WorldWideScience

Sample records for climatology project regional

  1. Regional and applied climatology-contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three articles of this book, which is dedicated to Wolfgang Weischet, are closely related to his work on unban climatology: - A comprehensive research programme on urban climatology for the example of a medium-sized Swiss town; - A wind tunnel test in preparation of a large-scale urban construction project; - Modelling of human thermal comfort in different urban environments on the basis of comprehensive data sets of geofactors. At the same time, they provide a survey of the status and methods of modern urban climate research. The second group of contributions comprises texts which discuss the effects of individual climate elements in the biosphere and pedosphere. The third group consists of two contributions on the stability of tropical environments. Both of them discuss the semiarid regions of northern Kenia. Finally, there is a group of contributions stimulated and influenced by W. Weischet's work in Latin America. (orig./KW)

  2. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  3. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  4. Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the

  5. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  6. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  7. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Phillip A.; Xie, Pingping

    1994-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the World Climate Research Program to produce global analyses of the area- and time-averaged precipitation for use in climate research. To achieve the required spatial coverage, the GPCP uses simple rainfall estimates derived from IR and microwave satellite observations. In this paper, we describe the GPCP and its first Algorithm Intercomparison Project (AIP/1), which compared a variety of rainfall estimates derived from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite visible and IR observations and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) microwave observations with rainfall derived from a combination of radar and raingage data over the Japanese islands and the adjacent ocean regions during the June and mid-July through mid-August periods of 1989. To investigate potential improvements in the use of satellite IR data for the estimation of large-scale rainfall for the GPCP, the relationship between rainfall and the fractional coverage of cold clouds in the AIP/1 dataset is examined. Linear regressions between fractional coverage and rainfall are analyzed for a number of latitude-longitude areas and for a range of averaging times. The results show distinct differences in the character of the relationship for different portions of the area. These results suggest that the simple IR-based estimation technique currently used in the GPCP can be used to estimate rainfall for global tropical and subtropical areas, provided that a method for adjusting the proportional coefficient for varying areas and seasons can be determined.

  8. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  9. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  10. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Monthly, Version 2.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products with the two primary products being the monthly satellite-gauge and associated...

  11. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Pentad, Version 2.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 2.2 Pentad product covers the period January 1979 to the present,...

  12. Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    A procedure is described to estimate bias errors for mean precipitation by using multiple estimates from different algorithms, satellite sources, and merged products. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly product is used as a base precipitation estimate, with other input products included when they are within +/- 50% of the GPCP estimates on a zonal-mean basis (ocean and land separately). The standard deviation s of the included products is then taken to be the estimated systematic, or bias, error. The results allow one to examine monthly climatologies and the annual climatology, producing maps of estimated bias errors, zonal-mean errors, and estimated errors over large areas such as ocean and land for both the tropics and the globe. For ocean areas, where there is the largest question as to absolute magnitude of precipitation, the analysis shows spatial variations in the estimated bias errors, indicating areas where one should have more or less confidence in the mean precipitation estimates. In the tropics, relative bias error estimates (s/m, where m is the mean precipitation) over the eastern Pacific Ocean are as large as 20%, as compared with 10%-15% in the western Pacific part of the ITCZ. An examination of latitudinal differences over ocean clearly shows an increase in estimated bias error at higher latitudes, reaching up to 50%. Over land, the error estimates also locate regions of potential problems in the tropics and larger cold-season errors at high latitudes that are due to snow. An empirical technique to area average the gridded errors (s) is described that allows one to make error estimates for arbitrary areas and for the tropics and the globe (land and ocean separately, and combined). Over the tropics this calculation leads to a relative error estimate for tropical land and ocean combined of 7%, which is considered to be an upper bound because of the lack of sign-of-the-error canceling when integrating over different areas with a

  13. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  14. Global Aerosol Climatology Project: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology of interpreting channe1 1 and 2 AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) radiance data over the oceans and describes a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly averages of retrieved aerosol parameters to the assumptions made in different retrieval algorithms. The analysis is based on using real AVHRR data and exploiting accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmospheric-ocean system. We show that two-channel algorithms can be expected tp provide significantly more biased retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening and calibration uncertainties are by far the largest sources of errors in the retrieved aerosol parameters. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as the potentially strong variability of the real part of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical thickness retrievals. The Angstrom exponent appears to be the most invariant aerosol size characteristic and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.

  15. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) - The first project of the World Climate Research Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, R. A.; Rossow, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first project of the World Climate Research Program is the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, (ISCCP) whose objective is the collection and analysis of satellite radiance data in order to infer the global distribution of cloud radiative properties and improve the modeling of cloud effects on climate. The operational component of ISCCP takes advantage of the global coverage provided by the current and planned international array of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in the 1980s. It will produce a five-year global radiance and cloud data set. The research component of ISCCP will coordinate studies to validate climatology, improve cloud analysis algorithms, improve cloud effects modelling, and investigate the role of clouds in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle.

  16. Variations and Trends in Global and Regional Precipitation Based on the 22-Year GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and Three-Year TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the analysis of global precipitation over the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to study global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. Identifying regional trends in precipitation may be more practical. From 1979 to 2000 the tropics have pattern of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere (S.H.) from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere (N.H.) the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe

  17. The Magnitude and Variability of Global and Regional Precipitation Based on the 22-Year GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and Three-Year TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the analysis of global precipitation over the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to study global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. Identifying regional trends in precipitation may be more practical. From 1979 to 1999 the northern mid-latitudes appear to be drying, the southern mid-latitudes have gotten wetter, and there is a mixed signal in the tropics. The relation between this field of trends and the relation to the frequency of El Nino events during this time period is explored. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. These El Nino minus La Nina composites of normalized precipitation show the usual positive, or wet, anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative, or dry, anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies

  18. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Results, Status and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is one of a number of long-term, satellite-based, global analyses routinely produced under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and its Global Energy and Watercycle EXperiment (GEWEX) program. The research quality analyses are produced a few months after real-time through the efforts of scientists at various national agencies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. The primary product is a monthly analysis of surface precipitation that is globally complete and spans the period 1979-present. There are also pentad analyses for the same period and a daily analysis for the 1997-present period. Although generated with somewhat different data sets and analysis schemes, the pentad and daily data sets are forced to agree with the primary monthly analysis on a grid box by grid box basis. The primary input data sets are from low-orbit passive microwave observations, geostationary infrared observations and surface raingauge information. Examples of research with the data sets are discussed, focusing on tropical (25N-25s) rainfall variations and possible long-term changes in the 28-year (1979-2006) monthly dataset. Techniques are used to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes for rainfall over both land and ocean. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% maximum reduction in tropical rainfall during each event. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, a small upward linear change over tropical ocean (0.06 mm/day/l0yr) and a slight downward linear change over tropical land (-0.03 mm/day/l0yr) are examined to understand the impact of the inhomogeneity in the data record and the length of the data set. These positive changes correspond to about a 5% increase (ocean) and 3% increase (ocean plus land) during this time period. Relations between variations in

  19. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  20. Diva software, a tool for European regional seas and Ocean climatologies production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouberdous, M.; Troupin, C.; Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcàrate, A.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Diva (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) is a software based on a method designed to perform data-gridding (or analysis) tasks, with the assets of taking into account the intrinsic nature of oceanographic data, i.e., the uncertainty on the in situ measurements and the anisotropy due to advection and irregular coastlines and topography. The Variational Inverse Method (VIM, Brasseur et al., 1996) implemented in Diva consists in minimizing a variational principle which accounts for the differences between the observations and the reconstructed field, the influence of the gradients and variability of the reconstructed field. The resolution of the numerical problem is based on finite-element method, which allows a great numerical efficiency and the consideration of complicated contours. Along with the analysis, Diva provides also error fields (Brankart and Brasseur, 1998; Rixen et al., 2000) based on the data coverage and noise. Diva is used for the production of climatologies in the pan-European network SeaDataNet. SeaDataNet is connecting the existing marine data centres of more than 30 countries and set up a data management infrastructure consisting of a standardized distributed system. The consortium has elaborated integrated products, using common procedures and methods. Among these, it uses the Diva software as reference tool for climatologies computation for various European regional seas, the Atlantic and the global ocean. During the first phase of the SeaDataNet project, a number of additional tools were developed to make easier the climatologies production for the users. Among these tools: the advection constraint during the field reconstruction through the specification of a velocity field on a regular grid, forcing the analysis to align with the velocity vectors; the Generalized Cross Validation for the determination of analysis parameters (signal-to-noise ratio); the creation of contours at selected depths; the detection of possible outliers; the

  1. The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) - in situ observation based precipitation climatology on regional and global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, T.; Schneider, U.; Rudolf, B.

    2009-04-01

    8,000 stations. It is available within about 2 months after end of an observation month. The analyses are based on automatic and manual quality-control (QC) of input data and related station metadata. The GPCC Monitoring Product is the in situ component to the satellite-raingauge combined precipitation analyses of GPCP and CMAP. It also supports regional climate monitoring in context of WMO RA VI and EUMETNET. The product uses since mid 2008 the new GPCC monthly precipitation climatology as analysis background. Spatial product resolution: 1.0° and 2.5°. The GPCC Full Data Reanalysis Product is of higher accuracy compared to the GPCC near-realtime products mentioned above. Thus its application is recommended for hydrometeorological model verification and water cycle studies. This analysis product is based on all stations, near real-time and non real-time, in GPCC's data base with precipitation data for the individual month. Since end of September 2008 the updated Version 4 of this product is ready based on a significantly enlarged database, which enabled an extension of the analysis period to 1901-2007. The product uses the new GPCC monthly precipitation climatology as analysis background. Spatial product resolution: 0.5°, 1.0° and 2.5°. The GPCC 50-Year Dataset VASClimO is based on data being selected with respect to a (mostly) complete temporal data coverage and homogeneity of the time-series. These long-term climatological analyses of homogenised area-averaged precipitation time-series are of special interest for GCOS and contributed to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG I. VASClimO Version 2 is planned to be ready until mid 2009 based on a significantly enlarged database, which will enable an extension of the analysis period to 1951-2005. Spatial product resolution: 0.5°, 1.0° and 2.5°. Since May 2008 a new GPCC global monthly precipitation climatology is available, based on data from more than 50,000 different stations worldwide with at least 10 years

  2. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  3. Intergrating Data From NASA Missions Into NOAAs Pacific Region Intergrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, L.; Chester, K.; Eisberg, A.; Iyer, S.; Lee, K.; Marra, J.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) Project is developing a number of products that will successfully promote awareness and understanding of the patterns and effects of "storminess" in the Pacific Rim. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center initiated the PRICIP Project to improve our understanding of such storm processes by creating a web portal containing both scientific and socioeconomic information about Pacific storms. Working in conjunction with partners at NOAA, students from the NASA Ames DEVELOP internship program are integrating NASA satellite imagery into the PRICIP web portal by animating eight storm systems that took place in the South Pacific Ocean between 1992 and 2005, four other anomalous high water events in the Hawaiian Islands, and annual storm tracks. The primary intended audience includes coastal disaster management decision-makers and other similarly concerned agencies. The broad access of these web-based products is also expected to reach scientists, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and media broadcasting consumers. The newly integrated and animated hindcast data will also help educate laypersons about past storms and help them for future storms.

  4. Status and Plans for the WCRP/GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is an international project under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and GEWEX (Global Water and Energy Experiment). The GPCP group consists of scientists from agencies and universities in various countries that work together to produce a set of global precipitation analyses at time scales of monthly, pentad, and daily. The status of the current products will be briefly summarized, focusing on the monthly analysis. Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 27-year (1 979-2005) monthly dataset. In addition to global patterns associated with phenomena such as ENSO, the data set is explored for evidence of long-term change. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, the data set does indicate a small upward change in the Tropics (25s-25N) during the period,. especially over ocean. Techniques are derived to isolate and eliminate variations due to ENS0 and major volcanic eruptions and the significance of the linear change is examined. Plans for a GPCP reprocessing for a Version 3 of products, potentially including a fine-time resolution product will be discussed. Current and future links to IPWG will also be addressed.

  5. Climatology of F region zonalplasma drifts over Jicamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; J. R. Souza; Santos, A. S.; Costa Pereira, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    [1] We use extensive incoherent scatter radar observations made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory between 1970 and 2003 to study and model empirically the equatorial zonal plasma drifts near the F region peak using Bernstein polynomials as base functions. Our quiet-time model results confirm that the daytime drifts are westward and are nearly season and solar cycle independent. The nighttime drifts are eastward, have larger magnitudes, and increase strongly with solar flux, particularly near...

  6. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  7. TRMM-based Merged Data Products Compared to Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (launched in November 1997) information as the key calibration tool; in a merged analysis on a 1 degree x l degree latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analyses. The TRMM-based product will be compared with the community-based Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) results. The long-term GPCP analysis is compared to the new TRMM-based analysis which uses the most accurate TRMM information to calibrate the estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges those estimates together with the TRMM and gauge information to produce accurate rainfall estimates with the increased sampling provided by the combined satellite information. The comparison with TRMM results on a month-to-month basis should clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term GPCP product in the tropics and point to how to improve the monitoring analysis. Preliminary results from the TRMM merged satellite analysis indicates close agreement with the GPCP estimates. By the time of the meeting over a year of TRMM products will be available for comparison. Global tropical and regional values will be compared. Seasonal variations, and variations associated with the 1998 El Nino/Southern Oscillation ENSO event will be examined and compared between the two analyses. These variations will be examined carefully and validated where possible from surface-based radar and gauge observations. The role of TRMM observations in the refinement of the long-term monitoring product will be outlined.

  8. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  9. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  10. A combined microwave/infrared algorithm for estimating rainfall during the GPCP. [Global Precipitation Climatology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents results of a satellite algorithm intercomparison of monthly precipitation, which was organized by the World Climate Research Program's Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Special attention is given to the techniques used in the projects and the type of data provided in the study (mainly by Japan's GMS visible and IR sensors and the USA's Special Sensor Microwave/Imager). The results of rainfall estimates obtained by Negri et al. (1994) and Adler and Negri (1988) techniques are compared with estimates made with the threshold technique of Arkin (1979, 1983). Results obtained by various techniques are presented for both the instantaneous estimates and for total rain accumulations over an area including Japan for a 24-hr period on June 22, 1989.

  11. The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Xie, Ping-Ping; Janowiak, John; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version 2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit-satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The merging approach utilizes the higher accuracy of the low-orbit microwave observations to calibrate, or adjust, the more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations. The data set is extended back into the premicrowave era (before 1987) by using infrared-only observations calibrated to the microwave-based analysis of the later years. The combined satellite-based product is adjusted by the raingauge analysis. This monthly analysis is the foundation for the GPCP suite of products including those at finer temporal resolution, satellite estimate, and error estimates for each field. The 23-year GPCP climatology is characterized, along with time and space variations of precipitation.

  12. Comparison of TRMM and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Precipitation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (launched in November 1997) information as the key calibration tool in a merged analysis on a 1 x 1' latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analyses. The TRMM-based product is compared with the community-based Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) results. The long-term GPCP analysis is compared to the new TRMM-based analysis which uses the most accurate TRMM information to calibrate the estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges those estimates together with the TRMM and gauge information to produce accurate rainfall estimates with the increased sampling provided by the combined satellite information. The comparison with TRMM results on a month-to-month basis should clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term GPCP product in the tropics and point to how to improve the monitoring analysis. Preliminary results from the TRMM merged satellite analysis indicates fairly close agreement with the GPCP estimates. The GPCP analysis is done at 2.5 degree latitude/longitude resolution and interpolated to a 1 degree grid for comparison with the TRMM analysis. As expected the same features are evident in both panels, but there are subtle differences in the magnitudes. Focusing on the Pacific Ocean Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) one can see the TRMM-based estimates having higher peak values and lower values in the ITCZ periphery. These attributes also show up in the statistics, where GPCP>TRMM at low values (below 10 mm/d) and TRMM>GPCP at high values (greater than 15 mm/d). The area in the Indian Ocean which shows consistently higher values of TRMM over GPCP needs to be examined carefully to determine if the lack of geosynchronous data has led to a difference in the two analyses. By the time of the meeting over a year of TRMM products will be available for

  13. Does the Danube exist? Versions of reality given by various regional climate models and climatological datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Kriegerova, I; Speranza, A; Danihlik, Robert; Kriegerova, Ida; Lucarini, Valerio; Speranza, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    We present an intercomparison and verification analysis of several regional climate models (RCMs) nested into the same run of the same Atmospheric Global Circulation Model (AGCM) regarding their representation of the statistical properties of the hydrological balance of the Danube river basin for 1961-1990. We also consider the datasets produced by the driving AGCM, from the ECMWF and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses. The hydrological balance is computed by integrating the precipitation and evaporation fields over the area of interest. Large discrepancies exist among RCMs for the monthly climatology as well as for the mean and variability of the annual balances, and only few datasets are consistent with the observed discharge values of the Danube at its Delta, even if the driving AGCM provides itself an excellent estimate. Since the considered approach relies on the mass conservation principle and bypasses the details of the air-land interface modeling, we propose that the atmospheric components of RCMs still face diffic...

  14. Transport of anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A: a climatology and regional case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Harrigan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA conducted the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission during 2008 as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY. The purpose of ARCTAS was to study the factors responsible for changes in the Arctic's atmospheric composition and climate. A major emphasis was to investigate Arctic haze, which is most pronounced during winter and early spring. This study focuses on the spring phase of ARCTAS (ARCTAS-A that was based in Alaska during April 2008. Although anthropogenic emissions historically have been associated with Arctic haze, biomass burning dominated the ARCTAS-A period and has been the focus of many ARCTAS related studies.

    This study determines the common pathways for anthropogenic emissions during ARCTAS-A. Trajectories (air parcels are released each day from three historically significant regions of anthropogenic emissions (Asia, North America, and Europe. These fifteen day forward trajectories are calculated using data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model at 45 km horizontal resolution. The trajectories then are examined to determine: origins of emissions that reach the Arctic (defined as north of 70° N within fifteen days, pathways of the emissions reaching the Arctic, Arctic entry locations, and altitudes at which the trajectories enter the Arctic. These results serve as regional "climatologies" for the ARCTAS-A period.

    Three cases during the ARCTAS-A period (one for each of the regions above are examined using backward trajectories and chemical fingerprinting based on in situ data sampled from the NASA DC-8. The fingerprinting utilizes volatile organic compounds that represent pure anthropogenic tracers, Asian anthropogenic pollution, incomplete combustion, and natural gas emissions. We determine flight legs containing anthropogenic emissions and the pathways travelled by these emissions

  15. The Climatology of Neutral Winds in the MLT Region as Observed From Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niciejewski, R.; Skinner, W.; Gell, D.; Cooper, M.; Marsh, A.; Killeen, T.; Wu, Q.; Solomon, S.; Ortland, D.; Drob, D.; Emmert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Unique observations of the horizontal neutral winds in the altitude range 70 to 115 km have been performed from satellite platforms by HRDI and WINDII (UARS) and by TIDI (TIMED), the former since September 1991 and the latter since January 2002. All three experiments observed airglow on the terrestrial limb and derived vertical wind profiles of geophysical quantities by inverting altitude scans of Doppler shifted emission spectra. As a result, the global mesosphere / lower thermosphere region has been sampled for 14 years by a common technique resulting in an unparalleled neutral wind database. This database will be one of the key contributions to an improved Horizontal Wind Model (HWM). This paper will describe results from the first long term climatological study of the MLT region based on satellite wind measurements. The basic dynamic structure in the MLT is a tide, which also has long-term variation that has similar periods to the 27-month QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) and the SAO (semi-annual oscillation). Signatures of ultra-long variability require analysis of the full wind database.

  16. Climatology of the Ionospheric Scintillations over the Auroral and Cusp European Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; de Franceschi, G.; Romano, V.; Aquino, M.; Dodson, A.

    2009-04-01

    Under perturbed conditions coming from the outer space, the ionosphere may become highly turbulent and small scale (from centimeters to meters) irregularities, typically enhancements or depletions of the electron density embedded in the ambient ionosphere, can form causing diffraction effects on the satellites signals passing through them. Such effect can abruptly corrupt the performance of the positioning systems affecting, in turn, the awareness and safety of the modern devices. In this paper we analyze data of ionospheric scintillation in the latitudinal range 57°- 88° N during the period October, November and December 2003 as a first step to develop a "scintillation climatology" over the Northern Europe. The behavior of the scintillation occurrence as function of the magnetic local time and of the corrected magnetic latitude is investigated to characterize the scintillation conditions. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG) of the University of Nottingham manage the same kind of GISTM (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitor) receivers over the European middle and high latitude regions. The results here shown and obtained merging observations from three GISTM, highlight also the possibility to investigate the dynamics of irregularities causing scintillation by combining the information coming from auroral to cusp latitudes. The findings, even if at a very preliminary stage, are here presented also in the frame of possible Space Weather implications.

