to respond to their concerns about big questions. He relates the story of his granddaughter, Charlotte, who, at the age of one, would climb up on the stairs not from choice or whim, but "because they're there." For her, it was not play, but…

  20. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable launch vehicles, in particular to gain experience towing delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, and in general to demonstrate various operational procedures such as ground processing and abort scenarios. The first successful

  1. Fast, vacancy-free climb of prismatic dislocation loops in bcc metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, Thomas D; Arakawa, Kazuto; Mori, Hirotaro; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Isshiki, Minoru; Mimura, Kouji; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Dudarev, Sergei L

    2016-08-23

    Vacancy-mediated climb models cannot account for the fast, direct coalescence of dislocation loops seen experimentally. An alternative mechanism, self climb, allows prismatic dislocation loops to move away from their glide surface via pipe diffusion around the loop perimeter, independent of any vacancy atmosphere. Despite the known importance of self climb, theoretical models require a typically unknown activation energy, hindering implementation in materials modeling. Here, extensive molecular statics calculations of pipe diffusion processes around irregular prismatic loops are used to map the energy landscape for self climb in iron and tungsten, finding a simple, material independent energy model after normalizing by the vacancy migration barrier. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations yield a self climb activation energy of 2 (2.5) times the vacancy migration barrier for 1/2〈111〉 (〈100〉) dislocation loops. Dislocation dynamics simulations allowing self climb and glide show quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy observations of climbing prismatic loops in iron and tungsten, confirming that this novel form of vacancy-free climb is many orders of magnitude faster than what is predicted by traditional climb models. Self climb significantly influences the coarsening rate of defect networks, with important implications for post-irradiation annealing.

  2. Fast, vacancy-free climb of prismatic dislocation loops in bcc metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, Thomas D.; Arakawa, Kazuto; Mori, Hirotaro; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Isshiki, Minoru; Mimura, Kouji; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Dudarev, Sergei L.

    2016-08-01

    Vacancy-mediated climb models cannot account for the fast, direct coalescence of dislocation loops seen experimentally. An alternative mechanism, self climb, allows prismatic dislocation loops to move away from their glide surface via pipe diffusion around the loop perimeter, independent of any vacancy atmosphere. Despite the known importance of self climb, theoretical models require a typically unknown activation energy, hindering implementation in materials modeling. Here, extensive molecular statics calculations of pipe diffusion processes around irregular prismatic loops are used to map the energy landscape for self climb in iron and tungsten, finding a simple, material independent energy model after normalizing by the vacancy migration barrier. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations yield a self climb activation energy of 2 (2.5) times the vacancy migration barrier for 1/2 () dislocation loops. Dislocation dynamics simulations allowing self climb and glide show quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy observations of climbing prismatic loops in iron and tungsten, confirming that this novel form of vacancy-free climb is many orders of magnitude faster than what is predicted by traditional climb models. Self climb significantly influences the coarsening rate of defect networks, with important implications for post-irradiation annealing.

  3. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorniak, T; Blanchet, S; De Oliveira, E; Daverat, F; Pierron, F

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing 'leaders', 'followers', 'finishers' and 'no climbers'. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing 'leaders' had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing 'followers'. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive 'leaders' express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess.

  4. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Kissling, W Daniel; Condamine, Fabien L; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rowe, Nick P; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height, and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity, mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analyses of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habits may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high-stature dipterocarps in Asian TRFs.

  5. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. P. Couvreur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forests (TRF are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae. We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analysis of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habit may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high

  6. On primary installation of self climbing hydraulic climbing formwork and climbing construction technique%自爬升式液压爬模初始安装及爬升施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛万凯

    2012-01-01

    以广州某超高层自爬升式液压爬模施工为例,对自爬升式液压爬模初始安装及爬升施工技术进行了阐述,指出自爬升式液压爬模在超高层建筑混凝土浇筑过程中对提高施工质量、进度、效益等方面都有显著的成效,对类似工程施工有一定的指导意义。%Taking some super-high-rise self climbing hydraulic climbing formwork construction in Guangzhou as the example, the paper illustrates the primary installation of self climbing hydraulic climbing formwork and the climbing construction technique, and points out the primary installation of self climbing hydraulic climbing formwork can have obvious effect on promoting the construction quality, the progress, and benefits and other aspects in the grouting process of the super-high-rise buildings, so it has certain direction significance for the similar construction.

  7. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; W. Daniel Kissling; Fabien L. Condamine; Jens-Christian eSvenning; Rowe, Nick P.; Baker, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related...

  8. Video analysis of the flight of a model aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio, E-mail: giovanni.tarantino19@unipa.it, E-mail: claudio.fazio@unipa.it [UOP-PERG (University of Palermo Physics Education Research Group), Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the phugoid model for longitudinal flight. A comparison with the parameters and performance of the full-size aircraft has also been outlined.

  9. A Kinect-sensor-based Tracked Robot for Exploring and Climbing Stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsum Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the stair-climbing problem for a tracked robot. The tracked robot designed in this paper has the ability to explore stairs in an unknown indoor environment, climbing up and down the stairs, keeping balance while climbing, and successfully landing on the stair platform. Intelligent algorithms are proposed to explore and align stairs, and a fuzzy controller is introduced to stabilize the tracked robot’s movement during the exploration. An inexpensive Kinect depth sensor is the only equipment needed for all the control modes. Finally, experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for climbing stairs.

  10. Sport climbing with pre-existing cardio-pulmonary medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, T; Morrison, A; Gieseler, U; Schoeffl, V

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 25 years sport climbing has developed from an elite extreme sport subculture pursued by few into a mainstream recreational sport enjoyed globally by climbers of all ages, climbing abilities, and with pre-existing health conditions. As the demands and grades of climbing difficulty have increased over this period, most scientific literature on sport climbing focused on acute injuries and overuse syndromes, or performance physiology in healthy adult males. The physiological response to sport climbing is more similar to that of resistance training (i.e., body building) rather than a predominantly aerobic sport (i.e., running, cycling), so that heart rate and blood pressure during a climb will be disproportionately high relative to the 'exercise' of climbing, and breathing may be irregular. Therefore this review sought evidence-based recommendations for recreational sport climbing participation by those individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary medical conditions including coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, pulmonary diseases (i.e., asthma) or hypertension. This review defines the criteria that must be fulfilled for safe sport climbing by those with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions or those with hypertension.

  11. Single-step collision-free trajectory planning of biped climbing robots in spatial trusses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haifei; Guan, Yisheng; Chen, Shengjun; Su, Manjia; Zhang, Hong

    For a biped climbing robot with dual grippers to climb poles, trusses or trees, feasible collision-free climbing motion is inevitable and essential. In this paper, we utilize the sampling-based algorithm, Bi-RRT, to plan single-step collision-free motion for biped climbing robots in spatial trusses. To deal with the orientation limit of a 5-DoF biped climbing robot, a new state representation along with corresponding operations including sampling, metric calculation and interpolation is presented. A simple but effective model of a biped climbing robot in trusses is proposed, through which the motion planning of one climbing cycle is transformed to that of a manipulator. In addition, the pre- and post-processes are introduced to expedite the convergence of the Bi-RRT algorithm and to ensure the safe motion of the climbing robot near poles as well. The piecewise linear paths are smoothed by utilizing cubic B-spline curve fitting. The effectiveness and efficiency of the presented Bi-RRT algorithm for climbing motion planning are verified by simulations.

  12. Research on Dynamics and Stability in the Stairs-climbing of a Tracked Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the functional requirement of climbing up the stairs, the dynamics and stability during a tracked mobile robot’s climbing of stairs is studied. First, from the analysis of its cross‐country performance, the mechanical structure of the tracked mobile robot is designed and the hardware composition of its control system is given. Second, based on the analysis to its stairs‐climbing process, the dynamical model of stairs‐climbing is established by using the classical mechanics method. Next, the stability conditions for its stairs‐climbing are determined and an evaluation method of its stairs‐climbing stability is proposed, based on a mechanics analysis on the robot’s backwards tumbling during the stairs‐climbing process. Through simulation and experiments, the effectiveness of the dynamical model and the stability evaluation method of the tracked mobile robot in stairs‐climbing is verified, which can provide design and analysis foundations for the tracked mobile robots’ stairs‐climbing.

  13. Mechanics of Climbing and Attachment in Twining Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, Alain; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2006-11-01

    Twining plants achieve vertical growth by revolving around supports of different sizes on which they exert a pressure. This observation raises many intriguing questions that are addressed within the framework of elastic filamentary structures by modeling the stem close to the apex as a growing elastic rod. The analysis shows that vertical growth is achieved thanks to discrete contact points and regions with continuous contact, that the contact pressure creates tension in the stem as observed experimentally, and that there is a maximal radius of the pole around which a twiner can climb.

  14. Critical Suction Characteristic Analyses of a Wall Climbing Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dai-jun; GAO Xue-shan; WU Xiao-bing; FAN Ning-jun; LI Ke-jie; ZHU Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new method called critical suction is used based on the wall climbing robot demands of miniature structure, moving smartly and low noise.It makes the robot achieve the homeostasis state in the suction cup, and in this condition the robot can stay on the wall reliably and move smartly.The fluid mechanics model and fluid network model are set up to analyze the robot suction system when the airflow is steady or changes suddenly.Furthermore, simulation results indicate the close relation between the key parameters of robot structure and the suction system.Finally the method of critical suction proves correct in theory.

  15. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  16. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-01-19

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33(rd) questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36(th) week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36(th) week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  17. Climbing NLO and NNLO Summits of Weak Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2011-01-01

    I describe the history of the calculations of NLO and NNLO QCD corrections to weak decays of mesons and particle-antiparticle mixing in the period 1988-2010. Also existing calculations of electroweak and QED corrections to these processes are included in this presentation. These efforts bear some analogies to the climbing of Himalayas and various expeditions by several teams of strongly motivated "climbers", acting mainly in Germany, Italy, Poland and Switzerland, allowed to move this field from the LO through the NLO to the NNLO level. The material is meant to be a guide to the rich literature on NLO and NNLO corrections in question and includes several anecdots related to the climbs that I was involved in. While, by no means this presentation should be regarded as a review of the size of NLO and NNLO corrections to weak decays, I hope that some of the comments made in the course of the presentation could turn out to be not only amusing but also instructive.

  18. Adaptation of the hindlimbs for climbing in bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoki; Endo, Hideki; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Tsubota, Toshio; Taru, Hajime; Yamamoto, Masako; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Nobuo; Yamada, Junzo

    2005-04-01

    The hindlimbs of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the brown bear (Ursus arctos) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) have been anatomically and osteometrically studied. The Musculus tibialis cranialis of the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda possessed a well-developed rich fleshy portion until the distal end of the tibia. In the polar bear and the brown bear, however, the fleshy portion of the M. tibialis cranialis was not developed until the distal end of the tibia. The tendon of the M. tibialis cranialis inserting on the proximal end of the Ossa metatarsalia was shorter in the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda than in the polar bear and the brown bear. In the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda, moreover, the M. popliteus was attached more distally to the tibia than in the polar bear and the brown bear. The stable dorsiflexion and supination of the foot and the efficient pronation of the crus are important for skillful tree climbing. The present study suggests that the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda have hindlimbs especially adapted to tree climbing by the well-developed fleshy portion of the M. tibialis cranialis reaching the distal end of the tibia, its short tendon, and the M. popliteus inserting near the distal end of the tibia.

  19. Can hippocampal neurites and growth cones climb over obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Thuy Linh; Ban, Jelena; Tormen, Massimo; Migliorini, Elisa; Grenci, Gianluca; Pozzato, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Guidance molecules, such as Sema3A or Netrin-1, can induce growth cone (GC) repulsion or attraction in the presence of a flat surface, but very little is known of the action of guidance molecules in the presence of obstacles. Therefore we combined chemical and mechanical cues by applying a steady Netrin-1 stream to the GCs of dissociated hippocampal neurons plated on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces patterned with lines 2 µm wide, with 4 µm period and with a height varying from 100 to 600 nm. GC turning experiments performed 24 hours after plating showed that filopodia crawl over these lines within minutes. These filopodia do not show staining for the adhesion marker Paxillin. GCs and neurites crawl over lines 100 nm high, but less frequently and on a longer time scale over lines higher than 300 nm; neurites never crawl over lines 600 nm high. When neurons are grown for 3 days over patterned surfaces, also neurites can cross lines 300 nm and 600 nm high, grow parallel to and on top of these lines and express Paxillin. Axons - selectively stained with SMI 312 - do not differ from dendrites in their ability to cross these lines. Our results show that highly motile structures such as filopodia climb over high obstacle in response to chemical cues, but larger neuronal structures are less prompt and require hours or days to climb similar obstacles.

  20. Gait generation and control in a climbing hexapod robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A. A.; Haynes, G. C.; Full, R. J.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2006-05-01

    We discuss the gait generation and control architecture of a bioinspired climbing robot that presently climbs a variety of vertical surfaces, including carpet, cork and a growing range of stucco-like surfaces in the quasi-static regime. The initial version of the robot utilizes a collection of gaits (cyclic feed-forward motion patterns) to locomote over these surfaces, with each gait tuned for a specific surface and set of operating conditions. The need for more flexibility in gait specification (e.g., adjusting number of feet on the ground), more intricate shaping of workspace motions (e.g., shaping the details of the foot attachment and detachment trajectories), and the need to encode gait "transitions" (e.g., tripod to pentapod gait structure) has led us to separate this trajectory generation scheme into the functional composition of a phase assigning transformation of the "clock space" (the six dimensional torus) followed by a map from phase into leg joints that decouples the geometric details of a particular gait. This decomposition also supports the introduction of sensory feedback to allow recovery from unexpected event and to adapt to changing surface geometries.

  1. CMB Imprints of a Pre-Inflationary Climbing Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, E; Patil, S P; Sagnotti, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observables, of a class of pre-inflationary dynamics suggested by string models where SUSY is broken due to the presence of D-branes and orientifolds preserving incompatible portions of it. In these models the would-be inflaton is forced to emerge from the initial singularity climbing up a mild exponential potential, until it bounces against a steep exponential potential of "brane SUSY breaking" scenarios, and as a result the ensuing descent gives rise to an inflationary epoch that begins when the system is still well off its eventual attractor. If a pre-inflationary climbing phase of this type had occurred within 6-7 e-folds of the horizon exit for the largest observable wavelengths, displacement off the attractor and initial-state effects would conspire to suppress power in the primordial scalar spectrum, enhancing it in the tensor spectrum and typically superposing oscillations on both. We investigate these imprints on CMB observables over a...

  2. Quantifying the attachment strength of climbing plants: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Danninger, Elisabeth; Harder, Deane; Speck, Thomas; Kraft, Oliver; Schwaiger, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    In order to grow vertically, it is essential for climbing plants to firmly attach to their supporting structures. In climbing plants, different strategies for permanent attachment can be distinguished. Besides twining stems and tendrils, many plants use attachment pads or attachment roots for this purpose. Using a novel custom-built tensile testing setup, the mechanical properties of different permanent attachment structures of self-clinging plant species were investigated, namely the attachment pads of Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata), the attachment roots of ivy (Hedera helix) and the clustered attachment roots of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Force-displacement measurements of individual attachment pads as well as of complete structures consisting of several pads or roots were conducted for both natural and laboratory growth conditions. The shapes of the curves and the maximum forces determined indicate clear differences in the detachment process for the different plants and structures tested. Based on these findings, it is argued that the attachment structures are displacement-optimized rather than force-optimized.

  3. Hormone responses to a continuous bout of rock climbing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Sherk, Kyle A; Kim, SoJung; Young, Kaelin C; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-04-01

    Rock climbing is rapidly increasing in popularity as a recreational activity and as a competitive sport. Few studies have tested acute physiological responses to climbing, and no studies to date have tested hormone responses to a climbing-based workout. This study aimed to measure testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) responses to continuous vertical climbing in young male rock climbers. Ten male rock climbers, aged between 21 and 30 years, climbed laps on a submaximal 55' climbing route for 30 min, or until exhaustion, whichever came first. Heart rate (HR) was recorded after every lap. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture before (Pre), immediately post (IP), and 15 min after the climbing exercise (P15) to assess blood lactate and plasma GH, T, and C. Subjects climbed 24.9 ± 1.9 min and 507.5 ± 82.5 feet. Peak HR was 182.1 ± 2.3 bpm, and lactate (Pre: 2.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dL, IP: 11.1 ± 1.0 mmol/dL) significantly (P growth hormone levels in young males.

  4. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...

  5. It's Lonely at the Top: Winning Climbing Fibers Ascend Dendrites Solo

    OpenAIRE

    Draft, Ryan W.; Jeff W. Lichtman

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, climbing fiber axons compete for sole innervation at each Purkinje cell. At the same time, synapses disappear from Purkinje somata and appear in great numbers on the dendrites. In this issue of Neuron, Hashimoto et al. show that, by the time climbing fibers ascend the dendrites, the winner and losers are already decided.

  6. Effects of sports climbing on muscle performance and balance for patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS......). Methods: Over a 5-week period, six patients (mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score: 2.1 ± 0.8) with MS performed a total of five climbing sessions. Isometric muscle performance was evaluated for the knee extensors, while balance was evaluated based on balance board performance. The climbing...... extensors was found to have improved by 23.4% (pSports climbing appears feasible for people with mild relapsing...

  7. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  8. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  9. A time motion analysis of bouldering style competitive rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominic J; Olsen, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    Limited research has been performed on competitive bouldering. The aim of this study was to quantify the movement dynamics of elite boulder climbers. Six climbers were filmed during a national competition consisting of 5 novel climbing problems or routes. Two problems were randomly selected and film footage was analyzed using Kandle Swinger Pro software to determine type and duration (seconds) of bouldering movements. All subjects provided consent, and the study had ethical approval. The mean +/- SD were determined for number of attempts per problem, duration of attempt, time on hold, and time to reach between holds. Exercise:recovery ratios were also calculated. On average, climbers attempted a problem 3.0 +/- 0.5 times, with an attempt lasting 28.9 +/- 10.8 seconds and rest periods of 114 +/- 31 seconds between attempts. Average time gripping holds was 7.9 +/- 1.3 seconds, with approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1 seconds recovery between reaching for holds. The exercise-to-recovery ratio was approximately 1:4 for attempting a problem and approximately 13:1 for forearm muscles during climbing. The exercise-to-recovery ratios allow sufficient time for recovery during and after a problem. However, the prolonged contraction of forearm muscles indicates the importance of strength and endurance in these muscles. Video analysis was found to be a useful tool for the quantification of movement characteristics of competitive elite boulders. Data collected could be utilized in the design of sport-specific tests and training programs. Future research could examine a larger number of athletes and problems and help develop performance tests and training interventions for bouldering.

  10. The Mechanical Properties of a Wall-Climbing Caterpillar Robot: Analysis and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds the kinematic model of a wall‐climbing caterpillar robot to reveal the validity and the benefits of the closed‐chain kinematics of the four‐linkage mechanism to a crawling gait. The caterpillar robot can climb on a vertical wall by coordinating the rotations of one active joint and three passive joints. The mechanical property of the closed‐chain kinematics of the four‐linkage model is analysed. Furthermore, the relation between the driving joint torque and joint angle in the wall‐climbing process is deduced based on the coplanar arbitrary force system. Afterwards, the joint control method is discussed in order to coordinate the rotation of the four joints so as to realize a reasonable wall climbing gait. To testify to the availability of the closed‐chain four‐ linkage model, a wall‐climbing caterpillar robot is developed with three different adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. A successful wall‐climbing test confirms both the practicality of the four‐linkage model and the validity of the adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. The results also show the reasonableness of the driving joint selection rule for ensuring a safe and reliable wall‐climbing procedure.

  11. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation.

  12. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

  13. Capillary climb dynamics in the limits of prevailing capillary and gravity force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B; Markicevic, B; Navaz, H K

    2011-05-01

    The dynamics of capillary climb of a wetting liquid into a porous medium that is opposed by gravity force is studied numerically. We use the capillary network model, in which an actual porous medium is represented as a network of pores and throats, each following a predefined size distribution function. The liquid potential in the pores along the liquid interface within the network is calculated as a result of capillary and gravity forces. The solution is general, and accounts for changes in the climbing height and climbing velocity. The numerical results for the capillary climb reveal that there are at least two distinct flow mechanisms. Initially, the flow is characterized by high climbing velocity, in which the capillary force is higher than the gravity force, and the flow is the viscous force dominated. For this single-phase flow, the Washburn equation can be used to predict the changes of climbing height over time. Later, for longer times and larger climbing height, the capillary and gravity forces become comparable, and one observes a slower increase in the climbing height as a function of time. Due to the two forces being comparable, the gas-liquid sharp interface transforms into flow front, where the multiphase flow develops. The numerical results from this study, expressed as the climbing height as a power law function of time, indicate that the two powers, which correspond to the two distinct mechanisms, differ significantly. The comparison of the powers with experimental data indicates good agreement. Furthermore, the power value from the Washburn solution is also analyzed, where it should be equal to 1/2 for purely viscous force driven flow. This is in contrast to the power value of ∼0.43 that is found experimentally. We show from the numerical solution that this discrepancy is due to the momentum dissipation on the liquid interface.

  14. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF TREE-CLIMBING MANGROVE SESARMID CRABS FROM LUZON, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  15. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A

    2014-01-01

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, C2-NEB finds it with higher stability and accuracy. However, C2-NEB is suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS but guarantees that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP, and it estimates accuracy from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB (SS-NEB).

  16. EFFECTS OF ACTIVE RECOVERY ON LACTATE CONCENTRATION, HEART RATE AND RPE IN CLIMBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Draper

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance advantage of active rather than passive recovery during subsequent trials for repeated high intensity short-term exercise is well documented. Research findings suggest that shorter periods of active recovery, than traditionally employed, can be prescribed and still retain performance benefits over passive recoveries in successive exercise trials. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of a short duration active recovery for repeat climbing trials. Ten recreational climbers volunteered for the study. In this randomly assigned crossover study each climber completed five two-minute climbing trails before a two minute active or passive recovery. This was followed by a one and a half minute passive refocusing period for all climbers before the subsequent climbing trial. Heart rate was monitored continuously, RPE immediately post climbing and fingertip capillary blood samples collected during each refocusing phase. There was a non-significant difference between active and passive recoveries for heart rate during climbing. After the active phase climbers had higher heart rates than when following the passive recovery protocol, however, by the end of the refocusing phase the active recovery protocol led to lower heart rates than for the entirely passive recovery. There was a significant difference between active and passive recovery conditions in lactate concentration (F(1,9 = 18.79, p = 0.002 and RPE (F(1,9 = 6.51, p = 0.031. Lactate concentration and RPE were lower across all five climbing trials for the active recovery protocol. After active recovery climbers started the next trial with a lower arterial lactate concentration than for a passive recovery and indicated lower RPE scores at the end of each climb. The refocusing period following active recovery allowed climbers heart rates to return to a lower level at the start of the next climb than for the passive recovery condition

  17. Tubulo - a train-like miniature inspection climbing robot for ferromagnetic tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneich, Patrick; Rochat, Frédéric; Truong-Dat Nguyen, Olivier; Caprari, Gilles; Moser, Roland; Bleuler, Hannes; Mondada, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A train-like miniature climbing inspection robot for ferromagnetic tubes is presented in this paper. Using magnetic wheels, it climbs in tubes of 25 mm of diameter and bigger in any orientation, and pass bends with curvatures above 150 mm in some cases. It has embedded electronics and energy, and can transmit images through a cable. Applications are in tubes inspections as found in power plant boilers for example.