  17. Climatology of observed rainfall in Southeast France at the Regional Climate Model scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidurot, Stéphanie; Molinié, Gilles; Diedhiou, Arona

    2016-04-01

    In order to provide convenient data to assess rainfall simulated by Regional Climate Models, a spatial database (hereafter called K-REF) has been designed. This database is used to examine climatological features of rainfall in Southeast France, a study region characterized by two mountain ranges of comparable altitude (the Cévennes and the Alps foothill) on both sides of the Rhône valley. Hourly records from 1993 to 2013 have been interpolated to a 0.1° × 0.1° latitude-longitude regular grid and accumulated over 3-h periods in K-REF. The assessment of K-REF relatively to the SAFRAN daily rainfall reanalysis indicates consistent patterns and magnitudes between the two datasets even though K-REF fields are smoother. A multi-scale analysis of the occurrence and non-zero intensity of rainfall is performed and shows that the maps of the 50th and 95th percentiles of 3- and 24-h rain intensity highlight different patterns. The maxima of the 50th and 95th percentiles are located over plain and mountainous areas respectively. Moreover, the location of these maxima is not the same for the 3- and 24-h intensities. To understand these differences between median and intense rainfall on the one hand and between the 3- and 24-h rainfall on the other hand, we analyze the statistical distributions and the space-time structure of occurrence and intensity of the 3-h rainfall in two classes of days, defined as median and intense. This analysis illustrates the influence of two factors on the triggering and the intensity of rain in the region: the solar cycle and the orography. The orographic forcing appears to be quite different for the two ranges of the domain and is much more pronounced over the Cévennes.

  18. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  19. A Study of Precipitation Climatology and Its Variability over Europe Using an Advanced Regional Model (WRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2015-03-06

    In recent years long-term precipitation trends on a regional scale have been given emphasis due to the impacts of global warming on regional hydrology. In this study, regional precipitation trends are simulated over the Europe continent for a 60-year period in 1950-2010 using an advanced regional model, WRF, to study extreme precipitation events over Europe. The model runs continuously for each year during the period at a horizontal resolution of 25 km with initial/ boundary conditions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 2.5 degree reanalysis data sets. The E-OBS 0.25 degree rainfall observation analysis is used for model validation. Results indicate that the model could reproduce the spatial annual rainfall pattern over Europe with low amounts (250 - 750 mm) in Iberian Peninsula, moderate to large amounts (750 - 1500 mm) in central, eastern and northeastern parts of Europe and extremely heavy falls (1500 - 2000 mm) in hilly areas of Alps with a slight overestimation in Alps and underestimation in other parts of Europe. The regional model integrations showed increasing errors (mean absolute errors) and decreasing correlations with increasing time scale (daily to seasonal). Rainfall is simulated relatively better in Iberian Peninsula, northwest and central parts of Europe. A large spatial variability with the highest number of wet days over eastern, central Europe and Alps (~200 days/year) and less number of wet days over Iberian Peninsula (≤150 days/year) is also found in agreement with observations. The model could simulate the spatial rainfall climate variability reasonably well with low rainfall days (1 - 10 mm/days) in almost all zones, heavy rainfall events in western, northern, southeastern hilly and coastal zones and extremely heavy rainfall events in northern coastal zones. An increasing trend of heavy rainfall in central, southern and southeastern parts, a decreasing trend in Iberian Peninsula and a steady trend in other

  20. Preciptation Climatologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the mid-1970s, the National Climate Center used precipitation data to calculate various climatology products, studying the climatic probability of precipitation....

  1. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  2. NO2 climatology in the northern subtropical region: diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily NO2 vertical column density (VCD has been routinely measured by zenith sky spectroscopy at the subtropical station of Izaña (28° N, 16° W since 1993 in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Based on 14 years of data the first low latitudes NO2 VCD climatology has been established and the main characteristics from short scales of one day to inter-annual variability are presented. Instrumental descriptions and different source of errors are described in detail. The observed diurnal cycle follows that expected by gas-phase NOx chemistry, as can be shown by the good agreement with a vertically integrated chemical box model, and is modulated by solar radiation. The seasonal evolution departs from the phase of the hours of daylight, showing the signature of upper stratospheric temperature changes. From the data record no significant long-term trends in NO2 VCD can be inferred. Comparison of the ground-based data sets with nadir looking satellite spectrometers shows excellent agreement for SCIAMACHY with differences between both datasets of 1.1%. GOME displays unrealistic features with largest discrepancies during summer. The ground-based data are compared with long-term output of the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CTM. The basic model, forced by ECMWF (ERA-40 analyses, captures the observed NO2 annual cycle but significantly underestimates the spring/summer maximum. In a model run which uses assimilation of satellite CH4 profiles to constrain the model long-lived tracers the agreement is significantly improved. This improvement in modelled column NO2 is due to better modelled NOy profiles and points to transport errors in the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses.

  3. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    [1] The recently reported correlation between clouds and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) implies the existence of a previously unknown process linking solar variability and climate. An analysis of the interannual variability of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 (ISCCP-D2) low...

  4. Managing regional innovation strategy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Wolf; Christoph Hanisch

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative interview study with 28 RIS project managers that aimed at understanding whether or not this is true in the context of regional innovation and what the specifics of managing regional innovation projects are. In taking up a recent claim for policy intervention studies which allow to “derive precise suggestions for their design and management”.  The study investigated the interrelation between the agility of the management approach and the achievements of RIS p...

  5. SIMULATING REGIONAL-SCALE OZONE CLIMATOLOGY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES (R828733)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Urban Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazel, Anthony J.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This section on Urban Climates provides a basic understanding of what comprises the urban climate and what factors control the overall development of the urban climate. We also discuss in this section, methods for evaluating urban climate characteristics and forcing functions as well as how the urban heat island effect comes into play as a dynamic influence on urban climatology. Additionally, we examine and discuss the major radiation and energy balance of city (i.e., shortwave and longwave radiation, albedo, net all-wave radiation, total energy balance, and sensible latent, and storage heat) and the interactions of these energy balances with the lower atmosphere. The use of remote sensing to measure urban surface temperatures as a driving force in the development of the urban heat island effect is presented. We also discuss how the overall moisture, precipitation, humidity, and air movement in cities (i,e,, wind speeds and wind direction) and wind environment of the city affects urban climatology.

  7. Intra-annual variation of atmospheric static stability in the Mediterranean region: a 60-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.; Lagouvardos, K.; Metaxas, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    The seasonal characteristics of atmospheric static stability in the Mediterranean region are examined, for the 60-year period 1948-2007 and for the four 15-year sub-periods 1948-1962, 1963-1977, 1978-1992 and 1993-2007. S-Mode and T-Mode Factor Analysis are applied to the mean 5-day values of K static stability index over the Mediterranean region. Three dominant modes are revealed for both, the intra-annual variation and the spatial distribution of K-index. It is found that these modes are connected to the seasonal characteristics of the main atmospheric circulation systems affecting the region and the thermal properties of the Earth's surface (land or sea). The differences among the results of the four sub-periods partially reflect the inter-decadal variations of the strength of the above factors.

  8. Isotopic features of Emilia-Romagna region (North Italy) groundwaters: Environmental and climatological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, G.; Chahoud, A.; Dadomo, A.; Fava, A.

    2014-11-01

    18O/16O, D/H, tritium and carbon isotopes were analysed together with the main geochemical parameters of selected wells of groundwaters in the Emilia-Romagna region. The isotope data collected in a three-year monitoring program of surface waters allowed a subdivision of the studied region within the main feeding areas of the Po and Apennine Rivers. The isotopic investigation demonstrated the existence of palaeowaters hosted in deep aquifers in the plains and their overexploitation, which induced land subsidence phenomena. Groundwater stable isotopes have been utilized as a proxy for temperature and have shown significant atmospheric temperature variations over the past 30,000 years.

  9. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  10. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  11. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  12. A multi-model analysis of the resolution influence on precipitation climatology in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuelei; Huang, Bohua; Kirtman, Ben P.; Kinter, James L.; Chiu, Long S.

    2016-05-01

    Using climate simulations from coupled and uncoupled general circulation models, this study investigates the influence of horizontal resolution in both atmospheric and oceanic model components on the mean precipitation over the Gulf Stream (GS) region. For this purpose, three sets of model experiments are analyzed. The first two examine the effects of increasing horizontal resolution of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) gradually from 100 to 10 km under fixed oceanic settings. Specifically, the AGCM is either forced with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST) (the first case) or coupled to a non-eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) at a fixed horizontal resolution near 100 km (the second case). The third set of experiments examines the effects of the oceanic resolution with a pair of long-term simulations by another coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM), in which the OGCM is run respectively at non-eddy-resolving (100 km) and eddy-resolving (10 km) resolutions, while the AGCM resolution remains fixed at 50 km for both runs. In general, all simulations qualitatively reproduce the gross features of the mean GS precipitation and its annual cycle. At similar AGCM resolutions, the uncoupled models produce a GS rain band that is more realistic in both structure and strength compared to the coupled models with non-eddy-resolving oceans. This is because the prescribed observed SST better represents the gradient near the oceanic front than the non-eddy-resolving OGCMs simulate. An increase from the baseline AGCM resolution produces enhanced climatological GS precipitation, both large-scale and convective, with the latter more tightly confined to the oceanic front. The enhancement, however, is moderate and further increases in resolution achieves diminishing results. On the other hand, an increase in oceanic resolution from non-eddy-resolving to eddy resolving scheme results in more consistent simulations with

  13. Cloud-to-ground lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic regions: a preliminary climatology using the WWLLN dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kucieńska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes the first climatological study of lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic areas for the period 2005–2009. Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud to ground lightning are presented and the processes that contribute to the lightning variability are analysed.

    The data are retrieved from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN dataset. The current WWLL network includes 40 stations which cover much of the globe and detect very low frequency radiation ("spherics" associated with lightning.

    The spatial distribution of the average yearly lightning over the continental region of Mexico shows the influence of orographic forcing in producing convective clouds with high lightning activity. However, a very high number of strikes is also observed in the States of Tabasco and Campeche, which are low-lying areas. This maximum is related to the climatological maximum of precipitation for the country and it may be associated with a region of persistent low-level convergence and convection in the southern portion of the Gulf of Mexico.

    The maps of correlation between rainfall and lightning provide insight into the microphysical processes occurring within the clouds. The maritime clouds close to the coastline exhibit similar properties to continental clouds as they produce very high lightning activity.

    The seasonal cycle of lightning registered by WWLLN is consistent with the LIS/OTD dataset for the selected regions. In terms of the annual distribution of cloud-to-ground strikes, July, August and September exhibit the highest number of strikes over continental Mexico. The diurnal cycle indicates that the maximum number of strikes over the continent is observed between 6 and 9 p.m. LT.

    The surrounding oceanic regions were subdivided into four distinct sectors: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Sub-tropical Pacific and Tropical Pacific. The Gulf of Mexico has the broadest seasonal

  14. Cloud-to-ground lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic regions. A preliminary climatology using the WWLLN dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G.B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Rodriguez, O. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work constitutes the first climatological study of lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic areas for the period 2005-2009. Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud to ground lightning are presented and the processes that contribute to the lightning variability are analysed. The data are retrieved from theWorldWide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) dataset. The current WWLL network includes 40 stations which cover much of the globe and detect very low frequency radiation (''spherics'') associated with lightning. The spatial distribution of the average yearly lightning over the continental region of Mexico shows the influence of orographic forcing in producing convective clouds with high lightning activity. However, a very high number of strikes is also observed in the States of Tabasco and Campeche, which are low-lying areas. This maximum is related to the climatological maximum of precipitation for the country and it may be associated with a region of persistent low-level convergence and convection in the southern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The maps of correlation between rainfall and lightning provide insight into the microphysical processes occurring within the clouds. The maritime clouds close to the coastline exhibit similar properties to continental clouds as they produce very high lightning activity. The seasonal cycle of lightning registered by WWLLN is consistent with the LIS/OTD dataset for the selected regions. In terms of the annual distribution of cloud-to-ground strikes, July, August and September exhibit the highest number of strikes over continental Mexico. The diurnal cycle indicates that the maximum number of strikes over the continent is observed between 6 and 9 p.m. LT. The surrounding oceanic regions were subdivided into four distinct sectors: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Subtropical Pacific and Tropical Pacific. The Gulf of Mexico has the broadest seasonal distribution, since during winter lightning associated

  15. Modeling and predicting seasonal influenza transmission in warm regions using climatological parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina P Soebiyanto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza transmission is often associated with climatic factors. As the epidemic pattern varies geographically, the roles of climatic factors may not be unique. Previous in vivo studies revealed the direct effect of winter-like humidity on air-borne influenza transmission that dominates in regions with temperate climate, while influenza in the tropics is more effectively transmitted through direct contact. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using time series model, we analyzed the role of climatic factors on the epidemiology of influenza transmission in two regions characterized by warm climate: Hong Kong (China and Maricopa County (Arizona, USA. These two regions have comparable temperature but distinctly different rainfall. Specifically we employed Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA model along with climatic parameters as measured from ground stations and NASA satellites. Our studies showed that including the climatic variables as input series result in models with better performance than the univariate model where the influenza cases depend only on its past values and error signal. The best model for Hong Kong influenza was obtained when Land Surface Temperature (LST, rainfall and relative humidity were included as input series. Meanwhile for Maricopa County we found that including either maximum atmospheric pressure or mean air temperature gave the most improvement in the model performances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that including the environmental variables generally increases the prediction capability. Therefore, for countries without advanced influenza surveillance systems, environmental variables can be used for estimating influenza transmission at present and in the near future.

  16. Identification and climatology of Alpine pumping from a regional climate simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Maximilian; Kossmann, Meinolf; Trusilova, Kristina; Mühlbacher, Gudrun

    2016-02-01

    The thermally driven circulation between the European Alps and the alpine foreland - named Alpine pumping – occurs regularly under clear and calm weather conditions. While previous studies focused on the impact of Alpine pumping on moist convection and transport of air pollutants, this study was motivated by its ventilation effect for Munich, located about 50 km north of the Alps in undulating and only slightly inclined terrain, where local thermal circulations are weak. Hourly data from a reanalysis driven regional climate simulation with COSMO-CLM model for the period 1989 to 2008 were analysed to identify days with Alpine pumping and to determine the mean diurnal characteristics of this regional thermal circulation. Four literature derived combinations of meteorological criteria were tested to identify days favorable for Alpine pumping from COSMO-CLM results. The first criterion selects days with a daily sum of solar radiation ≥20 MJ/m2 and has been used in an earlier observational study. On average 60 d/y are fulfilling the criterion in the model simulation, which compares well to the 67 d/y determined from observations. The other three criteria combinations consider a maximum wind velocity at 850 hPa, a maximum daily precipitation sum, and/or a maximum mean cloud cover. The mean annual number of selected days is lower for these criteria combinations and ranges between 20 and 52. Diurnal wind reversals occur on 77 to 81% of the selected days, depending on the criteria combination The daily solar radiation sum of 20 MJ/m2 is only exceeded during April to September, while days satisfying the criteria combinations without the radiation threshold occur all year round. In agreement with observations, the simulated regional thermally driven wind field extends up to ~100 km north of the Alps with average near-surface wind speeds of 0.5-1.5 m/s in the Munich area. With increasing distance from the Alps, the diurnal cycle of Alpine pumping is delayed by up to 3

  17. Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region: a consensus view among methods with different system identification and tracking criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Lionello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean storm track constitutes a well-defined branch of the North Hemisphere storm track and is characterised by small but intense features and frequent cyclogenesis. The goal of this study is to assess the level of consensus among cyclone detection and tracking methods (CDTMs, to identify robust features and to explore sources of disagreement. A set of 14 CDTMs has been applied for computing the climatology of cyclones crossing the Mediterranean region using the ERA-Interim dataset for the period 1979–2008 as common testbed. Results show large differences in actual cyclone numbers identified by different methods, but a good level of consensus on the interpretation of results regarding location, annual cycle and trends of cyclone tracks. Cyclogenesis areas such as the north-western Mediterranean, North Africa, north shore of the Levantine basin, as well as the seasonality of their maxima are robust features on which methods show a substantial agreement. Differences among methods are greatly reduced if cyclone numbers are transformed to a dimensionless index, which, in spite of disagreement on mean values and interannual variances of cyclone numbers, reveals a consensus on variability, sign and significance of trends. Further, excluding ‘weak’ and ‘slow’ cyclones from the computation of cyclone statistics improves the agreement among CDTMs. Results show significant negative trends of cyclone frequency in spring and positive trends in summer, whose contrasting effects compensate each other at annual scale, so that there is no significant long-term trend in total cyclone numbers in the Mediterranean basin in the 1979–2008 period.

  18. An Agro-Climatological Early Warning Tool Based on the Google Earth Engine to Support Regional Food Security Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Daudert, B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Hegewisch, K.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Peterson, P.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.; Williams, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a platform provided by Google Inc. to support scientific research and analysis of environmental data in their cloud environment. The intent is to allow scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data and leverage Google's vast computational resources to detect changes and monitor the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). The CHIRPS dataset is land based, quasi-global (latitude 50N-50S), 0.05 degree resolution, and has a relatively long term period of record (1981-present). CHIRPS is on a continuous monthly feed into the GEE as new data fields are generated each month. This precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. FEWS NET intends to leverage the GEE in order to provide analysts and scientists with flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. These scientists often work in bandwidth limited regions, so lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets to analyze them, are preferred for their work. The GEE provides just this type of service. We present a tool designed specifically for FEWS NET scientists to be utilized interactively for investigating and monitoring for agro-climatological issues. We are able to utilize the enormous GEE computing power to generate on-the-fly statistics to calculate precipitation anomalies, z-scores, percentiles and band ratios, and allow the user to interactively select custom areas for statistical time series comparisons and predictions.

  19. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  20. An assessment of the quality of aerosol retrievals over the Red Sea and evaluation of the climatological cloud-free dust direct radiative effect in the region

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, H.

    2015-10-20

    Ground-based and satellite observations are used in conjunction with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) to assess climatological aerosol loading and the associated cloud-free aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over the Red Sea. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments are first evaluated via comparison with ship-based observations. Correlations are typically better than 0.9 with very small root-mean-square and bias differences. Calculations of the DRE along the ship cruises using RRTM also show good agreement with colocated estimates from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget instrument if the aerosol asymmetry parameter is adjusted to account for the presence of large particles. A monthly climatology of AOD over the Red Sea is then created from 5 years of SEVIRI retrievals. This shows enhanced aerosol loading and a distinct north to south gradient across the basin in the summer relative to the winter months. The climatology is used with RRTM to estimate the DRE at the top and bottom of the atmosphere and the atmospheric absorption due to dust aerosol. These climatological estimates indicate that although longwave effects can reach tens of W m−2, shortwave cooling typically dominates the net radiative effect over the Sea, being particularly pronounced in the summer, reaching 120 W m−2 at the surface. The spatial gradient in summertime AOD is reflected in the radiative effect at the surface and in associated differential heating by aerosol within the atmosphere above the Sea. This asymmetric effect is expected to exert a significant influence on the regional atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

  1. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  2. Validation of Long-Term Global Aerosol Climatology Project Optical Thickness Retrievals Using AERONET and MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Geogdzhayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive set of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT data from coastal and island AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET stations is used to evaluate Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP retrievals for the period 1995–2009 during which contemporaneous GACP and AERONET data were available. To put the GACP performance in broader perspective, we also compare AERONET and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua level-2 data for 2003–2009 using the same methodology. We find that a large mismatch in geographic coverage exists between the satellite and ground-based datasets, with very limited AERONET coverage of open-ocean areas. This is especially true of GACP because of the smaller number of AERONET stations at the early stages of the network development. Monthly mean AOTs from the two over-the-ocean satellite datasets are well-correlated with the ground-based values, the correlation coefficients being 0.81–0.85 for GACP and 0.74–0.79 for MODIS. Regression analyses demonstrate that the GACP mean AOTs are approximately 17%–27% lower than the AERONET values on average, while the MODIS mean AOTs are 5%–25% higher. The regression coefficients are highly dependent on the weighting assumptions (e.g., on the measure of aerosol variability as well as on the set of AERONET stations used for comparison. Comparison of over-the-land and over-the-ocean MODIS monthly mean AOTs in the vicinity of coastal AERONET stations reveals a significant bias. This may indicate that aerosol amounts in coastal locations can differ significantly from those in adjacent open-ocean areas. Furthermore, the color of coastal waters and peculiarities of coastline meteorological conditions may introduce biases in the GACP AOT retrievals. We conclude that the GACP and MODIS over-the-ocean retrieval algorithms show similar ranges of discrepancy when compared to available coastal and island AERONET stations. The factors mentioned above may limit the

  3. Validation of Long-Term Global Aerosol Climatology Project Optical Thickness Retrievals Using AERONET and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data from coastal and island AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) stations is used to evaluate Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) retrievals for the period 1995-2009 during which contemporaneous GACP and AERONET data were available. To put the GACP performance in broader perspective, we also compare AERONET and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua level-2 data for 2003-2009 using the same methodology. We find that a large mismatch in geographic coverage exists between the satellite and ground-based datasets, with very limited AERONET coverage of open-ocean areas. This is especially true of GACP because of the smaller number of AERONET stations at the early stages of the network development. Monthly mean AOTs from the two over-the-ocean satellite datasets are well-correlated with the ground-based values, the correlation coefficients being 0.81-0.85 for GACP and 0.74-0.79 for MODIS. Regression analyses demonstrate that the GACP mean AOTs are approximately 17%-27% lower than the AERONET values on average, while the MODIS mean AOTs are 5%-25% higher. The regression coefficients are highly dependent on the weighting assumptions (e.g., on the measure of aerosol variability) as well as on the set of AERONET stations used for comparison. Comparison of over-the-land and over-the-ocean MODIS monthly mean AOTs in the vicinity of coastal AERONET stations reveals a significant bias. This may indicate that aerosol amounts in coastal locations can differ significantly from those in adjacent open-ocean areas. Furthermore, the color of coastal waters and peculiarities of coastline meteorological conditions may introduce biases in the GACP AOT retrievals. We conclude that the GACP and MODIS over-the-ocean retrieval algorithms show similar ranges of discrepancy when compared to available coastal and island AERONET stations. The factors mentioned above may limit the performance of the

  4. Detect signals of interdecadal climate variations from an enhanced suite of reconstructed precipitation products since 1850 using the historical station data from Global Historical Climatology Network and the dynamical patterns derived from Global Precipitation Climatology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes the detection of interdecadal climate signals in a newly reconstructed precipitation data from 1850-present. Examples are on precipitation signatures of East Asian Monsoon (EAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillations (AMO). The new reconstruction dataset is an enhanced edition of a suite of global precipitation products reconstructed by Spectral Optimal Gridding of Precipitation Version 1.0 (SOGP 1.0). The maximum temporal coverage is 1850-present and the spatial coverage is quasi-global (75S, 75N). This enhanced version has three different temporal resolutions (5-day, monthly, and annual) and two different spatial resolutions (2.5 deg and 5.0 deg). It also has a friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI). SOGP uses a multivariate regression method using an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) expansion. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data from 1981-20010 are used to calculate the EOFs. The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) gridded data are used to calculate the regression coefficients for reconstructions. The sampling errors of the reconstruction are analyzed according to the number of EOF modes used in the reconstruction. Our reconstructed 1900-2011 time series of the global average annual precipitation shows a 0.024 (mm/day)/100a trend, which is very close to the trend derived from the mean of 25 models of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). Our reconstruction has been validated by GPCP data after 1979. Our reconstruction successfully displays the 1877 El Nino (see the attached figure), which is considered a validation before 1900. Our precipitation products are publically available online, including digital data, precipitation animations, computer codes, readme files, and the user manual. This work is a joint effort of San Diego State University (Sam Shen, Gregori Clarke, Christian Junjinger, Nancy Tafolla, Barbara Sperberg, and

  5. State support of regional investment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Skopin Aleksey Olegovich

    2012-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the regulatory framework in the field of public support (at the federal level and at federation) regional investment projects in the form of capital investment. Marks a significant role in co-financing of regional investment projects Investment Fund of Russia, shows the role of regional investment funds, as a new instrument of government support for regional investment projects.