  18. Vegetation analysis and soil characteristics of five common desert climbing plants in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ghani, Monier Abd; EL-KHEIR, Mahmoud ABO; ABDEL-DAYEM, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise Egyptian desert vine flora and compare it with that of deserts in other continents, such as Australia and North America. Specifically, 5 common climbing desert plants (Citrullus colocynthis, Cocculus pendulus, Cucumis prophetarum, Pergularia tomentosa, and Periploca angustifolia) were selected for this study. The floristic composition, vegetation heterogeneity, and chorological affinities of the associated species of the studied climbing plants were quantitati...

  19. Cooperative Wall-climbing Robots in 3D Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-08

    Unlike the traditional climbing robots using magnetic devices and vacuum suction techniques , and some recent novel climbing robots of vortex...a low pressure zone enclosed by a chamber. Since the City-Climber robots don’t require perfect sealing as the vacuum suction technique does, the...Mosaics”, IEEE Workshop on Three- Dimensional Cinematography (3DCINE󈧊), June 22, New York City (in conjunction with CVPR). 23. Zhigang Zhu, Hao Tang

  20. Robot-assisted practice of gait and stair climbing in nonambulatory stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Hesse, MD; Christopher Tomelleri, PhD; Anita Bardeleben, MA; Cordula Werner, MA; Andreas Waldner, MD

    2012-01-01

    A novel gait robot enabled nonambulatory patients the repetitive practice of gait and stair climbing. Thirty nonambulatory patients with subacute stroke were allocated to two groups. During 60 min sessions every workday for 4 weeks, the experimental group received 30 min of robot training and 30 min of physiotherapy and the control group received 60 min of physiotherapy. The primary variable was gait and stair climbing ability (Functional Ambulation Categories [FAC] score 0–5); secondary vari...

  1. Estimating the Economic Value of Ice Climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An Application of Travel Cost Count Data Models that Account for Excess Zeros*

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a drastic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In additi...

  2. Diagnosis of climbing related overuse injuries; Diagnostik von Ueberlastungsschaeden bei Sportkletterern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauser, A.; Frauscher, F.; Helweg, G.; Nedden, D. zur [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Radiologie II, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Hochholzer, T. [Privatklinik Triumpfpforte, Innsbruck (Austria); Kramer, J. [Inst. fuer CT- und MRT-Diagnostik am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    Sport climbing shows an enormous increase in participation, evolving to more popularity, including even school sport activity on high standards. Therefore the number of climbing related injuries is increasing and becomes a more frequently encountered medical problem. Typical climbing associated injuries involve predominantly the upper limb. Overuse injuries are the most common climbing related injuries.The clinical examination is the first line investigation, which is often limited especially in the acute phase. However, an exact diagnosis is desireable for therapeutic management. Imaging modalities have shown to be capable for detection of climbing related injuries. An overview about the current use of x-ray, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in different climbing related overuse injuries is presented. (orig.) [German] Sportklettern zeigt eine zunehmende Popularitaet sowohl im Elitesport als auch im leistungsorientierten Breiten- und Schulsport. Dadurch kommt klettertypischen Beschwerden eine zunehmende medizinische Bedeutung zu. Bei dieser Sportart stehen Ueberlastungen (''overuse'') hauptsaechlich im Bereich der oberen Extremitaet an erster Stelle der Beschwerden. Neben der klinischen Untersuchung, welche in der Akutphase limitiert sein kann, ist die bildgebende Diagnostik zur exakten Abklaerung notwendig, um ein adaequates therapeutisches Management zu gewaehrleisten. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber den Einsatz der unterschiedlichen Bildgebungsmodalitaeten wie konventionelles Roentgen, Ultraschall und Magnetresonanztomographie bei den klettertypischen Beschwerdebildern gegeben. (orig.)

  3. Design of Low Cost Stair Climbing Robot Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arduino Jeyabalaji C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of the wheel, Man has sought to reduce effort to get things done easily. Ultimately, it has resulted in the invention of the Robot, an Engineering Marvel. Up until now, the biggest factor that hampers wide proliferation of robots is locomotion and maneuverability. They are not dynamic enough to conform even to the most commonplace terrain such as stairs. To overcome this, we are proposing a stair climbing robot that looks a lot like the human leg and can adjust itself according to the height of the step. But, we are currently developing a unit to carry payload of about 4 Kg. The automatic adjustment in the robot according to the height of the stair is done by connecting an Android device that has an application programmed in OpenCV with an Arduino in Host mode. The Android Device uses it camera to calculate the height of the stair and sends it to the Arduino for further calculation. This design employs an Arduino Mega ADK 2560 board to control the robot and other home fabricated custom PCB to interface it with the Arduino Board. The bot is powered by Li-Ion batteries and Servo motors.

  4. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2013-05-21

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  5. Water relations of climbing ivy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, S; Hartmann, A; Körner, C

    2011-06-01

    Ivy (Hedera helix) is the most important liana in temperate European forests. We studied water relations of adult ivy in a natural, 35 m tall mixed deciduous forest in Switzerland using a construction crane to access the canopy. Predawn leaf water potential at the top of climbing ivy ranged from -0.4 to -0.6 MPa, daily minima ranged from -1.3 to -1.7 MPa. Leaf water potentials as well as relative sap flow were held surprisingly constant throughout different weather conditions, suggesting a tendency to isohydric behaviour. Maximum stomatal conductance was 200 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The use of a potometer experiment allowed us to measure absolute transpiration rates integrated over a whole plant of 0.23 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Nightly sap flow of ivy during warm, dry nights accounted for up to 20% of the seasonal maximum. Maximum sap flow rates were reached at ca. 0.5 kPa vpd. On the other hand, the host trees showed a less conservative stomatal regulation, maximum sap flow rates were reached at vpd values of ca. 1 kPa. Sap flow rates of ivy decreased by ca. 20% in spring after bud break of trees, suggesting that ivy profits strongly from warm sunny days in early spring before budbreak of the host trees and from mild winter days. This species may benefit from rising winter temperatures in Europe and thus become a stronger competitor against its host trees.

  6. [Relationships between light and physiological characters of five climbing plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenglin; Fu, Songling; Liang, Shuyun; Ji, Yifan

    2004-07-01

    Studies on the photosynthetic and respiratory rates, light utilization efficiencies and light compensations of five climbing plants showed that the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rates presented double peak, the first peak was between 10:00 to 12:00, and the second was between 14:00 to 16:00. The phenomenon of "noon break" was obvious. The diurnal variations of respiration rates also presented double peak, the first peak was between 11:00 to 13:00, and the second was between 14:00 to 17:00. The light compensation point of Hedera nepatensis, H. helix, Parthenocissus tricuspidata, P. quinuefolia and Wisteria sinensis was 5.73, 5.07, 9.96, 6.40 and 18.93 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and the light utilization efficiency of W. sinensis was higher under strong light, P. quinuefolia was the second, but that of H. helix was higher under weak light. The results showed that Wisteria sinensis was a typical heliophytic plant, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and P. quinuefolia were neuter plants, and Hedera nepalensis and H. helix were typical sciophytic plants.

  7. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2013-05-01

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  8. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand.

  9. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed.

  10. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  11. Climbing fiber synapse elimination in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu

    2011-11-01

    Innervation of Purkinje cells (PCs) by multiple climbing fibers (CFs) is refined into mono-innervation during the first three postnatal weeks of rodents' lives. In this review article, we will integrate the current knowledge on developmental process and mechanisms of CF synapse elimination. In the 'creeper' stage of CF innervation (postnatal day 0 (P0)∼), CFs creep among PC somata to form transient synapses on immature dendrites. In the 'pericellular nest' stage (P5∼), CFs densely surround and innervate PC somata. CF innervation is then displaced to the apical portion of PC somata in the 'capuchon' stage (P9∼), and translocate to dendrites in the 'dendritic' (P12∼) stage. Along with the developmental changes in CF wiring, functional and morphological distinctions become larger among CF inputs. PCs are initially innervated by more than five CFs with similar strengths (∼P3). During P3-7 only a single CF is selectively strengthened (functional differentiation), and it undergoes dendritic translocation from P9 on (dendritic translocation). Following the functional differentiation, perisomatic CF synapses are eliminated nonselectively; this proceeds in two distinct phases. The early phase (P7-11) is conducted independently of parallel fiber (PF)-PC synapse formation, while the late phase (P12-17) critically depends on it. The P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel in PCs triggers selective strengthening of single CF inputs, promotes dendritic translocation of the strengthened CFs, and drives the early phase of CF synapse elimination. In contrast, the late phase is mediated by the mGluR1-Gαq-PLCβ4-PKCγ signaling cascade in PCs driven at PF-PC synapses, whose structural connectivity is stabilized and maintained by the GluRδ2-Cbln1-neurexin system.

  12. Micro-aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot mechanism for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Uk; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Myung, Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the maintenance or inspection of large structures is labor-intensive, so it has a problem of the large cost due to the staffing professionals and the risk for hard to reach areas. To solve the problem, the needs of wall-climbing robot are emerged. Infra-based wall-climbing robots to maintain an outer wall of building have high payload and safety. However, the infrastructure for the robot must be equipped on the target structure and the infrastructure isn't preferred by the architects since it can injure the exterior of the structure. These are the reasons of why the infra-based wall-climbing robot is avoided. In case of the non-infra-based wall-climbing robot, it is researched to overcome the aforementioned problems. However, most of the technologies are in the laboratory level since the payload, safety and maneuverability are not satisfactory. For this reason, aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot is researched. It is a flying possible wallclimbing robot based on a quadrotor. It is a famous aerial vehicle robot using four rotors to make a thrust for flying. This wall-climbing robot can stick to a vertical wall using the thrust. After sticking to the wall, it can move with four wheels installed on the robot. As a result, it has high maneuverability and safety since it can restore the position to the wall even if it is detached from the wall by unexpected disturbance while climbing the wall. The feasibility of the main concept was verified through simulations and experiments using a prototype.

  13. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing.Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34. In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme.During both climbing hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured. When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values.There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading. This

  14. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34.  In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme. During both climbing  hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured.  When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values. There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading

  15. Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luopeng; Chen, Xue; Shen, Shengqiang [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation were experimentally investigated on a vertical climbing film evaporator heated by tube-outside hot water. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of the height of feed water inside a vertical tube and the range of temperature difference on local heat transfer coefficient inside a vertical tube (h{sub i}). In this setup, the height of feed water was successfully controlled and the polypropylene shell effectively impedes the heat loss to the ground. The results indicated that a reduction in the height of feed water contributed to a significant increase in h{sub i} if no dry patches around the wall of the heated tube appeared inside the tube. The height ratio of feed water R{sub h} = 0.3 was proposed as the optimal one as dry patches destroyed the continuous climbing film when R{sub h} is under 0.3. It was found that the minimum temperature difference driving climbing film evaporation is suggested as 5 C due to a sharp reduction in h{sub i} for temperature difference below 5 C. The experiment also showed that h{sub i} increased with an increase in temperature difference, which proved the superiority of climbing film evaporation in utilizing low-grade surplus heating source due to its wide range of driving temperature difference. The experimental results were compared with the previous literature and demonstrated a satisfactory agreement. (author)

  16. Finite Element Analysis based Optimization of Magnetic Adhesion Module for Concrete Wall Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Omar faruq Howlader

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robot can provide easier accessibility to tall structures for Non Destructive Testing (NDT and improve working environments of human operators. However, existing adhesion mechanism for climbing robots such as vortex, electromagnet etc. are still at development stage and offer no feasible adhesion mechanism. As a result, few practical products have been developed for reinforced concrete surfaces, though wall-climbing robots have been researched for many years. This paper proposes a novel magnetic adhesion mechanism for wall-climbing robot for reinforced concrete surface. Mechanical design parameters such as distance between magnets, the yoke thickness, and magnet arrangements have been investigated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The adhesion module can be attached under the chassis of a prototype robot. The magnetic flux can penetrate maximum concrete cover of 30 mm and attain adhesion force of 121.26 N. The prototype provides high Force-to-Weight ratio compared to other reported permanent magnet based robotic systems. Both experiment and simulation results prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism can generate efficient adhesion force for the climbing robot to operate on vertical reinforced concrete structures.

  17. The Effect of Magnesium Carbonate (Chalk) on Geometric Entropy, Force, and Electromyography During Rock Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgas, Matthew A; Drum, Scott N; Jensen, Randall L; Phillips, Kevin C; Watts, Phillip B

    2016-12-01

    Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed 2 climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial. Following the movement sequence participants hung from a standard climbing hold until they slipped from the climbing structure, while the coefficient of friction and the ratio of the vertical forces on the hands and feet were determined. Although there were no differences in the coefficient of friction (P = .748), geometric entropy (P = .359), the ratio of the vertical forces between the hands and feet (P = .570), or muscular activity (P = .968), participants were able to hang longer after the use of chalk 62.9 ± 36.7 s and 49.3 ± 25.2 s (P = .046). This is advantageous because it may allow for prolonged rests, and more time to plan the next series of climbing moves.

  18. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  19. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  20. Climbing Mt. Sharp: Maximizing Curiosity's Science Over Traversable Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    for the rover to climb. Careful examination of HiRISE DEM generated slope maps allows us to identify limited areas where Curiosity will be able to safely cross, and feasible crossings that coincide with areas that have strong hematite signatures are selected as favorable science waypoints. The possible paths and targets presented here are intended to provide a foundation for continued discussion by the MSL science team.

  1. Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle depends on the centroid position and the pitch angle of stairs, and the numerical formula is developed about the relationship between the maximal stability-keeping angle and the centroid position and pitch angle of stairs. The experiment demonstrates the trustworthy and correction of the method in the paper.

  2. A Low-cost, Light-weight Climbing Robot for Inspection of Class Curtains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design of a climbing robot for inspection of glass curtain walls. The double-chamber structure enables the robot to climb over grooves on the glasses. In order to reduce the weight, both number and shape of the chambers are specially considered, and the pressure structure is optimized by FEA method. The statics models of different adsorption situations are also analyzed and deduced for the operational safety. In addition, design of the working arm and the wireless control system are introduced in detail. Finally, experiments of the robot are illustrated, including adsorption on different surfaces, vertical and horizontal groove-crossing as well as glass inspection. These experiments fully prove the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the climbing performance of the robot.

  3. Frequency of climbing behavior as a predictor of altered motor activity in rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cíntia; De Lima, Thereza C M; Carobrez, Antonio de Pádua; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2008-11-14

    Previous work has shown that the frequency of climbing behavior in rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) correlated to the section's crosses in the open field test, which suggest it might be taken as a predictor of motor activity in rat FST. To investigate this proposal, the frequency, duration, as well as the ratio duration/frequency for each behavior expressed in the FST (immobility, swimming and climbing) were compared in animals treated with a motor stimulant, caffeine (CAF), and the antidepressant, clomipramine (CLM). Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15min of forced swimming (pre-test) and 24h later received saline (SAL, 1ml/kg, i.p.) or CAF (6.5mg/kg, i.p.) 30min prior a 5-min session (test) of FST. To validate experimental procedures, an additional group of rats received three injections of SAL (1ml/kg, i.p.) or clomipramine (CLM, 10mg/kg, i.p.) between the pre-test and test sessions. The results of the present study showed that both drugs, CLM and CAF, significantly reduced the duration of immobility and significantly increased the duration of swimming. In addition, CAF significantly decreased the ratio of immobility, and CLM significantly increased the ratio of swimming and climbing. Moreover, CLM significantly increased the duration of climbing but only CAF increased the frequency of climbing. Thus, it seems that the frequency of climbing could be a predictor of altered motor activity scored directly in the FST. Further, we believe that this parameter could be useful for fast and reliable discrimination between antidepressant drugs and stimulants of motor activity.

  4. Climbing for preventing and treating health problems: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechtelpeter, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the best available evidence on effectiveness of therapeutic or sport climbing in preventing or treating health problems. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTseeker and SportDiscus for randomized controlled trials published up to December 26, 2010. We included all trials assessing patient-relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. Quality of evidence was rated using the GRADE system. Data were entered into RevMan 5 to calculate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals where appropriate.Results: Eligible for inclusion were four RCTs studying the effectiveness of climbing in (a geriatric patients, (b adults with multiple sclerosis, (c adults with chronic low-back pain and (d children with disabilities and poor motor function. The sample sizes ranged between 20 and 95. All trials had major methodological limitations. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing may improve activities of daily living in geriatric patients compared to physiotherapy as measured by the Barthel index (difference in mean change score: 2.32 [95%-CI: 0.45 to 4.19]. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing compared to standard exercise therapy may improve physical functioning (difference in mean change score: 16.15 [95%-CI: 4.45 to 27.85] and general physical health (13.14 [95%-CI: 3.61 to 22.67] as measured by the SF-36 in adults with chronic low back-pain. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of therapeutic climbing is limited to small trials at high risk of bias. The effects of therapeutic climbing are therefore unclear.

  5. Climbing fibers in spinocerebellar ataxia: A mechanism for the loss of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, C J L M; Verbeek, D S

    2016-04-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) form an ever-growing group of neurodegenerative disorders causing dysfunction of the cerebellum and loss of motor control in patients. Currently, 41 different genetic causes have been identified, with each mutation affecting a different gene. Interestingly, these diverse genetic causes all disrupt cerebellar function and produce similar symptoms in patients. In order to understand the disease better, and define possible therapeutic targets for multiple SCAs, the field has been searching for common ground among the SCAs. In this review, we discuss the physiology of climbing fibers and the possibility that climbing fiber dysfunction is a point of convergence for at least a subset of SCAs.

  6. Biologically-inspired synthetic dry adhesives for wall-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    Animals such as insects, spiders, and lizards are capable of clinging to and climbing on a variety of surfaces, from rough stone to smooth silicon. Hairy microscale arrays of structures on their feet conform to surface roughness to create millions of points of contact, creating a large overall contact area. Weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) between each fiber tip and the surface sum to large overall forces due to the high number of contacts. In this work we present the fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of synthetic polyurethane fibrillar adhesives inspired by these animals. Angled polymer micro-fiber arrays are fabricated and characterized. A tip modification technique is presented which enables fabrication of fibers with flat mushroom shaped tips which greatly increase the adhesion of the fibers, up to 5N/cm 2 (normal direction), and with a magnitude within the range of geckos (10 N/cm2) in the shear direction on smooth surfaces. We present a fabrication technique to create fibers with angled flat mushroom-shaped tips which replicate the directional characteristics of geckos, gripping in one direction (within the range of gecko adhesion) and releasing easily in the other. Multilevel hierarchical structures with specialized tips for roughness adaptation are also presented. Fiber hierarchies from the millimeter scale to the sub-micron scale are demonstrated, including three-level fiber fabrication with specialized tips. Hierarchical structures demonstrate up to 5 times the adhesion of an unstructured sample, and requiring up to 10 times the detachment energy. Finally, an agile, wireless, palm-sized wall climbing robot which uses the synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives to climb is presented. Waalbot , named after the van der Waals forces it uses to climb, exploits the attachment and detachment characteristics of the developed dry adhesives, capabilities include climbing smooth surfaces such as glass in any orientation on any surface slope

  7. Trial mountain climbing algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友行; 何清华; 邓伯禄

    2002-01-01

    Trial mountain climbing algorithm to solve the inverse kinematics problem of redundant manipulator is introduced, and a method of describing a numeral with a special numeration system is given to define the changed step of the trail mountain climbing algorithm. The results show that a likelihood solution can be found quickly in the infinite groups of likelihood solutions within the limited search times, and need not calculate the anti-trigonometric function and the inverse matrix. In addition, this algorithm has many good qualities such as concise algorithm, tiny computation, fast convergence velocity, good stability and extensive adaptability.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF A KIND OF PERMANENT MAGNETIC SUCKERS USED IN WALL-CLIMBING ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic circuit of a kind of permanent magnetic sucker attached to the tracks of a wall-climbing robot was researched. The formula of the attractive force of sucker to a wall was derived and the relationship between the force and the air gaps was analyzed. Furthermore the effect of the parameters of the magnetic sucker on the sucker's performance was discussed. The experiments show that proper selections of the sucker's structural parameters can provide sufficient attractive force so as to make the wall-climbing robot move safely on the steel wall surface.

  9. Climb the Green Ladder Make Your Company and Career More Sustainable

    CERN Document Server

    Fetzer, Amy V

    2009-01-01

    Want to make your workplace more sustainable, get ahead in your career and improve your reputation?. Want to help your company or organisation save money, boost profits and improve its brand?. Whatever your level or industry, from sales and management to government and teaching, Climb The Green Ladder offers practical knowledge to help you make a difference. Whether you'd like to transform your entire company or just get your colleagues recycling, Climb The Green Ladder will provide you with the tools and motivation to move your company (and career) towards a more successful, more sustainable

  10. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  11. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  12. Physiological changes following a 12 week gym based stair-climbing, elliptical trainer and treadmill running program in females

    OpenAIRE

    EGANA, MIKEL

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Despite the growing popularity of the elliptical trainer aerobic exercise modality the physiological changes induced following a training program using elliptical trainers remains unknown. Donne investigates the metabolic and cardiorespiratory improvements following a 12-week aerobic training program using elliptical trainer, treadmill or stair-climbing modalities. Findings reveal that in moderately active females similar physiological improvements were observed using stair-climb...

  13. What Happens When a Climber Falls? Young Climbers Mathematise a Climbing Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Students in Norway and other countries experience vectors as a difficult topic. Four young skilled climbers, who all did well in mathematics at school, participated in the Vector Study (VS). They participated for free and each lesson lasted until the students decided it was over. The idea was to investigate how climbing may function as a basis for…

  14. A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing

    2011-01-01

    A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…

  15. Flat and uphill climb time trial performance prediction in elite amateur cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M M; Izquierdo, M; Ibáñez, J; Asiain, X; Mendiguchía, J; Gorostiaga, E M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physiological, anthropometric, biomechanical and hormonal variables related to road flat and uphill climb performance. Eighteen elite level amateur road cyclists (21.1 +/- 3.8 yrs), homogeneous with regard to time trial performance (coefficient of variation: 2.9-5.2 %), were measured for frontal area (FA), maximal strength, power, cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle and basal serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and cortisol (C). Maximal (W (max)) and submaximal workload were measured during a progressive discontinuous maximal cycling laboratory test, and two all-out time trial performance tests (duration range: 1049-1251 s) were also conducted outdoors on two separate days: a 14-km flat road (average gradient of 0.2 %) and a 6.7-km uphill climb (average gradient of 6 %). Significant negative correlations (p climb trial performance time correlated significantly (p climb time trial performance is associated with maximal workload normalized to body mass, as well as with an increased anabolic-androgenic activity.