  6. Occurrence climatology of F region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes as observed by a 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar in Daejeon, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kil, Hyosub; Lee, Young-Sook; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae-jin

    2015-11-01

    A new 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar was built in Daejeon, South Korea (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip latitude: 26.7°N) on 29 December 2009 and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the northern middle latitudes. We report on the occurrence climatology of the F region FAIs as observed by the Daejeon radar between 2010 and 2014. The F region FAIs preferentially occur around 250-350 km at 18:00-21:00 local time (postsunset FAI), around 350-450 km near midnight (nighttime FAI), around 250-350 km before sunrise (presunrise FAI), and around 160-300 km after 05:00 local time (postsunrise FAI). The occurrence rates of nighttime and presunrise FAIs are maximal during summer, though the occurrence rates of postsunset and postsunrise FAIs are maximal during the equinoxes. FAIs rarely occur during local winter. The occurrence rate of F region FAIs increases in concert with increases in solar activity. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are known as an important source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes. The high occurrence rate of the nighttime FAIs in local summer is consistent with the high occurrence rate of MSTIDs in that season. However, the dependence of the FAI activity on the solar cycle is inconsistent with the MSTID activity. The source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes is an open question. Our report of different types of FAIs and their occurrence climatology may provide a useful reference for the identification of the source of the middle latitude FAIs.

  7. Observed changes in SAT and GDD and the climatological suitability of the Poland-Germany-Czech Republic transboundary region for wine grapes cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Błaś, Marek; Migała, Krzysztof; Werner, Małgorzata; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we show how the climatological suitability of wine grapes cultivation of the transboundary region of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic has changed over the 1971-2010 period. Strong, positive and statistically significant trend in sum of active temperatures (SAT) and growing degree days (GDD) is observed. The trend is more pronounced in the lowland areas of the study region. The total acreage suitable for more demanding, in terms of SAT and GDD, varieties of wine grapes is increasing, while the opposite trend is observed for less demanding classes. The observed trends reduce the risk for wine grapes cultivation in terms of accumulative SAT and GDD indices. This shows that the transboundary area of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic shifts towards the climate more suitable for viticulture.

  8. THE CONCEPT OF REGIONAL INNOVATION PROJECTS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Savchuk

    2009-01-01

    In the paper the basic stages of a new conception of management for regional projects based upon the principles of indicative management and the decision-making models. The conception is based on the peculiarities of regional level of project management revealed by the author.

  9. A novel tropopause-related climatology of ozone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofieva, V.F.; Tamminen, J.; Kyrola, E.; Mielonen, T.; Veefkind, J.P.; Hassler, B.; Bodeker, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    A new ozone climatology, based on ozonesonde and satellite measurements, spanning the altitude region between the earth's surface and ~60 km is presented (TpO3 climatology). This climatology is novel in that the ozone profiles are categorized according to calendar month, latitude and local tropopaus

  10. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  11. Applications of climatological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 18 years of meteorological data have been collected by the Meteorological Group at the Argonne National Laboratory. These data have been useful in the day-to-day operations of the Laboratory and in the preparation of reactor hazard reports as well as in support of atmospheric research projects, such as our radon, wind profile, plume rise and smoke diffusion studies. A climatological report, covering 15 years of data, has been prepared and will be published soon. A summary of a study of the meteorological conditions giving rise to dew point inversions (moisture content increasing with height near the ground) is given as an example of the type of studies that can be made with these data. (author)

  12. Study of seasonal climatology and interannual variability over India and its subregions using a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Maharana; A P Dimri

    2014-07-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the various meteorological parameters over India and its different subregions is high. The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by the complex Himalayan topography in north and the vast oceans in the east, west and south. Such distributions have dominant influence over its climate and thus make the study more complex and challenging. In the present study, the climatology and interannual variability of basic meteorological fields over India and its six homogeneous monsoon subregions (as defined by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) for all the four meteorological seasons) are analysed using the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3). A 22-year (1980–2001) simulation with RegCM3 is carried out to develop such understanding. The National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research, US (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) is used as the initial and lateral boundary conditions. The main seasonal features and their variability are represented in model simulation. The temporal variation of precipitation, i.e., the mean annual cycle, is captured over complete India and its homogenous monsoon subregions. The model captured the contribution of seasonal precipitation to the total annual precipitation over India. The model showed variation in the precipitation contribution for some subregions to the total and seasonal precipitation over India. The correlation coefficient (CC) and difference between the coefficient of variation between model fields and the corresponding observations in percentage (COV) is calculated and compared. In most of the cases, the model could represent the magnitude but not the variability. The model processes are found to be more important than in the corresponding observations defining the variability. The model performs quite well over India in capturing the climatology and the meteorological process. The model shows good skills over the relevant subregions during a

  13. Initiation and planning of regional investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopin Alex

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors show that the initiation of individual investment projects and their subsequent selection of local authorities often rely on officially articulated priorities of socio-economic development of the municipality and evaluations of their effectiveness. Furthermore it is shown that it is advisable to initiate projects from the bottom of the enterprise and incorporate them into a system of regional projects.

  14. Large Ensembles of Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Neil; Allen, Myles; Hall, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Projections of regional climate change have great utility for impact assessment at a local scale. The CORDEX climate projection framework presents a method of providing these regional projections by driving a regional climate model (RCM) with output from CMIP5 climate projection runs of global climate models (GCM). This produces an ensemble of regional climate projections, sampling the model uncertainty, the forcing uncertainty and the uncertainty of the response of the climate system to the increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Using the weather@home project to compute large ensembles of RCMs via volunteer distributed computing presents another method of generating projections of climate variables and also allows the sampling of the uncertainty due to internal variability. weather@home runs both a RCM and GCM on volunteer's home computers, with the free-running GCM driving the boundaries of the RCM. The GCM is an atmosphere only model and requires forcing at the lower boundary with sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice concentration (SIC) data. By constructing SST and SIC projections, using projections of GHG and other atmospheric gases, and running the weather@home RCM and GCM with these forcings, large ensembles of projections of climate variables at regional scales can be made. To construct the SSTs and SICs, a statistical model is built to represent the response of SST and SIC to increases in GHG concentrations in the CMIP5 ensemble, for both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. This statistical model uses empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to represent the change in the long term trend of SSTs in the CMIP5 projections. A multivariate distribution of the leading principle components (PC) is produced using a copula and sampled to produce a timeseries of PCs which are recombined with the EOFs to generate a timeseries of SSTs, with internal variability added from observations. Hence, a large ensemble of SST projections is generated, with each SST

  15. Coherent and incoherent scatter radar study of the climatology and day-to-day variability of mean F region vertical drifts and equatorial spread F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Fejer, B. G.; Milla, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the vertical drifts and equatorial spread F (ESF) measurements made by the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) between 1994 and 2013. The ISR measurements allowed us to construct not only updated climatological curves of quiet-time vertical plasma drifts but also time-versus-height maps of ESF occurrence over the past two solar cycles. These curves and maps allowed us to better relate the observed ESF occurrence patterns to features in the vertical drift curves than previously possible. We identified an excessively high occurrence of post-midnight F region irregularities during December solstice and low solar flux conditions. More importantly, we also found a high occurrence of ESF events during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. We also proposed and evaluated metrics of evening enhancement of the vertical drifts and ESF occurrence, which allowed us to quantify the relationship between evening drifts and ESF development. Based on a day-to-day analysis of these metrics, we offer estimates of the minimum pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) peak (and mean PRE) values observed prior to ESF development for different solar flux and seasonal conditions. We also found that ESF irregularities can reach the altitudes at least as high as 800 km at the magnetic equator even during low solar flux conditions.

  16. Regional Climate and Streamflow Projections in North America Under IPCC CMIP5 Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H. I.; Castro, C. L.; Troch, P. A. A.; Mukherjee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado River system is the predominant source of water supply for the Southwest U.S. and is already fully allocated, making the region's environmental and economic health particularly sensitive to annual and multi-year streamflow variability. Observed streamflow declines in the Colorado Basin in recent years are likely due to synergistic combination of anthropogenic global warming and natural climate variability, which are creating an overall warmer and more extreme climate. IPCC assessment reports have projected warmer and drier conditions in arid to semi-arid regions (e.g. Solomon et al. 2007). The NAM-related precipitation contributes to substantial Colorado streamflows. Recent climate change studies for the Southwest U.S. region project a dire future, with chronic drought, and substantially reduced Colorado River flows. These regional effects reflect the general observation that climate is being more extreme globally, with areas climatologically favored to be wet getting wetter and areas favored to be dry getting drier (Wang et al. 2012). Multi-scale downscaling modeling experiments are designed using recent IPCC AR5 global climate projections, which incorporate regional climate and hydrologic modeling components. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been selected as the main regional modeling tool; the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) will be used to generate streamflow projections for the Colorado River Basin. The WRF domain is set up to follow the CORDEX-North America guideline with 25km grid spacing, and VIC model is individually calibrated for upper and lower Colorado River basins in 1/8° resolution. The multi-scale climate and hydrology study aims to characterize how the combination of climate change and natural climate variability is changing cool and warm season precipitation. Further, to preserve the downscaled RCM sensitivity and maintain a reasonable climatology mean based on observed record, a new bias correction

  17. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in...

  18. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data...

  19. Climatological Data National Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDNS was published from 1950 - 1980. Monthly and annual editions contain summarized climatological information from the following publications: Local...

  20. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  1. Climatological Services Memorandums

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatological Services Memorandums were a series of memoranda issued by the Weather Bureau for the purpose of keeping all stations informed on the status and...

  2. OW Levitus Climatology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of global temperature and salinity climatologies with a spatial resolution of 1x1 degree, and consists of 19 levels (surface - 5000m). It was...

  3. Global Synoptic Climatology Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global Synoptic Climatology Network is a digital data set archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This record combines the various types of data that...

  4. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic cosmic ray and precipitation on various regions over the globe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh Bal; M Bose

    2010-04-01

    We apply Fourier and wavelet analyses to the precipitation and sunspot numbers in the time series (1901–2000) over Australia (27°S, 133°E), Canada (60°N, 95°W), Ethiopia (8°N, 38°E), Greenland (72°N, 40°W), United Kingdom (54°N, 2°W), India (20°N, 77°E), Iceland (65°N, 18°W), Japan (36°N, 138°E), United States (38°N, 97°W), South Africa (29°S, 24°E) and Russia (60°N, 100°E). Correlation analyses were also performed to find any relation among precipitation, sunspot numbers, temperature, and cloud-cover at the same spatial and temporal scale. Further correlations were also performed between precipitation with electron and proton fluence at the time interval, 1987–2006. All these parameters were considered in annual and seasonal scales. Though correlation study between precipitation and other parameters do not hint any linear relation, still the Fourier and wavelet analyses give an idea of common periodicities. The 9–11 year periodicity of sunspot numbers calculated by Fourier transform is also confirmed by wavelet transform in annual scale. Similarly, wavelet analysis for precipitation also supports the short periods at 2–5 years which is verified by Fourier transform in discontinuous time over different geographic regions.

  5. A Ground Observation Based Climatology and Forecasting of Winter Fog: Study over Ghaziabad, National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K., Sr.; Sharma, D. A.; Sachdeva, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long term ground observations (1971-2010) have been analyzed over Ghaziabad city, National Capital Region to understand the characteristics of fog phenomenon and its relevance during winter months. We observed mean maximum fog occurrence during December (~23 days) followed by January (~21 days), November (~20 days), February (~14 days) and October (~11 days) respectively. A remarkable increase has been noticed in fog occurrence during October-to-February in last four decades. During 1971-80 to 2001-2010 the mean frequency of fog occurrence had increased by 205.5% in October month and 50.2% in November month. Similarly, mean frequency of fog occurrence increased by 51%, 97% and 119% during December, January and February respectively over the same period. We observed statistically significant increasing trend in fog occurrence from October-to-February during the study period at 95% confidence level. The magnitude of trend is 0.50, 0.47, 0.30, 0.39 and 0.37 for October, November, December, January and February, respectively. The magnitude of trend is highest in October but the occurrence frequency is highest in December. The forecast values obtained from ARIMA model indicates that the number of fog days is going to increase further during October-to-February in the forthcoming years. The data combined with knowledge of meteorology and topography suggested significant conclusions about increase in the fog events in the near future.

  6. A European aerosol phenomenology -5: climatology of black carbon optical properties at 9 regional background sites across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Marco; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Putaud, Jean Philippe; Müller, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs; Laj, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigate the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (σap) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (mEC). σap and mEC have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. σap was determined using filter based absorption photometers and mEC using a thermo-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data set was ensured by harmonization of the instruments deployed at all sites during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration. Annual mean values of σap at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.75 - 1.6 Mm-1 in southern Scandinavia, 4.1 - 11 Mm-1 in central Europen and 2.3-2.8 Mm-1 in the Mediterranean region. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.75 and 1.6 μg m-3 in southern Scandinavia, 0.28-1.1 in Central Europe and British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both σap and mEC in southern Scandinavia and central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites such that a MAC value of 10± 2.5 m2 g-1 (mean ± SD of station means) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites. This is rather small spatial variability compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However

  7. Custom map projections for regional groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2016-01-01

    For regional groundwater flow models (areas greater than 100,000 km2), improper choice of map projection parameters can result in model error for boundary conditions dependent on area (recharge or evapotranspiration simulated by application of a rate using cell area from model discretization) and length (rivers simulated with head-dependent flux boundary). Smaller model areas can use local map coordinates, such as State Plane (United States) or Universal Transverse Mercator (correct zone) without introducing large errors. Map projections vary in order to preserve one or more of the following properties: area, shape, distance (length), or direction. Numerous map projections are developed for different purposes as all four properties cannot be preserved simultaneously. Preservation of area and length are most critical for groundwater models. The Albers equal-area conic projection with custom standard parallels, selected by dividing the length north to south by 6 and selecting standard parallels 1/6th above or below the southern and northern extent, preserves both area and length for continental areas in mid latitudes oriented east-west. Custom map projection parameters can also minimize area and length error in non-ideal projections. Additionally, one must also use consistent vertical and horizontal datums for all geographic data. The generalized polygon for the Floridan aquifer system study area (306,247.59 km2) is used to provide quantitative examples of the effect of map projections on length and area with different projections and parameter choices. Use of improper map projection is one model construction problem easily avoided.

  8. The Region 4 collaborative virtual reference project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sandi K; Johnson, E Diane

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, the Denison Memorial Library at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and the J. Otto Lottes Health Sciences Library at the University of Missouri-Columbia, with funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-Midcontinental Region, embarked on a collaborative, real-time reference project using the 24/7 Reference, Inc., software package. This paper describes how the project was conceived, and includes details on the service hours, staffing, training, marketing, lessons learned, and future plans for the service. PMID:12723812

  9. TRMM-Based Lightning Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen by the spaceborne Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) have been updated. OTD collected data from May 1995 to March 2000. LIS data (equatorward of about 38 deg) has been added for 1998-2010. Flash counts from each instrument are scaled by the best available estimates of detection efficiency. The long LIS record makes the merged climatology most robust in the tropics and subtropics, while the high latitude data is entirely from OTD. The mean global flash rate from the merged climatology is 46 flashes per second. The peak annual flash rate at 0.5 deg scale is 160 fl/square km/yr in eastern Congo. The peak monthly average flash rate at 2.5 scale is 18 fl/square km/mo, from early April to early May in the Brahmaputra Valley of far eastern India. Lightning decreases in this region during the monsoon season, but increases further north and west. A monthly average peak from early August to early September in northern Pakistan also exceeds any monthly averages from Africa, despite central Africa having the greatest yearly average. Most continental regions away from the equator have an annual cycle with lightning flash rates peaking in late spring or summer. The main exceptions are India and southeast Asia, with springtime peaks in April and May. For landmasses near the equator, flash rates peak near the equinoxes. For many oceanic regions, the peak flash rates occur in autumn. This is particularly noticeable for the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Landmasses have a strong diurnal cycle of lightning, with flash rates generally peaking between 3-5 pm local solar time. The central United States flash rates peak later, in late evening or early night. Flash rates peak after midnight in northern Argentina. These regions are known for large, intense, long-lived mesoscale convective systems.

  10. Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Experiment 1: implementation strategy and mid-Pliocene global climatology using GENESIS v3.0 GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (3.29 to 2.97 Ma BP) has been identified as an analogue for the future, with the potential to help understand climate processes in a warmer than modern world. Sets of climate proxies, combined to provide boundary conditions for Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations of the mid-Pliocene, form the basis for the international, data-driven Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Here, we outline the strategy for implementing pre-industrial (modern) and mid-Pliocene forcings and boundary conditions into the GENESIS version 3 GCM, as part of PlioMIP. We describe the prescription of greenhouse gas concentrations and orbital parameters and the implementation of geographic boundary conditions such as land-ice-sea distribution, topography, sea surface temperatures, sea ice extent, vegetation, soils, and ice sheets. We further describe model-specific details including spin-up and integration times. In addition, the global climatology of the mid-Pliocene as simulated by the GENESIS v3 GCM is analyzed and compared to the pre-industrial control simulation. The simulated climate of the mid-Pliocene warm interval is found to differ considerably from pre-industrial. We identify model sensitivity to imposed forcings, and internal feedbacks that collectively affect both local and far-field responses. Our analysis points out the need to assess both the direct impacts of external forcings and the combined effects of indirect, internal feedbacks. This paper provides the basis for assessing model biases within the PlioMIP framework, and will be useful for comparisons with other studies of mid-Pliocene climates.

  11. A global satellite-assisted precipitation climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, A.; Michaelsen, J.; Peterson, P.; Pedreros, D.; Husak, G.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high-resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data-sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  12. A global satellite assisted precipitation climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Funk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high resolution (0.05° global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology

  13. A global satellite assisted precipitation climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, Andrew P.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Gregory J.; Peterson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  14. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  15. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  16. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  17. Local Climatological Data ACSII Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Comma-delimited text files used to create the Local Climatological Data PDF files found in the Local Climatological Data library. Period of record begins in 1998,...

  18. Hydro-climatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The hydro-climatological approach of this volume illustrates the scientific and practical value of considering hydrological phenomena and processes in a climate context to improve understanding of controls, process interaction, and past and future variability/change. Contributions deal with under...

  19. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  20. NS project unites regional, international interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    Wind Dynamics Inc. (WDI) and EHN Wind Power Canada will develop a $60 million wind farm on the border between Amherst, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The wind farm is expected to be operational by 2007 and generate about 100 GWh per year, with a 15-year power purchase agreement. Nova Scotia Power will purchase an output of 31 MW. The partners are currently in negotiation regarding potential turbine suppliers. Although the project is to be constructed on 800 acres in the Tantramar Marsh region, an important migratory route, the actual site for the wind turbines is a sod farm far from marshlands. WDI has consulted with the Canadian Wildlife Service and Ducks Unlimited. Bird studies have not indicated that the project will create any disturbances to avifauna. Local support in Amherst, Nova Scotia is also strong. Recently, in response to consumer demand for more electricity from renewable energy sources, Nova Scotia Power has also awarded contracts for an additional 100 MW of wind energy from independent power producers. WDI has several other projects under development in both Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, particularly since the provincial governments are proactive and promote wind energy. EHN Wind Power Canada is also involved in 2 wind projects in Alberta. Nova Scotia-based Renewable Energy Services Ltd. (RESL) has installed the Turbowinds 600 kW wind turbine in the Goodwood Industrial Park in Halifax. RESL is one of the 6 developers selected in Nova Scotia Power's RFP to develop small projects of 2 MW or smaller, for a total of 25 MW. In addition to the Turbowinds wind turbine, RESL expects to install up to 12 additional turbines in 2005 and 2006.