  16. A Personal Journey through "Moments": Doctoral Research into Parents Who Rock Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a confessional tale, which summarizes the author's doctoral research journey into parents who rock climb. The historical moments in qualitative research are used to frame an evolving interpretive approach, showing the relationship between theoretical and philosophical thought, and the empirical process. The paper uses personal…

  17. Climbing Stairs After Outpatient Rehabilitation for a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the necessity and ability to climb stairs in persons after a lower-limb amputation (LLA) and the relation of this ability with personal and clinical variables. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient department of a rehabilitation center. Participants: Persons with an

  18. An Overwhelming Climb: The Complexities of Combining College, Full-Time Work, and Company Tuition Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Janelle L.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the complex experiences of full-time employed adults trying to climb the career ladder in their company by making use of company tuition assistance to earn their first college degree. Guided by Savickas' (2005) career construction theory, emphasizing the personal agency and meaning-making within career development, we conducted…

  19. Linearization of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Ardema (1974) has formally linearized the two-point boundary value problem arising from a general optimal control problem, and has reviewed the known stability properties of such a linear system. In the present paper, Ardema's results are applied to the minimum time-to-climb problem. The linearized zeroth-order boundary layer equations of the problem are derived and solved.

  20. Goffman Goes Rock Climbing: Using Creative Fiction to Explore the Presentation of Self in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon K.; Pike, Elizabeth C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education literature has a recent history of examining its practice through a variety of sociological, philosophical, psychological, and anthropological lenses. Following this trend, this paper explores the face-to-face social interaction of a fictional introductory rock-climbing course. The analysis of this creative fiction draws on…

  1. The use of clamping grips and friction pads by tree frogs for climbing curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Aihong; Yuan, Shanshan; Hill, Iain; Wang, Huan; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Dai, Zhendong; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on the adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have addressed attachment against flat surfaces, yet many animals can climb highly curved surfaces, like twigs and small branches. Here we investigated whether tree frogs use a clamping grip by recording the ground reaction forces on a cylindrical object with either a smooth or anti-adhesive, rough surface. Furthermore, we measured the contact area of fore and hindlimbs against differently sized transparent cylinders and the forces of individual pads and subarticular tubercles in restrained animals. Our study revealed that frogs use friction and normal forces of roughly a similar magnitude for holding on to cylindrical objects. When challenged with climbing a non-adhesive surface, the compressive forces between opposite legs nearly doubled, indicating a stronger clamping grip. In contrast to climbing flat surfaces, frogs increased the contact area on all limbs by engaging not just adhesive pads but also subarticular tubercles on curved surfaces. Our force measurements showed that tubercles can withstand larger shear stresses than pads. SEM images of tubercles revealed a similar structure to that of toe pads including the presence of nanopillars, though channels surrounding epithelial cells were less pronounced. The tubercles' smaller size, proximal location on the toes and shallow cells make them probably less prone to buckling and thus ideal for gripping curved surfaces. PMID:28228509

  2. A tailless timing belt climbing platform utilizing dry adhesives with mushroom caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Liu, Y.; Sadeghi, A.; Menon, C.

    2011-11-01

    In many instances, a climbing robot that utilizes dry adhesives as an attachment method may be found to be very useful due to the inherent nature of biomimetic fibrillar dry adhesives in the applications of space, security, surveillance and nuclear reactor cleaning and maintenance. In this paper, a novel tank-like modular robot is developed that does not require a tail to provide a preload to the front of the robot while climbing. Biomimetic fibrillar dry adhesives with mushroom caps manufactured into belts are used as an attachment method. The manufacturing of the dry adhesive belts is discussed and the adhesion properties are examined. The timing belt based climbing platform (TBCP-II) utilizes two tank-like modules connected with an active joint with continual surface-robot distance measuring providing feedback for active adhesive preloading. The mechanical, electronic and software design is discussed. Reliable vertical surface climbing is achieved and the preloading strategy and response is examined. TBCP-II is shown to be capable of both horizontal to vertical and vertical to horizontal surface transfers over both inside and outside corners.

  3. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Kissling, W.D.; Condamine, F.L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Rowe, N.P.; Baker, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patt

  4. 78 FR 35173 - Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... II. III. Device Description A stair-climbing wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended for... stairs while the patient remains in the chair. Characteristics of the device enabling this capability may... mechanism to steady the chair as it ascends/descends the staircase. FDA is proposing in this order...

  5. Environmental design shapes perceptual-motor exploration, learning and transfer in climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic eSeifert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how environmental design shapes perceptual-motor exploration, when meta-stable regions of performance are created. Here, we examined how creating meta-stable regions of performance could destabilize pre-existing skills, favoring greater exploration of performance environments, exemplified in this study by climbing surfaces. In this investigation we manipulated hold orientations on an indoor climbing wall to examine how nine climbers explored, learned and transferred various trunk-rolling motion patterns and hand grasping movements. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which climbers randomly ascended three different routes, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. As a meta-stable condition of performance invite an individual to both exploit his pre-existing behavioral repertoire (i.e., horizontal hold grasping pattern and trunk face to the wall and explore new behaviors (i.e., vertical hold grasping and trunk side to the wall, it was hypothesized that the double-edge route characterized a meta-stable region of performance. Data were collected from inertial measurement units located on the neck and hip of each climber, allowing us to compute rolling motion referenced to the artificial climbing wall. Information on ascent duration, the number of exploratory and performatory movements for locating hand-holds, and hip path was also observed in video footage from a frontal camera worn by participants. Climbing fluency was assessed by calculating geometric index of entropy. Results showed that the meta-stable condition of performance may have

  6. Environmental Design Shapes Perceptual-motor Exploration, Learning, and Transfer in Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Boulanger, Jérémie; Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how environmental design shapes perceptual-motor exploration, when meta-stable regions of performance are created. Here, we examined how creating meta-stable regions of performance could destabilize pre-existing skills, favoring greater exploration of performance environments, exemplified in this study by climbing surfaces. In this investigation we manipulated hold orientations on an indoor climbing wall to examine how nine climbers explored, learned, and transferred various trunk-rolling motion patterns and hand grasping movements. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which climbers randomly ascended three different routes, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. As a meta-stable condition of performance invite an individual to both exploit his pre-existing behavioral repertoire (i.e., horizontal hold grasping pattern and trunk face to the wall) and explore new behaviors (i.e., vertical hold grasping and trunk side to the wall), it was hypothesized that the double-edge route characterized a meta-stable region of performance. Data were collected from inertial measurement units located on the neck and hip of each climber, allowing us to compute rolling motion referenced to the artificial climbing wall. Information on ascent duration, the number of exploratory and performatory movements for locating hand-holds, and hip path was also observed in video footage from a frontal camera worn by participants. Climbing fluency was assessed by calculating geometric index of entropy. Results showed that the meta-stable condition of performance may have afforded

  7. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  8. 舰载机弹射起飞上升段控制律研究%Control Law for Climbing Stage of Carrier-Based Aircraft in Catapult-Assisted Take-Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熠; 江驹; 甄子洋; 王新华; 焦鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对舰载机的安全弹射起飞要求,研究了弹射起飞上升段控制律设计问题.分析了常用弹射装置原理以及弹射起飞的工作流程.构建了弹射起飞过程中的上升段相关数学模型,包括某型舰载机的纵向模型、前起落架突伸结构和阵风模型.设计了舰载机起飞离舰后上升段的飞行姿态控制律,在仿真中将加速滑跑阶段的各种因素转化成初始条件,同时分析了阵风干扰对上升段飞机飞行特性的影响.仿真结果表明:设计的姿态控制律可以改善舰载机在离舰上升段的姿态,抵抗气流干扰等因素的影响,提高弹射起飞的安全性.%According to the safety requirements of catapult-assisted take-off,the control law design for the aircraft in the climbing stage was studied. The principle of a common catapult device was studied and the process of catapult-assisted take-off was introduced. The mathematic models in the climbing stage were established, including the model of longitudinal small perturbation equations of the aircraft, the sudden stretch structure of the nose gear and the gust disturbance. The attitude control law of the climbing stage was designed. In simulation, the initial value was based on the influence of different factors in speeding stage. The influence of the gust disturbance on flight performance of the aircraft in its climbing stage was also analyzed. The results of simulation showed that the designed control law can improve the aircraft attitude in the climbing stage, decrease the adverse effect of gust disturbance, and thus can enhance the security of the catapult-assisted take-off.

  9. Nonlinear singularly perturbed optimal control problems with singular arcs. [flight mechanics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Singular perturbation techniques are studied for dealing with singular arc problems by analyzing a relatively low-order but otherwise general system. This system encompasses many flight mechanic problems including Goddard's problem and a version of the minimum time-to-climb problem. Boundary layer solutions are constructed which are stable and reach the outer solution in a finite time. A uniformly valid composite solution is then formed from the reduced and boundary layer solutions. The value of the approximate solution is that it is relatively easy to obtain and does not involve singular arcs. To illustrate the utility of the results, the technique is used to obtain an approximate solution of a simplified version of the aircraft minimum time-to-climb problem.

  10. Multi-step motion planning: Application to free-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Timothy Wolfe

    This dissertation addresses the problem of planning the motion of a multi-limbed robot to "free-climb" vertical rock surfaces. Free-climbing relies on natural features and friction (such as holes or protrusions) rather than special fixtures or tools. It requires strength, but more importantly it requires deliberate reasoning: not only must the robot decide how to adjust its posture to reach the next feature without falling, it must plan an entire sequence of steps, where each one might have future consequences. This process of reasoning is called multi-step planning. A multi-step planning framework is presented for computing non-gaited, free-climbing motions. This framework derives from an analysis of a free-climbing robot's configuration space, which can be decomposed into constraint manifolds associated with each state of contact between the robot and its environment. An understanding of the adjacency between manifolds motivates a two-stage strategy that uses a candidate sequence of steps to direct the subsequent search for motions. Three algorithms are developed to support the framework. The first algorithm reduces the amount of time required to plan each potential step, a large number of which must be considered over an entire multi-step search. It extends the probabilistic roadmap (PRM) approach based on an analysis of the interaction between balance and the topology of closed kinematic chains. The second algorithm addresses a problem with the PRM approach, that it is unable to distinguish challenging steps (which may be critical) from impossible ones. This algorithm detects impossible steps explicitly, using automated algebraic inference and machine learning. The third algorithm provides a fast constraint checker (on which the PRM approach depends), in particular a test of balance at the initially unknown number of sampled configurations associated with each step. It is a method of incremental precomputation, fast because it takes advantage of the sample

  11. A Comparison of Upper Body Strength between Rock Climbing and Resistance Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Macias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that advanced rock climbers have greater upper body strength than that of novice climbers or non-climbers. The purpose of this study was to compare upper body strength between rock climbing and resistance trained men. Fifteen resistance trained men (age 25.28 ± 2.26 yrs; height 177.45 ± 4.08 cm; mass 85.17 ± 10.23 kg; body fat 10.13 ± 5.40% and 15 rock climbing men (age 23.25 ± 2.23 yrs; height 175.57 ± 8.03 cm; mass 66.66 ± 9.40 kg; body fat 6.86 ± 3.82% volunteered to participate. Rock climbing (RC men had been climbing for at least two years, 2–3 times a week, able to climb at least a boulder rating of V4–5 and had no current injuries. Resistance trained (RT men had been total body strength training for at least two years, 2–3 times a week with no current injuries. Each participant performed pull-ups to failure, grip strength, and pinch strength. RT were significantly older and heavier than RC. RC performed significantly more pull-ups (19.31 ± 4.31 than RT (15.64 ± 4.82. RC had greater relative pinch strength (R 0.27 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.24 ± 0.07 kg/kg than RT (R 0.19 ± 0.04 kg/kg; L 0.16 ± 0.05 kg/kg and greater relative grip strength (R 0.70 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.65 ± 0.12 kg/kg than RT (R 0.57 ± 0.14 kg/kg; L 0.56 ± 0.15 kg/kg. Overall, RC men demonstrated greater performance in tests involving relative strength when compared to RT men. Rock climbing can promote increased upper body strength even in the absence of traditional resistance training.

  12. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  13. The CLIMB Geoportal - A web-based dissemination and documentation platform for hydrological modelling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Gerken, Daniel; Ludwig, Ralf; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Geoportals are important elements of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) that are strongly based on GIS-related web services. These services are basically meant for distributing, documenting and visualizing (spatial) data in a standardized manner; an important but challenging task especially in large scientific projects with a high number of data suppliers and producers from various countries. This presentation focuses on introducing the free and open-source based geoportal solution developed within the research project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins, www.climb-fp7.eu) that serves as the central platform for interchanging project-related spatial data and information. In this collaboration, financed by the EU-FP7-framework and coordinated at the LMU Munich, 21 partner institutions from nine European and non-European countries were involved. The CLIMB Geoportal (lgi-climbsrv.geographie.uni-kiel.de) stores and provides spatially distributed data about the current state and future changes of the hydrological conditions within the seven CLIMB test sites around the Mediterranean. Hydrological modelling outcome - validated by the CLIMB partners - is offered to the public in forms of Web Map Services (WMS), whereas downloading the underlying data itself through Web Coverage Services (WCS) is possible for registered users only. A selection of common indicators such as discharge, drought index as well as uncertainty measures including their changes over time were used in different spatial resolution. Besides map information, the portal enables the graphical display of time series of selected variables calculated by the individual models applied within the CLIMB-project. The implementation of the CLIMB Geoportal is finally based on version 2.0c5 of the open source geospatial content management system GeoNode. It includes a GeoServer instance for providing the OGC-compliant web services and comes with a metadata catalog (pycsw) as well

  14. The climbing crawling robot (a unique cable robot for space and Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Some of the greatest concerns in robotic designs have been the high center of gravity of the robot, the irregular or flat surface that the robot has to work on, the weight of the robot that has to handle heavy weights or use heavy forces, and the ability of the robot to climb straight up in the air. This climbing crawling robot handles these problems well with magnets, suction cups, or actuators. The cables give body to the robot and it performs very similar to a caterpillar. The computer program is simple and inexpensive as is the robot. One of the important features of this system is that the robot can work in pairs or triplets to handle jobs that would be extremely difficult for single robots. The light weight of the robot allows it to handle quite heavy weights. The number of feet give the robot many roots where a simple set of feet would give it trouble.

  15. Gripping during climbing of arboreal snakes may be safe but not economical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    On the steep surfaces that are common in arboreal environments, many types of animals without claws or adhesive structures must use muscular force to generate sufficient normal force to prevent slipping and climb successfully. Unlike many limbed arboreal animals that have discrete gripping regions on the feet, the elongate bodies of snakes allow for considerable modulation of both the size and orientation of the gripping region. We quantified the gripping forces of snakes climbing a vertical cylinder to determine the extent to which their force production favoured economy or safety. Our sample included four boid species and one colubrid. Nearly all of the gripping forces that we observed for each snake exceeded our estimate of the minimum required, and snakes commonly produced more than three times the normal force required to support their body weight. This suggests that a large safety factor to avoid slipping and falling is more important than locomotor economy. PMID:25142200

  16. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  17. Watch Out for Your Neighbor: Climbing onto Shrubs Is Related to Risk of Cannibalism in the Scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano-Tenorio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk. PMID:27655347

  18. STS-38 MS Springer climbs through CCT side hatch prior to egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), climbs through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Springer will practice emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole (at Springer's left). The inflated safety cushion under Springer will break his fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  19. Research on adsorption mechanism of wall climbing robots based on internally balanced theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ji-zhuang; ZHU Yan-he; ZHAO Jie; CAI He-gao

    2007-01-01

    The internally balanced theory proposed by the Japanese researchers, solved the contradiction between adsorption ability and moving capability of the permanent magnetic adsorption mechanism. However, it still has some problems when applied to wall climbing robots. This paper analyzes and improves this theory, and the improved internally balanced theory satisfies the requirements of the adsorption mechanism significantly. Finally, a practical prototype is proposed based on this method, and both the analysis using ANSYS and the experiment results justify the design validity.

  20. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM). Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes'), whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels') in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  1. On the irradiation creep by climb-enabled glide of dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashev, A. V.; Golubov, S. I.; Stoller, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    In the climb-enabled glide model of irradiation creep, the plastic deformation is defined by the elastic deflections of pinned dislocations, which is an inconsistency. We argue that this relation is incorrect; instead, as in other pinning-unpinning-type models, the dislocations move from one set of obstacles to another, so that the inter-obstacle spacing determines creep rate, whereas the dependence on the applied stress is only implicit in the unpinning time.

  2. Musculo-skeletal loading conditions at the hip during walking and stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M O; Bergmann, G; Deuretzbacher, G; Dürselen, L; Pohl, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P; Duda, G N

    2001-07-01

    Musculo-skeletal loading plays an important role in the primary stability of joint replacements and in the biological processes involved in fracture healing. However, current knowledge of musculo-skeletal loading is still limited. In the past, a number of musculo-skeletal models have been developed to estimate loading conditions at the hip. So far, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading by in vivo measurements has not been possible. The aim of this study was to determine the musculo-skeletal loading conditions during walking and climbing stairs for a number of patients and compare these findings to in vivo data. Following total hip arthroplasty, four patients underwent gait analysis during walking and stair climbing. An instrumented femoral prosthesis enabled simultaneous measurement of in vivo hip contact forces. On the basis of CT and X-ray data, individual musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity were developed for each patient. Muscle and joint contact forces were calculated using an optimization algorithm. The calculated peak hip contact forces both over- and under-estimated the measured forces. They differed by a mean of 12% during walking and 14% during stair climbing. For the first time, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading was possible for walking and climbing stairs in several patients. In all cases, the comparison of in vivo measured and calculated hip contact forces showed good agreement.Thus, the authors consider the presented approach as a useful means to determine valid conditions for the analysis of prosthesis loading, bone modeling or remodeling processes around implants and fracture stability following internal fixation.

  3. The Effect of Climbing as a Recreational Event on Adoles ent ’ s Locus of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü ÖZEN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experience of the secondary education ( class 10th and 11th students‟ participation on artificial wall climbing refe r r ed to experiential learning education and defined as high activity on th eir locus of control . Artifical wall climbing is a learning point beyond the sport act ivity that give an opportunity to participants recognize their own limits and others and do they active not passive . This study was done as pretest - posttest control group with quasi - experimental model and the data were collected using „ Nowicki - Strickland Locus of Control Scale‟ adapted to Turkish by Yeşilyaprak (1988 . In this research, 90 students (40 female, 50 male aged 17 ,75 ±1.06 participated voluntery and divided in two groups as a trail and control group randomly. Trial group participated artifcial wall climbing twice a week, totel six weeks. During this time period the control group not join any activity has continued to normal life. As a result of the statistical analysis, no significant difference s were found between control and trial groups pre - test scores (p>0.05. No significant difference s were found between pre and post - test scores of control group (p>0.05, significant differences were found between pre and post - test scores of trial group (p0.05 and no significant differences between the difference of the differences (p>0.05. C onsequently, it could be said that the articifal wall climbing activities has a positive efect on the particip ants‟ locus of control, it caused a movement from out side to inside. And it has a significant effect on gender differences, that women have more gain than men.

  4. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  5. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Camelia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods.

  6. Optimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2003-01-01

    By entraining large quantities of ambient air into advanced ejector nozzles, the jet noise of the proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is expected to be reduced to levels acceptable for airport-vicinity noise certification. Away from the airport, however, this entrained air is shut off and the engines are powered up from their cutback levels to provide better thrust for the climb to cruise altitude. Unsuppressed jet noise levels propagating to the ground far from the airport are expected to be high. Complicating this problem is the HSCT's relative noise level with respect to the subsonic commercial fleet of 2010, which is expected to be much quieter than it is today after the retirement of older, louder, domestic stage II aircraft by the year 2000. In this study, the classic energy state approximation theory is extended to calculate trajectories that minimize the climb to cruise noise of the HSCT. The optimizer dynamically chooses the optimal altitude velocity trajectory, the engine power setting, and whether the ejector should be stowed or deployed with respect to practical aircraft climb constraints and noise limits.

  7. The effect of potential fall distance on hormonal response in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláš, Jiří; Giles, David; Chrastinová, Leona; Kárníková, Kateřina; Kodejška, Jan; Hlaváčková, Alžběta; Vomáčko, Ladislav; Draper, Nick

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alterations in potential lead fall distance on the hormonal responses of rock climbers. Nine advanced female climbers completed two routes while clipping all (PRO-all) or half (PRO-½) of the fixed points of protection. Venous blood samples were analysed for total catecholamines, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline (epinephrine), dopamine, lactate, cortisol and serotonin. Differences between the two conditions pre, immediately post and 15 min post climbing were assessed using a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA. All hormones and blood lactate concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) immediately post climb, except for cortisol. Peak cortisol concentrations did not occur until 15 min post ascent. Further, significant interactions between climbing and clipping conditions were found for total catecholamines (890% of basal concentration in PRO-½ vs. 568% in PRO-all), noradrenaline (794% vs. 532%) and dopamine (500% vs. 210%). There were no significant interactions for adrenaline (1920% vs. 1045%), serotonin (150% vs. 127%) or lactate (329% vs. 279%). The study showed a greater catecholamine response with an increase in potential lead fall distance. The most pronounced increases seen in catecholamine concentration were reported for dopamine and noradrenaline.

  8. Decorative values of selected cultivars of climbing roses (Rosa L. with regard to thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Włodarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006 in Kraków, phenological observations of climbing roses were conducted in order to determine the length and dates of their flowering period. The diameters of their flowers were also compared. Eight flowering repeating cultivars were selected for the experiment: 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Dortmund', 'Golden Showers', 'Goldstern', 'New Dawn', 'Parade', 'Sympathie' and 'White New Dawn'. During the studies, the shrub roses were not artificially watered in order to create conditions similar to those prevailing in public green areas. It was observed that irrespective of the air temperature pattern in a given year, the studied cultivars did not bloom before 15 June. In 2006 high temperatures (above 20oC, which continued throughout the whole flowering period, caused its shortening, and the interval between the first and the next flowering in the season lasted longer than in the previous years. In the years 2004-2006, the cultivar 'New Dawn' bloomed the longest. In 2005 the studied cultivars produced larger flowers than the next year. The cultivars 'Dortmund' and 'White New Dawn' were characterised by the smallest diameter of flowers, whereas 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'Golden Showers' and 'Parade' were marked by the largest diameter.

  9. Penerapan Metode Hill Climbing Pada Sistem Informasi Geografis Untuk Mencari Lintasan Terpendek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Vickraien Dangkua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic search methods is one of the methods commonly in use in finding the shortest path, one of which, namely the methods Hill Climbing process where testing is done using heuristic functions. Problems generally encountered is the shortest path search to solve the problem of distance can be changed into a graph structure, where the point of declaring the city and the State line that connects the two cities. From the logic so that it can locate destinations and save on travel costs. The hallmarks of this algorithm are all possible solutions will have then checked one by one from the left side, so it will be obtained solutions with optimal results. On a Hill Climbing method according to case using geographic information systems as a tool in making a decision, by way of collect, examine, and analyze information related to digital map. with a combination of Hill Climbing method and geographic information systems can result in an application that is certainly feasible for use in the search path problems.   Keywords: Hill Climbin method; digital map; Geographic Information Systems

  10. Strange Beta: An Assistance System for Indoor Rock Climbing Route Setting Using Chaotic Variations and Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Caleb; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies machine learning and the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems, then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed Strange Beta, combines chaos and machine learning, using the former to introduce novelty and the latter to smooth transitions in a manner that is consistent with the style of the climbs This entails parsing the domain-specific natural language that rock climbers use to describe routes and movement and then learning the patterns in the results. We validated this approach with a pilot study in a small university rock climbing gym, followed by a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation w...

  11. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  12. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  13. Control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghao Wu; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    The longitudinal steady-state control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control for deter-mining the non-zero equilibrium points. Morphological and certain kinematical data of droneflies are used for the model insect. A change in the mean stroke angle (δφ) results in a horizontal forward or backward flight; a change in the stroke amplitude (δΦ) or a equal change in the down- and upstroke angles of attack (δα1) results in a vertical climb or decent; a proper combination of δφ and δΦ controls (or δφ and δα1 controls) can give a flight of any (small) speed in any desired direction.

  14. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight-measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes.The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable

  15. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  16. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Rebolledo

    Full Text Available Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82-93% lethal disease. Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal

  17. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Lasa, Rodrigo; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa; Williams, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82-93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen.

  18. The modified forced-swim test in rats: influence of rope- or straw-suspension on climbing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H; Tsuda, A; Ida, Y; Tanaka, M

    1988-01-01

    We modified Porsolt's forced-swim test by suspending ropes or straws above the water in order to investigate a possible relationship between immobility and perceived escape responses from water. In this modified test, it was demonstrated clearly that rats reduced their duration of immobility and attempted to climb up the suspended ropes or straws. Most rats which had remained immobile during a 5-min test period in the forced-swim test, exhibited such climbing responses within 5-10 min of rope-suspension. Despite the suspension of ropes, however, some rats showed immobile postures and did not respond to the rope. On the other hand, straws were used in order to produce sliding and prevent climbing when the animals attempted to climb. There were no differences in immobility during either rope- or straw-suspension. It seems that the climbing behavior displayed by forced-swimming rats is due to a "pseudo-escape" effect produced by the suspension of an object above the water. The present findings were interpreted as further evidence for the notion that immobility in forced-swimming rats does not necessarily imply "behavioral despair," but rather an emotional reaction to an inescapable stressor.

  19. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  20. Flight Standards Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  1. Effect of one- vs. two-stair climb training on sprint power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenten B; Brown, Lee E; Statler, Traci A; Noffal, Guillermo J; Bartolini, J Albert

    2014-11-01

    Although running stairs is often used in sport conditioning programs, at present, little research has examined the effect of stair climb training on sprint power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of running stairs either 1 stair (1S) or 2 stairs (2S) at a time on power. Fourteen male college track and field athletes were randomized into 3 groups; 1S, 2S, or control (C). All groups were pre- and posttested for 1S, 2S, and 40-m sprint split times. The 1S and 2S groups trained twice per week, for 4 weeks, performing 10 sets of climbing 68 total stairs with 2.5-minute rest between trials. The greatest power values (W) from pre- and poststairs and sprint splits were used for statistical analyses. There was a significant (p climb. The 1S group increased power for the 1S test (pre-1,492.89 ± 123.76; post-1,647.41 ± 73.65) with no change in the 2S test (pre-2,428.80 ± 414.81; post-2,430.32 ± 154.90), whereas the 2S group increased power for the 2S test (pre-2,343.73 ± 317.50; post-2,646.17 ± 305.43) with no change in the 1S test (pre-1,516.69 ± 210.64; post-1,529.38 ± 236.69). The C group showed no change in either stair test (1S: pre-1,403.35 ± 238.67, post-1,384.38 ± 153.32; 2S: pre-2,285.93 ± 345.03, post-2,261.85 ± 356.88). There were no significant interactions or main effects for any sprint split power (40 m: pre-5,337.13 ± 611.86, post-5,318.68 ± 586.24).Therefore, stair climb training either 1 or 2 at a time did not affect 40-m sprint split power but increased power for the specific stair training type. Coaches should choose the number of stairs that are similar in time and power output to sprint training.

  2. Trajectory Optimization Using Adjoint Method and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for Minimizing Fuel Consumption During Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.

  3. Characteristics of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    In many singular perturbation solutions of optimal control problems, the most difficult numerical task is to solve the boundary-layer equations. However, these equations have a special structure that may often be used to expedite their solution. This paper begins by noting the general nature of the boundary-layer equations for optimal control problems. These results are then applied to the aircraft minimum time-to-climb problem. A specific numerical example is considered to illustrate the characteristics of the solution of the boundary-layer equations for this problem.

  4. Force Sensor of a Climbing Robot Derived from Its Own Flexible Structure

    OpenAIRE

    José Andrés Somolinos; Amable López; Rafael Morales; Carlos Morón

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important design constraints of a climbing robot is its own weight. When links or legs are used as a locomotion system they tend to be composed of special lightweight materials, or four‐bars‐linkage mechanisms are designed to reduce the weight with small rigidity looses. In these cases, flexibility appears and undesirable effects, such as dynamics vibrations, must be avoided at least when the robot moves at low speeds. The knowledge of the real tip position requires the comput...

  5. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  6. From falling to flying: the path to powered flight of a robotic samara nano air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Evan R; Pines, Darryll J; Humbert, J Sean

    2010-12-01

    This paper details the development of a nano-scale (>15 cm) robotic samara, or winged seed. The design of prototypes inspired by naturally occurring geometries is presented along with a detailed experimental process which elucidates similarities between mechanical and robotic samara flight dynamics. The helical trajectories of a samara in flight were observed to differ in-flight path and descent velocity. The body roll and pitch angular rates for the differing trajectories were observed to be coupled to variations in wing pitch, and thus provide a means of control. Inspired by the flight modalities of the bio-inspired samaras, a robotic device has been created that mimics the autorotative capability of the samara, whilst providing the ability to hover, climb and translate. A high-speed camera-based motion capture system is used to observe the flight dynamics of the mechanical and robotic samara. Similarities in the flight dynamics are compared and discussed as it relates to the design of the robotic samara.

  7. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately.

  8. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (pclimbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications.

  9. A survey of safety issues in tree-climbing applications for forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Longo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Topping, trimming, consolidation, securing and felling are very common operations in arboriculture, in city park as well as in forests. In case of very large trees, these operations are often not possible from ground level using ladders or Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs because of excessive height or uneven/inaccessible terrain. In past years, different people start applying techniques, materials and procedures normally used in mountaineering and caving, to climb trees and these techniques start to be applied to forestry management operations; these techniques are now worldwide used. Work activities at height, as tree-climbing for forestry management purpose, are regulated in Italy by Legislative Decree 81/08 about safety in the workplace, as this activity expose operators to fall from height and many other risks. Moreover, as this activity involves the use of specific tools, operators must be trained (with periodic refreshment and tools must been periodically checked by authorised operators. The objective of this work is to present and synthesise regulations and some technical aspects in order to allow operators to better understand different issues and general principles related to this activity.

  10. Adapting the ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer for walking/climbing robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Dabiri, Borna E.; Kennedy, Brett; Sherrit, Stewart

    2005-05-01

    Future NASA's missions include the search for past and existing life in the Universe and evidence on how the planets in the Solar system formed and evolved. In order to fulfill these goals sampling systems that meet the stringent requirements of the various environments are required to be developed. To support these objectives an ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) device has been developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to allow drilling and coring rocks for in-situ planetary analysis [Bar-Cohen et al, 2001]. The site location and method of sampling are of vital importance to scientists. Surface rocks abrasion, small depth soil drilling, and deep drilling have been proposed. It has been suggested that another possible source of mineralogical or astrobiological information can be found by exploring the sidewall of canyons. The exploration of such sites requires the development of a limbed robotic system capable of walking and climbing slopes up to and including vertical faces and overhangs. An anchor/drilling mechanism is currently under development and is being installed on each leg of the four-legged Steep Terrain Access Robot (STAR). This paper presents the modeling, design, and preliminary testing results of the USDC for use as end-effectors of walking/climbing robots.

  11. Differences in Climbing Ability of Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Yun; Billen, Johan; Doggett, Stephen L; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-03-15

    The climbing abilities of two bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.), were determined by evaluating their escape rates from smooth surface pitfall traps using four commercial bed bug monitors (Verifi Bed Bug Detector, ClimbUp Insect Interceptor, BlackOut Bed Bug Detector, and SenSci Volcano Bed Bug Detector). All detectors were used in the absence of lures or attractants. Unlike C. lectularius, adult C. hemipterus were able to escape from all traps. On the other hand, no or a low number nymphs of both species escaped, depending on the evaluated traps. Examination of the vertical friction force of adults of both species revealed a higher vertical friction force in C. hemipterus than in C. lectularius. Scanning electron microscope micrograph observation on the tibial pad of adult bed bugs of C. hemipterus showed the presence of a greater number of tenent hairs on the tibial pad than on that of adult C. lectularius. No tibial pad was found on the fourth and fifth instars of both species. Near the base of the hollow tenent hairs is a glandular epithelium that is better developed in adult C. hemipterus than in adult C. lectularius. This study highlights significant morphological differences between C. lectularius and C. hemipterus, which may have implications in the monitoring and management of bed bug infestations.

  12. A study on a wheel-based stair-climbing robot with a hopping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Koki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Sudo, Takayuki; Bushida, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we propose a simple hopping mechanism using the vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system for a wheel-based stair-climbing robot. The robot, consisting of two bodies connected by springs and a wire, hops by releasing energy stored in the springs and quickly travels using wheels mounted in its lower body. The trajectories of the bodies during hopping change in accordance with the design parameters, such as the reduced mass of the two bodies, the mass ratio between the upper and lower bodies, the spring constant, the control parameters such as the initial contraction of the spring and the wire tension. This property allows the robot to quickly and economically climb up and down stairs, leap over obstacles, and landing softly without complex control. In this paper, the characteristics of hopping motion for the design and control parameters are clarified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Furthermore, using the robot design based on the results the abilities to hop up and down a step, leap over a cable, and land softly are demonstrated.

  13. Crawling gait realization of the mini-modular climbing caterpillar robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Kun Wang; Houxiang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The concept of a modular climbing caterpillar robot is inspired by the kinematics of real caterpillars,Two typical kinematics models and gaits are investigated based on the crawling motion of the inchworm and the tobacco hornworm.Due to the fixed constraints between the suckers and the wall,the gait of a caterpillar robot engages a changing kinematic chain which is from an open chain to a closed chain,and then to an open chain in order.During the open chain periods,an unsymmetrical phase method (UPM) is used to ensure the reliable attachment of the passive suckers to the wall.In the closed-chain state,a four-link kinematics model is adopted to fulfill the fixed constraints,By combining the two methods together,the complete joint control trajectories are acquired for a modular caterpillar robot with seven joints.At last,on-site tests confirm the proposed principles and the validity of the climbing gait.

  14. Minute observations and theoretical framework of Darwin's studies on climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jean-Marc; Deroin, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    The role of movement in plants was unrecognised for a long time, due to the relative slowness of such movements by comparison with those of active animals such as insects and vertebrates, and to the difficulty with which they are distinguished from mere growth processes. Given this, the pioneer work of Darwin (On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants1865) is a milestone in botany. It is always cited as the beginning of any rigorous analysis of plant movement. Such a successful approach results at once from Darwin's broad knowledge of natural history, his use of numerous direct observations and simple experiments, but also from his own talent, which compensated for technical gaps in several instances. His use of metaphorical descriptions was a response to the lack of a firm theoretical background. It facilitated a preliminary classification of plant movement and a comparison of observations. Perhaps his most fruitful metaphors were those drawn from economic concepts, such as division of labour. Darwin's legacy in plant physiology is impressive, as even the most recent biophysical interpretations of climbing plants (e.g. tendril perversion) take place inside the framework he constructed.

  15. Seated versus standing cycling in competitive road cyclists: uphill climbing and maximal oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Best, S K; Baker, K R

    1996-04-01

    Seven competitive road cyclists (M +/- SE = 23.7 +/- 1.5 yr, 70.5 +/- 1.7 kg) participated to determine the effects of cycling body position on physiological responses during uphill cycling and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). There was no significant difference in VO2max between seated and standing positions on a cycle ergometer (66.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 66.4 +/- 1.7 ml . kg-1 . min-1). When the subjects rode their own bicycle on a treadmill, oxygen uptake and heart rate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher during standing when subjects bicycled at 20.0 km . h-1 (4% grade), but no difference was observed when riding at 12.3 km . h-1 (10% grade). Leg RPE was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for standing position up a 10% grade. The results suggest that the standing position is less economical during moderate hill climbing, but during steep hill climbing, it results in a decreased sensation of effort in the legs.

  16. Force Sensor of a Climbing Robot Derived from Its Own Flexible Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Somolinos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important design constraints of a climbing robot is its own weight. When links or legs are used as a locomotion system they tend to be composed of special lightweight materials, or four‐bars‐linkage mechanisms are designed to reduce the weight with small rigidity looses. In these cases, flexibility appears and undesirable effects, such as dynamics vibrations, must be avoided at least when the robot moves at low speeds. The knowledge of the real tip position requires the computation of its compliance or stiffness matrix and the external forces applied to the structure. Gravitational forces can be estimated, but external tip forces need to be measured. This paper proposes a strain gauge system which achieves the following tasks: (i measurement of the external tip forces, and (ii estimation of the real tip position (including flexibility effects. The main advantages of the proposed system are: (a the use of external force sensors is avoided, and (b a substantial reduction of the robot weight is achieved in comparison with other external force measurement systems. The proposed method is applied to a real symmetric climbing robot and experimental results are presented.

  17. A descriptive analysis of the climbing mechanics of a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-12-01

    The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) is one of the most extraordinary mountaineers in the animal kingdom. While observational descriptions exist to indicate factors that may influence their climbing ability, these have never been assessed biomechanically. Here, we describe whole-body motion of a mountain goat during ascent of a 45° incline based on a video recording in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and discuss the results in a mechanical context. During the push-off phase, the hindlimb extended and the forelimb was tucked close to the torso. During the pull-up phase, the hindlimb was raised near to the torso, while the forelimb humerus seemed to "lock" in a constant position relative to the torso, allowing the elbow to be held in close proximity to the whole-body center of mass. Extension of the elbow and carpal joints resulted in a vertical translation of the center of mass up the mountain slope. Based on the observations from this naturalistic study, hypotheses for future controlled studies of mountain goat climbing mechanics are proposed.

  18. Truss Climbing Robot for Space Station: Design, Analysis, and Motion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wing Kwong

    The application of space robots has become more popular in performing tasks such as Intra and Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) in Low Earth Orbit. For EVA, space robots were always designed as a chain-like manipulator with a joint configuration similar to on the earth robotic arm. Based on their joint configuration, they can be classified into two main categories. The first one is the six degrees of freedom (DOF) robotic arm including Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), Engineering Test Satellite No. 7 (ETS-VII), the Main Arm (MA) and the Small Fine Arm (SFA) of Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS). The other group is the seven-DOF space robotic arm which includes European Robotic Arm (ERA) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), or Canadarm2. They not only perform manipulation tasks, but also be able to navigate on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). In a free floating environment, motions of a space robotic arm cause the attitude change of a space station because of their dynamic coupling effect. Hence, the stabilization of the space station attitude is important to maintain the electrical energy generated by the solar panels and the signal strength for communication. Most of research in this area focuses on the motion control of a space manipulator through the study of Generalized Jacobian Matrix. Little research has been conducted specifically on the design of locomotion mechanism of a space manipulator. This dissertation proposes a novel methodology for the locomotion on a space station which aims to lower the disturbance on a space station. Without modifying the joint configuration of conventional space manipulators, the use of a new gripping mechanism is proposed which combines the advantages of active wheels and conventional grippers. To realize the proposed gripping mechanism, this dissertation also presents the design of a novel frame climbing robot (Frambot) which is equipped with the new gripping mechanism

  19. When Affordances Climb into Your Mind: Advantages of Motor Simulation in a Memory Task Performed by Novice and Expert Rock Climbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Barca, Laura; Bocconi, Alessandro Lamberti; Borghi, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    Does the sight of multiple climbing holds laid along a path activate a motor simulation of climbing that path? One way of testing whether multiple affordances and their displacement influence the formation of a motor simulation is to study acquired motor skills. We used a behavioral task in which expert and novice rock climbers were shown three…

  20. Estimating the economic value of ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An application of travel cost count data models that account for excess zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a dramatic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In addition to the novel outdoor recreation application, this study applies econometric methods designed to deal with "excess zeros" in the data. Depending upon model specification, per person per trip values are estimated to be in the range of $76 to $135.

  1. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  2. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  3. Effect of Indoor Wall Climbing on Self- Efficacy and Self-Perceptions of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Erin R.; Purves, P. Lynn; Southward, Julie; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a six-week indoor wall climbing on the perceptions of self for children with special needs aged 6-12 years was explored. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention (girls, n = 4; boys, n = 19) and control groups (girls, n = 5; boys, n = 18). Belayers' and children's perceptions of efficacy were measured using…

  4. Multi-Scale Compliant Foot Designs and Fabrication for Use with a Spider-Inspired Climbing Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Sameoto; Yasong Li; Carlo Menon

    2008-01-01

    Climbing robots are of potential use for surveillance, inspection and exploration in different environments. In particular,the use of climbing robots for space exploration can allow scientists to explore environments too challenging for traditional wheeled designs. To adhere to surfaces, biomimetic dry adhesives based on gecko feet have been proposed. These biomimetic dry adhesives work by using multi-scale compliant mechanisms to make intimate contact with different surfaces and adhere by using Van der Waals forces. Fabrication of these adhesives has frequently been challenging however, due to the difficulty in combining macro, micro and nanoscale compliance. We present an all polymer foot design for use with a hexapod climbing robot and a fabrication method to improve reliability and yield. A high strength, low-modulus silicone, TC-5005, is used to form the foot base and microscale fibres in one piece by using a two part mold. A macroscale foot design is produced using a 3D printer to produce a base mold, while lithographic definition of microscale fibres in a thick photoresist forms the 'hairs' of the polymer foot. The adhesion of the silicone fibres by themselves or attached to the macro foot is examined to determine best strategies for placement and removal of feet to maximize adhesion. Results demonstrate the successful integration of micro and macro compliant feet for use in climbing on a variety of surfaces.

  5. Ecophysiological traits may explain the abundance of climbing plant species across the light gradient in a temperate rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gianoli

    Full Text Available Climbing plants are a key component of rainforests, but mechanistic approaches to their distribution and abundance are scarce. In a southern temperate rainforest, we addressed whether the dominance of climbing plants across light environments is associated with the expression of ecophysiological traits. In mature forest and canopy gaps, we measured leaf size, specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and dark respiration in six of the most abundant woody vines. Mean values of traits and their phenotypic change (% between mature forest and canopy gaps were predictor variables. Leaf size and specific leaf area were not significantly associated with climbing plant dominance. Variation in gas-exchange traits between mature forest and canopy gaps explained, at least partly, the dominance of climbers in this forest. A greater increase in photosynthetic rate and a lower increase in dark respiration rate when canopy openings occur were related to the success of climbing plant species. Dominant climbers showed a strategy of maximizing exploitation of resource availability but minimizing metabolic costs. Results may reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetic differentiation in ecophysiological traits between light environments. It is suggested that the dominant climbers in this temperate rainforest would be able to cope with forest clearings due to human activities.

  6. Ecophysiological traits may explain the abundance of climbing plant species across the light gradient in a temperate rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo; Jiménez-Castillo, Mylthon

    2012-01-01

    Climbing plants are a key component of rainforests, but mechanistic approaches to their distribution and abundance are scarce. In a southern temperate rainforest, we addressed whether the dominance of climbing plants across light environments is associated with the expression of ecophysiological traits. In mature forest and canopy gaps, we measured leaf size, specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and dark respiration in six of the most abundant woody vines. Mean values of traits and their phenotypic change (%) between mature forest and canopy gaps were predictor variables. Leaf size and specific leaf area were not significantly associated with climbing plant dominance. Variation in gas-exchange traits between mature forest and canopy gaps explained, at least partly, the dominance of climbers in this forest. A greater increase in photosynthetic rate and a lower increase in dark respiration rate when canopy openings occur were related to the success of climbing plant species. Dominant climbers showed a strategy of maximizing exploitation of resource availability but minimizing metabolic costs. Results may reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetic differentiation in ecophysiological traits between light environments. It is suggested that the dominant climbers in this temperate rainforest would be able to cope with forest clearings due to human activities.

  7. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  8. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  9. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  10. Vibrational ladder-climbing in surface-enhanced, ultrafast infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Hamm, Peter

    2016-06-28

    In a recent work (J. Phys. Chem. C 2016, 120, 3350-3359), we have introduced the concept of surface-enhanced, two-dimensional attenuated total reflectance (2D ATR IR) spectroscopy with modest enhancement factors (450), which allows for multi-quantum IR excitation of adsorbed molecules, a process known as "vibrational ladder-climbing", even for weakly absorbing (ε < 200 M(-1) cm(-1)) nitrile IR labels. We show that it is possible to deposit up to four quanta of vibrational energy in the respective functional group. Based on these results, optical near-fields of plasmonic nanostructures may pave the way for future investigations involving ultrafast dynamics of highly excited vibrational states or surface-sensitive coherent control experiments of ground-state reactions at solid-liquid interfaces.

  11. ROMANIA: CLIMBING THE LADDER FOR A BETTER FUTURE. WHEN WILL IT REACH EU AND EURO AREA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tatomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the evolution of Romania’s economic convergence with the European Union (EU and Euro area, during the period 2000-2010. In order to determine the number of years required to reach the EU and Euro area average, we employ an economic convergence index, made up of real and structural convergence indexes. The analysis shows that Romania has been climbing the ladder in the process of catching-up with the EU and the Euro area until 2008 when, because of the international crisis, the economic convergence index started decreasing. We report that Romania will reach the EU average in April 2056 and the Euro area average in September 2062.As revealed by the analysis, it will take decadesto attain the European levels of economic convergence, this being the most important challenge for Romania on the long term.

  12. Climbing a ladder: a step-by-step approach to understanding the concept of agroecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, I; Albizu, I; Amezaga, I; Onaindia, M; Buchner, V; Garbisu, C

    2004-01-01

    Population and individual health is linked to agroecosystem health. To comprehend the concept of agroecosystem health, one should climb a ladder consisting of several successive steps, each rung presenting a certain degree of instability (conceptual difficulty and uncertainty) in an advisable but not inevitable order. Here we suggest a ladder consisting of the following concepts: ecosystem, agroecosystem, biodiversity, sustainability, ecosystem health, and agroecosystem health. Although these concepts are to a certain extent well understood and grasped by scientists, politicians, natural resource managers, and environmentalists, some steps are still highly debatable, unclear, and present a considerable degree of reluctance to be defined and understood. Consequently, much empirical and theoretical effort must be made to construct solid conceptual ladders made up of such steps. In this enterprise, a traditional reductionistic approach confining interpretations to narrow scientific disciplines is unadvisable. Holistic, transdisciplinary approaches are required to reach the desired goal.