  1. Analysis and comparison of diurnal variations of cloud radiative forcing: Earth Radiation Budget Experiment and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongseung

    1994-01-01

    Cloud radiative forcing (CRF) is the radiative impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget. This study examines the diurnal variations of CRF using the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) monthly hourly flux data and the flux data derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model radiation code. The results for the months of April, July, and October 1985 and January 1986 are analyzed. We found that, in general, two data sets agreed. For longwave (LW) CRF the diurnal range over land is generally greater than that observed over oceans. For the 4-month averages the ERBE values are 15.8 W/sq m and 6.8 W/sq m for land and ocean, respectively, compared with the ISCCP calculated values of 18.4 W/sq m and 8.0 W/sq m, respectively. The land/ocean contrast is largely associated with changes in cloud amount and the temperature difference between surface and cloud top. It would be more important to note that the clear-sky flux (i.e., surface temperature) variabilities are shown to be a major contributor to the large variabilities over land. The maximum diurnal range is found to be in the summer hemisphere, and the minimum values in the winter hemisphere. It is also shown that the daytime maximum and the nighttime minimum are seen over large portions of land, whereas they occur at any local hour over most oceans. For shortwave (SW) CRF the daytime maximum values are about twice as large as monthly averages, and their highest frequency occurs at local noon, indicating that solar insolation is a primary factor for the diurnal variation of SW CRF. However, the comparison of the ERBE data with the ISCCP results demonstrated that the largest differences in the diurnal range and monthly mean of LW CRF were associated with tropical convergence zones, where clear-sky fluxes could be easily biased by persistent cloudiness and the inadequate treatment of the atmospheric water vapor.

  2. Significance of model credibility in estimating climate projection distributions for regional hydroclimatological risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ensembles of historical climate simulations and climate projections from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were investigated to determine how model credibility affects apparent relative scenario likelihoods in regional risk assessments. Methods were developed and applied in a Northern California case study. An ensemble of 59 twentieth century climate simulations from 17 WCRP CMIP3 models was analyzed to evaluate relative model credibility associated with a 75-member projection ensemble from the same 17 models. Credibility was assessed based on how models realistically reproduced selected statistics of historical climate relevant to California climatology. Metrics of this credibility were used to derive relative model weights leading to weight-threshold culling of models contributing to the projection ensemble. Density functions were then estimated for two projected quantities (temperature and precipitation), with and without considering credibility-based ensemble reductions. An analysis for Northern California showed that, while some models seem more capable at recreating limited aspects twentieth century climate, the overall tendency is for comparable model performance when several credibility measures are combined. Use of these metrics to decide which models to include in density function development led to local adjustments to function shapes, but led to limited affect on breadth and central tendency, which were found to be more influenced by 'completeness' of the original ensemble in terms of models and emissions pathways. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Int'l meeting on statistical climatology convenes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), the 10th International Meeting on Statistical Climatology, (10IMSC) was held from 20 to 24 August in Beijing, bringing together nearly 120 participants from about 30 countries and regions.

  4. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  5. Training programme for the dissemination of climatological and meteorological applications using GIS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. De Filippis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available IBIMET-CNR is involved in making different research projects and in managing operational programmes on national and international level and has acquired a relevant training competence to sustain partner countries and improve their methodological and operational skills by using innovative tools, such as Geographical Information Systems focused on the development of meteorological and climatological applications. Training activities are mainly addressed to National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of Partner-Countries and/or to other Specialized Centers in the frame of Cooperation Programmes promoted by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs mainly in favour of the Less Developing Countries (LDC of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO Regional Association I (Africa. The Institute, as a branch of the WMO-Regional Meteorological Training Centre for Region VI (Europe, organizes also international training courses of high-level in Meteorology, Climatology and Remote Sensing applied to environment and agriculture fields. Moreover, considering the increasing evolution of the GIS functions for meteorological information users, IBIMET has promoted in 2005 the EU COST Action 719 Summer School on "GIS applications in meteorology and climatology''. The paper offers an overview of the main institute training programmes organised to share the results of research activities and operational projects, through the exploitation of innovative technologies and tools like GIS.

  6. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  7. Climatology 2011: An MLS and Sonde Derived Ozone Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    The ozone climatology used as the a priori for the version 8 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms has been updated. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. The new climatology consists of monthly average ozone profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering pressure altitudes from 0 to 65 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from Aura MLS (2004-2010) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2010). Ozone below 8 km (below 12 km at high latitudes) is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 16 km (21 km at high latitudes) is based on MLS measurements. Sonde and MLS data are blended in the transition region. Ozone accuracy in the upper troposphere is greatly improved because of the near uniform coverage by Aura MLS, while the addition of a large number of balloon sonde measurements improves the accuracy in the lower troposphere, in the tropics and southern hemisphere in particular. The addition of MLS data also improves the accuracy of climatology in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The revised climatology has been used for the latest reprocessing of SBUV and TOMS satellite ozone data.

  8. Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris; Wortman, David; Brown, Chris; Hassan, Syed; Humphreys, Ken; Willford, Mark

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  9. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  10. Advancing Climate Dynamics Toward Reliable Regional Climate Projections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    With a scientific consensus reached regarding the anthropogenic effect on global mean temperature,developing reliable regional climate projections has emerged as a new challenge for climate science.A national project was launched in China in 2012 to study ocean's role in regional climate change.This paper starts with a review of recent advances in the study of regional climate response to global warming,followed by a description of the Chinese project including the rationale,objectives,and plan for field observations.The 15 research articles that follow in the special issue are highlighted,representing some of the initial results from the project.

  11. The Iowa Regional Economic Atlas: Project Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.; Eathington, Liesl

    2003-01-01

    This research is designed to produce benchmark statistics for regional economic development strategies and policies. By identifying 35 functional economic regions in Iowa, and further detailing their respective economic strengths, weaknesses, similarities, and dissimilarities, the opportunity for better and more focused economic development policy at the local and the state level emerges. This report explains the criteria used for identifying and ranking Iowa’s 35 largest regional economies, ...

  12. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  13. Recent Progresses on Ionospheric Climatology Investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Libo; WAN Weixing; CHEN Yiding; LE Huijun; ZHAO Biqiang

    2012-01-01

    The ionosphere varies over multiple time scales, which are classified into two categories: the climatology and weather variations. In this national report, we give a brief summary of recent progresses in ionospheric climatology with focus on (i) the seasonal variations, (2) solar cycle effects, and (3) empirical modeling of the ionosphere. The seasonal variations of the ionosphere have been explored in many works to give a more detailed picture with regional and global features at various altitudes by analyzing the observation data from various sources and models. Moreover, a series of studies reported the response of the ionosphere to solar cycle variations, which revealed some novel and detailed features of solar activity dependence of ionospheric parameters at different altitudes. These investigations have improved our understanding on the states of the ionosphere and underlying fundamental processes, provided clues to future studies on ionospheric weather, and guided ionospheric modeling, forecasting and related applications.

  14. Evaluation of global climate models for Indian monsoon climatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of global climate models for forecasting the Indian monsoon is explored. Evaluation and intercomparison of model skills are employed to assess the reliability of individual models and to guide model selection strategies. Two dominant and unique patterns of Indian monsoon climatology are trends in maximum temperature and periodicity in total rainfall observed after 30 yr averaging over India. An examination of seven models and their ensembles reveals that no single model or model selection strategy outperforms the rest. The single-best model for the periodicity of Indian monsoon rainfall is the only model that captures a low-frequency natural climate oscillator thought to dictate the periodicity. The trend in maximum temperature, which most models are thought to handle relatively better, is best captured through a multimodel average compared to individual models. The results suggest a need to carefully evaluate individual models and model combinations, in addition to physical drivers where possible, for regional projections from global climate models. (letter)

  15. Constraining the climatology of CO2 ocean surface flux for North Atlantic and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    The ocean sink is an important part of the anthropogenic CO2 budget. Because the terrestrial biosphere is usually treated as a residual, constraining the net flux into the ocean sink is crucial for understanding the global carbon cycle. The air-sea interface flux is calculated from millions of measurements of CO2 partial pressures. However the regional and temporal means depend on parametrization of gas transfer velocity as well as on the wind/waves fields used for calculations. A recently developed tool, FluxEngine, created within the ESA funded (SOLAS related) OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases project, creates an opportunity to create an ensemble of regional CO2 flux climatologies for the North Atlantic and Arctic waters using multiple combinations of forcing fields and gas transfer velocity parameterizations. The aim of the study is to provide constraints on the regional monthly averages for the chosen area for the whole "climatology ensemble". This approach is similar to the one used by IPCC for the whole model ensemble used for modeling of the climate. Doing a regional study provides an additional test of the parameterizations because the local flux averages may differ even for parameterizations giving similar global averages. We present the methodology and CO2 flux climatology constrains for selected regions and seasons, the preliminary results of a study which aim is to cover the whole North Atlantic and ice-free areas of Arctic Ocean. The study is done within the new ESA funded OceanFlux Evolution project we are part of and at the same time is part of a PhD thesis funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science).

  16. Local Climatological Data (LCD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Local Climatological Data (LCD) contains summaries from major airport weather stations that include a daily account of temperature extremes, degree days,...

  17. Modeling effects of climatological variability and management practices on conservation of groundwater from the Mississippi River Valley Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Mississippi Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert Frank

    Ninety-eight percent of water taken from the Mississippi River Shallow Alluvial Aquifer, hereafter referred to as "the aquifer" or "MRVA," is used by the agricultural industry for irrigation. Mississippi Delta agriculture is increasingly using more water from the MRVA and the aquifer has been losing about 300,000 acre-feet per year. This research expands on previous work in which a model was developed that simulates the effects of climatic variability, crop acreage changes, and specific irrigation methods on consequent variations in the water volume of the MRVA. This study corrects an identified problem by replacing total growing season precipitation with an irrigation demand driver based on evaporation and crop coefficients and changing the time scale from the entire growing season to a daily resolution. The calculated irrigation demand, as a climatological driver for the model, captures effective precipitation more precisely than the initial growing season precipitation driver. Predictive equations resulting from regression analyses of measured versus calculated irrigation water use showed R2 and correlations of 0.33 and 0.57, 0.77 and 0.88, 0.71 and 0.84, and 0.68 and 0.82 for cotton, corn, soybeans and rice, respectively. Ninety-five percent of the predicted values fall within a range of + or - about 23,000 acre-feet, an error of about 10-percent. The study also adds an additional conservation strategy through the use of surface water from on-farm reservoirs in lieu of groundwater. Analyses show that climate could provide the entire water need of the plants in 70-percent of the years for corn, 65-percent of the years for soybeans and cotton, and even 5-percent of the years for rice. Storing precipitation in on-farm structures is an effective way to reduce reliance of Delta producers on groundwater. If producers adopted, at a minimum, the 97.5:2.5 ratio suggested management practice, this minimal management strategy could potentially conserve 48-percent, 35

  18. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I; Morcrette, J. J.; Solomon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F; Collins, W.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, V.; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, D.; Skeie, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust

  19. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, Vaishali; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.

    2013-05-17

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatiotemporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust aerosols

  20. A 4-D climatology (1979-2009) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, V.; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, D.; Skeie, R.

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth-Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust

  1. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 8 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical data sets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, NIMBUS7/TOMS and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain data sets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences between dust aerosols which can be lifted up to 5000 m, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the

  2. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth-Probe and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between

  3. Projected future changes in regional seasonal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the consequences of climate change is relevant for social, biological and ecomical interests. Particularly, knowing the potential changes in the seasonal cycle is useful for taking the appropiate actions to prevent adverse circumstances. In this study, we aim to detect future changes in the surface air temperature (SAT) seasonal cycles. We do so by analyzing differences in the response of the SAT field to the solar annual forcing in different scenarios of models of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). With this approach, we are able to find well-localized areas where the temperature cycle change considerably.

  4. INFORMATIONAL-ANALYTIC MODEL OF REGIONAL PROJECT PORTFOLIO FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Osaulenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of regional project portfolio management in context of interaction of the regional development’s motive forces interaction. The features of innovation development on the regional level and their influence on the portfolio forming process considered. An existing approaches for portfolio modelling and formal criterion of the projects selection analyzed. At the same time the organization of key subjects of regional development interaction described. The aim of the article is investigation of informational aspects of project selection in process of the main development’s motive forces interaction and analytic model of portfolio filling validation. At that an inclination of stakeholders to reach a consensus taking into account. The Triple Helix conception using for concrete definition of the functions of the regional development’s motive forces. Asserted, that any component of innovation triad «science–business–government» can be an initiator of regional project, but it need to support two another components. Non-power interaction theory using for investigation of subjects interrelations in process of joint activity proposed. One of the key concept of the theory is information distance. It characterizes inclination of the parties to reach a consensus based on statistics. Projections of information distance onto directions of development axes using for more accurate definition of mutual positions in the all lines of development proposed. Another important parameter of the model which has an influence on the project support is awareness of stakeholders about it. Formalized description of project in the form of fast set of parameters proposes to use for determination of the awareness. The weighting coefficients for each parameter by expert way. Simultaneously the precision of the each parameter setting for all presented projects determines. On the base of appointed values of information distances and

  5. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  6. IMPLEMENTING REGIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMFIR Andreea

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of implementing regional renewable energy projects through public-private partnerships. The issues of implementing regional renewable energy projects and the contribution of the public sector to its achievement are leading points on the political agenda, being highly debated nowadays. Hence, the general picture of the renewable energy in the European Union is revealed, and the special case of the renewable energy in Romania is disclosed. Furthermore, the pa...

  7. MODEL OF COMPETITIVE MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL BUILDING PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKALOV S.A.; PORYADINA V.L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the verbal model underlying the development of a software decision support competitive regional management of construction projects. Competitive management of projects is understood as the purposeful process beginning with the organisation and carrying out of competition in which result projects-applicants are ordered on the basis of certain criteria, then the winner (or winners) the applicant who has won first place (or, accordingly, some first places depending on comp...

  8. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  9. 雷达气候研究进展及其在城市区域强天气临近预报中的应用%An Overview of Progresses in Radar Climatology and Its Prospective Applications in Nowcasting Severe Weather over Urban Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明轩; 王迎春; 高峰; 肖现; 程丛兰

    2014-01-01

    International progress in radar climatology in recent years is introduced ifrst in this paper, focusing on diurnal variations of convective storms and precipitation in different regions in the world based on radar climatology, and some research ifndings of radar climatology for diurnal variations of warm-season convective storms over contiguous North China (Beijing and its vicinity). Studies of radar climatology mainly reveal initiation, enhancement, and diurnal cycle and propagation of convection over different regions, which has a close relationship with solar heating, topographical forcing, prevailing winds, as well as synoptic and meso-scale systems. Statistics of identiifed and tracked 3D storm properties are another especial study of radar climatology, and are also presented. Studies and progress in effects of urbanization on convective storms and precipitation, and studies on convective weather over urban regions based on radar climatology are also reviewed. Finally, application prospects of radar climatology in analysis on convective mechanism and ifne-scale nowcasting of convective storms and precipitation over urban regions are discussed in the paper.%首先介绍了近年来国际上在雷达气候研究方面的一些进展,特别聚焦于不同地区对流风暴和对流性降水的日变化特征,以及京津冀地区雷达气候研究的一些最新成果。主要揭示了不同地区对流的形成、加强和日循环传播与太阳加热、地形强迫、盛行风及天气尺度和中尺度系统活动等存在紧密联系。其次,对雷达气候学的另一特色研究--采用三维风暴属性追踪统计的方法也进行了介绍。文章也从城市化影响对流风暴和对流性降水发展演变以及从雷达气候学角度研究城市地区强天气两个方面,做了研究进展的一些回顾。最后,对雷达气候学在城市地区强天气演变机理研究及精细化临近预报预警方面的应用进行了讨论。

  10. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  11. Global two-channel AVHRR aerosol climatology: effects of stratospheric aerosols and preliminary comparisons with MODIS and MISR retrievals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Mishchenko, Michael I. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States)]. E-mail: crmim@giss.nasa.gov; Liu Li [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Remer, Lorraine [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 913, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2004-10-15

    We present an update on the status of the global climatology of the aerosol column optical thickness and Angstrom exponent derived from channel-1 and -2 radiances of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the framework of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). The latest version of the climatology covers the period from July 1983 to September 2001 and is based on an adjusted value of the diffuse component of the ocean reflectance as derived from extensive comparisons with ship sun-photometer data. We use the updated GACP climatology and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) data to analyze how stratospheric aerosols from major volcanic eruptions can affect the GACP aerosol product. One possible retrieval strategy based on the AVHRR channel-1 and -2 data alone is to infer both the stratospheric and the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness while assuming fixed microphysical models for both aerosol components. The second approach is to use the SAGE stratospheric aerosol data in order to constrain the AVHRR retrieval algorithm. We demonstrate that the second approach yields a consistent long-term record of the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent. Preliminary comparisons of the GACP aerosol product with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer aerosol retrievals show reasonable agreement, the GACP global monthly optical thickness being lower than the MODIS one by approximately 0.03. Larger differences are observed on a regional scale. Comparisons of the GACP and MODIS Angstrom exponent records are less conclusive and require further analysis.

  12. The impact of SST biases on projections of anthropogenic climate change: A greater role for atmosphere-only models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Soden, Brian J.

    2016-07-01

    There is large uncertainty in the model simulation of regional climate change from anthropogenic forcing. Recent studies have tried to link such uncertainty to intermodel differences in the pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) change. On the other hand, coupled climate models also contain systematic biases in their climatology, largely due to drift in SSTs. To the extent that the projected changes depend on the mean state, biases in the present-day climatology also contribute to the intermodel spread in climate change projections. By comparing atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations using the climatological SSTs from different coupled models, we show that biases in the climatological SST generally have a larger impact on regional projections over land than do intermodel differences in the pattern of SST change. These results advocate for a greater application of AGCM simulations with observed SSTs or flux-adjusted coupled models to improve regional projections of anthropogenic climate change.

  13. Climatology of ionospheric slab thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayachandran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric slab thickness τ defined as a ratio of the total electron content (TEC to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2 has been analysed during the solar maximum (1981 and minimum (1985 phases of an intense, the 21st, solar cycle. Hourly values of TEC and NmF2 collected at Hawaii (low-latitude, Boulder (mid-latitude and Goosebay (high-latitude are used in the study. Climatology of the slab thickness is described by the diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations of τ for the different latitude zones. It is found that, for magnetically quiet days of solar maximum, increased ionization of NmF2 and TEC during the daytime is accompanied by an increased thickness of the ionosphere compared to the night-time for non-auroral latitudes. However, the reverse is found to be true during the solar minimum compensating TEC against a weak night-time ionization of NmF2. For the high-latitude the night-time slab thickness is higher compared to the daytime for both the solar phases. Ratios of daily peak to minimum values of slab thickness vary from 1.3 to 3.75 with the peaks of τ often observed at pre-sunrise and post-sunset hours. The average night-to-day ratios of τ vary from 0.68 to 2.23. The day-to-day variability of τ, expressed in percentage standard deviation, varies from 10% by day (equinox, high-latitude to 67% by night (summer, mid-latitude during solar minimum and from 10% by day (winter and equinox, mid-latitude to 56% by night (equinox, high-latitude during solar maximum. A comprehensive review of slab thickness related literature is given in the paper.

    Key words. Ionospheric physics

  14. CMIP5 permafrost degradation projection:A comparison among different regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donglin; Wang, Huijun

    2016-05-01

    The considerable impact of permafrost degradation on hydrology and water resources, ecosystems, human engineering facilities, and climate change requires us to carry out more in-depth studies, at finer spatial scales, to investigate the issue. In this study, regional differences of the future permafrost changes are explored with respect to the regions (high altitude and high latitude, and in four countries) based on the surface frost index (SFI) model and multimodel and multiscenario data from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Results show the following: (1) Compared with seven other sets of driving data, Climatic Research Unit air temperature combined with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis snow data (CRU_CFSR) yield a permafrost extent with the least absolute area bias and was thus used in the simulation. The SFI model, driven by CRU_CFSR data climatology plus multimodel mean anomalies, produces a present-day (1986-2005) permafrost area of 15.45 × 106 km2 decade-1, which compares reasonably with observations of 15.24 × 106 km2 decade-1. (2) The high-altitude (Tibetan Plateau) permafrost area shows a larger decreasing percentage trend than the high-latitude permafrost area. This indicates that, in terms of speed, high-altitude permafrost thaw is faster than high-latitude permafrost, mainly due to the larger percentage sensitivity to rising air temperature of the high-altitude permafrost compared to the high-latitude permafrost, which is likely related to their thermal conditions. (3) Permafrost in China shows the fastest thaw, which is reflected by the percentage trend in permafrost area, followed by the United States, Russia, and Canada. These discrepancies are mainly linked to different percentage sensitivities of permafrost areas in these four countries to air temperature change. (4) In terms of the ensemble mean, permafrost areas in all regions are projected to decrease by the period 2080-2099. Under representative

  15. U.S. Local Climatological Data (LCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Local Climatological Data (LCD) are summaries of climatological conditions from airport and other prominent weather stations managed by NWS, FAA, and DOD. The...

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Regional Marketing Projects on the Development of Regions from Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Kim-Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the competition for economically attractive stakeholders, regions have to implement strategies to gain and adhere those interest groups. Empirical studies concerning the migration motivations show that it is not only labor market but also soft locational factors of the social environment, nature and landscape that are of high importance: A majority of the population is willing to move or rather stay at a special place because of such soft locational factors. This study examines the impact of regional marketing projects on the development of regions from the perspectives of inhabitants and tourists as well as general attributes to measure a region’s attractiveness from the perspective of high potentials. We argue that those projects that fit to the region and its unique selling propositions contribute to positioning and building location brand value. We show that projects have a socio-economic effect on the attitude towards regions and contribute to building location brand value. An analysis of group differences shows that the project influence on the region and region attractiveness are perceived in significantly different manner depending on the knowledge level of the stakeholder group. Consequently, one should increase the awareness of marketing activities and regions and focus on soft locational factors while establishing and positioning a region brand.

  17. Active Learning in Introductory Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kenneth F.; Meyer, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a software package available for the climatology curriculum that determines possible climatic events according to a long-term climate history. Describes the integration of the software into the curriculum and presents examples of active learning. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)

  18. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.)

  19. Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African monsoon in the West African monsoon modeling and evaluation project (WAMME) first model intercomparison experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongkang; Sales, Fernando De [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lau, W.K.M.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Wu, Man-Li C. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Boone, Aaron [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Meteo-France Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Feng, Jinming [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Dirmeyer, Paul; Guo, Zhichang [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions, Calverton, MD (United States); Kim, Kyu-Myong [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kitoh, Akio [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Kumar, Vadlamani [National Center for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wyle Information Systems, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Poccard-Leclercq, Isabelle [Universite de Bourgogne, Centre de Recherches de Climatologie UMR5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Rowell, David P. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Pegion, Phillip [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); National Center for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Schemm, Jae; Thiaw, Wassila M. [National Center for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Sealy, Andrea [The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, St. James (Barbados); Vintzileos, Augustin [National Center for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Williams, Steven F. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper briefly presents the West African monsoon (WAM) modeling and evaluation project (WAMME) and evaluates WAMME general circulation models' (GCM) performances in simulating variability of WAM precipitation, surface temperature, and major circulation features at seasonal and intraseasonal scales in the first WAMME experiment. The analyses indicate that models with specified sea surface temperature generally have reasonable simulations of the pattern of spatial distribution of WAM seasonal mean precipitation and surface temperature as well as the averaged zonal wind in latitude-height cross-section and low level circulation. But there are large differences among models in simulating spatial correlation, intensity, and variance of precipitation compared with observations. Furthermore, the majority of models fail to produce proper intensities of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and the tropical easterly jet. AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP) data are used to analyze the association between simulated surface processes and the WAM and to investigate the WAM mechanism. It has been identified that the spatial distributions of surface sensible heat flux, surface temperature, and moisture convergence are closely associated with the simulated spatial distribution of precipitation; while surface latent heat flux is closely associated with the AEJ and contributes to divergence in AEJ simulation. Common empirical orthogonal functions (CEOF) analysis is applied to characterize the WAM precipitation evolution and has identified a major WAM precipitation mode and two temperature modes (Sahara mode and Sahel mode). Results indicate that the WAMME models produce reasonable temporal evolutions of major CEOF modes but have deficiencies/uncertainties in producing variances explained by major modes. Furthermore, the CEOF analysis shows that WAM precipitation evolution is closely related to the enhanced Sahara mode and the weakened Sahel mode, supporting

  20. CICERO Project. Community Initiatives for Citizenship Education Regionally Organised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers' Educational Association, Rotherham (England). Yorkshire South District.

    This report outlines the European Union's Community Initiatives for Citizenship Education Regionally Organized (CICERO) pilot project, its results, and suggestions for further action. It describes the participants from seven different groups at their first meeting in Barnsley, England, and each group's definition of what it would like European…

  1. Great Lakes Offshore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Sajadi, Amir; D' Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara; Waligorski, Joseph; Baker, Scott

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  2. Future meteorological drought: projections of regional climate models for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, James; Tallaksen, Lena; Rizzi, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In response to the major European drought events of the last decade, projecting future drought frequency and severity in a non-stationary climate is a major concern for Europe. Prior drought studies have identified regional hotspots in the Mediterranean and Eastern European regions, but have otherwise produced conflicting results with regard to future drought severity. Some of this disagreement is likely related to the relatively coarse resolution of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and regional averaging, which tends to smooth extremes. This study makes use of the most current Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced with CMIP5 climate projections to quantify the projected change in meteorological drought for Europe during the next century at a fine, gridded scale. Meteorological drought is quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which normalize accumulated precipitation and climatic water balance anomaly, respectively, for a specific location and time of year. By comparing projections for these two indices, the importance of precipitation deficits can be contrasted with the importance of evapotranspiration increases related to temperature changes. Climate projections are based on output from CORDEX (the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment), which provides high resolution regional downscaled climate scenarios that have been extensively tested for numerous regions around the globe, including Europe. SPI and SPEI are then calculated on a gridded scale at a spatial resolution of either 0.44 degrees (~50 km) or 0.11 degrees (~12.5km) for the three projected emission pathways (rcp26, rcp45, rcp85). Analysis is divided into two major sections: first validating the models with respect to observed historical trends in meteorological drought from 1970-2005 and then comparing drought severity and frequency during three future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) to the

  3. A hemispheric climatology of monsoon depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, J. V.; Boos, W.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon depressions are large (1000-2000 km diameter) cyclonic low pressure systems having organized deep convection, best known for forming in the Bay of Bengal and migrating northwest over northern India in the monsoon trough. About 3 to 5 of these systems occur during each monsoon season, contributing about half of the Indian summer rainfall. Despite their importance as a precipitation source, their dynamics are poorly constrained. Furthermore, although they do occur elsewhere, such as around Australia and in the southern Indian Ocean, there does not exist a collective inventory of these systems outside of the Bay of Bengal region. Here we present a climatology of monsoon depressions produced from the ERA-Interim Reanalysis. Feature tracks are identified using an automated tracking algorithm (K. Hodges' TRACK code) applied to the 850 hPa relative vorticity field for local summer, 1989 to 2003. Using criteria based on relative vorticity and sea level pressure, cyclonic low pressure systems are separated into different intensity categories, one of which corresponds to the definition for monsoon depressions used by the India Meteorological Department. The resultant distribution of storms obtained for the Bay of Bengal region compares well with a previously compiled climatology of monsoon depressions that was limited to the region surrounding India. Having validated our ability to identify monsoon depressions in their classic genesis region near India, we then extend the methods to include the western Pacific, Australia, and the southern Indian Ocean. Track distributions and composite structures of monsoon depressions for these different regions will be presented.

  4. A climatological description of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1990-05-22

    This report provides a general climatological description of the Savannah River Site. The description provides both regional and local scale climatology. The regional climatology includes a general regional climatic description and presents information on occurrence frequencies of the severe meteorological phenomena that are important considerations in the design and siting of a facility. These phenomena include tornadoes, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and ice/snow storms. Occurrence probabilities given for extreme tornado and non-tornado winds are based on previous site specific studies. Local climatological conditions that are significant with respect to the impact of facility operations on the environment are described using on-site or near-site meteorological data. Summaries of wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are primarily based on the most recently generated five-year set of data collected from the onsite meteorological tower network (1982--86). Temperature, humidity, and precipitation summaries include data from SRL's standard meteorological instrument shelter and the Augusta National Weather Service office at Bush Field through 1986. A brief description of the onsite meteorological monitoring program is also provided. 24 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Project work across borders in the arctic Barents region: practical challenges for project members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Ingrid; Anderssen, Norman; Lvova, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article was to explore cross-border project cooperation in applied settings in health education as this emerges in the Barents region. Specifically, we wanted to identify the practical challenges for those who participate in the work. This is of direct and indirect relevance to nursing education due to the rapidly increasing student exchange rates, the teachers' increased impetus to take part in international collaboration, and the increased emphasis within nursing education to be culture sensitive and ethnically fair. The considerable differences between countries in the Barents region present clear challenges. Knowledge based on experience from everyday cross-cultural and multinational project work has not been communicated extensively, and each project will have to acquire its own knowledge. Based on participation in various cross-national collaboration projects, we organize the identified practical challenges into five interrelated, everyday challenges: (1) cultural differences: obvious and overlooked, (2) the continuous challenge of language, (3) organizational variations, (4) possibilities and obstacles related to technology, and (5) the important minutiae of project logistics. These exist in all stages of a project. In project applications, these challenges and corresponding realistic consequences for funding are vital. Nursing students and their teachers should be aware that practical cross-national project work poses important challenges that nevertheless might be overcome.

  6. Project work across borders in the arctic Barents region: practical challenges for project members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Ingrid; Anderssen, Norman; Lvova, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article was to explore cross-border project cooperation in applied settings in health education as this emerges in the Barents region. Specifically, we wanted to identify the practical challenges for those who participate in the work. This is of direct and indirect relevance to nursing education due to the rapidly increasing student exchange rates, the teachers' increased impetus to take part in international collaboration, and the increased emphasis within nursing education to be culture sensitive and ethnically fair. The considerable differences between countries in the Barents region present clear challenges. Knowledge based on experience from everyday cross-cultural and multinational project work has not been communicated extensively, and each project will have to acquire its own knowledge. Based on participation in various cross-national collaboration projects, we organize the identified practical challenges into five interrelated, everyday challenges: (1) cultural differences: obvious and overlooked, (2) the continuous challenge of language, (3) organizational variations, (4) possibilities and obstacles related to technology, and (5) the important minutiae of project logistics. These exist in all stages of a project. In project applications, these challenges and corresponding realistic consequences for funding are vital. Nursing students and their teachers should be aware that practical cross-national project work poses important challenges that nevertheless might be overcome. PMID:18355948

  7. Ensemble of regional climate model projections for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul; McGrath, Ray

    2016-04-01

    The method of Regional Climate Modelling (RCM) was employed to assess the impacts of a warming climate on the mid-21st-century climate of Ireland. The RCM simulations were run at high spatial resolution, up to 4 km, thus allowing a better evaluation of the local effects of climate change. Simulations were run for a reference period 1981-2000 and future period 2041-2060. Differences between the two periods provide a measure of climate change. To address the issue of uncertainty, a multi-model ensemble approach was employed. Specifically, the future climate of Ireland was simulated using three different RCMs, driven by four Global Climate Models (GCMs). To account for the uncertainty in future emissions, a number of SRES (B1, A1B, A2) and RCP (4.5, 8.5) emission scenarios were used to simulate the future climate. Through the ensemble approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections can be partially quantified, thus providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. In addition, likelihood values can be assigned to the projections. The RCMs used in this work are the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling-Climate Limited-area Modelling (COSMO-CLM, versions 3 and 4) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GCMs used are the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5, the UK Met Office's HadGEM2-ES, the CGCM3.1 model from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and the EC-Earth consortium GCM. The projections for mid-century indicate an increase of 1-1.6°C in mean annual temperatures, with the largest increases seen in the east of the country. Warming is enhanced for the extremes (i.e. hot or cold days), with the warmest 5% of daily maximum summer temperatures projected to increase by 0.7-2.6°C. The coldest 5% of night-time temperatures in winter are projected to rise by 1.1-3.1°C. Averaged over the whole country, the number of frost days is projected to decrease by over 50%. The projections indicate an average increase in the length of the growing season

  8. Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D; Bala, G; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-04-27

    Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) used to project climate responses to increased CO{sub 2} generally omit irrigation of agricultural land. Using the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean model, we find that inclusion of an extreme irrigation scenario has a small effect on the simulated temperature and precipitation response to doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions, but reduced warming by as much as 1 C in some agricultural regions, such as Europe and India. This interaction between CO{sub 2} and irrigation occurs in cases where agriculture is a major fraction of the land surface and where, in the absence of irrigation, soil moisture declines are projected to provide a positive feedback to temperature change. The reduction of warming is less than 25% of the temperature increase modeled for doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions; thus greenhouse warming will still be dominant. However, the results indicate that land use interactions may be an important component of climate change uncertainty in some agricultural regions. While irrigated lands comprise only {approx}2% of the land surface, they contribute over 40% of global food production. Climate changes in these regions are therefore particularly important to society despite their relatively small contribution to average global climate.

  9. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  10. Quantifying uncertainty in precipitation climatology, twenty-first century change, and teleconnections in global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, Baird Grant

    The ability of global climate models (GCMs) to simulate climatological precipitation and other features of the hydrological cycle accurately is acceptable by some metrics, especially at large scales. Regionally, however, there can be substantial discrepancy in a multi-model ensemble, both in the annual or seasonal historical precipitation climatology as well as in end-of-century changes. Characterizing this intermodel spread and identifying leading uncertainty patterns and underlying physical pathways is important in constraining climatological biases and projections of future change. This dissertation looks at three aspects of precipitation uncertainty in ensembles. First, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections are analyzed in an atmosphere-only ensemble to gauge the ability of atmospheric components of GCMs to reproduce ENSO precipitation teleconnections. This serves as a test for how well models simulate the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature forcing in the immediate ENSO vicinity, as well as how accurately they reproduce the large-scale tropical-to-midlatitude dynamics leading to teleconnected precipitation. While individual models have difficulty in simulating the exact spatial pattern of teleconnections, they demonstrate skill in regional amplitude measures and sign agreement of the precipitation teleconnections at the grid point level, which lends value to the use of such measures in global warming projections. Next, objective spatial analysis techniques are applied to a fully-coupled GCM ensemble in order to visualize patterns of uncertainty in end-of-century precipitation changes and in the historical climatology. Global patterns are considered first, with the tropics exerting a clear dominance in intermodel spread, mainly within zones of deep convection or along convective margins. Regional domains are considered second, with a focus on the wintertime midlatitude Pacific storm track. A key region of end-of-century precipitation

  11. Projects from the Centre Region financed from Structural Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The policy of Social and Economical Cohesion represents the fundamental policy of the European Union, of reducing the social and economical disparities between member states. The Regional Operational Program is a strategic document of the regional development of Romania, within which there have been earmarked 483, 62 millions of euro to the Center Region. After more than 2 years from theimplementation of the Operational Program, the degree of earmarking the Structural Funds is situated below 28%, and Romania is situated on the last place in this classification. In order to eliminate the difficulties found in accessing and absorbing European funds, it is recommended the government involvement in finding additional sources of financing, in creating a body of experts to sit on the assessment, design and audit of European funds, establishing a single source of information concerning the launch, approval and execution of projects.

  12. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  13. Incorporating vegetation dynamics in regional climate change projections over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, C. A.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2009-09-01

    Recent projections of climate change over the Mediterranean region based on general circulation models (e.g. IPCC AR4 GCMs) and regional climate models (e.g. PRUDENCE RCMs) generally show strong warming and pronounced decrease in precipitation, especially in the summer. While the role of vegetation in modulating the regional climate is widely recognized, most, if not all, of these GCM and RCM climate change projections do not account for the response of the dynamic biosphere to potential climate changes. Here, we present preliminary results from ongoing 15-year simulations over the Mediterranean region with a regional climate model (RegCM3) asynchronously coupled to a dynamic vegetation model (CLM-DGVM). Three experiments are performed in order to explore the impact of vegetation feedback on simulated changes in mean climate, climate variability and extreme climatic events (i.e., flood-inducing storms, droughts, heat waves, and extreme winds). This includes 1) a present day climate run with dynamic vegetation, 2) a future climate run with dynamic vegetation, and 3) a future climate run with static vegetation (i.e. vegetation fixed at the present day state). RegCM3 and CLM-DGVM are both run at a horizontal grid spacing of 20 km over a region covering the Mediterranean basin and parts of Central Europe and Northern Africa. Results illustrate the importance of including vegetation feedback in predictions of climate change impacts on Mediterranean climate variability, extreme climatic events and storms.

  14. The modification of the typhoon rainfall climatology model in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-S. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the modification of a typhoon rainfall climatological model, by using the dataset up to 2006 and including data collected from rain gauge stations established after the 921 earthquake (1999. Subsequently, the climatology rainfall models for westward- and northward-moving typhoons are established by using the typhoon track classification from the Central Weather Bureau. These models are also evaluated and examined using dependent cases collected between 1989 and 2006 and independent cases collected from 2007 to 2011. For the dependent cases, the average total rainfall at all rain gauge stations forecasted using the climatology rainfall models for westward- (W-TRCM12 and northward-moving (N-TRCM12 typhoons is superior to that obtained using the original climatological model (TRCM06. Model W-TRCM12 significantly improves the precipitation underestimation of model TRCM06. The independent cases show that model W-TRCM12 provides better accumulated rainfall forecasts and distributions than model TRCM06. A climatological model for accompanied northeastern monsoons (A-TRCM12 for special typhoon types has also been established. The current A-TRCM12 model only contains five historical cases and various typhoon combinations can cause precipitation in different regions. Therefore, precipitation is likely to be significantly overestimated and high false alarm ratios are likely to occur in specific regions. For example, model A-TRCM12 significantly overestimates the rainfall forecast for Typhoon Mitag, an independent case from 2007. However, it has a higher probability of detection than model TRCM06. From a disaster prevention perspective, a high probability of detection is much more important than a high false alarm ratio. The modified models can contribute significantly to operational forecast.

  15. Ozonesonde climatology between 1995 and 2009: description, evaluation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tilmes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An ozone climatology based on ozone soundings for the last 15 years has been constructed for model evaluation and comparisons to other observations. Vertical ozone profiles for 41 stations around the globe have been compiled and averaged for the years 1980–1994 and 1995–2009. The climatology provides information about the median and the width of the ozone probability distribution function, as well as interannual variability of ozone between 1995 and 2009, in pressure and tropopause-referenced altitudes. In addition to single stations, regional aggregates are presented, combining stations with similar ozone characteristics. The Hellinger distance is introduced as a new diagnostic to compare the variability of ozone distributions within each region and used for model evaluation purposes. This measure compares not only the mean, but also the shape of distributions. The representativeness of regional aggregates is discussed using independent observations from surface stations and MOZAIC aircraft data. Ozone from all of these data sets show an excellent agreement within the range of the interannual variability, especially if a sufficient number of measurements are available, as is the case for West Europe. Within the climatology, a significant longitudinal variability of ozone in the troposphere and lower stratosphere in the northern mid- and high latitudes is found. The climatology is used to evaluate results from two model intercomparison activities, HTAP for the troposphere and CCMVal2 for the tropopause region and the stratosphere. HTAP ozone is in good agreement with observations in the troposphere within their range of uncertainty, but ozone peaks too early in the Northern Hemisphere spring. The strong gradients of ozone around the tropopause are less well captured by many models. Lower stratospheric ozone is overestimated for all regions by the multi-model mean of CCMVal2 models. Individual models also show major shortcomings in

  16. Ozone project (POP) of the Pannonian region. Conclusive final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) was initiated in 1993 with the aim to develop scientific tools to support the planning process for the reduction of summer ozone levels in North-eastern Austria. The project was carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, the Institute for Meteorology and Physics (University for Agricultural Sciences, Vienna) and the Austrian Federal Environment Agency. POP was funded by the Austrian Federal Ministries for Science and Traffic Affairs, for Environment, Youth and Family, and for Agriculture and Forestry as well as by the Provincial Governments of Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland. After 3 1/2 years of work the project has achieved the following results: 1.) A harmonized data set of air quality measurements from fixed monitoring stations and two aircrafts from two summers in the study area. 2.) A detailed spatially and temporally resolved emission inventory for ozone precursor substances NO, NMVOC and CO for Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. 3.) A photochemical transport model to simulate ozone production and transport over Europe, suitable for: a) scientific analyses of the mechanism of oxidant formation in North-Eastern Austria; b) scenario calculations to assess the effects of emission reduction measures; c) short term ozone forecasts in the study region. (author)

  17. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  18. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  19. Systems and Technologies for Space Exploration: the regional project STEPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiatto, D.; Moncalvo, D.

    The Aerospace technology network of Piemonte represents ˜25% of the italian capacity and handles a comprehensive spectrum of products (aircraft, propulsion, satellites, space station modules, avionics. components, services...). The cooperation between the Comitato Distretto Aerospaziale Piemonte and the European Regional Development Fund 2007-2013 has enabled Regione Piemonte to launch three regional Projects capable to enhance the synergy and competitiveness of the network, among which: STEPS - Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale, a joint development of technologies for robotic and human Space Exploration by 3 large Industries, 27 SMEs, 3 Universities and one public Research Centre. STEPS develops virtual and hardware demonstrators for a range of technologies to do with a Lander's descent and soft landing, and a Rover's surface mobility, of both robotic and manned equipment on Moon and Mars. It also foresees the development of Teleoperations labs and Virtual Reality environments and physical simulations of Moon and Mars surface conditions and ground. Mid-way along STEPS planned development, initial results in several technology domains are available and are presented in this paper.