  13. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  14. Cytology and mating systems in the climbing cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenzveig, J; Abbo, S; Nerd, A; Tel-Zur, N; Mizrahi, Y

    2000-07-01

    Chromosome numbers and meiotic behavior are reported for the climbing cacti species Hylocereus undatus, Hylocereus polyrhizus, and Selenicereus megalanthus. The Hylocereus spp. are diploid (2n = 22), while S. megalanthus is a tetraploid (2n = 44). Irregular chromosome disjunction at anaphase I in pollen mother cells of S. megalanthus is probably the major cause of its reduced pollen viability and may contribute to low seed set, low number of viable seeds and, consequently, low fruit mass. A pollination study confirmed self-incompatibility in H. polyrhizus and a weakened incompatibility reaction in H. undatus and S. megalanthus. Major crossability barriers do not exist between the Hylocereus spp. investigated. Reciprocal intergeneric crosses were successful between Hylocereus spp. and S. megalanthus, suggesting that an Hylocereus sp. might be one of the diploid progenitors of the tetraploid S. megalanthus. The implications of the results on cacti nomenclature and systematics are briefly discussed.

  15. A New Self-Loading Locomotion Mechanism for Wall Climbing Robots Employing Biomimetic Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amirpasha Peyvandi; Parviz Soroushian; Jue Lu

    2013-01-01

    A versatile locomotion mechanism is introduced and experimentally verified.This mechanism comprises four rectangular wheels (legs) with rotational phase difference which enables the application of pressure to each contacting surface for securing it to the surface using bio-inspired or pressure-sensitive adhesives.In this mechanism,the adhesives are applied to two rigid plates attached to each wheel via hinges incorporating torsional springs.The springs force the plates back to their original position after the contact with the surface is lost in the course of locomotion.The wheels are made of low-modulus elastomers,and the pressure applied during contact is controlled by the elastic modulus,geometry and phase difference of wheels.This reliable adhesion system does not rely upon gravity for adhering to surfaces,and provides the locomotion mechanism with the ability to climb walls and transition from horizontal to vertical surfaces.

  16. Fault detection and identification based on combining logic and model in a wall-climbing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong JIANG; Hongguang WANG; Lijin FANG; Mingyang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    A combined logic- and model-based approach to fault detection and identification (FDI) in a suction foot control system of a wall-climbing robot is presented in this paper. For the control system, some fault models are derived by kinematics analysis. Moreover, the logic relations of the system states are known in advance. First, a fault tree is used to analyze the system by evaluating the basic events (elementary causes), which can lead to a root event (a particular fault). Then, a multiple-model adaptive estimation algorithm is used to detect and identify the model-known faults. Finally, based on the system states of the robot and the results of the estimation, the model-unknown faults are also identified using logical reasoning. Experiments show that the proposed approach based on the combination of logical reasoning and model estimating is efficient in the FDI of the robot.

  17. Optimal Gait for Bioinspired Climbing Robots Using Dry Adhesion:A Quasi-Static Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Boscariol; Michael A.Henrey; Yasong Li; Carlo Menon

    2013-01-01

    Legged robots relying on dry adhesives for vertical climbing are required to preload their feet against the wall to increase contact surface area and consequently maximize adhesion force.Preloading a foot causes a redistribution of forces in the entire robot,including contact forces between the other feet and the wall.An inappropriate redistribution of these forces can cause irreparable detachment of the robot from the vertical surface.This paper investigates an optimal preloading and detaching strategy that minimizes energy consumption,while retaining safety,during locomotion on vertical surfaces.The gait of a six-legged robot is planned using a quasi-static model that takes into account both the structure of the robot and the characteristics of the adhesive material.The latter was modelled from experimental data collected for this paper.A constrained optimization routine is used,and its output is a sequence of optimal posture and motor torque set-points.

  18. Vlasov Simulations of Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Langmuir Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, Ilya; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on the discreteness of the wave spectrum, this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autroresonant acceleration (AR) of plasmons, and was first proposed by Barth et al. based on a linear fluid model. Here, we report a demonstration of LC/AR from first principles using fully nonlinear Vlasov simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. We show that, in agreement to the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948 and the DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-11-1-0037.

  19. Compulsory winding in the opposite direction of climbing plants promotes yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2004-04-01

    The stem of kidney bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Kentucky 101), a typical dextrorse climbing plant, was subjected to compulsorily sinistrorse-winding. The compulsory sinistrorse-winding induced changes in physiological activities. The number of pods with immature seeds (used as vegetable) was doubled and the fresh weight of the pods also significantly increased by sinistrorse-winding. Compulsory sinistrorse-winding increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, respiration, nodule formation, N(2)-fixation, glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming); E.C. 6.3.1.2] activity and protein content. Thus, it seems to affect the basic physiological processes that promote physiological activities though the action mechanism is unknown.

  20. Fluid Model of Sliding Suction Cup of Wall-climbing Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhering capability, one of the most important performance indexes of wall-climbing robots(WCRs, should be taken into account when a WCR is designed. This paper proposes a novel approach for investigating the adhering characteristics of the sliding suction cup (SSCs using fluid network theory to enhance the adhering capability of WCRs. The fluid models of the SSCs of two WCRs are developed and equivalent circuits in three cases are presented. The dynamic responses of negative pressure in SSCs are obtained and validated by a set of experiments. It indicated that the theoretical analysis is reasonable and can give some valuable design criteria on the structure parameters of SSCs and control strategies of suction force of SSCs.

  1. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Sandrine; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-07-01

    We provide an overview of research on climbing plants from Charles Darwin to the present day. Following Darwin's interests, this review will focus on functional perspectives including attachment mechanisms and stem structure and function. We draw attention to a number of unsolved problems inviting future research. These include the mechanism for establishment of the twining habit, a quantitative description following the development of a tissue element through space and time, the chemistry of sticky exudates, the microstructure of xylem and the capacity for water storage, the vulnerability to embolism, and the mechanism for embolism repair. In conclusion we cite evidence that, in response to increasing CO(2) concentration, anthropic perturbation and/ or increasing forest fragmentation, lianas are increasing relative to tree species. In the 21st century, we are returning to the multiscale, multidisciplinary approach taken by Darwin to understand natural history.

  2. A fuzzy hill-climbing algorithm for the development of a compact associative classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Soumyaroop; Lam, Sarah S.

    2012-02-01

    Classification, a data mining technique, has widespread applications including medical diagnosis, targeted marketing, and others. Knowledge discovery from databases in the form of association rules is one of the important data mining tasks. An integrated approach, classification based on association rules, has drawn the attention of the data mining community over the last decade. While attention has been mainly focused on increasing classifier accuracies, not much efforts have been devoted towards building interpretable and less complex models. This paper discusses the development of a compact associative classification model using a hill-climbing approach and fuzzy sets. The proposed methodology builds the rule-base by selecting rules which contribute towards increasing training accuracy, thus balancing classification accuracy with the number of classification association rules. The results indicated that the proposed associative classification model can achieve competitive accuracies on benchmark datasets with continuous attributes and lend better interpretability, when compared with other rule-based systems.

  3. Deductive sort and climbing sort: new methods for non-dominated sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Kent; Keedwell, Ed

    2012-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of real-world many-dimensional optimisation problems have been identified across the spectrum of research fields. Many popular evolutionary algorithms use non-dominance as a measure for selecting solutions for future generations. The process of sorting populations into non-dominated fronts is usually the controlling order of computational complexity and can be expensive for large populations or for a high number of objectives. This paper presents two novel methods for non-dominated sorting: deductive sort and climbing sort. The two new methods are compared to the fast non-dominated sort of NSGA-II and the non-dominated rank sort of the omni-optimizer. The results demonstrate the improved efficiencies of the deductive sort and the reductions in comparisons that can be made when applying inferred dominance relationships defined in this paper.

  4. Analysis of automobile’s automatic control systems for the hill climbing start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Klimenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve road safety while driving on the rise, facilitating the driver’s activity the automobile industry leaders are introducing automatic hill-hold control systems into the car design. This study purpose relates to the existing automatic start control systems’ design analysis. Analyzed are the existing design developments of automatic hill start assist control systems applied for driving at the start of the climbing. The effected research allows to select the scheme for further development of start driving automatic control systems. Further improvement of driving control systems and primarily the driver assistance hill-hold control systems is necessary to increase both the driving comfort and the traffic safety.

  5. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  6. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  7. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  8. A MODULAR DESIGN OF A WALL-CLIMBING ROBOT AND ITS MECHATRONICS CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Tlale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The modular design of a wall-climbing robot, implementing two articulated legs per module (biped robotic modules, is presented in this paper. Modular design improves a wall-climbing robot’s manoeuvrability and flexibility during surface changes or while walking on uneven surfaces. The design of the articulated legs uses four motors to control the posture of the vacuum cups, achieving the best possible contact with the surface. Each leg can contain more than five sensors for effective feedback control, and additional sensors such as gyros, CCD sensors, etc, can be fitted on a module, depending on the robot’s application. As the number of modules used in the design of the robot is increased, the number of actuators and sensors increases exponentially. A distributed mechatronics controller of such systems is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Modulêre ontwerp van 'n muurklim-robot met twee geskarnierde bene per module (twee-benige robotmodules word in hierdie artikel weergegee. Modulêre ontwerp verbeter die muurklim-robot se beweeglikheid en aanpasbaarheid tydens veranderings in die loopvlak of terwyl dit loop op ongelyke oppervlaktes. Ontwerp van geskarnierde bene implementeer vier motors wat die oriëntasie van vakuumsuigdoppe beheer om die bes moontlike kontak met die loopvlak te handhaaf. Elke been kan meer as vyf sensors hê vir doeltreffende terugvoerbeheer, en bykomende sensors soos giroskope, CCD sensors, ens. kan by 'n module gevoeg word soos die toepassing van die robot dit mag vereis. Soos die aantal modules wat in die ontwerp van die robot gebruik word, toeneem, neem die aantal aktiveerders en sensors eksponensiëel toe. 'n Verdeelde megatroniese beheerder van sulke stelsels word aangebied.

  9. Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a Proterozoic carbonate platform succession: Their environmental and petrogenetic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asru K Chaudhuri

    2005-06-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Pandikunta Limestone, a shallow water carbonate platform succession in the Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and storm deposited structures, such as HCS, wave ripple-lamination, combined-flow ripple-lamination and low angle trough cross-stratification. Different types of stratification developed in calcisiltite with minor amounts of very fine quartz sand and silt. The climbing ripple structures exhibit a complex pattern of superposition of different types (type A, B and S) within cosets pointing to a fluctuating rate of suspension deposition versus bedform migration, and an unsteady character of the flow. Close association of climbing ripple structures, HCS with anisotropic geometry, wavy lamination and combined-flow ripple-lamination suggest that the structures were formed by storm generated combined-flow in a mid-shelf area above the storm wave base. The combined-flow that deposited the climbing ripple structures had a strong unidirectional flow component of variable magnitude. The climbing ripple structure occurs as a constituent of graded stratified beds with an ordered vertical sequence of different types of lamination, reflecting flow deceleration and increased rate of suspension deposition. It is inferred that the beds were deposited from high-density waning flows in the relatively deeper part of the ancient shelf. The structures indicate that the Pandikunta platform was subjected to open marine circulation and intense storm activities. The storm deposited beds, intercalated with beds of lime-mudstone, consist primarily of fine sand and silt size carbonate particles that were hydrodynamically similar to quartz silt. Detrital carbonate particles are structureless and are of variable roundness. The particles were generated as primary carbonate clasts in coastal areas by mechanical disintegration of rapidly lithified beds, stromatolites or laminites, and the finest grade was

  10. Investigating Tiltrotor Formation Flight via 1/48-Scale Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romander, Ethan; Betzina, Mark; Silva, Mark; Wadcock, Alan; Yamauchi, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes two small-scale wind tunnel tests conducted in the Army 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests featured two 1/48-scale V-22 models that were operated in a variety of simulated flight conditions including climb, descent, and level flight at various flight speeds and spatial separations. Forces and moments experienced by the trail aircraft were used to deduce the influence of the lead aircraft on the trail aircraft. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data were collected to relate these forces and moments to features in the lead aircraft wake. In general, the roll moment on the trail aircraft is shown to be maximum when the aircraft are laterally offset by a full wingspan and the trail aircraft is vertically positioned so as to be in the wake of the lead aircraft. Furthermore, the roll moment is maximal when operating near 50 knots full-scale flight speed. Because the interaction persists far downstream and the vertical position of the wake is dependent on descent angle and flight speed, lateral separation has been determined to be the best means of avoiding adverse interactions between aircraft.

  11. Application of Climbing Form Technology in Bridge Construction%爬模技术在桥梁施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠舟

    2014-01-01

    以某大桥高墩施工为例,分别针对爬模系统的组成、塔身爬模施工工艺以及爬模系统的特点进行了详细探讨,指出了液压爬模的施工要点,包括液压爬模系统技术参数、液压爬模系统的安装施工、主塔液压爬模施工,可为同类桥梁施工提供借鉴。%Taking the high pier construction of a bridge as an example, the paper discusses the composing of climbing form system, the climbing form construction technique of tower body, and the characteristics of climbing form system in detail, points out the key points of hydraulic climbing form construction includ-ing technical parameters of hydraulic climbing form system, the installation and construction of hydraulic climbing form system, and the climbing form construction of the main tower, which can provide references for the construction of similar bridges.

  12. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  13. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  14. Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Thaddeus

    1986-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.

  15. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  16. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  17. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  18. X-15 flight crew - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force Major William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. These six pilots made 125 of the 199 total flights in the X-15. Rushworth made 34 flights (the most of any X-15 pilot); McKay flew 29 times; Engle, Knight, and Dana each flew 16 times; Thompson's total was 14. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  19. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  20. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  1. CLIMB - Climate induced changes on the hydrology of mediterranean basins - Reducing uncertainties and quantifying risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    According to future climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. These changes are expected to have severe direct impacts on the management of water resources. Threats include severe droughts and extreme flooding, salinization of coastal aquifers, degradation of fertile soils and desertification due to poor and unsustainable water management practices. It can be foreseen that, unless appropriate adaptation measures are undertaken, the changes in the hydrologic cycle will give rise to an increasing potential for tension and conflict among the political and economic actors in this vulnerable region. The presented project initiative CLIMB, funded under EC's 7th Framework Program (FP7-ENV-2009-1), has started in January 2010. In its 4-year design, it shall analyze ongoing and future climate induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes across the Mediterranean and neighboring regions. This is undertaken in study sites located in Sardinia, Northern Italy, Southern France, Tunisia, Egypt and the Palestinian-administered area Gaza. The work plan is targeted to selected river or aquifer catchments, where the consortium will employ a combination of novel field monitoring and remote sensing concepts, data assimilation, integrated hydrologic (and biophysical) modeling and socioeconomic factor analyses to reduce existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. Advanced climate scenario analysis will be employed and available ensembles of regional climate model simulations will be downscaling. This process will provide the drivers for an ensemble of hydro(-geo)logical models with different degrees of complexity in terms of process description and level of integration. The results of hydrological modeling and socio-economic factor analysis will enable the development of a GIS-based Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. This tool will serve as a platform

  2. Flight Tests of Autopilot Integrated with Fault-Tolerant Control of a Small Fixed-Wing UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault-tolerant control scheme for the autopilot of the small fixed-wing UAV is designed and tested by the actual flight experiments. The small fixed-wing UAV called Xiang Fei is developed independently by Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The flight control system is designed based on an open-source autopilot (Pixhawk. Real-time kinematic (RTK GPS is introduced due to its high accuracy. Some modifications on the longitudinal and lateral guidance laws are achieved to improve the flight control performance. Moreover, a data fusion based fault-tolerant control scheme is integrated in altitude control and speed control for altitude sensor failure and airspeed sensor failure, which are the common problems for small fixed-wing UAV. Finally, the real flight experiments are implemented to test the fault-tolerant control based autopilot of UAV. Real flight test results are given and analyzed in detail, which show that the fixed-wing UAV can track the desired altitude and speed commands during the whole flight process including takeoff, climbing, cruising, gliding, landing, and wave-off by the fault-tolerant control based autopilot.

  3. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  4. Micromycetes on climbing roses leaves (Rosa L. in the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micromycetes inhabiting the leaves of 20 cultivars of climbing roses (Rosa L., grown in Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow was investigated in the three successive years of research. Sixty-five taxa of of micromycetes was recorded with a few species dominating: Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Pestalotia rosae, Penicillium brevicompactum and Sordaria fimicola, accompanied by various other microfungi. A high abundance of rose black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae was also observed. The affected leaves revealed advancing necrosis, substantially enhancing at the end of the growing season. Defoliation took place from June to October. Micromycetes inhabiting the leaves of climbing roses in Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow considerably deteriorated the decorative aspect of the plants.

  5. A new protocol from real joint motion data for wear simulation in total knee arthroplasty: stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Santina; Belvedere, Claudio; Jaber, Sami Abdel; Affatato, Saverio; D'Angeli, Valentina; Leardini, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    In its normal lifespan, a knee prosthesis must bear highly demanding loading conditions, going beyond the sole activity of level walking required by ISO standard 14243. We have developed a protocol for in vitro wear simulation of stair climbing on a displacement controlled knee simulator. The flexion/extension angle, intra/extra rotation angle, and antero/posterior translation were obtained in patients by three-dimensional video-fluoroscopy. Axial load data were collected by gait analysis. Kinematics and load data revealed a good consistence across patients, in spite of the different prosthesis size. The protocol was then implemented and tested on a displacement controlled knee wear simulator, showing an accurate reproduction of stair climbing waveforms with a relative error lower than 5%.

  6. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;

    2008-01-01

    30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  7. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  8. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  9. Lower limb myalgias in a man who used to "climb the stairs": an atypical abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dognini, Giuseppina Patrizia; Cadeo, Gianluca; Dolcino, Luigi; Gilardoni, Lodovico; Stringhi, Enrico; Forloni, Franco

    2012-07-01

    Atypical presentation of emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm comprises a wide spectrum of symptoms. Lower limbs' involvement is infrequent, usually monolateral and with clear vascular features. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient who complained exclusively about symmetric lower limb myalgias without vascular features, after having repeatedly climbed the stairs of the school he worked in. The surprising final diagnosis was of rupturing abdominal aortic aneurysm; the patient was sent to emergency surgery and survived.

  10. The Effect of Climbing Ability and Slope Inclination on Vertical Foot Loading Using a Novel Force Sensor Instrumentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláš Jiří

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of climbing ability and slope inclination on vertical loading both in terms the forces involved and physiological responses. Five novice and six intermediate female climbers completed a climbing route at three slope inclinations (85°, 90°, and 98°. The vertical loading during the climb was assessed by force-time integral using a Novel Pedar-X insole and physiological responses via oxygen uptake and heart rate. The novice climbers had a significantly lower (p < 0.05 vertical loading on foot holds and higher oxygen uptake and heart rate compared to intermediate climbers. A significant negative correlation was identified between the force-time integral and oxygen uptake (R = -0.72, and with heart rate (R = -0.64, respectively. The time-force integral decreased across the ascents with increasing slope inclination (p < 0.001. The results indicate that more advanced ability climbers make greater use of foot holds, with associated lowering in physiological response (oxygen uptake and heart rate across all slope inclinations.

  11. Controlled silanization of silica nanoparticles to stabilize foams, climbing films, and liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Ben L

    2011-11-01

    We describe a method for the synthesis of multigram amounts of silica nanoparticles which are controllably hydrophobized to different extents using a room temperature vapor phase silanization process. The extent of hydrophobization of the particles can be adjusted by changing the amount of dichlorodimethylsilane reagent used in the reaction. The method produces particles with good uniformity of surface coating; the silane coating varies from monolayer coverage at low extents of hydrophobization to approximately trilayer at high extents of hydrophobization. Acid-base titration using conductivity detection was used to characterize the extent of hydrophobization which is expressed as the percent of surface silanol groups remaining after silanization. Particles with %SiOH ranging from 100% (most hydrophilic) to 20% (most hydrophobic) were hand shaken with water/methanol mixtures and produced either a particle dispersion, foam, climbing films, or liquid marbles. The type of colloidal structure produced is discussed in terms of the liquid-air-particle contact angle and the energy of adsorption of the particles to the liquid-air surface.

  12. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change.

  13. Effect of postexercise recovery procedures following strenuous stair-climb running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Elisa; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Beilby, John

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of hot/cold water immersion, static stretching, and no recovery (control) interventions on leg strength, rowing performance, and indicators of muscle soreness/damage in the 72 hours following strenuous stair-climb running. Club (n = 14) and elite (Sports Institute) (n = 6) rowers performed the training run on three separate occasions. After each run, participants completed a randomly assigned 15-minute recovery treatment, either hot/cold, static stretching, or control, which were repeated at 24 and 48 hours postrun. No significant strength or performance differences existed between the three recovery treatments for either group. Muscle soreness for both groups remained significantly elevated (p < 0.05) above baseline at 72 hours postrun. At 48-hours postrun serum creatine kinase levels had returned to baseline and at 72 hours postrun were below baseline in both groups. In conclusion, neither hot/cold nor static stretching accelerated recovery at 72 hours beyond that achieved by the control condition.

  14. Does buckling instability of the pseudopodium limit how well an amoeba can climb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Fukui, Yoshio

    2011-02-21

    The maximum force that a crawling cell can exert on a substrate is a quantity of interest in cell biomechanics. One way of quantifying this force is to allow the cell to crawl against a measurable and adjustable restraining force until the cell is no longer able to move in a direction opposite to the applied force. Fukui et al. (2000) reported on an experiment where amoeboid cells were imaged while they crawled against an artificial gravity field created by a centrifuge. An unexpected observation was that the net applied force on the amoeba did not seem to be the primary factor that limited its ability to climb. Instead, it appeared that the amoeba stalled when it was no longer able to support a pseudopodium against the applied gravity field. The high g-load bend the pseudopodium thereby preventing its attachment to the target point directly ahead of the cell. In this paper we further refine this idea by identifying the bending of the pseudopodium with the onset of elastic instability of a beam under its own weight. It is shown that the principal features of the experiment may be understood through this model and an estimate for the limiting g-load in reasonable accord with the experimental measurements is recovered.

  15. Multiscale diffusion method for simulations of long-time defect evolution with application to dislocation climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. L.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-07-01

    In many problems of interest to materials scientists and engineers, the evolution of crystalline extended defects (dislocations, cracks, grain boundaries, interfaces, voids, precipitates) is controlled by the flow of point defects (interstitial/substitutional atoms and/or vacancies) through the crystal into the extended defect. Precise modeling of this behavior requires fully atomistic methods in and around the extended defect, but the flow of point defects entering the defect region can be treated by coarse-grained methods. Here, a multiscale algorithm is presented to provide this coupling. Specifically, direct accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) of extended defect evolution is coupled to a diffusing point defect concentration field that captures the long spatial and temporal scales of point defect motion in the presence of the internal stress fields generated by the evolving defect. The algorithm is applied to study vacancy absorption into an edge dislocation in aluminum where vacancy accumulation in the core leads to nucleation of a double-jog that then operates as a sink for additional vacancies; this corresponds to the initial stages of dislocation climb modeled with explicit atomistic resolution. The method is general and so can be applied to many other problems associated with nucleation, growth, and reaction due to accumulation of point defects in crystalline materials.