  20. ENSO impact on simulated South American hydro-climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stuck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the simulated hydro-climatology of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM is analysed. Main object of this study is the ENSO-driven variability of the water storage of South America. The horizontal model resolution amounts to 0.5 degree and it is forced with monthly climate variables for 1961-1995 of the Tyndall Centre Climate Research Unit dataset (CRU TS 2.0 as a representation of the observed climate state. Secondly, the model is also forced by the model output of a global circulation model, the ECHAM4-T42 GCM. This model itself is driven by observed monthly means of the global Sea Surface Temperatures (SST and the sea ice coverage for the period of 1903 to 1994 (GISST. Thus, the climate model and the hydrological model represent a realistic simulated realisation of the hydro-climatologic state of the last century. Since four simulations of the ECHAM4 model with the same forcing, but with different initial conditions are carried out, an analysis of variance (ANOVA gives an impression of the impact of the varying SST on the hydro-climatology, because the variance can be separated into a SST-explained and a model internal variability (noise. Also regional multivariate analyses, like Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA provide information of the complex time-space variability. In particular the Amazon region and the South of Brazil are significantly influenced by the ENSO-variability, but also the Pacific coastal areas of Ecuador and Peru are affected. Additionally, different ENSO-indices, based on SST anomalies (e.g. NINO3.4, NINO1+2, and its influence on the South American hydro-climatology are analysed. Especially, the Pacific coast regions of Ecuador, Peru and Chile show a very different behaviour dependant on those indices.

  1. Statistical examination of climatological data relevant to global temperature variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, H.L.; Gunst, R.F.; Woodward, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    The research group at Southern Methodist University has been involved in the examination of climatological data as specified in the proposal. Our efforts have resulted in three papers which have been submitted to scholarly journals, as well as several other projects which should be completed either during the next six months or next year. In the following, we discuss our results to date along with projected progress within the next six months. Major topics discussed in this progress report include: testing for trend in the global temperature data; (2) defining and estimating mean global temperature change; and, (3) the effect of initial conditions on autoregressive models for global temperature data.

  2. Importance of ensembles in projecting regional climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, Raymond; Daniel, Ariele; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    We have performed an ensemble of simulations using RegCM4 to examine the ability to reproduce observed trends in precipitation intensity and to project future changes through the 21st century for the central United States. We created a matrix of simulations over the CORDEX North America domain for 1950-2099 by driving the regional model with two different global models (HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M, both for RCP8.5), by performing simulations at both 50 km and 25 km grid spacing, and by using three different convective parameterizations. The result is a set of 12 simulations (two GCMs by two resolutions by three convective parameterizations) that can be used to systematically evaluate the influence of simulation design on predicted precipitation. The two global models were selected to bracket the range of climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 models: HadGEM2-ES has the highest ECS of the CMIP5 models, while GFDL-ESM2M has one of the lowestt. Our evaluation metrics differ from many other RCM studies in that we focus on the skill of the models in reproducing past trends rather than the mean climate state. Trends in frequency of extreme precipitation (defined as amounts exceeding 76.2 mm/day) for most simulations are similar to the observed trend but with notable variations depending on RegCM4 configuration and on the driving GCM. There are complex interactions among resolution, choice of convective parameterization, and the driving GCM that carry over into the future climate projections. We also note that biases in the current climate do not correspond to biases in trends. As an example of these points the Emanuel scheme is consistently "wet" (positive bias in precipitation) yet it produced the smallest precipitation increase of the three convective parameterizations when used in simulations driven by HadGEM2-ES. However, it produced the largest increase when driven by GFDL-ESM2M. These findings reiterate that ensembles using multiple RCM configurations and driving GCMs are

  3. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  4. Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) contains summaries from major airport weather stations that include a daily account of temperature extremes,...

  5. U.S. Annual Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual Climatological Summary contains historical monthly and annual summaries for over 8000 U.S. locations. Observing stations are located in the United States of...

  6. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  7. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  8. Annex III - Case study: IAEA regional project on cooperation in nuclear power management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A regional project was implemented during the period 1995-1998 in the Latin American region under the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. The project was directed to exchange management practices and to develop mechanisms of regional integration for improving safety and reliability of nuclear power programmes in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico

  9. 7 CFR 1486.103 - Are regional projects possible under the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consideration provided such projects target qualifying emerging markets in the specified region. CCC may consider activities which target qualified emerging markets in a specific region, but are conducted in a... MARKETS PROGRAM General Information § 1486.103 Are regional projects possible under the program?...

  10. Watershed-based natural research management: Lessons from projects in the Andean region

    OpenAIRE

    Sowell, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This Undergraduate Honors Thesis focuses on how different factors affect the success of a watershed management project and lessons learned from projects in the Andean Region. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)

  11. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C.M., E-mail: c.grossi-sampedro@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Brimblecombe, P. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Menendez, B. [Geosciences et Environnement Cergy, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Benavente, D. [Lab. Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada UA-CSIC, Dpto. Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Harris, I. [Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Deque, M. [Meteo-France/CNRM, CNRS/GAME, 42 Avenue Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse, Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Koeppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). - Research highlights: {yields} We introduce the notion of salt climatology for heritage conservation. {yields} Climate affects salt thermodynamics on building materials. {yields} We associate Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. {yields} We offer future projections of salt damage in Western Europe due to climate change. {yields} Humid

  12. Mars Geoscience Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) extended study: Technical volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The FLTSATCOM Earth orbiting communications satellite is a prominent candidate to serve as the Mars Geoscience Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) spacecraft. Major aspects directly applicable are: (1) the incorporation of solid orbit insertion motor; (2) the ability to cruise to Mars in the spin-stabilized mode; (3) ample capability for payload mass and power; (4) attitude control tried to nadir and orbit plane coordinates; (5) exemplary Earth orbital performance record and projected lifetime; and (6) existence of an on-going procurement into the MGCO time period.

  13. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for retrieving snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.194 ± 0.046 g cm−3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was ∼ 0.295 g cm−3 in June, and 0.135 g cm−3 in October, respectively. Maritime snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, in Arctic Russia, and in some regions of the Russian Far East, and the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966–2008 monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. Snow density decreased with elevation, at about 0.004 g cm−3 per 100 m increase in elevation. This same relationship existed for all snow classes except for maritime and ephemeral snow.

  14. SPARC Intercomparison of Middle Atmosphere Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William; Fleming, Eric; Geller, Marvin; Hamilton, Kevin; Karoly, David; Ortland, Dave; Pawson, Steve; Swinbank, Richard; Udelhofen, Petra

    2002-01-01

    This atlas presents detailed incomparisons of several climatological wind and temperature data sets which cover the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km). A number of middle atmosphere climatologies have been developed in the research community based on a variety of meteorological analyses and satellite data sets. Here we present comparisons between these climatological data sets for a number of basic circulation statistics, such as zonal mean temperature, winds and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. We also include comparisons between the global climatologies and historical rocketsonde wind and temperature measurements, and also with more recent lidar temperature data. These comparisons highlight differences and uncertainties in contemporary middle atmosphere data sets, and allow biases in particular analyses to be isolated. In addition, a brief atlas of zonal mean temperature and wind statistics is provided to highlight data availability and as a quick-look reference. This technical report is intended as a companion to the climatological data sets held in archive at the SPARC Data Center (http://www.sparc.sunysb.edu).

  15. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station: an example of the state role in regional nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant siting policy which confines new construction to existing sites will lead to the formation of large regional power centers, each involving many utilities from several states. The Palo Verde Nuclear Project in Arizona has been examined in terms of the role state regulation plays in large regional nuclear projects. State regulatory processes do not reflect the regional nature of large power centers. Decisions and actions by individual state regulatory commissions create risk and uncertainty for all the utility participants in regional projects. A climate and mechanism to encourage and facilitate interstate cooperation are needed to enhance the viability of the confined siting policy and the regional power center concept

  16. Climatology of early night equatorial spread F over Jicamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, N. P.; Fejer, Bela G.

    2009-01-01

    [1] We use radar observations from 1996 to 2006 to study the climatology of postsunset equatorial 3-m spread F irregularities over Jicamarca during all seasons. We show that the spread F onset times do not change with solar flux and that their onset heights, which occur near the altitude of the evening F region velocity vortex, increase linearly from about 260 to 400 km from solar minimum to solar maximum. Higher onset heights generally lead to stronger radar echoes. During the equinox, sprea...

  17. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  18. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  19. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  20. UPPER MIDWEST REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT. REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEGLER, STANLEY B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE DEVELOPMENT, DIVISION, SERVICES, AND CORPORATE STRUCTURE OF THE UPPER MIDWEST REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY, A NON-PROFIT REGIONAL LABORATORY DEVOTED TO CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENT IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. MEMBERS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF, EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, BOARD OF TRUSTEES, AND STATE COUNCILS OF THE…

  1. Shared Value and Its Regional and Industrial Reflection in Corporate Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Křečková Kroupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Shared Value (CSV implemented projects by regions, social issues, and industries that are involved in pursuing the CSV concept. Project preferences by region show South America, Central America and Caribbean, Global scope and Africa as key targets of CSV projects, followed by North America and Asia. Europe, both Western and Eastern, is at the edge of interest with only several projects implemented. Project preferences by industry clearly show that companies capitalize on their strengths and professional focus. Analyzed Shared Value projects proved simultaneous value to a wide range of corporate stakeholders by creating new products or services, redefining productivity in the value chain or enabling local cluster development. Given the strategic nature of CSV projects, top management initiative is necessary. Numerous world-wide proven Shared Value business cases could serve as inspiration for Central European leaders in creation of their future strategies. Successful CSV projects implemented in the Czech Republic are mentioned.

  2. Projected changes in tropical cyclones over Vietnam and the South China Sea using a 25 km regional climate model perturbed physics ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Grace; Hodges, Kevin I.; Mcsweeney, Carol; Jones, Richard; Hein, David

    2015-10-01

    The regional climate modelling system PRECIS, was run at 25 km horizontal resolution for 150 years (1949-2099) using global driving data from a five member perturbed physics ensemble (based on the coupled global climate model HadCM3). Output from these simulations was used to investigate projected changes in tropical cyclones (TCs) over Vietnam and the South China Sea due to global warming (under SRES scenario A1B). Thirty year climatological mean periods were used to look at projected changes in future (2069-2098) TCs compared to a 1961-1990 baseline. Present day results were compared qualitatively with IBTrACS observations and found to be reasonably realistic. Future projections show a 20-44 % decrease in TC frequency, although the spatial patterns of change differ between the ensemble members, and an increase of 27-53 % in the amount of TC associated precipitation. No statistically significant changes in TC intensity were found, however, the occurrence of more intense TCs (defined as those with a maximum 10 m wind speed >35 m/s) was found to increase by 3-9 %. Projected increases in TC associated precipitation are likely caused by increased evaporation and availability of atmospheric water vapour, due to increased sea surface and atmospheric temperature. The mechanisms behind the projected changes in TC frequency are difficult to link explicitly; changes are most likely due to the combination of increased static stability, increased vertical wind shear and decreased upward motion, which suggest a decrease in the tropical overturning circulation.

  3. Regional Community Wind Conferences, Great Plains Windustry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Lisa [Windustry

    2013-02-28

    Windustry organized and produced five regional Community Wind Across America (CWAA) conferences in 2010 and 2011 and held two CWAA webinars in 2011 and 2012. The five conferences were offered in regions throughout the United States: Denver, Colorado October 2010 St. Paul, Minnesota November 2010 State College, Pennsylvania February 2011 Ludington, Michigan (co-located with the Michigan Energy Fair) June 2011 Albany, New York October 2011

  4. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  5. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  6. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  7. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  8. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  9. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors

  10. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  11. Tennessee Valley Total and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatology Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Dennis; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J. M.; McCaul, E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) has been in operation since 2001 and consists often VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama. The NALMA locates sources of impulsive VHF radio signals from total lightning by accurately measuring the time that the signals arrive at the different receiving stations. The sources detected are then clustered into flashes by applying spatially and temporally constraints. This study examines the total lightning climatology of the region derived from NALMA and compares it to the cloud-to-ground (CG) climatology derived from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) The presentation compares the total and CG lightning trends for monthly, daily, and hourly periods.

  12. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C M; Brimblecombe, P; Menéndez, B; Benavente, D; Harris, I; Déqué, M

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Köppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Köppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). PMID:21514627

  13. Hydropower and Developmental Projects on Himalayan Region: Impact on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Vp

    2010-05-01

    The hydel potential of the Beas basin is estimated to be 4,050 mw with significant contribution of Parbati, one of the major tributaries of river Beas in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. The potential of river Parbati has been harnessed in three stages comprising Stage-I (750 MW), Stage-II (800 MW) and Stage-III (501 MW). These projects are being planned to be implemented by the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC). NHPC has planned development of the basin with construction of Stage-II initially, and completion of balance investigations of Stage-I and Stage-III before taking up these for construction. The Parbati stage-II is a run-of-the-river scheme to harness hydro potential of the lower reaches of the river Parbati. The project is "Inter basin transfer" type. The river is being diverted at village Pulga in Parbati valley by a diversion tunnel and the powerhouse is being constructed in Sainj valley, adjacent to the Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP). A gross head of 859 m between Pulga and Suind will be utilized for generating 800 MW power. The project proposes a total network of 80.75 km roads to be constructed in dam complex, Sheelagarh complex, power house complex. Considerable loss of wildlife and biodiversity in three valleys is expected to occur. The construction of proposed diversion dam near Pulga in Parbati valley will result in significant loss of upper temperate forested habitats (2700-2900 m). This habitats is characterized by upper temperate coniferous forests and its associated understory vegetation that are home of many endangered floral and faunal species such as: Himalayan musk deer, serow, goral, black bear, common leopard, Western tragopan, cheer pheasant, koklass and monal pheasant. These habitats are now being lost on a permanent basis due to construction of dam and human pressure.

  14. A global ozone climatology from ozone soundings via trajectory mapping: a stratospheric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2013-06-01

    longer record. The climatology shows clearly the depletion of ozone from the 1970s to the mid 1990s and ozone recovery in the lower stratosphere in the 2000s. When this climatology is used as the upper boundary condition in an Environment Canada operational chemical forecast model, the forecast is improved in the vicinity of the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS region. As this ozone climatology is neither dependent on a priori data nor photochemical modeling, it provides independent information and insight that can supplement satellite data and model simulations of stratospheric ozone.

  15. A new evaporation duct climatology over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yang, Kunde; Yang, Yixin; Ma, Yuanliang

    2015-10-01

    The climatology of evaporation ducts is important for shipborne electromagnetic system design and application. The evaporation duct climatology that is currently used for such applications was developed in the mid 1980s; this study presents efforts to improve it over the South China Sea (SCS) by using a state-of-the-art evaporation duct model and an improved meteorology dataset. This new climatology provides better evaporation duct height (EDH) data over the SCS, at a higher resolution of 0.312°×0.313°. A comparison between the new climatology and the old one is performed. The monthly average EDH in the new climatology is between 10 and 12 m over the SCS, higher than that in the old climatology. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the evaporation duct over the SCS in different months are analyzed in detail, based on the new climatology.

  16. Revitalisation of Orlík reservoir – case study of a regional restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Očásková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the bottom-up formation of a regional project for restoring a reservoir. Land use changes in the upper Vltava river basin caused the eutrophication of Orlík reservoir, which resulted in water blooms, which in association with socio-economic changes caused a decline in tourism in this region and serious difficulties for local people. The study examines how public awareness helped in the establishment of a restoration project, its framework and strategy. Regional governance of the project management took into consideration both knowledge-based solutions and the interests of local people and municipalities. The project has the potential for resolving both environmental and socio-economic problems and providing a sustainable win-win strategy for the region, residents, tourists and stakeholders.

  17. The SPARC Intercomparison of Middle Atmosphere Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William; Fleming, Eric; Geller, Marvin; Gelman, Mel; Hamilton, Kevin; Karoly, David; Ortland, Dave; Pawson, Steve; Swinbank, Richard; Udelhofen, Petra

    2003-01-01

    Our current confidence in 'observed' climatological winds and temperatures in the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km) is assessed by detailed intercomparisons of contemporary and historic data sets. These data sets include global meteorological analyses and assimilations, climatologies derived from research satellite measurements, and historical reference atmosphere circulation statistics. We also include comparisons with historical rocketsonde wind and temperature data, and with more recent lidar temperature measurements. The comparisons focus on a few basic circulation statistics, such as temperature, zonal wind, and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. Assimilated data sets provide the most realistic tropical variability, but substantial differences exist among current schemes.

  18. Climatology of local flow patterns around Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Recently a method has been developed to classify local-scale flow patterns from the wind measurements at a dense network of stations. It was found that in the MISTRAL area around Basel a dozen characteristic flow patterns occur. However, as the dense network of stations ran only during one year, no reliable climatology can be inferred from these data, especially the annual cycle of the flow patterns is not well determined from a single year of observations. As there exist several routinely operated stations in and near the MISTRAL area, a method was searched to identify the local flow patterns from the observations at the few routine stations. A linear discriminant analysis turned out to be the best method. Based of data from 11 stations which were simultaneously operated during 1990-1995 a six-year climatology of the flow patterns could be obtained. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  19. Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Under Superpave Specifications: A Regional Pooled Fund Project

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Rebecca; Soleymani, Hamid; Shah, Ayesha

    2002-01-01

    This regional pooled fund project was conducted to investigate the performance of Superpave asphalt mixtures incorporating RAP. This study was closely coordinated with a national study on the same topic (NCHRP 9-12, Incorporation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in the Superpave System). Specifically, this regional project looked at typical materials from the North Central United States to determine if the findings of NCHRP 9-12 were valid for Midwestern materials and to expand the NCHRP finding...

  20. Results of large scale wind climatologically estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kircsi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe theparticular field of climatology which analyzes airmovement characteristics regarding utilization of windfor energy generation. The article describes features ofwind energy potential available in Hungary compared towind conditions in other areas of the northern quartersphere in order to assist the wind energy use developmentin Hungary. Information on wind climate gives a solidbasis for financial and economic decisions ofstakeholders in the field of wind energy utilization.

  1. Status and challenges over the land management projects implementation of agricultural enterprises at the regional level

    OpenAIRE

    O.P. Atamanyuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with current state of development on the land management projects, providing the ecological and economic assessment of crop rotation and streamline of land in the Volyn region. Features and challenges over the improvement of the land management projects implementing mechanism of agricultural enterprises have been shown. Effectiveness of active and passive measures to accelerate the implementation process of land management projects implementation has been shown.

  2. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement

  3. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydro...

  4. Projecting overwintering regions of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua in China using the CLIMEX model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Wang, Pan; Cheng, Wen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious agricultural pest worldwide. However, population sources of S. exigua in outbreak regions are still vague due to the lack of understanding the distribution of overwintering regions, especially in China. In the present study, the potential overwintering regions of S. exigua in China are projected using the method of Compare Location in the CLIMEX model in order to understand the population sources in outbreak regions and establish an accurate forecasting system. The results showed the southern and northern overwintering boundaries near the Tropic of Cancer (about 23.5 (°)N) and the Yangtze River valley (about 30 (°)N), respectively. Meanwhile, the projection was supported by the data of fieldwork in 14 countries/cities during winter from 2008-2010. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that the overwintering regions of S. exigua were accurately projected by the CLIMEX model.

  5. Estimation of increased regional income that emanates from economically justified road construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the possible development benefits than can emanate from economically justified road construction projects. It shows how the once-off increase in regional income resulting from investment in road construction projects, and the recurring additional regional income resulting from the use of new or improved roads can be estimated. The difference is shown that exists between a cost-benefit analysis (to determine how economically justified a project is and a regional economic income analysis (to estimate the general economic benefits that will be developed by investment in and usage of a road. Procedures are proposed through which the once-off and recurring increases in regional income can be estimated by using multiplier and accelerator analyses respectively. Finally guidelines are supplied on the appropriate usage of input variables in the calculation of the regional income multiplier.

  6. Climatological Data Rescue from historic meteorological stations in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, M.

    2010-09-01

    Digitization of climatological data from meteorological station had several periods in past. Last period is very close connected with database system CLIDATA. The main source of historical data is archive in Ostrava regional office of CHMI where a lot of historical monthly reports of observations with daily data are stored. Other historical data were founded from various types of historical annual reports and last but not least from border cooperation with Polish and Slovak meteorological services. During several last years were imported daily data from new discovered stations, and some elements from historic stations such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, hourly data of sunshine, temperatures from thermographs and also meteorological phenomena from some synoptic stations. Within the frame of our project we could also digitize wind speed, wind direction and wind gust data. During more than 150 years of regular meteorological observation, were used a big amount of various types of monthly reports for measured data records. Meteorological stations were founded by several organizations and all of them used another kind of reports that were changed during years. We recognized nearly 30 types of precipitation monthly reports and 50 types of climatologic reports. Digitization of data especially from very historical stations brings also some problems during definition of metadata such as coordinates, elevations, measuring instruments height, a lot of observing terms or historic units of elements. Some historical annual reports mention observer's jobs, that is very interesting and we can find position of meteorological stations more exactly. Data quality control has been proceeded since 1993. First were used special programs and algorithms outside of database system. Some new programs for wrong values detection or for missing values filling are used at present. CLIDATA database system and its extensions allows to make logical and spatial data

  7. Projected Regional Climate in 2025 Due to Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Messen, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    By 2025, 60 to 80 percent of the world s population will live in urban environments. Additionally, the following facts published by the United Nations further illustrates how cities will evolve in the future. Urban areas in the developing world are growing very rapidly. The urban growth rate will continue to be particularly rapid in the urban areas of less developed regions, averaging 2.4 per cent per year during 2000-2030, consistent with a doubling time of 29 years. The urbanization process will continue worldwide. The concentration of population in cities is expected to continue so that, by 2030, 84 percent of the inhabitants of more developed countries will be urban dwellers. Urbanization impacts the whole hierarchy of human settlements. In 2000,24.8 per cent of the world population lived in urban settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants and by 2015 that proportion will likely rise to 27.1 per cent.

  8. A Review of Recent Updates of Sea-Level Projections at Global and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, A. B. A.; Adloff, F.; Jevrejeva, S.; Leclercq, P. W.; Marzeion, B.; Wada, Yoshihide; Winkelmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level change (SLC) is a much-studied topic in the area of climate research, integrating a range of climate science disciplines, and is expected to impact coastal communities around the world. As a result, this field is rapidly moving, and the knowledge and understanding of processes contributing to SLC is increasing. Here, we discuss noteworthy recent developments in the projection of SLC contributions and in the global mean and regional sea-level projections. For the Greenland Ice Sheet contribution to SLC, earlier estimates have been confirmed in recent research, but part of the source of this contribution has shifted from dynamics to surface melting. New insights into dynamic discharge processes and the onset of marine ice sheet instability increase the projected range for the Antarctic contribution by the end of the century. The contribution from both ice sheets is projected to increase further in the coming centuries to millennia. Recent updates of the global glacier outline database and new global glacier models have led to slightly lower projections for the glacier contribution to SLC (7-17 cm by 2100), but still project the glaciers to be an important contribution. For global mean sea-level projections, the focus has shifted to better estimating the uncertainty distributions of the projection time series, which may not necessarily follow a normal distribution. Instead, recent studies use skewed distributions with longer tails to higher uncertainties. Regional projections have been used to study regional uncertainty distributions, and regional projections are increasingly being applied to specific regions, countries, and coastal areas.

  9. A Review of Recent Updates of Sea-Level Projections at Global and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, A. B. A.; Adloff, F.; Jevrejeva, S.; Leclercq, P. W.; Marzeion, B.; Wada, Y.; Winkelmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    Sea-level change (SLC) is a much-studied topic in the area of climate research, integrating a range of climate science disciplines, and is expected to impact coastal communities around the world. As a result, this field is rapidly moving, and the knowledge and understanding of processes contributing to SLC is increasing. Here, we discuss noteworthy recent developments in the projection of SLC contributions and in the global mean and regional sea-level projections. For the Greenland Ice Sheet contribution to SLC, earlier estimates have been confirmed in recent research, but part of the source of this contribution has shifted from dynamics to surface melting. New insights into dynamic discharge processes and the onset of marine ice sheet instability increase the projected range for the Antarctic contribution by the end of the century. The contribution from both ice sheets is projected to increase further in the coming centuries to millennia. Recent updates of the global glacier outline database and new global glacier models have led to slightly lower projections for the glacier contribution to SLC (7-17 cm by 2100), but still project the glaciers to be an important contribution. For global mean sea-level projections, the focus has shifted to better estimating the uncertainty distributions of the projection time series, which may not necessarily follow a normal distribution. Instead, recent studies use skewed distributions with longer tails to higher uncertainties. Regional projections have been used to study regional uncertainty distributions, and regional projections are increasingly being applied to specific regions, countries, and coastal areas.

  10. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m3/ha

  11. Guangxi Shanglin Aluminum Plant cross-regional technical upgrade project(phase 1)put into operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The project(Phase 1)of cross-regional techni- cal upgrade of the aluminum plant of Guangxi Shanglin Nannan Industrial Co.was completed and put into operation on June 8,2007.The plant is a cross-regional technical upgrade pro- ject of Nanning Aluminum Plant,featuring the integration of coal,electricity and aluminum.

  12. Road project opportunity costs subject to a regional constraint on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Christophe; Point, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    France has constrained the Aquitaine region to set up a climate plan to avoid an emission of 2883 ktCO(2)eq for the period 2007-2013. In parallel, the region has decided to carry out the construction of road infrastructures in order to avoid very high congestion costs. Those road projects will involve an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during that period. In the present context of strong sustainability, all emissions (direct and indirect) generated by those projects should be offset. At the regional level, the offsetting of GHG emissions is usually carried out by implementing carbon sequestration projects or projects that reduce energy demand. This paper aims at determining the maximum budget for financing GHG emissions offsetting projects, with computation being based on the opportunity costs of projects, the minimum cost of economic activity reduction required to offset emissions from those projects. The maximum budget devoted to GHG emissions offsetting projects should not exceed €(2001) 1920 M to €(2001) 3592 M, according to low/high traffic growth assumptions.

  13. Regional variability of a projected sea ice-free Arctic during the summer months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F.; Howell, S. E. L.; Kushner, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections of sea ice retreat under anthropogenic climate change at the regional scale and in summer months other than September have largely not been evaluated. Information at this level of detail is vital for future planning of safe Arctic marine activities. Here the timing of when Arctic waters will be reliably ice free across Arctic regions from June to October is presented. It is shown that during this century regions along the Northern Sea Route and Arctic Bridge will be more reliably ice free than regions along the Northwest Passage and the Transpolar Sea Route, which will retain substantial sea ice cover past midcentury. Moreover, ice-free conditions in the Arctic will likely be confined to September for several decades to come in many regions. Projections using a selection of models that accounts for agreement of models in each region and calendar month with observations yield similar conclusions.

  14. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  15. Scheme major international and regional cooperative projects and double-bases projects for overseas scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2005, 34 major international cooperative projects involved in multiple disciplines as Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Engineering and Materials Sciences, Information Sciences, Earth Sciences,Chemical Sciences, and Management Sciences etc., were ratified with a total funding of 32.03 million RMB.

  16. Water mass census in the Nordic seas using climatological and observational data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compared and evaluated the water mass census in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (Gin) Sea area from climatologies, observational data sets and model output. The four climatologies evaluated were: the 1998 and 2001 versions of the World Ocean Atlas (WOA98, WOA01), and the United States Navy's GDEM90 (Generalized Digital Environmental Model) and MODAS01 (Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System) climatologies. Three observational data sets were examined: the multidecadal (1965-1995) set contained on the National Oceano- graphic Data Centre's (NODC) WOD98 (World Ocean Data) Cd-Rom, and two seasonal data sets extracted from observations taken on six cruises by the SACLANT Research Center (SACLANTCEN) of NATO/Italy between 1986-1989. The model data is extracted from a global model run at 1/3 degree resolution for the years 1983-1997, using the Pop (Parallel Ocean Program) model of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The census computations focused on the Norwegian Sea, in the southern part of the Gin Sea, between 100W-100E and 600N-700N, especially for comparisons with the hydro casts and the model. Cases of such evaluation computations included: (a) short term comparisons with quasi-synoptic CTD surveys carried out over a 4-year period in the southeastern Gin Sea; (b) climatological comparisons utilizing all available casts from the WOD98 Cd-Rom, with four climatologies; and (c) a comparison between the WOA01 climatology and the Pop model output ending in 1997. In this region in the spring, the fraction of ocean water that has salinity above 34.85 is ∼94%, and that has temperatures above 00C is ∼33%. Three principal water masses dominated the census: the Atlantic water A W, the deep water D W and an intermediate water mass defined as Lower Arctic Intermediate Water (LAIW). Besides these classes, both the climatologies and the observations exhibited the significant presence of deep water masses with T-S characteristics that do not fall into the named varieties

  17. Mesospheric Temperature Climatology and Comparisons Above the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, Joshua P.

    2004-01-01

    A Rayleigh-scatter lidar has been operated by the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) at Utah State University (USU) since 1993. The lidar measures atmospheric temperatures between 45 and 90 km which are important for understanding the physics and chemistry of the middle atmosphere. The temperature profiles were used to create a multi-year temperature climatology. This climatology was used for comparisons with the temperature climatology from the Purple Crow Lidar at the Universi...

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Regional Marketing Projects on the Development of Regions from Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze Kim-Kathrin; Schramm-Klein Hanna

    2014-01-01

    In the competition for economically attractive stakeholders, regions have to implement strategies to gain and adhere those interest groups. Empirical studies concerning the migration motivations show that it is not only labor market but also soft locational factors of the social environment, nature and landscape that are of high importance: A majority of the population is willing to move or rather stay at a special place because of such soft locational factors. This study examines the impact ...

  19. Revisiting the Climatology of Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho Nam CHEUNG; ZHOU Wen; Hing Yim MOK; Man Chi WU; Yaping SHAO

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the occurrence of atmospheric blocking,the climatology of the characteristics of blocking events,including duration,intensity,and extension,in four seasons over the Northern Hemisphere was analyzed for the period 1950-2009.The seasonality and spatial variations of these characteristics were studied according to their longitudinal distributions.In general,there were sharp discrepancies in the blocking characteristics between winter and summer,and these differences were more prominent over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.The blocking not only occurred more frequently but also underwent stronger amplification in winter; likewise,the blocking occurred less frequently and underwent weaker amplification in summer.There are very strong interrelationships among different blocking characteristics,suggesting that they are supported by similar physical factors.In addition,the relationship between blocking over different regions and East Asian circulation was examined.Ural-Siberia is a major blocking formation region in all seasons that may exert a downstream impact on East Asia.The impact is generally weak in summer,which is due to its lower intensity and smaller duration.However,the extratropical circulation over East Asia in summer can be disturbed persistently by the frequent occurrence of blocking over the Asian continent or the Western Pacific.In particular,the blocking frequency over the Western Pacific significantly increased during the study period.This climatological information provides a background for studying the impact of blocking on East Asian circulation under both present and future climate conditions.

  20. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  1. NONMONOTONIC TRUST REGION PROJECTED REDUCED HESSIAN ALGORITHM WITH TWO-PIECE UPDATE FOR CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Detong

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-piece update of projected reduced Hessian algorithm with nonmonotonic trust region strategy for solving nonlinear equality constrained optimization problems. In order to deal with large problems, a two-piece update of twoside projected reduced Hessian is used to replace full Hessian matrix. By adopting the Fletcher's penalty function as the merit function, a nonmonotonic trust region strategy is suggested which does not require the merit function to reduce its value in every iteration. The two-piece update of projected reduced Hessian algorithm which switches to nonmonotonic trust region technique possesses global convergence while maintaining a two-step Q-superlinear local convergence rate under some reasonable conditions. Furthermore, one step Q-superlinear local convergence rate can be obtained if at least one of the update formulas is updated at each iteration by an alternative update rule. The numerical experiment results are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement brain drain gain instruments through a thorough analysis of processes. The implementation phase deals with the development, implementation and evaluation of instruments as well as the dissemination...

  3. Regional climate projections in two alpine river basins: Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, A.; Yaoming, M.; Sharma, N.; Kienberger, S.; Ahrens, B.

    2011-04-01

    Projections from coarse-grid global circulation models are not suitable for regional estimates of water balance or trends of extreme precipitation and temperature, especially not in complex terrain. Thus, downscaling of global to regionally resolved projections is necessary to provide input to integrated water resources management approaches for river basins like the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). This paper discusses the application of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM as a dynamical downscaling tool. To provide accurate data the COSMO-CLM model output was post-processed by statistical means. This downscaling chain performs well in the baseline period 1971 to 2000. However, COSMO-CLM performs better in the UDRB than in the UBRB because of a longer application experience and a less complex climate in Europe. Different climate change scenarios were downscaled for the time period 1960-2100. The projections show an increase of temperature in both basins and for all seasons. The values are generally higher in the UBRB with the highest values occurring in the region of the Tibetan Plateau. Annual precipitation shows no substantial change. However, seasonal amounts show clear trends, for instance an increasing amount of spring precipitation in the UDRB. Again, the largest trends for different precipitation statistics are projected in the region of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, the projections show up to 50% longer dry periods in the months June to September with a simultaneous increase of about 10% for the maximum amount of precipitation on five consecutive days. For the Assam region in India, the projections also show an increase of 25% in the number of consecutive dry days during the monsoon season leading to prolonged monsoon breaks.

  4. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

  5. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios, relative changes in CSR increase with increased projected temperature rise. Between now and 2100, global average CSR is projected to remain similar to today (+0.3%) under the optimistic B1/+1.8 degrees C scenario, but to decrease significantly (-9.4%) under the 'business as usual' A1FI/+4.0 degrees C scenario. Across all modelled scenarios, the magnitude and direction of CSR change are geographically highly non-uniform. While in most temperate and arctic regions, a CSR increase is expected, the projections indicate a strong decline in most tropical and subtropical regions. Countries least responsible for past and present greenhouse gas emissions are likely to incur disproportionately large future losses in CSR, whereas industrialized countries have projected moderate increases. Independent of direction, we infer that all changes in regional CSR will probably induce on-site species turnover and thereby be a threat to native floras. PMID:20335215

  6. Effects of time-series length and gauge network density on rainfall climatology estimates in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E.; Arevalo, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    weighting method. Furthermore, the effect of the density of stations was also considered by penalizing the interpolated errors proportionally to the station density in the site. The results showed a large discrepancy on rainfall estimate uncertainties among Latin American countries. The uncertainties varied from less than 2% in the Southeastern region of Brazil, to around 40% in regions with low stations density and short time-series at Southern Peru. Therefore, the results highlight the importance of international cooperation for climate data sharing among Latin American countries. In this context, projects aiming at improving scientific cooperation and fostering information based policy such as EUROCLIMA and RALCEA, funded by the European Commission, offer an important opportunity for reducing uncertainties on estimates of climate variables in Latin America.

  7. NASA GLDAS Evapotranspiration Data and Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water lost to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. ET is a shared component in the energy and water budget, therefore, a critical variable for global energy and water cycle and climate change studies. However, direct ET measurements and data acquisition are difficult and expensive, especially at the global level. Therefore, modeling is one common alternative for estimating ET. With the goal to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes, the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating quality-controlled, spatially and temporally consistent, terrestrial hydrologic data, including ET and other variables that affect evaporation and transpiration, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, soil moisture, heat flux, and solar radiation. This poster presents the long-term ET climatology (mean and monthly), derived from the 61-year GLDAS-2 monthly 1.0 deg x 1.0 deg. NOAH model Experiment-1 data, and describes the basic characteristics of spatial and seasonal variations of the climatology. The time series of GLDAS-2 precipitation and radiation, and ET are also discussed to show the improvement of GLDAS-2 forcing data and model output over those from GLDAS-1.

  8. A climatological analysis of Saharan cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, K.; El-Metwally, Mossad; Almazroui, Mansour; Abdel Wahab, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the climatology of Saharan cyclones is presented in order to understand the Saharan climate, its variability and its changes. This climatology includes an analysis of seasonal and interannual variations, the identification and classification of cyclone tracks, and a presentation of their chief characteristics. The data used are drawn from the 1980-2009, 2.5° × 2.5°, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NNRP I) dataset. It is found that cyclone numbers increase in September-October-November (SON) at 4.9 cyclones per decade, while they decrease in June-July-August at 12.3 cyclones per decade. The identification algorithm constructed 562 tracks, which are categorized into 12 distinct clusters. Around 75 % of the Saharan cyclones originate south of the Atlas Mountains. The percentage of tracks that move over the Sahara is around 48 %. The eastern Mediterranean receives 27 % of the Saharan tracks, while the western basin receives only 17 and 8 % of all the Saharan cyclones decay over the Arabian Peninsula. The maximum cyclonic activity occurs in April. There is a general decrease in the number of tracks in all categories between 1993 and 2009, compared with the period between 1980 and 1992. About 72 % of the Saharan cyclones do not live more than 3 days, and about 80 % of the cyclones in the tracks never reach central pressures 1,000 hPa during their lifetimes. The maximum deepening in the tracks occurs over the western Mediterranean and over northern Algeria.

  9. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290-740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes.

  10. An Ex Ante Evaluation Framework for the Regional Impact of Publicly Supported R&D Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen; Hewitt-Dundas, Nola; Love, James H

    2003-01-01

    This paper draws on the knowledge-base implicit in ex post evaluations of publicly funded R&D and other related conceptual and empirical studies to suggest a framework for the ex ante evaluation of the regional benefits from R&D projects. The framework developed comprises two main elements: an inventory of the global private and social benefits which might result from any R&D project; and, an assessment of the share of these global benefits which might accrue to a host region, taking into acc...

  11. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional... Guide 1 to Subpart G of Part 1942—Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and... successor agency under Public Law 103-354, in concurring to this Project Management Agreement,...

  12. The weather@home regional climate modelling project for Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mitchell T.; Karoly, David J.; Rosier, Suzanne M.; Dean, Sam M.; King, Andrew D.; Massey, Neil R.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Jones, Richard G.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.

    2016-09-01

    A new climate modelling project has been developed for regional climate simulation and the attribution of weather and climate extremes over Australia and New Zealand. The project, known as weather@home Australia-New Zealand, uses public volunteers' home computers to run a moderate-resolution global atmospheric model with a nested regional model over the Australasian region. By harnessing the aggregated computing power of home computers, weather@home is able to generate an unprecedented number of simulations of possible weather under various climate scenarios. This combination of large ensemble sizes with high spatial resolution allows extreme events to be examined with well-constrained estimates of sampling uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the weather@home Australia-New Zealand project, including initial evaluation of the regional model performance. The model is seen to be capable of resolving many climate features that are important for the Australian and New Zealand regions, including the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on driving natural climate variability. To date, 75 model simulations of the historical climate have been successfully integrated over the period 1985-2014 in a time-slice manner. In addition, multi-thousand member ensembles have also been generated for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 under climate scenarios with and without the effect of human influences. All data generated by the project are freely available to the broader research community.

  13. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Rivera, Oriana; Läderach, Peter; Bunn, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Schroth, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee. PMID:25875230

  14. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera

    Full Text Available Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  15. Future extreme events in European climate: an exploration of regional climate model projections

    OpenAIRE

    Beniston, Martin; Stephenson, David B.; Christensen, Ole B.; Ferro, Christopher A. T.; Frei, Christoph; Goyette, Stéphane; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Holt, Tom; Jylhä, Kirsti; Koffi, Brigitte; Palutikof, Jean; Schöll, Regina; Semmler, Tido; Woth, Katja

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of changes in the extreme events that are most likely to affect Europe in forthcoming decades. A variety of diagnostic methods are used to determine how heat waves, heavy precipitation, drought, wind storms, and storm surges change between present (1961–90) and future (2071–2100) climate on the basis of regional climate model simulations produced by the PRUDENCE project. A summary of the main results follows. Heat waves – Regional surface warming causes the fre...

  16. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Quan; Chenxing Wang; Yan Yan; Gang Wu; Hongxun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs) offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of th...

  17. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  18. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  19. Climatological/meteorological and hydrological disasters and the insurance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a continual fact during the Earth’s history. There had been many significant changes in the Earth’s climate during its evolutionary history and a lot of ecosystems had been affected by these changes. Especially the industrialization process showing rapid movement after industrial revolution has put serious pressure on the present and future climate. Human activities such as increased fossil fuel usage with the industrialization process, land-use changes, industrial processes and deforestation have increased atmospheric accumulation up of the various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O. On the other hand, increase in frequency and severity of natural disasters can be explained mostly by the increase of the probability of extreme events due to the climate change. Increased numbers of people have been affected by climatological and meteorological catastrophes in every year. Various actions and activities such as disaster preparedness, mitigation, reduction and prevention of the impacts and early warnings are considerable with respect to the insurance sector. These activities and actions should be implemented in the frame of contemporary and comprehensive disaster management planes. Scope of the natural disaster should be expanded particularly in the countries and regions that are vulnerable to the impacts of the climate change and variability including drought events and/or natural disasters. Moreover, drought events should also be accepted as one of the severe natural disasters, and sustainable and applicable drought management plans should be developed in order to mitigate these disasters. In this context, main purpose of the study is to classify and shortly assess the climatological and meteorological disasters, and to attract attention necessity of a new disaster insurance system containing these disasters.

  20. Downscaling and projection of precipitation from general circulation model predictors in an equatorial climate region by the automated regression-based statistical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohd Zaki M.; Islam, Tanvir; Ishak, Asnor M.

    2014-10-01

    The authors have applied an automated regression-based statistical method, namely, the automated statistical downscaling (ASD) model, to downscale and project the precipitation climatology in an equatorial climate region (Peninsular Malaysia). Five precipitation indices are, principally, downscaled and projected: mean monthly values of precipitation (Mean), standard deviation (STD), 90th percentile of rain day amount, percentage of wet days (Wet-day), and maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD). The predictors, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) products, are taken from the daily series reanalysis data, while the global climate model (GCM) outputs are from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) in A2/B2 emission scenarios and Third-Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) in A2 emission scenario. Meanwhile, the predictand data are taken from the arithmetically averaged rain gauge information and used as a baseline data for the evaluation. The results reveal, from the calibration and validation periods spanning a period of 40 years (1961-2000), the ASD model is capable to downscale the precipitation with reasonable accuracy. Overall, during the validation period, the model simulations with the NCEP predictors produce mean monthly precipitation of 6.18-6.20 mm/day (root mean squared error 0.78 and 0.82 mm/day), interpolated, respectively, on HadCM3 and CGCM3 grids, in contrast to 6.00 mm/day as observation. Nevertheless, the model suffers to perform reasonably well at the time of extreme precipitation and summer time, more specifically to generate the CDD and STD indices. The future projections of precipitation (2011-2099) exhibit that there would be an increase in the precipitation amount and frequency in most of the months. Taking the 1961-2000 timeline as the base period, overall, the annual mean precipitation would indicate a surplus projection by nearly 14~18 % under both GCM output cases (HadCM3 A2/B2 scenarios and

  1. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale

  2. Projecting changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T. Schoof

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local climate extremes, and their impacts, result from the multifaceted interplay between large-scale climate forcing, local environmental factors (physiography, and societal vulnerability. In this paper, we review historical and projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States, with a focus on strengths and weaknesses of (1 commonly used definitions for extremes such as thresholds and percentiles, (2 statistical approaches to quantifying changes in extremes, such as extreme value theory, and (3 methods for post-processing (downscaling global climate models (GCMs to investigate regional and local climate. We additionally derive regional and local estimates of changes in temperature extremes by applying a quantile mapping approach to high-resolution gridded daily temperature data for 6 U.S. sub-regions. Consistent with the background warming in the parent GCMs, we project decreases in regional and local cold extremes and increases in regional and local warm extremes throughout the domain, but the downscaling approach removes bias and produces substantial spatial variability within the relatively small sub-regions. We finish with recommendations for future research on regional climate extremes, suggesting that focus be placed on improving understanding of extremes in the context of large-scale circulation and evaluating the corresponding cascade of scale interactions within GCMs.