  16. Dynamics and kinematics of ant locomotion: do wood ants climb on level surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Weihmann, Tom; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    The biomechanics of running in small animals have remained poorly characterized because of the difficulty of recording three-dimensional ground reaction forces. Available techniques limit investigations to animals with a body mass above 1 g. Here we present, for the first time, single-leg ground reaction forces of ants (body mass 10 mg), measured with a custom-built miniature force plate. We investigated forces and high-speed kinematics for straight level runs (average speed: 8.4 cm s(-1)) of Formica polyctena workers. The major finding was that the time course of ground reaction forces strongly differed from previous observations of larger insects. Maximum vertical force was reached during the first third of the tripod contact phase. During this period the body was decelerated predominantly by the front legs. Subsequently, the front legs pulled and accelerated the body. This 'climbing' type of stride may be useful on the bumpy and unstable substrates that the animals face in their natural habitats, and may therefore also occur on level ground. Propulsive forces were generated predominantly by the front and hind legs. Dragging of the gaster on the substrate resulted in a breaking momentum, which was compensated by the legs. Future investigations will reveal, whether the identified pattern is due to specialization.

  17. A FORMAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SOLVER DESIGN-HILL CLIMBING METHOD WITH PUSH DOWN STACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiko TAKAHARA; Yongmei LIU; Yoshio YANO

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach to design of a solver of an intelligent management information system and its implementation. The approach implies set theoretic modeling based on the general systems concepts and implementation in the extProlog. There are research efforts which attack (optimization) problems using the set theory and logics. Furthermore, they use logic programming languages for their implementation. Although their methods look quite similar to the approach of this paper, there are clear differences between them. This paper is interested in exploration of the solving system rather than algorithms. The paper first presents a design and implementation procedure of a solver. Then, classification of problems is discussed. The least structured class of the classification is the target of this paper. A data mining system is an example of the class. Formal theories are derived for the design procedure assnming the least structured case. A solving strategy, which is called a hill climbing method with a push down stack, is proposed on the theories. A data mining system is used as an example to illustrate the results. Finally, a full implementation in extProlog is presented for the data mining system.

  18. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity. These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches. Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  19. Always on the bright side: the climbing mechanism of Galium aparine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Klein, Marie-Christin; Gorb, Stanislav N; Speck, Thomas; Voigt, Dagmar; Gallenmüller, Friederike

    2011-07-22

    Galium aparine is a herbaceous climbing plant that attaches to host plants mainly via its leaves, which are covered by hooked trichomes. Although such hooks are found on both leaf surfaces, the leaves of G. aparine are mainly positioned upon the leaves of supporting plants and rarely beneath. In order to understand the mechanism underlying this observation, we have studied structural and mechanical properties of single leaf hooks, frictional properties of leaf surfaces, turgor pressure in different leaf tissues and bending properties of the leaves in different directions. Abaxial and adaxial leaf hooks differ significantly in orientation, distribution, structure and mechanical properties. In accordance with these differences, friction properties of leaves depend on the direction of the applied force and differ significantly between both leaf surfaces. This results in a ratchet mechanism. Abaxial leaf hooks provide strong attachment upon the leaves of adjacent plants, whereas adaxial hooks cause a gliding-off from the underside of the leaves of host plants. Thus, the leaves of G. aparine can function as attachment organs, and simultaneously orient themselves advantageously for their photosynthetic function. Further adaptations in turgor pressure or concerning an anisotropy of the flexural stiffness of the leaves have not been found.

  20. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  1. Robust Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Planetary Rovers While Climbing up Deformable Slopes with Longitudinal Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengcai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobility control is one of the most essential parts of planetary rovers’ research and development. The goal of this research is to let the planetary rovers be able to achieve demand of motion from upper level with satisfied control performance under the rough and deformable planetary terrain that often lead to longitudinal slip. The longitudinal slip influences the mobility efficiency obviously, especially on the major deformable slopes. Compared with the past works on normal stiff terrains, properties of soil and interaction between wheels and soil should be considered additionally. Therefore, to achieve the final goal, in this paper, wheel-soil dynamic model for six-wheel planetary rovers while climbing up deformable slopes with longitudinal slip is first built and control based in order to account for slip phenomena. These latter effects are then taken into account within terramechanics theory, relying upon nonlinear control techniques; finally, a robust adaptive fuzzy control strategy with longitudinal slip compensation is developed to reduce the effects induced by slip phenomena and modeling error. Capabilities of this control scheme are demonstrated via full scale simulations carried out with a six-wheel robot moving on sloped deformable terrain, whose real time was computed relying uniquely upon RoSTDyn, a dynamic software.

  2. Taking on the Big Issues and Climbing the Mountains Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Richardson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the 2007 International System Dynamics Society Conference, Professor Jay Forrester posed a challenge: “We need books addressed to the public that are understandable, relevant, important and dramatic”. We need to overcome the “constraints of academe” that inhibit path-breaking work. We need to address “the big issues”. We need to march “upward from the present aimless plateau and start climbing the mountains ahead”. This was a message that was intended to inspire and empower, not to criticize. Responding to Professor Forrester’s challenge, this paper first describes the work of three inspiring role models, Dennis Meadows, Junko Edahiro and John Sterman. They have demonstrated how books can have an impact on people’s lives, how “big issues” can be addressed, how the constraints of academe can be overcome and how mountains can be scaled. Second, it offers grounds for optimism about the future of system dynamics modeling in Asia, gained from my sojourn at the National University of Singapore. Third, it describes three “mountains ahead” to be scaled and highlights the work of individuals who have already begun the journey.

  3. Climbing Robot for Ferromagnetic Surfaces with Dynamic Adjustment of the Adhesion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climbing robot with wheeled locomotion and adhesion through permanent magnets, developed with the intention of being used in the inspection of different types of man-made ferromagnetic structures, such as towers for wind turbines, fuel storage tanks, and ship hulls. In this paper are presented the main considerations thought for its project, as well as several constructive aspects, among which are detailed its mechanical and electrical construction, the implemented control architecture, and the human-machine interface developed for the manual and automatic control of the vehicle while in operation. Although it can be manually controlled, the vehicle is designed to have a semiautonomous behavior, allowing a remote inspection process controlled by a technician, this way reducing the risks associated with the human inspection of tall structures and ATEX places. The distinguishing characteristic of this robot is its dynamic adjustment system of the permanent magnets in order to assure the machine adhesion to the surfaces, even when crossing slightly irregular and curved surfaces with a large radius.

  4. An on-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Feedback coefficients are found as functions of the remaining energy to go (dash energy less current energy) along the nominal path.

  5. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state.

  6. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  7. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the newer exercise

  8. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  9. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  10. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  11. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  12. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  13. Aircraft automatic digital flight control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1984-01-01

    A full-flight-envelope automatic trajectory control system concept is being investigated at Ames Research Center. This concept was developed for advanced aircraft configurations with severe nonlinear characteristics. A feature of the system is an inverse of the complete nonlinear aircraft model as part of the feed-forward control path. Simulation and flight tests have been reported at previous Digital Avionics Systems conferences. A new method for the continuous real-time inversion of the aircraft model using a Newton-Raphson trim algorithm instead of the original inverse table look-up procedure has been developed. The results of a simulation study of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft using the new inversion technique are presented. Maneuvers were successfully carried out in all directions in the vertical-attitude hover mode. Transition runs from conventional flight through the region of lift-curve-slope reversal at an angle of attack of about 32 deg and to hover at zero speed in the vertical attitude showed satisfactory transient response. Simulations were also conducted in conventional flight at high subsonic speed in steep climb and with turns up to 4 g. Successful flight tests of the system with the new model-inversion technique in a UH-1H helicopter have recently been carried out.

  14. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  15. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  16. Vertical and lateral flight optimization algorithm and missed approach cost calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrieta Mendoza, Alejandro

    Flight trajectory optimization is being looked as a way of reducing flight costs, fuel burned and emissions generated by the fuel consumption. The objective of this work is to find the optimal trajectory between two points. To find the optimal trajectory, the parameters of weight, cost index, initial coordinates, and meteorological conditions along the route are provided to the algorithm. This algorithm finds the trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. The global cost is a compromise between fuel burned and flight time, this is determined using a cost index that assigns a cost in terms of fuel to the flight time. The optimization is achieved by calculating a candidate optimal cruise trajectory profile from all the combinations available in the aircraft performance database. With this cruise candidate profile, more cruises profiles are calculated taken into account the climb and descend costs. During cruise, step climbs are evaluated to optimize the trajectory. The different trajectories are compared and the most economical one is defined as the optimal vertical navigation profile. From the optimal vertical navigation profile, different lateral routes are tested. Taking advantage of the meteorological influence, the algorithm looks for the lateral navigation trajectory where the global cost is the most economical. That route is then selected as the optimal lateral navigation profile. The meteorological data was obtained from environment Canada. The new way of obtaining data from the grid from environment Canada proposed in this work resulted in an important computation time reduction compared against other methods such as bilinear interpolation. The algorithm developed here was evaluated in two different aircraft: the Lockheed L-1011 and the Sukhoi Russian regional jet. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB, and the validation was performed using Flight-Sim by Presagis and the FMS CMA-9000 by CMC Electronics -- Esterline. At the end of this work a

  17. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  18. Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.

  19. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  20. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  1. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eves Frank F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour. Methods Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300. Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site. In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site. The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854 and descent (29,352 at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253. Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing, logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing, and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire. Results Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66 than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34. Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they

  2. 一种星轮式爬楼梯电动轮椅设计%Design of a Star Wheel Power-Driven Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占礼; 孟祥雨; 陈延伟

    2012-01-01

    A three star wheels stairs-climbing electric wheelchair is designed.One of the star wheels is wheel motor.The three star wheels stairs-climbing device climbs up the obstacles,with the wheel motor driving on the ground, which realizes the organic combination of climb building and the electric wheelchair function.The Star wheel stair-climbing device is the key to it.The stair-climbing device and its walking mechanisms was designed by in梔epth study, with fully consideration of the requirements of structure,size and climb power,and security of the stair-climbing device.The results of analysis of performance of wheel chair show that stair-climbing wheel chair reaches the design requirements and has the advantages of safety, stability,simple operation and easy control.%设计了一款三星轮式爬楼梯电动轮椅,其中一个星轮为轮毂电机.采用三星轮机构实现爬楼越障,采用轮毂电机驱动轮椅平地行驶,实现了爬楼功能和电动轮椅功能的有机结合.爬升装置是爬楼梯轮椅的关键,在深入研究爬楼梯轮椅工作机理基础上,充分考虑爬楼梯轮椅爬升装置的结构和尺寸以及爬升功率、安全性等要求,在对爬升装置设计的同时还对轮椅行走环节进行了设计.经过性能分析,设计的爬楼梯轮椅达到了功能要求,并具有乘坐安全、爬楼梯稳定、控制容易以及操作简单等特点.

  3. The Helios Prototype aircraft during initial climb-out to the west over the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  4. Climbing-specific finger flexor performance and forearm muscle oxygenation in elite male and female sport climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Marc; Wegst, Daniel; Müller, Tom; Raschner, Christian; Burtscher, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Climbing performance relies to a great extent on the performance of the finger flexor muscles. Only a few studies investigated this performance in top class climbers and only one study compared gender-specific differences. This study investigated the climbing-specific finger flexor strength and endurance and related muscular oxygenation in 12 elite female and male climbers and 12 non-climbers. After the assessment of maximum voluntary finger flexor contraction (MVC), two isometric finger flexor endurance tests were performed at 40% MVC until exhaustion. A continuous isometric test was followed by an intermittent isometric test (10 s contraction, 3 s rest). Changes in oxygenation of finger flexor muscles were recorded using near infrared spectroscopy. MVC and strength-to-weight ratio were greater in climbers than non-climbers (P = 0.003; P < 0.001) and greater in men than women (P < 0.001; P = 0.002). Time to task failure for the intermittent test and the force-time integrals for the continuous and the intermittent test were also significantly greater in climbers (P = 0.030; P = 0.027; P = 0.005). During the intermittent test, re-oxygenation of the working muscles was faster in climbers (P < 0.05) without gender-specific differences. Close correlations were demonstrated between the best on-sight climbing performance and strength-to-weight ratio (r (2) = 0.946, P < 0.001) only in female climbers. The superior intermittent finger flexor endurance of climbers over non-climbers may be explained by the faster re-oxygenation of the finger flexor muscles during the short rest phases.

  5. In-Flight System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  6. Application of Climbing Plants in Urban Greening%攀援植物在城市绿化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂朝娟

    2013-01-01

    Urban greening is the important mark of the modernized level, and will be great help for improving the quality of people's lives. All kinds of climbing plants, due to the different origin of the ecological environment, they form the different climbing habit. Based on the analysis on the habits of climbing plants, this paper discusses the application of climbing plants in urban and rural landscape, especially in the set-up for metope greening, greening, roof greening, etc., and recommends climbing plants that are suitable for vertical greening.%  城市绿化是城市现代化程度的重要标记,对于提高人们的生活质量大有裨益。各种攀援植物,由于其原产地的生态环境不同,各自形成了不同的攀援习性,在分析攀援植物习性的基础上,探讨了攀援植物在城乡园林绿化中的应用,尤其是在墙面绿化、棚架绿化、屋顶绿化等城市垂直绿化方面的作用,同时推荐了部分适合垂直绿化的攀援植物。

  7. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  8. Study on Cold Resistance of Climbing Rose%藤本月季抗寒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟

    2014-01-01

    [目的]为藤本月季在沈阳地区垂直绿化应用提供理论依据。[方法]以安吉拉等4种藤本月季1年生枝条为研究对象,采用梯度低温冷冻处理方法,进行细胞失水率等4项抗寒性生理指标测定,同时进行形态学性状观察,确定其观赏性。[结果]随着温度的降低,4个月季品种枝条失水率和原生质膜透性增加,游离脯氨酸含量及可溶性蛋白含量先增加后减少,得出4个品种抗寒性顺序为安吉拉>多特蒙德>藤本艾娜>藤本和平。[结论]4个月季品种均可应用于沈阳地区垂直绿化中。%The aim was to provide theoretical basis for vertical greening in Shenyang area. [Method] With Angela and other four kinds of climbing roses annual branches as the research subbject, the four cold resistance physiological indexes including water loss rate in cell using gradient low temperature freezing method were tested. At the same time, the morphological traits were, used to confirm the ornamental of Climbing Rose. [Result]The results showed that water loss rate in branches and permeability of plasma membrane were rising,and the contents of free proline and soluble protein changed with an up-down trend during low temperature treatment. The cold resistance capacity of these four varieties were Angela>Dortmund>Climbing Ena Harkness>Climbing Peace. [Conclusion]All of these four varieties were all fit for the local vertical greening application.

  9. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  10. Experimental study on flight performance of dragonfly during climbing%蜻蜓爬升过程飞行特征实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩; 郑孟宗; 李志平; 李秋实

    2016-01-01

    昆虫真实飞行过程中的飞行特征是仿生流体力学机理研究的基础和关键.本文针对蜻蜓(黄蜻)大、小爬升角2种飞行状态的运动规律和动力学特性展开研究,根据蜻蜓的趋光特性诱导其进行爬升飞行.采用2台光轴相互垂直的高速摄像机进行拍摄,通过特征点匹配和三维重构方法准确地捕捉了2种爬升飞行过程中蜻蜓身体和翅膀的运动参数,并进行动力学特性对比分析.实验结果表明:蜻蜓在进行大爬升角爬升时需要的上升力大于向前的推力,最大拍动幅度比小爬升角爬升时约大40%;扑翼频率比小爬升角爬升时约大3.3Hz,前后翅相位差相对于小爬升角爬升时减小20°以上;另外,大爬升角爬升过程中前翅前倾角度更大,这样能够使蜻蜓身体保持更大的俯仰角,翅膀能够获得更大的上升力.

  11. Adhesive foot pads: an adaptation to climbing? An ecological survey in hunting spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-01

    Hairy pads relying on dry adhesion are fascinating structures that convergently evolved among spiders and lizards. Numerous studies underline the functional aspects leading to their strong adhesion to smooth surfaces, but rarely has their role been studied in the context of natural habitats and surfaces that animals are faced with. In hunting spiders, the hairy foot pads (claw tufts) underneath the paired claws are assumed to be an adaptation to a climbing lifestyle, particularly on smooth plant surfaces. However, surfaces that are too smooth for claws to generate a sufficient grip are rather rare in natural habitats and above-ground habitats are occupied by hunting spiders both with and without claw tufts. In this study we estimated the proportion of claw tuft-bearing hunting spiders (ct+ ratio) among microhabitat-specific assemblages by conducting both a field study and a meta-analysis approach. The effect of surface characteristics, structure fragmentation and altitude of the microhabitat niche on the ct+ ratio was analyzed. We hypothesized that the ct+ ratio will be higher in (i) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats above the ground than from those at the ground and (ii) in hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with smoother surfaces (tree foliage) than those with rougher surfaces (barks, stones), and lower in (iii) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with more fragmented structures (small leaves) than in those with comparable but less fragmented structures (large leaves). We found the ct+ ratio to be significantly affected by the microhabitat's distance from the ground, whereas surface characteristics and fragmentation of the substrates were of minor importance. This suggests that claw tufts are highly beneficial when the microhabitat's height exceeds a value where the additional pad-related costs are exceeded by the costs of dropping. We assume the benefit to be mainly due to gaining a high safety factor

  12. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  13. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  14. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  15. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  16. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school...

  17. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  18. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  19. Opposite effects of diazepam and beta-CCE on immobility and straw-climbing behavior of rats in a modified forced-swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H; Ida, Y; Tsuda, A; Tanaka, M

    1989-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine how two ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor, which possess anxiolytic or anxiogenic actions, affect both the duration of immobility and the incidence of straw-climbing behavior in rats in a modified forced-swim test. Rats were injected IP with either vehicle, diazepam (0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg), or beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (beta-CCE; 0.5, 1, 2, 5 mg/kg), or a combination of diazepam at 1 mg/kg and beta-CCE at 2 mg/kg. In addition, Ro 15-1788 (1 mg/kg), a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, was injected IP 20 min after diazepam injection and immediately after beta-CCE injection, respectively. In the first 5-min period of the forced-swim test, diazepam at 5 mg/kg prolonged the duration of immobility, whereas beta-CCE at 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg reduced its duration. Immediately after the first 5-min test period, 4 straws were suspended above the surface of the water, and the number of straw-climbing attempts and the duration of immobility were measured for a subsequent 5-min test period. Straw-suspension elicited straw-climbing behavior in forced swimming rats, resulting in a shortening of the duration of immobility in this period. All doses of diazepam inhibited straw-climbing attempts and prolonged the duration of immobility in a dose-dependent manner. beta-CCE at 1 or 2 mg/kg enhanced straw-climbing attempts, but did not significantly affect the duration of immobility. Furthermore, the combined administration of diazepam and beta-CCE antagonized the respective drug effects on the duration of immobility and the number of straw-climbing attempts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Zoom-climb altitude maximization of the F-4C and F-15 aircraft for stratospheric sampling missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.; Page, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Some predictions indicate that byproducts of aerosol containers may lead to a modification of the ultraviolet-radiation shielding properties of the upper atmosphere. NASA currently monitors atmospheric properties to 70,000 feet using U-2 aircraft. Testing is needed at about 100,000 feet for adequate monitoring of possible aerosol contaminants during the next decade. To study this problem the F-4C and F-15 aircraft were analyzed to determine their maximum altitude ability in zoom-climb maneuvers. These trajectories must satisfy realistic dynamic pressure and Mach number constraints. Maximum altitudes obtained for the F4-C are above 90,000 feet, and for the F-15 above 100,000 feet. Sensitivities of the zoom-climb altitudes were found with respect to several variables including vehicle thrust, initial weight, stratospheric winds and the constraints. A final decision on aircraft selection must be based on mission modification costs and operational considerations balanced against their respective zoom altitude performance capabilities.

  1. Effects of a therapeutic climbing program on muscle activation and SF-36 scores of patients with lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hun; Seo, Dong-Yel

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stability exercises on chronic lower back pain by using a therapeutic climbing program on lumbar muscle activity and function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated. The subjects were assigned to 2 exercise groups, namely the lumbar stabilization (Mat Ex) and therapeutic climbing exercise groups (TC Ex). Each group trained for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Short-form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered and the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activities of the lumbar muscles were measured. [Results] Both therapy groups showed significant increases in the SF-36 score, and the increase was greater in the TC Ex group. Significant increases in the sEMG activities of the lumbar muscles were found in both groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the TC Ex group than in the Mat Ex group. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that TC Ex, which is similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective at activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that TC Ex has a positive impact on the stabilization of the lumbar region.

  2. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  3. Reduction of GABA/sub B/ receptor binding induced by climbing fiber degeneration in the rat cerebellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K.; Fukuda, H.

    1985-07-22

    When the rat cerebellar climbing fibers degenerated, as induced by lesioning the inferior olive with 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), GABA/sub B/ receptor binding determined with /sup 3/H-(+/-)baclofen was reduced in the cerebellum but not in the cerebral cortex of rats. Computer analysis of saturation data revealed two components of the binding sites, and indicated that decrease of the binding in the cerebellum was due to reduction in receptor density, mainly of the high-affinity sites, the B/sub max/ of which was reduced to one-third that in the control animals. In vitro treatment with 3-AP, of the membranes prepared from either the cerebellum or the cerebral cortex, induced no alteration in the binding sites, thereby indicating that the alteration of GABA/sub B/ sites induced by in vivo treatment with 3-AP is not due to a direct action of 3-AP on the receptor. GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptor binding labelled with /sup 3/H-muscimol and /sup 3/H-diazepam, respectively, in both of brain regions was not affected by destruction of the inferior olive. These results provide evidence that some of the GABA/sub B/ sites but neither GABA/sub A/ nor benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum are located at the climbing fiber terminals. 28 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis Krams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus, and the percentage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C, a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  5. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons switch from a multipolar migration mode to a novel "climbing" migration mode during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Ayako; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2014-01-22

    The hippocampus plays important roles in brain functions. Despite the importance of hippocampal functions, recent analyses of neuronal migration have mainly been performed on the cerebral neocortex, and the cellular mechanisms responsible for the formation of the hippocampus are not yet completely understood. Moreover, why a prolonged time is required for hippocampal neurons to complete their migration has been unexplainable for several decades. We analyzed the migratory profile of neurons in the developing mouse hippocampal CA1 region and found that the hippocampal pyramidal neurons generated near the ventricle became postmitotic multipolar cells and accumulated in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) in the late stage of development. The hippocampal neurons passed through the pyramidal layer by a unique mode of migration. Their leading processes were highly branched and made contact with many radial fibers. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the migrating cells changed their scaffolds from the original radial fibers to other radial fibers, and as a result they proceed in a zigzag manner, with long intervals. The migrating cells in the hippocampus reminded us of "rock climbers" that instead of using their hands to pull up their bodies were using their leading processes to pull up their cell bodies. Because this mode of migration had never been described, we called it the "climbing" mode. The change from the "climbing" mode in the hippocampus to the "locomotion" mode in the neocortex may have contributed to the brain expansion during evolution.

  6. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  7. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  8. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight onc

  9. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on almost thirty square meters of exposed surfaces to accomplish both of these functions. These durable, non-ablative surfaces maintain their surface profile through atmospheric reentry; thus, they preserve any surface imperfections that occur prior to atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, Orion's launch abort system includes a shroud that protects the thermal protection system while awaiting launch and during ascent. The combination of these design features and a careful pre-flight inspection to identify any manufacturing imperfections results in a high confidence that damage to the thermal protection system identified post-flight is due to the in-flight solid particle environments. These favorable design features of Orion along with the unique flight profile of the first exploration flight test of Orion (EFT-1) have yielded solid particle environment measurements that have never been obtained before this flight.

  10. While the Devil Climbs a Post, the Priest Climbs Ten. The Witchcraft and Maneuver of Nuo Altar%魔高一尺,道高一丈——傩坛巫术与特技

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹修明

    2012-01-01

    Nuo altar is to exorcise the ghost and diseases and to bless mortals. The sacrifice ceremo- ny, pray, witchcraft, the song and dance are the necessary "soft Kung Fu" of a wizard, used to rec- oncile with the ghost and God. If reconciliation can not be achieved, a wizard must use force to drive the ghost and diseases away. A wizard must master the "hard Kung Fu" witchcraft to drive them away. Witchcraft is the important and practical skill as well as means of a wizard to communicate with the ghost and God. It is also called Nuo skill from the perspective of performance. While the devil climbs a post, the priest climbs ten. The level of Nuo skills is a vital standard to measure the prestige and status of a wizard and a Nuo altar. "Climbing a mountain of swords", "plunging into a sea of flames", "KAI HONG SHAN" are the performance for the mortals and for shocking the ghosts and God. The witchcrafts have a multitude of names and types for different aims respectively.%傩坛是要驱鬼逐疫,祈福纳吉的。献牲、仪式、祈求巫术,搬演歌舞戏、媚神是与鬼神“和解”,是巫师必备的“软功夫”,和解不成则要武力驱赶、消灾。巫师必须掌握与鬼神较量的“硬功夫”——巫术。巫术是巫师沟通神鬼的重要手段和技能,具有可操作性。从表演的角度看也可以叫傩技。“魔高一尺,道高一丈”。傩坛和巫师声望和地位的高低,巫术、傩技水平是重要的衡量标准。“上刀山”“下火海”、“开红山”等是表演给凡人看的也是为了震撼鬼神的。巫术名目繁多,各有所用。

  11. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  12. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  13. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  14. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  15. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  16. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  17. Decrease in myostatin by ladder-climbing training is associated with insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Liang; Luo Kai; Liu Chentao; Wang Xudan; Zhang Didi; Chi Aiping; Zhang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Suppression of myostatin (MSTN) has been associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and insulin resistance (IR).However,few studies link MSTN suppression by ladder-climbing training (LCT) and IR.Therefore,we intended to identify the correlation with IR between LCT and to analyze the signaling pathways through which MSTN suppression by LCT regulates IR.Methods The rats were randomly assigned to two types of diet:normal pellet diet (NPD,n=8) and high-fat diet (HFD,n=16).After 8 weeks,the HFD rats were randomly re-assigned to two groups (n=8 for each group):HFD sedentary (HFD-S) and high-fat diet ladder-climbing training (HFD-LCT).HFD-LCT rats were assigned to LCT for 8 weeks.Western blotting,immunohistochemistry and enzyme assays were used to measure expression levels and activities of MSTN,GLUT4,PI3K,Akt and Akt-activated targets (mTOR,FoxO1 and GSK-3β).Results The LCT significantly improved IR and whole-body insulin sensitivity in HDF-fed rats.MSTN protein levels decreased in matching serum (42%,P=0.007) and muscle samples (25%,P=0.035) and its receptor mRNA expression also decreased (16%,P=0.041) from obese rats after LCT.But the mRNA expression of insulin receptor had no obvious changes in LCT group compared with NPD and HFD-S groups (P=0.074).The ladder-climbing training significantly enhanced PI3K activity (1.7-fold,P=0.024) and Akt phosphorylation (83.3%,P=0.022) in HFD-fed rats,significantly increased GLUT4 protein expression (84.5%,P=-0.036),enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (4.8-fold,P <0.001) and inhibited phosphorylation of FoxO1 (57.7%,P=0.020),but did not affect the phosphorylation of GSK-3β.Conclusions The LCT significantly reduced IR in diet-induced obese rats.MSTN may play an important role in regulating IR and fat accumulation by LCT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway in HFD-fed rats.

  18. Repeated 3-minute stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal over 2 weeks increases serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels in people with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Matsuki, Yumika; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of a postprandial exercise program using brief stair climbing-descending exercise in people with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven males with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (age 68.0 ± 3.7 years) performed two sets of stair climbing-descending exercise 60 and 120 min after each meal for the first 2 weeks but not for the following 2 weeks. Each set of exercise comprised 3-min of continuous repetition of climbing briskly to the second floor followed by slow waking down to the first floor in their home. A rest period of 1–2 min was allowed between each set. [Results] Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol level was significantly higher by 11.5% at the end of the 2-week exercise period than at the baseline. By contrast, the 1,5-anhydroglucitol level at the end of the following 2-week period did not differ from the baseline value. Fasting blood glucose level and insulin resistance index at the end of the exercise period did not differ from the baseline value. [Conclusion] Repeated 3-min bouts of stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal may be a promising method for improving postprandial glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28210043

  19. Autochthonous Gut Bacteria in Two Indian Air-breathing Fish, Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus) and Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus): Mode of Association, Identification and Enzyme Producing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Goutam; Dan, Suhas K; Nandi, Ankita; Ghosh, Pinki; Ray, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define the location of epithelium-associated bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of two Indian air-breathing fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). The SEM examination revealed substantial numbers of rod shaped bacterial cells associated with the microvillus brush borders of enterocytes in proximal (PI) and distal regions (DI) of the GI tract of both the fish species. Ten (two each from the PI and DI of climbing perch and three each from the PI and DI of walking catfish) isolated bacterial strains were evaluated for extracellular protease, amylase and cellulase production quantitatively. All the bacterial strains exhibited high cellulolytic activity compared to amylolytic and proteolytic activites. Only two strains, CBH6 and CBH7, isolated from the DI of walking catfish exhibited high proteolytic activity. Maximum cellulase activity was exhibited by the strain, CBF2, isolated from the PI of climbing perch. Six most promising enzyme-producing adherent bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain ATH1 (isolated from climbing perch) showed high similarity fo Bacillus amyloliquefaciens whereas, the remaining five strains (isolated from walking catfish) were most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis.

  20. 78 FR 16358 - Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of Passenger Equipment With “Stiff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... the full range of component tolerances (e.g., spring heights) and maintenance limits (e.g., wheel wear... determined. Additionally, FRA understands that softer springs, which may be selected to provide better wheel... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of...

  1. Sensory cues employed for the acquisition of familiarity-dependent recognition of a shoal of conspecifics by climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, V V; Kasturirangan, Rajesh; Sinha, Anindya

    2015-06-01

    In this study we showed that a freshwater fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is incapable of using chemical communication but employs visual cues to acquire familiarity and distinguish a familiar group of conspecifics from an unfamiliar one. Moreover, the isolation of olfactory signals from visual cues did not affect the recognition and preference for a familiar shoal in this species.

  2. Sensory cues employed for the acquisition of familiarity-dependent recognition of a shoal of conspecifics by climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VV Binoy; Rajesh Kasturirangan; Anindya Sinha

    2015-06-01

    In this study we showed that a freshwater fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is incapable of using chemical communication but employs visual cues to acquire familiarity and distinguish a familiar group of conspecifics from an unfamiliar one. Moreover, the isolation of olfactory signals from visual cues did not affect the recognition and preference for a familiar shoal in this species.

  3. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Stair Climb Power Test (SCPT) is a functional test associated with leg muscle power in older people. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the results of the SCPT in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who were healthy and to explore...

  4. 攀岩运动员运动性心理疲劳特征及对策%Characteristics and Countermeasures of the Rock - climbing Athletes' Mental Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红芳; 叶伟

    2012-01-01

    采用查阅文献、问卷调查、逻辑分析等研究方法,从训练实践的角度出发,针对攀岩运动项目的特点,运用运动心理学相关知识,对攀岩运动员运动性心理疲劳表现形式、产生原因进行分析与探讨,提出了缓解和消除攀岩运动员运动性心理疲劳的对策,为提高攀岩运动成绩提供参考。%By using the research methods, such as literature review, questionnaires survey, and logic analysis, the authors integrate the characteristics of rock - climbing event and their training practice, use the related knowledge of sports psychology to analyze and discuss the forms and causations of the rock - climbing athletes' mental fatigue, put forward some countermeasures to alleviate and eliminate the rock - climbing athletes' mental fatigue in consideration of providing some references for the improving of rock - climbing results.

  5. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 660

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 671

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 666

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 664

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 684

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 675

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 685

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 655

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Dynamic stall in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

    2007-11-01

    We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

  14. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 677

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  19. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 670

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Observational signatures of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries climbing a stability peak

    CERN Document Server

    Kantor, Elena; Chugunov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    In the recent papers by Gusakov, Chugunov, and Kantor (2014) a new scenario describing evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries was proposed. The scenario accounts for a resonant interaction of normal r modes with superfluid inertial modes at some specific internal stellar temperatures ("resonance temperatures"). This interaction results in an enhanced damping of r mode and appearance of the "stability peaks" in the temperature -- spin frequency plane, which split the r-mode instability window in the vicinity of the resonance temperatures. The scenario suggests that the hot and rapidly rotating NSs spend most of their life climbing up these peaks and, in particular, are observed there at the moment. We analyze in detail possible observational signatures of this suggestion. In particular, we show that these objects may exhibit `anti-glitches' -- sudden frequency jumps on a time scale of hours-months.

  5. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ablation of the all Böhm’s bristle fields caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Second, ablation of only the scapal Böhm’s bristle...fields also caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Third, the effect of ablation of pedicellar bristles appeared to be...Research,GKVK Campus, Bellary Rd,Bangalore 560 065,India,NA,NA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  6. Design of stair-climbing service robot%阶梯攀爬服务机器人设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠明; 龚俊; 杨萍; 陈剑

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of cargo handling on the low floors uninstalled the elevator ,a new kind of service robot is pro-posed ,which will be used for climbing stairs .The robot consists of steering part ,transformable wheel part ,gravity-center regulating part and underpan part .Based on CodeWarrior IDE as a robot software development platform is designed to control the robot , which is mainly composed of singlechips MC 9S12XS128.Finally,the detection system is studied emphatically .Its capability and effectiveness is tested by experiments such as climbing stairs ,traversing steps ect under the real circumstances .%为解决未安装电梯的低楼层货物搬运问题,设计了一种阶梯攀爬服务机器人样机,机器人由转向机构、变形轮、重心调节机构和底盘等组成。控制系统以飞思卡尔公司的16位单片机MC9S12XS128为控制器,以CodeWarrior IDE 软件作为机器人软件开发平台,并着重对检测系统进行研究。机器人在真实环境下进行了爬越台阶、楼梯等越障实验,验证了其越障能力和环境适应能力。

  7. Nutritional differences and leaf acclimation of climbing plants and the associated vegetation in different types of an Andean montane rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, J; Matezki, S; Kazda, M

    2006-03-01

    Climbing plants are known to play an important role in tropical forest systems, but key features for their distribution are only partly understood. Investigation was carried out to find if climbers differ from self-supporting vegetation in their adjustment of leaf parameters over a wide variety of light regimes in different forest types along an altitudinal gradient. Relative photon flux density (PFDrel) was assessed above 75 pairs of strictly linked climbers and supporting vegetation on seven plots between 2,020 and 2,700 m a.s.l. along a mountain range in South-Ecuador up to the Páramo vegetation. Leaf samples from both growth forms were analyzed for leaf area (LA), specific leaf mass (LMA), mass and area-based carbon and nitrogen concentration (C, Carea, N, and Narea) and concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Al. Leaf size of climbers was independent of general light condition, whereas the leaf size of the self-supporting vegetation increased in shade. LMA increased as expected with altitude and irradiance for both growth forms, but climbers generally built smaller leaves with lower LMA. N, P, and K concentrations were higher in the leaves of climbers than in their supporters. Relationships of LMA and Narea to the light conditions were more pronounced within the climbers than within their supporters. Slope for the regression between climber's Narea and LMA was twice as steep as for the supporter leaves. Al accumulators were only found within the self-supporting vegetation. The investigated traits indicate improved adjustment towards light supply within climbers compared to self-supporting vegetation. Thus climbing plants seem to have a higher potential trade off in resource-use efficiency regarding irradiance and nutrients.

  8. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  10. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  11. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  12. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  13. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  14. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  15. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  16. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  17. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  18. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  19. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  20. Flight evaluation of the effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of a single-engine general aviation airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B. J.; Vandam, C. P.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight evaluation was conducted to determine the effects of winglets on the performance and handling qualities of a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. The performance measurements were made with a pace airplane to provide calibrated airspeeds; uncalibrated panel instruments in the test airplane were used to provide additional quantitative performance data. These tests were conducted with winglets on and off during the same day to measure relative performance effects. Handling qualities were evaluated by means of pilot comments. Winglets increased cruise speed 8 knots (5.6 percent) at 3962 m (13,000 ft) density altitude and 51 percent maximum continuous power setting. Maximum speed at 3962 m was virtually unchanged. Rate of climb increased approximately 6 percent, or 0.25 m/sec (50 ft/min), at 1524 m (5000 ft). Stall speed was virtually unchanged. Handling qualities were favorably affected.

  1. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are s...

  2. 东亚温带藤本植物多样性及其格局%Distribution and diversity of climbing plants in temperate East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亮

    2011-01-01

    The composition and geographic distribution of climbing plants are important aspects of ecological study, but research on temperate climbing plants is relatively limited. We compared the family and genera-level composition, floristic element type, growth forms, diversity and geographical distribution of climbing plants in nine districts of temperate East Asia, including Northeast China, Japan, Mongolia and the Korean Peninsula. A total of 304 climbing plant species were documented, belonging to 38 families and 96 genera, including 127 lianas, 138 perennial vines and 39 annual vines. Distributions of climbing plants appear to be restricted mainly by cold and drought stresses. Their diversity and proportion to total flora are higher in coastal than inland areas, and higher in low latitudes than in high latitudes. As expected, the proportion of tropical elements declined and the proportion of temperate elements increased in temperate East Asia relative to subtropical East Asia. Twist climbing is the most common climbing pattern (61.5% of all species), followed by tendrillar (23.7%), adhesive (11.2%) and sprawling (3.6%) climbing. We speculate that twisting climbers are more cold-tolerant than other climbing plants.%藤本植物的组成及其地理分布是藤本植物生态学研究的重要内容之一,但对温带藤本植物的相关研究相对缺乏.本文对包括中国东北、日本、朝鲜半岛和蒙古在内的东亚温带9个分区种子植物区系中藤本植物的科属组成、区系成分、生活型和攀援方式及其地理格局进行了比较研究.结果表明:研究范围内总计有藤本304种(含变种、亚种),分属38科96属,以多年生草质藤本(138种)和木质藤本为主(127种),一年生草质藤本植物较少(39种).受低温和干旱胁迫的限制,9个分区内藤本多样性及其所占区系的比例整体上呈现沿海高于内陆、低纬度高于高纬度的变化趋势.与东亚亚热带相比,本区藤本植物热

  3. 基于ArcGIS平台的减噪起飞程序仿真研究%Simulation Research of Noise Abatement Take-off Climb Procedure Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨佳; 朱代武; 陈彬

    2015-01-01

    Airport noise problems have become increasingly prominent,it is important to use noise abatement flight procedures to reduce the scope and strength of airport noise exposure.The article took LWECPN as noise index,established Xiamen airport noise prediction calculation model,calculated predictive noise value and drew noise contour line by ArcGIS software,analyzed the impact of takeoff procedures on aircraft noise.Conclusion shows that noise abatement take-off climb procedures have some influence on takeoff noise;the method can overcome the limitations of traditional airport noise curve drawing.%机场噪声问题日渐突出,研究减噪飞行程序减小机场噪声的影响范围与强度显得非常重要。该文以厦门高崎机场为例建立机场噪声预测模型,采用计权等效连续感觉噪声级作为评价指标,使用Java编程完成噪声值计算及大地坐标转换,使用ArcGIS软件结合地理信息绘制噪声等值线,分析不同爬升梯度下减噪起飞程序产生的噪声影响范围。结论表明,该方法可以量化噪声影响范围,克服传统机场噪声曲线绘制方法的局限性。

  4. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  5. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  6. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  7. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  8. Introduction to Climbing Wall Robot for High Pressure Water Jet Cutting%基于高压水射流技术的爬壁机器人介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓凯; 龚烈航; 孙义柯

    2016-01-01

    介绍了几种常见的且已投入实际生产工作的爬壁机器人的结构原理,同时分析了在结合高压水射流切割技术后,各类机器人的性能优势以及不足之处。最后论述了在日益发展迅速的高压水射流切割技术下,爬壁机器人在技术方面所面临的一些问题。%This paper introduced the working principle of several kinds of climbing robots used in practical production ,analyzed their advantages and disadvantages after combining with high-pressure water jet cutting technology .At last ,the paper discussed some problems in climbing wall robots ,with the rapid development of high-pressure water jet cutting technology .

  9. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  10. Low Gravity Flight Complement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, H. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The structural and mechanical design and performance requirements for a space transportation system carrier which will accommodate essentially self-supporting low-g MEA and MAUS facilities are described. Also included are the mission requirements for the materials processing facility and MEA/MAUS experiment flight implementation reguirements.

  11. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  12. Local sampling for indoor flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver

  13. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  14. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  15. Development of "Pinceaux" formations and dendritic translocation of climbing fibers during the acquisition of the balance between glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic inputs in developing Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Constantino

    2008-01-10

    The acquisition of the dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition in developing Purkinje cells, necessary for their proper function, is analyzed. Newborn (P0) mouse cerebellum contains glutamatergic (VGLUT2-IR) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic (VIAAT-IR) axons. The former prevail and belong to climbing fibers, whereas the latter neither colabel with calbindin-expressing fibers nor belong to axons of the cortical GABAergic interneurons. During the first postnatal week, VIAAT-IR axons in the Purkinje cell neighborhood remains very low, and the first synapses with basket fibers are formed at P7, when climbing fibers have already established dense pericellular nets. The descending basket fibers reach the Purkinje cell axon initial segment by P9, immediately establishing axoaxonic synapses. The pinceaux appear as primitive vortex-like arrangements by P12, and by P20 interbasket fiber septate-like junctions, typical of fully mature pinceaux, are still missing. The climbing fiber's somatodendritic translocation occurs later than expected, after the regression of the multiple innervation, and follows the ascending collaterals of the basket axons, which are apparently the optimal substrate for the proper subcellular targeting of the climbing fibers. These results emphasize that chemical transmission in the axon initial segment precedes the electrical inhibition generated by field effects. In addition, GABAergic Purkinje cells, as opposed to glutamatergic projection neurons in other cortical structures, do not begin to receive their excitation to inhibition balance until the end of the first postnatal week, despite the early presence of potentially functional GABAergic axons that possess the required vesicular transport system.

  16. Joystick-based Control for a Biomimetic Biped Climbing Robot%双手爪式仿生攀爬机器人的摇杆控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡传武; 管贻生; 周雪峰; 江励; 朱海飞; 吴文强; 张宪民; 张宏

    2012-01-01

    探讨一种新型双手爪式5自由度仿生攀爬机器人(Climbot)的摇杆控制方法.首先,对机器人的运动学和可夹持空间问题进行了分析.然后,针对其双手爪交替夹持攀爬的特点,提出了直观的摇杆操作模式,包括对不同的攀爬步态设计了不同的操作坐标系,并利用建立变换矩阵的方法将交替夹持端前后的机器人描述在同一坐标系中.最后,通过尺蠖、扭转和翻转3种步态的路灯杆攀爬和应用示范实验结果证明了该摇杆控制方法的有效性.%A joystick-based control method is studied for Climbot, which is a novel 5-DoF (degree of freedom) biomimetic biped climbing robot. The kinematics and the available grasping area of the robot are analyzed firstly. And then, according to the characteristics of the robot biped climbing by switching its fixed-gripper, an intuitional joystick-based operating mode is proposed, in which different operating coordinates are defined for corresponding climbing gaits, and a matrix transform algorithm is presented to keep the robot coordinate system unchanging after switching its fixed-gripper. Finally, road-pole climbing experiments with three gaits (including inchworm-like, turning-around and turning-over gaits) and an application demonstration are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the presented joystick-based control method.

  17. 基于ADAMS的步行爬坡机仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of Walking and Climbing Machine Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅; 杨杭旭

    2014-01-01

    Presently, it is mostly large wheel or caterpillar-type mechanical equipment that is used for transportation operation in the complex environment in mountainous and forest areas. These large machines have such typical shortcomings as large power consumption,poor mobility,low working efficiency,poor balance and insufficient obstacle crossing and climbing ability. In order to solve the above problems,a new type of walking climbing machine is designed, with a virtual prototype established based on Pro/E,with ADAMS used to simulate the movement of the walking climbing machine,simulation results verifying the feasibility of the design.%在山林地区复杂环境中进行运输作业大多使用轮式或履带式大型机械设备,这些设备普遍存在功率消耗大、机动性差、工作效率低,自身平衡性差、越障和爬坡能力不足等问题。为解决这些问题,设计了一种新型的步行爬坡机,并利用Pro/E建立其虚拟样机,采用ADAMS对其运动过程进行仿真,仿真结果验证了设计的可行性。

  18. Efficacy of exogenous hormone (GnRHa) for induced breeding of climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) and influence of operational sex ratio on spawning success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Babita; Kumar, Rajesh; Jayasankar, P

    2016-08-01

    The climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an air-breathing fish having great consumer preference as a food fish and is considered a prime candidate species for aquaculture. Spawning success is an important issue while using hormones for captive induced breeding. In the first experiment, a trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a synthetic Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone analog (sGnRHa) on the spawning success of climbing perch. Female fish were administered six different doses each with a single intramuscular injection of sGnRHa hormone at 0.002 (TOD1), 0.005 (TOD2), 0.01 (TOD3), 0.015 (TOD4), 0.02 (TOD5), 0.03 (TOD6) μg/g body weight. Similarly, males were administered half of the hormone dose of females in all the respective treatment groups. The greatest (Phormone dose of 0.015μg/g body weight and a female-male ratio of 1:2 are optimal for enhanced spawning success in the climbing perch.

  19. High-Order Sliding Mode-Based Synchronous Control of a Novel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanxiu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the attitude control of a novel stair-climbing wheelchair with inertial uncertainties and external disturbance torques, a new synchronous control method is proposed via combing high-order sliding mode control techniques with cross-coupling techniques. For this purpose, a proper controller is designed, which can improve the performance of the system under conditions of uncertainties and torque perturbations and also can guarantee the synchronization of the system. Firstly, a robust high-order sliding mode control law is designed to track the desired position trajectories effectively. Secondly, considering the coordination of the multiple joints, a high-order sliding mode synchronization controller is designed to reduce the synchronization errors and tracking errors based on the controller designed previously. Stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory. The simulation is performed by MATLAB to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller. By comparing the simulation results of two controllers, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has better performance and stronger robustness.

  20. Autonomous basin climbing method with sampling of multiple transition pathways: application to anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an extension of the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method, an atomistic activation-relaxation technique for sampling transition-state pathways. The extended algorithm (ABC-E) allows the sampling of multiple transition pathways from a given minimum, with the additional feature of identifying the pathways in the order of increasing activation barriers, thereby prioritizing them according to their importance in the kinetics. Combined with on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, the method is applied to simulate the anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr. Multiple migration mechanisms are identified for both the interstitials and vacancies, and benchmarked against results from other methods in the literature. The self-interstitial atom (SIA) diffusion kinetics shows a maximum anisotropy at intermediate temperatures (400~700 K), a non-monotonic behavior that we explain to originate from the stabilities and migration mechanisms associated with different SIA sites. The accuracy of the ABC-E calculations is validated, in part, by the existing results in the literature for point defect diffusion in hcp Zr, and by benchmarking against analytical results on a hypothetical rough-energy landscape. Lastly, sampling prioritization and computational efficiency are demonstrated through a direct comparison between the ABC-E and the activation relaxation technique.

  1. A Cross Structured Light Sensor and Stripe Segmentation Method for Visual Tracking of a Wall Climbing Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Sun, Jianguo; Yin, Guisheng; Zhao, Jing; Han, Qilong

    2015-06-11

    In non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal welds, weld line tracking is usually performed outdoors, where the structured light sources are always disturbed by various noises, such as sunlight, shadows, and reflections from the weld line surface. In this paper, we design a cross structured light (CSL) to detect the weld line and propose a robust laser stripe segmentation algorithm to overcome the noises in structured light images. An adaptive monochromatic space is applied to preprocess the image with ambient noises. In the monochromatic image, the laser stripe obtained is recovered as a multichannel signal by minimum entropy deconvolution. Lastly, the stripe centre points are extracted from the image. In experiments, the CSL sensor and the proposed algorithm are applied to guide a wall climbing robot inspecting the weld line of a wind power tower. The experimental results show that the CSL sensor can capture the 3D information of the welds with high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm contributes to the weld line inspection and the robot navigation.

  2. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  3. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  4. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  5. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight envelope. 23.333 Section 23.333... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.333 Flight envelope. (a) General. Compliance with the strength requirements of this subpart must be shown...

  6. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No..., having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 80,000 pounds without a flight...

  7. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  8. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  9. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  10. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  11. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test: Simulation Predictions Versus Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.

  12. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight...

  13. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. 121.425 Section 121.425 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.425 Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition...

  14. 14 CFR 437.27 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-flight and post-flight operations. 437.27 Section 437.27 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Experimental Permit Operational Safety Documentation § 437.27 Pre-flight and post-flight operations....

  15. 14 CFR 121.426 - Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. 121.426 Section 121.426 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.426 Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition...

  16. 14 CFR 125.405 - Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans. 125.405 Section 125.405 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRCRAFT Records and Reports § 125.405 Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans....

  17. 新型可爬梯式智能轮椅的研究和设计%Research and design of the new stair climbing intelligent wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓龙; 覃忠; 伍学明; 李成毅

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Study and design the new stair climbing intelligent wheelchair for the people who use wheel chair in order to be well handled in the face of the rugged road especially ladder and other obstacles. Methods: By means of research the status of the current ladder wheelchair at home and abroad, as well as market demand, the new ladder-type wheelchair parts and the drive system is based on the Y-type planetary gear, and use the AutoCAD software to draw model and analysis structure. Results: Main technical specification of the new stair climbing intelligent wheelchair as follows: speed adjustable controlled by Microprocesso, 1-10 km/h;carry weight:120 kg;maximum climbing angle:15 o;maximum climbing barrier altitude:25 cm;maximum climbing barrier width:25 cm;battery charging time:8 h. Conclusion:Main technical specifications of the system are satisfied with the national criterion.%目的:研究并设计一种新型可爬梯式智能轮椅,从而解决医院孕妇、母婴及各类需乘坐轮椅的患者在面对凹凸不平、路况复杂的道路上身旁无护理人员时不能自我处理的难题。方法:通过对目前国内、外爬梯式轮椅研究现状及市场的需求展开研究,以Y型行星轮作为可爬梯式轮椅行走部件以及驱动系统构建型轮椅结构,并用AutoCAD绘图软件建立模型进行结构分析。结果:新型可爬梯式轮椅达到的主要技术参数为:①微处理器控制,速度可调为1~10 km/h;②承重为120 kg;③最大爬坡角度为15 o左右;④最大越障高度为25 cm;⑤最大越沟宽度为25 cm;⑥充电时间为8h。结论:新型可爬梯式智能轮椅的系统主要技术指标能够满足电动轮椅的国家标准。

  18. Update of Bisphosphonate Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S. M.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Snyder, R. P.; Sibonga, J.; Keyak, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.; Moralez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest indicating that elevated remodeling is a major factor in the etiology of space flight bone loss. In a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies, we are testing whether an antiresorptive drug would provide additional benefit to in-flight exercise to ameliorate bone loss and hypercalciuria during long-duration spaceflight. Measurements of bone loss include DXA, QCT, pQCT, urinary and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of R+1year data from 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight, as well as immediate post flight (R+<2wks) data from 6 of 10 concurrent controls without treatment. The treated astronauts used the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) during their missions. The purpose of this report is twofold: 1) to report the results of inflight, post flight and one year post flight bone measures compared with available controls with and without the use of ARED; and 2) to discuss preliminary data on concurrent controls. The figure below compares the BMD changes in ISS crewmembers exercising with and without the current ARED protocol and the alendronate treated crewmembers also using the ARED. This shows that the use of ARED prevents about half the bone loss seen in early ISS crewmembers and that the addition of an antiresorptive provides additional benefit. Resorption markers and urinary Ca excretion are not impacted by exercise alone but are significantly reduced with antiresorptive treatment. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline. DXA data for the 6 concurrent controls using the ARED device are similar to DXA data shown in the figure below. QCT data for these six indicate that the integral data are consistent with the DXA data, i.e., comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the ARED protocol. Biochemical data of the concurrent

  19. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  20. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; Platts, Steven H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Reschke, Millard F.; Ryder, Jeff W.; Stenger, Michael B.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  1. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  2. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  3. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  4. Aerodynamic maneuvering hypersonic flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautel, Dick

    1988-01-01

    The emergence of current high-interest mission involving aeromaneuvering hypersonic flight has given rise to the corresponding need for preliminary design and performance analyses of such vehicles. This need in turn has motivated efforts to develop simplified analytical and computational methods for parametric analysis of maneuvering hypersonic flight under conditions appropriate to the mission involved. The effort included a review of different formulations of the general equations of motion, their associated coordinate frames, various simplifications of the equations, and previously achieved analytical solutions. This study sought to both extend previous solution methods and to develop new ones. In addition, evaluation of the literature and developing a systematic perspective on the knowledge it represents proved to be a major portion of the effort.

  5. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  6. Slow light in flight imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Kali; Gariepy, Genevieve; Henderson, Robert; Howell, John; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Slow-light media are of interest in the context of quantum computing and enhanced measurement of quantum effects, with particular emphasis on using slow-light with single photons. We use light-in-flight imaging with a single photon avalanche diode camera-array to image in situ pulse propagation through a slow light medium consisting of heated rubidium vapour. Light-in-flight imaging of slow light propagation enables direct visualisation of a series of physical effects including simultaneous observation of spatial pulse compression and temporal pulse dispersion. Additionally, the single-photon nature of the camera allows for observation of the group velocity of single photons with measured single-photon fractional delays greater than 1 over 1 cm of propagation.

  7. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  8. Cuckoo Search via Levy Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to formulate a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Cuckoo Search (CS), for solving optimization problems. This algorithm is based on the obligate brood parasitic behaviour of some cuckoo species in combination with the Levy flight behaviour of some birds and fruit flies. We validate the proposed algorithm against test functions and then compare its performance with those of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Finally, we discuss the implication of the results and suggestion for further research.

  9. Levy Flights over Quantum Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, N

    2005-01-01

    An impact of integration over the paths of the Levy flights on the quantum mechanical kernel has been studied. Analytical expression for a free particle kernel has been obtained in terms of the Fox H-function. A new equation for the kernel of a partical in the box has been found. New general results include the well known quantum formulae for a free particle kernel and particle in box kernel.

  10. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  11. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  12. Stem anatomical characteristics of the climbing palm Desmoncus orthacanthos (Arecaceae) under two natural growth conditions in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Joaquín; Orellana, Roger; Canto, Gabriel; Rebollar, Silvia; Herrera-Franco, Pedro

    2008-06-01

    Desmoncus orthacanthos is a Neotropical climbing palm that resembles rattan and therefore has similar potential applications. The genus Desmoncus (subfamily Arecoideae, subtribe Bactridinae) is distributed throughout the Americas, from Veracruz, Mexico, to Brazil and Bolivia. The anatomical characteristics of its support tissue have not been thoroughly studied, although some observations from Central American artisans suggest that the stems collected from undisturbed sites possess better characteristics; these include a good capacity to withstand bending without breaking (i.e., higher fracture strength than plants from disturbed sites). Stem samples were collected from individuals from disturbed and undisturbed sites, at three points along the length of the stem (basal, medium and apical). Collections were made of one ramet from five individuals (n=5) at both sites. Each ramet was divided into three sections: basal, from soil surface to a height of 0.5 m; medium, from a height of 0.5 to 5.0 m; and apical, from a height 5.0 to 10.0 m. An anatomical analysis including vascular bundles, parenchyma elements and fibers was performed in the radial direction and also along the longitudinal direction of the stems. The amount of vascular bundles was greater for samples from undisturbed site stems; the amount of parenchyma cells differ between samples from both sites and the amount of fibers was greater for samples from disturbed site stems. The anatomical structural dimensions were smaller for samples from the undisturbed site stems. These findings partially confirm the artisans' belief and supports the conclusion that microclimatic conditions affect plant anatomical structure.

  13. 蔓生型菜豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Climbing Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰梅; 张丽琴; 钟利

    2014-01-01

    对10个露地栽培的蔓生菜豆品种的抗性、产量及商品特性等进行考察比较,旨在筛选出适于昆明地区栽培的菜豆品种,为该地区菜豆的种植和推广提供依据。试验结果表明,泰国架豆王(黑皮、桂林天宇)、特级泰国架豆王和泰国架豆王(重庆华渝)3个品种的综合性状表现较好,产量较高,每667 m2分别达到了4148.7,3957.9,3891.3 kg,比较适宜昆明地区种植推广。%In this paper, we investigated and compared the resistance, yield and commercial characteristics of ten climbing kidney bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) planted in open field in Kunming, in order to screen out suitable kidney bean cultivars for Kunming and provide basis for kidney bean cultivation and extension in Kunming. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Thailand King Pole Bean (with black seed coat, from Guilin Tianyu Seed Co., Ltd.), Super Thailand King Pole Bean and Thailand King Pole Bean (from Chongqing Huayu Seed Co., Ltd.), had better comprehensive characters, and their yields were 4 148.7, 3 957.9 and 3 891.3 kg/667 m2 respectively, thus they were suitable to be planted in Kunming area.

  14. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  15. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  16. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  17. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  18. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  19. 电力铁塔攀爬机器人的步态分析%Gait Analysis for Electricity Pylon Climbing Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志华; 陆小龙; 赵世平; 王蕾; 梁恩志; 刘晓宇

    2011-01-01

    为了提高电力系统的自动化水平,减轻电力工人在检修高压输电系统时的劳动强度,同时保障其人身安全,提出并设计了一种可以攀爬电力铁塔的5自由度关节式机器人,给出了机器人的CAD模型,分析了其在铁塔两种位置攀爬过渡的能力.根据机器人机构特征,提出、分析和比较了蠕虫式和扭转式攀爬步态.蠕虫式攀爬步态即机器人本体的两连杆之间角度周期变化,两爪交替前进;扭转式攀爬步态即机器人本体不动,爪部回转关节旋转180°使得机器人整体扭转半周.在机械系统动力学仿真软件ADAMS环境下,对机器人采用这两种步态在铁塔主材表面、横担侧面和上表面3种方位攀爬情况进行了仿真,计算和分析了不同情况下机器人各关节转矩和系统能耗,得出最适合铁塔各种方位的攀爬步态:在横担上攀爬时应采用能耗较小的扭转式步态,但是在主材表面攀爬时两种步态能耗接近,需考虑障碍类型选取合适的步态.仿真结果为机器人的攀爬步态规划及控制策略提供了依据,同时样机试验结果也验证了两种攀爬步态的可行性.%A 5-DOF articulated robot capable of climbing electricity pylons, is proposed to improve the automation capabilities of power system, reduce the labor intensity of workers and guarantee their safety in the maintenance of high-voltage transmission system. The CAD model for this robot is established, and the feasibility transiting between two positions in any orientations is verified The worm gait and turning gait are analyzed and compared In the worm gait the angle of the two linkages changes cyclically and two claws go forward alternately, and the body keeps still while the rotary joint rotates 180° to reverse the robot by semicycle in turning gait The joint torque and energy consumption of the robot when it climbs in various orientations including the main surface, side and upper surface of

  20. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  1. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  2. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  3. Digital Flight Control System Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Uperioust languages and formal progrmiag Logic (Such was the cae ina the formation of the Radio end design, hag resulted in the accelerated Technical...wee In defined , dM tin Osytm e all as wssLuete Ohe 0esig of these same- Isei to btop ues eM m defined . "UK""t fault coie am ep~es syste prior ft Mo... Softwre Cost etilstift, 131 Computer Society 17. ’Simulator Investigation Plan for Digital 1977, Pages 13-177. Flight Controls Validation Technology

  4. The Helios Prototype aircraft in a northerly climb over Niihau Island, Hawaii, at about 8,000 feet a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  5. 济南木质藤本植物种类分析与评价研究%ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT RESEARCH FOR JINAN'S WOODEN CLIMBING PLANTS SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕德宇; 吉文丽

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of Jinan's wooden climbing plants resources, according to the Fuzzy Clustering Analysis method,this article divided 26 kinds of Jinan's climbing plants into 6 classes, adopting the ornamental characteristics, application in landscape,growth condition,adaptability and types evaluation index. These 6 classes are ‘Ornamental type', ‘Wild Plants Promotion type', ‘Evergreen type', ‘Universal type', ‘Introduction and Acclimatization type' and ‘Microclimate Protection type'. At the same time,we also give an analysis of the 6 classes' service conditions, and the foundation analysis of city climbing plants modes.%在对济南市木质藤本植物资源的调查基础上,将济南市26种木质藤本植物的观赏特性、园林应用状况、适生性、生长状况与类型五项指标进行量化,采用聚类分析的方法,将济南市木质藤本植物划分为园林观赏型、野生推广型、常绿型、普及型、引种驯化型、小气候保护型,并对这六类植物在城市中的应用状况进行系统分析与说明,为济南市藤本植物绿化提供借鉴与参考.

  6. Leaf allocation patterns and 13C and 15N natural abundances of tropical lianas (Passiflora sp.) as dependent on external climbing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Martin; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin; Kazda, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The transformation from self-supporting lianas to host-supported climbing lianas is related to re-allocation of biomass and nutrients among plant organs. Therefore, first, variations in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf carbon and nitrogen allocation and (13)C and (15)N natural abundances were analysed among three tropical Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, and P. tripartita) in a greenhouse study. Second, the influence of a climbing support was considered for each species and parameter. P. ligularis leaves were most enriched in (13)C in both treatments when compared with the other two species. This enrichment was caused by a high LMA, which is related to a high internal resistance to CO(2) diffusion. For P. edulis and P. tripartita, δ(13)C was additionally increasing with nitrogen content per area. Generally, there were no differences when considering carbon and nitrogen allocation to leaves of host-supported and self-supporting lianas. The only hints towards increased investment into leaves after the transition from self-supporting to host-supported stages could be seen by a trend to increased leaf areas and masses. δ(13)C values of supported P. edulis or P. tripartita plants were significantly increasing faster than those of non-supported plants once the interactions of leaf mass or nitrogen content per area were accounted for. Hence, the offer of a climbing support had only a minor impact on δ(13)C or δ(15)N values in vitro, but this could be different with increasing age of lianas in vivo.

  7. Field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a lowland area of the temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2010-10-01

    Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.

  8. On Ecological Design of the External Support for Climbing Plants%攀援植物支持物的生态设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 杨云峰

    2011-01-01

    国内对攀援植物的应用缺乏创新,对支持物欠缺考虑是其重要原因之一.首先分析了国内外攀援植物支持物的演变过程,比较中西方支持物应用的差异,在园林设计要素中的地位以及演变的动因,并通过分析南京中山陵音乐台的紫藤花廊的重要作用与影响,阐释“廊架”形式在国内出现的原因;其次从攀援植物生态学研究成果出发,归纳攀援植物园林应用中不同于乔木等其他植物类群的特点与要求,并阐明支持物相应的设计原则与方法;最后介绍国外最新的设计案例,分析其设计思路与技术手段,表明如何运用攀援植物造景“面”的基本形式.%The domestic application of climbing plants has the problem of lacking innovation ability which is because little consideration is given to external support. Firstly, this paper analyzes the foreign and domestic historical changes about the external support for climbing plants which has great differences in application, position of the garden factors and evolution power, and gives the reason why the "veranda-frame" appeared in China by analyzing the wisteria veranda in Nanjing Zhongshan Scenic Area Music Stage. Secondly, the paper induces the characteristics and requirements in the application of climbing plants based on the results of ecological research, which is different from tree and other groups, and gives the principle and method of design about external support. Finally, the paper introduces the cases of newest foreign design and analyzes their ideas and technologies, showing how to use climbing plants by the basic form of "plane".

  9. 崂山草质攀缘植物区系地理成分分析%Studies on the Flora of Herbaceous Climbing Plants in Laoshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦连

    2012-01-01

    Laoshan is located in the North - east of Shandong Province, between the latitude 36°03′~36°23′N and longitude 120°07′-120°43′E with an area of 386 km2. It is rich in the resources of wild climbing plants. The paper aims at analyzing the areal - types of families and genera of wild herbaceous climbing plants in Laoshan by means of investigating in the wild field and looking up and arranging and identificating the speci- mens from several related specimen room. The results obtained are as follows:There are 16 families21 genera 36 species and varieties of wild herbaceous climbing plants exist in Laoshan; The areal -types of flora of wild herbaceous climbing plants in Laoshan has the features of richness in species, complexity in floristie elements, diversity in types, abundance in Tropical elements and so on.%崂山地处山东半岛东南部,位于北纬36°03′~36°23′,东经120°07′-120°43′,山区总面积386km2,有较为丰富的野生草质攀缘植物资源.通过野外采集及标本的整理鉴定,初步确认该区共有野生草质攀缘植物15科29属66种(包括种下等级).根据对崂山野生草质攀缘植物科与属的地理成分分析的结果,指出本区野生草质攀缘植物区系具有以下特征:(1)科的组成较为贫乏,地理成分特色不明显;(2)种类组成较为丰富,地理成分复杂;(3)区系中热带性地理成分占主干地位;(4)相对于整个种子植物区系来说,野生草质攀缘植物区系具有更强的热带性亲缘.

  10. Context-dependent flight speed: evidence for energetically optimal flight speed in the bat Pipistrellus kuhlii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinski, Uri; Spiegel, Orr; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2009-05-01

    1. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal flight speed has long been a challenge in biology. Aerodynamic theory is used to predict the most economical flight speeds, minimizing energy expenditure either per distance (maximal range speed, Vmr) or per time (minimal power speed, Vmp). When foraging in flight, flight speed also affects prey encounter and energy intake rates. According to optimal flight speed theory, such effects may shift the energetically optimal foraging speed to above Vmp. 2. Therefore, we predicted that if energetic considerations indeed have a substantial effect on flight speed of aerial-hawking bats, they will use high speed (close to Vmr) to commute from their daily roost to the foraging sites, while a slower speed (but still above Vmp) will be preferred during foraging. To test these predictions, echolocation calls of commuting and foraging Pipistrellus kuhlii were recorded and their flight tracks were reconstructed using an acoustic flight path tracking system. 3. Confirming our qualitative prediction, commuting flight was found to be significantly faster than foraging flight (9.3 vs. 6.7 m s(-1)), even when controlling for its lower tortuosity. 4. In order to examine our quantitative prediction, we compared observed flight speeds with Vmp and Vmr values generated for the study population using two alternative aerodynamic models, based on mass and wing morphology variables measured from bats we captured while commuting. The Vmp and Vmr values generated by one of the models were much lower than our measured flight speed. According to the other model used, however, measured foraging flight was faster than Vmp and commuting flight slightly slower than Vmr, which is in agreement with the predictions of optimal flight speed theory. 5. Thus, the second aerodynamic model we used seems to be a reasonable predictor of the different flight speeds used by the bats while foraging and while commuting. This supports the hypothesis that bats fly

  11. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  12. Flight Dynamics and Controls Discipline Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.

  13. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 16-18, 1995. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  14. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes 34 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 14-16, 1996. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  15. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  16. Shaping the Flight Paramedic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 14 years of conflict, the Department of Defense medical community has made significant strides in patient care. As the conflicts developed, many sources identified a critical gap in en route care, specifically the need for critical care trained personnel for point of injury and intrahospital transfers, as well as improved outcomes for patients who received care from critical care trained providers. As stopgap measures were implemented, the US Army instituted the Critical Care Flight Paramedic Program in order to meet this need of life saving critical care transport. Execution of both an institutional training model as well as a home station training option allows for increased numbers of personnel trained, as well as flexibility for National Guard and Army Reserve units to keep personnel in their area. The Critical Care Flight Paramedic Program's educational outcomes have been exceptional, with National Registry Paramedic pass rates well above the national average. As the program develops, recertification and sustainment of knowledge and skills will be challenges, and novel approaches and flexibility will become critical for continued success.

  17. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  18. Animal flight dynamics I. Stability in gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A L; Taylor, G K

    2001-10-07

    Stability is as essential to flying as lift itself, but previous discussions of how flying animals maintain stability have been limited in both number and scope. By developing the pitching moment equations for gliding animals and by discussing potential sources of roll and yaw stability, we consider the various sources of static stability used by gliding animals. We find that gliding animals differ markedly from aircraft in how they maintain stability. In particular, the pendulum stability provided when the centre of gravity lies below the wings is a much more important source of stability in flying animals than in most conventional aircraft. Drag-based stability also appears to be important for many gliding animals, whereas in aircraft, drag is usually kept to a minimum. One unexpected consequence of these differences is that the golden measure of static pitching stability in aircraft--the static margin--can only strictly be applied to flying animals if the equilibrium angle of attack is specified. We also derive several rules of thumb by which stable fliers can be identified. Stable fliers are expected to exhibit one or more of the following features: (1) Wings that are swept forward in slow flight. (2) Wings that are twisted down at the tips when swept back (wash-out) and twisted up at the tips when swept forwards (wash-in). (3) Additional lifting surfaces (canard, hindwings or a tail) inclined nose-up to the main wing if they lie forward of it, and nose-down if they lie behind it (longitudinal dihedral). Each of these predictions is directional--the opposite is expected to apply in unstable animals. In addition, animals with reduced stability are expected to display direct flight patterns in turbulent conditions, in contrast to the erratic flight patterns predicted for stable animals, in which large restoring forces are generated. Using these predictions, we find that flying animals possess a far higher degree of inherent stability than has generally been

  19. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  20. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.