  3. Adaptation of vulnerable regional agricultural systems in Europe to climate change - results from the ADAGIO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzinger, J.; Kubu, G.; Alexandrov, V.; Utset, A.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Lalic, B.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Ventrella, D.; Anastasiou, D. P.; Medany, M.; Altaher, S.; Olejnik, J.; Lesny, J.; Nemeshko, N.; Nikolaev, M.; Simota, C.; Cojocaru, G.

    2009-10-01

    During 2007-2009 the ADAGIO project (http://www.adagio-eu.org) is carried out to evaluate regional adaptation options in agriculture in most vulnerable European regions (mediterranean, central and eastern European regions). In this context a bottom-up approach is used beside the top-down approach of using scientific studies, involving regional experts and farmers in the evaluation of potential regional vulnerabilities and adaptation options. Preliminary results of the regional studies and gathered feedback from experts and farmers show in general that (increasing) drought and heat are the main factors having impact on agricultural vulnerability not only in the Mediterranean region, but also in the Central and southern Eastern European regions. Another important aspect is that the increasing risk of pest and diseases may play a more important role for agricultural vulnerability than assumed before, however, till now this field is only rarely investigated in Europe. Although dominating risks such as increasing drought and heat are similar in most regions, the vulnerabilities in the different regions are very much influenced by characteristics of the dominating agroecosystems and prevailing socio-economic conditions. This will be even be more significant for potential adaptation measures at the different levels, which have to reflect the regional conditions.

  4. Projected changes in regional climate extremes arising from Arctic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Sun, Lantao

    2015-08-01

    The decline in Arctic sea ice cover has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts locally. An emerging and highly uncertain area of scientific research, however, is whether such Arctic change has a tangible effect on weather and climate at lower latitudes. Of particular societal relevance is the open question: will continued Arctic sea ice loss make mid-latitude weather more extreme? Here we analyse idealized atmospheric general circulation model simulations, using two independent models, both forced by projected Arctic sea ice loss in the late twenty-first century. We identify robust projected changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes arising solely due to Arctic sea ice loss. The likelihood and duration of cold extremes are projected to decrease over high latitudes and over central and eastern North America, but to increase over central Asia. Hot extremes are projected to increase in frequency and duration over high latitudes. The likelihood and severity of wet extremes are projected to increase over high latitudes, the Mediterranean and central Asia; and their intensity is projected to increase over high latitudes and central and eastern Asia. The number of dry days over mid-latitude Eurasia and dry spell duration over high latitudes are both projected to decrease. There is closer model agreement for projected changes in temperature extremes than for precipitation extremes. Overall, we find that extreme weather over central and eastern North America is more sensitive to Arctic sea ice loss than over other mid-latitude regions. Our results are useful for constraining the role of Arctic sea ice loss in shifting the odds of extreme weather, but must not be viewed as deterministic projections, as they do not account for drivers other than Arctic sea ice loss.

  5. Precipitation climatology over India: validation with observations and reanalysis datasets and spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P.; Jyothi, S.; Basha, Ghouse; Rao, S. V. B.; Rajeevan, M.; Velicogna, Isabella; Sutterley, Tyler C.

    2016-01-01

    Changing rainfall patterns have significant effect on water resources, agriculture output in many countries, especially the country like India where the economy depends on rain-fed agriculture. Rainfall over India has large spatial as well as temporal variability. To understand the variability in rainfall, spatial-temporal analyses of rainfall have been studied by using 107 (1901-2007) years of daily gridded India Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall datasets. Further, the validation of IMD precipitation data is carried out with different observational and different reanalysis datasets during the period from 1989 to 2007. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project data shows similar features as that of IMD with high degree of comparison, whereas Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation data show similar features but with large differences, especially over northwest, west coast and western Himalayas. Spatially, large deviation is observed in the interior peninsula during the monsoon season with National Aeronautics Space Administration-Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA), pre-monsoon with Japanese 25 years Re Analysis (JRA-25), and post-monsoon with climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) reanalysis datasets. Among the reanalysis datasets, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows good comparison followed by CFSR, NASA-MERRA, and JRA-25. Further, for the first time, with high resolution and long-term IMD data, the spatial distribution of trends is estimated using robust regression analysis technique on the annual and seasonal rainfall data with respect to different regions of India. Significant positive and negative trends are noticed in the whole time series of data during the monsoon season. The northeast and west coast of the Indian region shows significant positive trends and negative trends over western Himalayas and

  6. Hanford Site Climatological Data Summary 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DJ Hoitink; JV Ramsdell; KW Burk

    1999-05-26

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1998. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature; precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1998 was much warmer than normal, tying 1992 as the warmest year on record. The average temperature was 56.4 F, 3.1 F above normal (53.3 F). The highest July temperature ever recorded was 112 F on July 27, 1998. The first week in May, three daily temperature records were broken or tied. November 1998 was the third warmest on record. For the year 1998, there were 73 days with maximum temperature >90 F, the third highest on record. For the 12-month period, 11 months were warmer than normal and 1 was cooler than normal. The summer (June, July, and August) and autumn (September, October, and November) of 1998 were the fourth warmest on record. 1998 was slightly wetter than normal. Precipitation totaled 6.45 in., 103% of normal (6.26 in.); snow-fall totaled 7.2 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. There were eight thunderstorms recorded at Hanford Meteorological Station in July 1998, tying 1983 for the most thunderstorms in July. The average wind speed during 1998 was 7.9 mph, 0.2 mph above normal (7.7 mph). There were 32 days with peak gusts {ge}40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26 mph. The peak gust during the year was 56 mph from the south-southwest on November 21. November 1998 had a record number of days (10) with wind gusts {ge}40 mph. The heating-degree days for 1997-1998 were 4,523 (14% below the 5

  7. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  8. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  9. Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling: implications for water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buytaert, W.; Vuille, M.; Dewulf, A.; Urrutia, R.; Karmalkar, A.; Célleri, R.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate

  10. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  11. Incorporating regional growth into forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions from project-level residential and commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of land use planning decisions, regional planning organizations have developed tools to forecast the emissions from project-level residential and commercial development. This paper reviews the state of GHG emissions forecasting methods for project-level development. We argue that when forecasting changes in regional emissions it is important to make explicit what is assumed about a project′s effect on the population of residents and businesses in the region. We present five regional growth assumptions capturing the range of ways that project-level development might influence (i) construction and occupancy of similar developments elsewhere in a region and (ii) relocation of the initial activities that occur on-site before the project is built. We show that current forecasting tools inconsistently address the latter when they are interpreted as forecasted changes in regional emissions. Using a case study in Yolo County, California we demonstrate that forecasted changes in regional emissions are greatly affected by the regional growth assumption. In the absence of information about which regional growth assumption is accurate, we provide guidelines for selection of a conservative regional growth assumption. - Highlights: • Current tools inconsistently forecast GHG emissions from project-level development. • We outline five assumptions about how projects may affect regional growth. • Our assumptions capture a range of economic and population effects of projects. • Our case study shows that growth assumptions greatly affect regional GHG estimates. • We provide guidelines for selecting a conservative regional growth assumption

  12. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  13. Istanbul Finance Center Project and Its Effect on Regional Real Estate Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Teker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The region called Istanbul West Atasehir neighbourhood is planned to be the area where Istanbul Finance Center Project is settled. It is expected that the underlying project will strongly affect the real estate prices in the neigbouring areas. Therefore, it would be a valuable information for investors who are planning to invest in real estates relating to the Istanbul Finance Center Project. By the theory of Huff’s the attractiveness of a location is strongly related to the distance. In order to determine the expected future increases in real estate prices for the neighbouring locations, a number of regional experienced real estate agents was inteviewed. Moreover, the factors that are expected to influence the real estate prices are identified and ranked by their significancy levels.

  14. Development and Testing of the New Surface LER Climatology for OMI UV Aerosol Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura satellite retrieved aerosols properties using UV part of solar spectrum. The OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) is a global inversion scheme which retrieves aerosol properties both over ocean and land. The current version of the algorithm makes use of TOMS derived Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) climatology. A new monthly climatology of surface LER at 354 and 388 nm have been developed. This will replace TOMS LER (380 nm and 354nm) climatology in OMI near UV aerosol retrieval algorithm. The main objectives of this study is to produce high resolution (quarter degree) surface LER sets as compared to existing one degree TOMS surface LERs, to product instrument and wavelength consistent surface climatology. Nine years of OMI observations have been used to derive monthly climatology of surface LER. MODIS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used to make aerosol corrections on OMI wavelengths. MODIS derived BRDF adjusted reflectance product has been also used to capture seasonal changes in the surface characteristics. Finally spatial and temporal averaging techniques have been used to fill the gaps around the globes, especially in the regions with consistent cloud cover such as Amazon. After implementation of new surface data in the research version of algorithm, comparisons of AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) have been performed over global AERONET sites for year 2007. Preliminary results shows improvements in AOD retrievals globally but more significance improvement were observed over desert and bright locations. We will present methodology of deriving surface data sets and will discuss the observed changes in retrieved aerosol properties with respect to reference AERONET measurements.

  15. Flux Footprint Climatology Estimated by Three Analytical Models over a Subtropical Coniferous Plantation in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity poses a major challenge for the appropriate interpretation of eddy covariance data. The quantification of footprint climatology is fundamental to improving our understanding of carbon budgets, assessing the quality of eddy covariance data, and upscaling the representativeness of a tower fl ux to regional or global scales. In this study, we elucidated the seasonal variation of fl ux footprint climatologies and the major factors that infl uence them using the analytical FSAM (Flux Source Area Model), KM (Kormann and Meixner, 2001), and H (Hsieh et al., 2000) models based on eddy covariance measurements at two and three times the canopy height at the Qianyanzhou site of ChinaFLUX in 2003. The diff erences in footprints among the three models resulted from diff erent underlying theories used to construct the models. A comparison demonstrated that atmospheric stability was the main factor leading to diff erences among the three models. In neutral and stable conditions, the KM and FSAM values agreed with each other, but they were both lower than the H values. In unstable conditions, the agreement among the three models for rough surfaces was better than that for smooth surfaces, and the models showed greater agreement for a low measurement height than for a high measurement height. The seasonal fl ux footprint climatologies were asymmetrically distributed around the tower and corresponded well to the prevailing wind direction, which was north-northwest in winter and south-southeast in summer. The average sizes of the 90% fl ux footprint climatologies were 0.36–0.74 and 1.5–3.2 km2 at altitudes of two and three times the canopy height, respectively. The average sizes were ranked by season as follows: spring > summer > winter >autumn. The footprint climatology depended more on atmospheric stability on daily scale than on seasonal scale, and it increased with the increasing standard deviation of the lateral wind fl uctuations.

  16. Regional climate model data used within the SWURVE project – 1: projected changes in seasonal patterns and estimation of PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate data for studies within the SWURVE (Sustainable Water: Uncertainty, Risk and Vulnerability in Europe project, assessing the risk posed by future climatic change to various hydrological and hydraulic systems were obtained from the regional climate model HadRM3H, developed at the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office. This paper gives some background to HadRM3H; it also presents anomaly maps of the projected future changes in European temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET, estimated using a variant of the Penman formula. The future simulations of temperature and rainfall, following the SRES A2 emissions scenario, suggest that most of Europe will experience warming in all seasons, with heavier precipitation in winter in much of western Europe (except for central and northern parts of the Scandinavian mountains and drier summers in most parts of western and central Europe (except for the north-west and the eastern part of the Baltic Sea. Particularly large temperature anomalies (>6°C are projected for north-east Europe in winter and for southern Europe, Asia Minor and parts of Russia in summer. The projected PET displayed very large increases in summer for a region extending from southern France to Russia. The unrealistically large values could be the result of an enhanced hydrological cycle in HadRM3H, affecting several of the input parameters to the PET calculation. To avoid problems with hydrological modelling schemes, PET was re-calculated, using empirical relationships derived from observational values of temperature and PET.

  17. Do dynamic regional models add value to the global model projections of Indian monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swati; Ghosh, Subimal; Sahana, A. S.; Vittal, H.; Karmakar, Subhankar

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic Regional Climate Models (RCMs) work at fine resolution for a limited region and hence they are presumed to simulate regional climate better than General Circulation Models (GCMs). Simulations by RCMs are used for impacts assessment, often without any evaluation. There is a growing debate on the added value made by the regional models to the projections of GCMs specifically for the regions like, United States and Europe. Evaluation of RCMs for Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) has been overlooked in literature, though there are few disjoint studies on Indian monsoon extremes and biases. Here we present a comprehensive study on the evaluations of RCMs for the ISMR with all its important characteristics such as northward and eastward propagation, onset, seasonal rainfall patterns, intra-seasonal oscillations, spatial variability and patterns of extremes. We evaluate nine regional simulations from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment and compare them with their host Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 GCM projections. We do not find any consistent improvement in the RCM simulations with respect to their host GCMs for any of the characteristics of Indian monsoon except the spatial variation. We also find that the simulations of the ISMR characteristics by a good number of RCMs, are worse than those of their host GCMs. No consistent added value is observed in the RCM simulations of changes in ISMR characteristics over recent periods, compared to past; though there are few exceptions. These results highlight the need for proper evaluation before utilizing regional models for impacts assessment and subsequent policy making for sustainable climate change adaptation.

  18. Projections of Suitable Wine Growing Regions and Varieties: Adaptation in Space or Place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrestel, E. J.; Cook, B.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Nicholas, K. A.; Parker, A.; van Leeuwen, C.; Wolkovich, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Winegrapes (Vitis vinifera L) are the most valuable horticultural crop in the world with nearly eight million hectares of vineyards in cultivation. Different varieties of winegrapes (e.g., Grenache or Syrah) exhibit an unprecedented amount of phenological and genetic diversity for a cultivated species, which is an important resource to buffer against climate change. Matching phenological strategies of the different winegrape varieties to a particular climate is a fundamental aim for every vineyard manager, especially in the face of significant climatic shifts in many winegrape growing regions. Yet current projections of suitable winegrape growing regions based on future climate scenarios are limited in their utility, as they do not consider the possibility that other varieties better suited to a future climate could be planted within an existing region. For our projections, we built phenological models for the nine most-planted winegrapes globally, which constitutes over 40% of all planted hectares, using a global dataset of budburst, flowering, veraison and maturity. These models were then used to characterize the growing range of 1300 globally planted winegrape varieties. Combing these models with climate projection models under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios we examined future distributions of suitable wine growing regions, as well as the turnover of suitable varieties within existing regions. In some regions of the world, predicted climate change will not significantly alter the varieties that are able to grow, while in others there will need to be shifts in the region itself or in the varieties that are currently planted. Some regions will also see a significant increase in the number and diversity of varieties that can be grown. Our results suggest the need to utilize the full range of winegrape diversity available when considering adaptive strategies in response to changing climates.

  19. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  20. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  1. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  2. Precipitation variability, extremes and uncertainties over southeastern Brazil projected by the Eta regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema; Silveira, Virginia; Chan, Chou; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Southeastern Brazil is an area affected by extreme precipitation, mainly in the austral summer, associated with frontal systems or the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Flooding and landslides have occurred in the region with serious impact on society and economy. The region has many vulnerable areas, therefore, projections of precipitation and extremes in the future for the region are important to provide information that can be used in adaptations and management decisions. Results of regional models in South America have been analyzed to assess the future climate changes with higher resolution than global models. In this study the Regional Eta model is used with resolution of 40 and 20 Km to analyze the projections of precipitation changes and extremes over Brazil and mainly over the southeastern region. Simulations and projections obtained from four integrations of the Regional Eta model are analyzed to investigate the model behavior during the period of 1961-1990 and the projections in the near (2011 to 2040) and more distant future (2041 to 2100). Results from four integrations with resolution of 40 km with different lateral boundary conditions from the HadCM3 Global Model and one integration with resolution of 20 km are used to give a confidence interval and the related uncertainty. The first analysis was to verify changes in the main mode of precipitation variability in the future projections, compared to the base period. There is a change in the main centers of extremes variability over South America, which was comparable to changes projected in CMIP5 models. The second analysis was related to changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. Specific locations in southeastern Brazil were analyzed regarding indices of extremes, such as SDII (mean precipitation of rainy days), SDII_10 (mean precipitation of rainy days >=10 mm/day), R10mm (number of days with precipitation >= 10 mm/day), CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days), CWD (maximum number

  3. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  4. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new...

  5. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology Online Atlas (NODC Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NODC developed a new set of high-resolution...

  6. NODC Standard Product: C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Project - St. Croix estuary region (1985 - 1992) (NODC Accession 0090142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Project St. Croix Estuary Region CD-ROM data set uses Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1985 to 1992 to provide a regional...

  7. Snow and Ice Climatology of the Western United States and Alaska from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Seidel, F. C.; Burgess, A.; Brodzik, M.

    2013-12-01

    The climate and hydroclimate of the Western US and Alaska are tightly coupled to their snow and ice cover. The Western US depends on mountain snowmelt for the majority of its water supply to agriculture, industrial and urban use, hydroelectric generation, and recreation, all driven by increasing population and demand. Alaskan snow and glacier cover modulate regional climate and, as with the Western US, dominate water supply and hydroelectric generation in much of the state. Projections of climate change in the Western US and Alaska suggest that the most pronounced impacts will include reductions of mountain snow and ice cover, earlier runoff, and a greater fraction of rain instead of snow. We establish a snow and ice climatology of the Western US and Alaska using physically based MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size model (MODSCAG) for fractional snow cover, the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow model (MODDRFS) for radiative forcing by light absorbing impurities in snow, and the MODIS Permanent Ice model (MODICE) for annual minimum exposed snow. MODSCAG and MODDRFS use EOS MOD09GA historical reflectance data (2000-2012) to provide daily and 8-day composites and near real time products since the beginning of 2013, themselves ultimately composited to 8-day products. The compositing method considers sensor-viewing geometry, solar illumination, clouds, cloud shadows, aerosols and noisy detectors in order to select the best pixel for an 8-day period. The MODICE annual minimum exposed snow and ice product uses the daily time series of fractional snow and ice from MODSCAG to generate annual maps. With this project we have established an ongoing, national-scale, consistent and replicable approach to assessing current and projected climate impacts and climate-related risk in the context of other stressors. We analyze the products in the Northwest, Southwest, and Alaska/Arctic regions of the National Climate Assessment for the last decade, the nation's hottest on record

  8. Statistical examination of climatological data relevant to global temperature variation. Progress report, July 1991--January 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, H.L.; Gunst, R.F.; Woodward, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    The research group at Southern Methodist University has been involved in the examination of climatological data as specified in the proposal. Our efforts have resulted in three papers which have been submitted to scholarly journals, as well as several other projects which should be completed either during the next six months or next year. In the following, we discuss our results to date along with projected progress within the next six months. Major topics discussed in this progress report include: testing for trend in the global temperature data; (2) defining and estimating mean global temperature change; and, (3) the effect of initial conditions on autoregressive models for global temperature data.

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in climatological fields from GPS radio occultation: an empirical-analytical error model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scherllin-Pirscher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the measurement principle of the radio occultation (RO technique, RO data are highly suitable for climate studies. Single RO profiles can be used to build climatological fields of different atmospheric parameters like bending angle, refractivity, density, pressure, geopotential height, and temperature. RO climatologies are affected by random (statistical errors, sampling errors, and systematic errors, yielding a total climatological error. Based on empirical error estimates, we provide a simple analytical error model for these error components, which accounts for vertical, latitudinal, and seasonal variations. The vertical structure of each error component is modeled constant around the tropopause region. Above this region the error increases exponentially, below the increase follows an inverse height power-law. The statistical error strongly depends on the number of measurements. It is found to be the smallest error component for monthly mean 10° zonal mean climatologies with more than 600 measurements per bin. Due to smallest atmospheric variability, the sampling error is found to be smallest at low latitudes equatorwards of 40°. Beyond 40°, this error increases roughly linearly, with a stronger increase in hemispheric winter than in hemispheric summer. The sampling error model accounts for this hemispheric asymmetry. However, we recommend to subtract the sampling error when using RO climatologies for climate research since the residual sampling error remaining after such subtraction is estimated to be 50 % of the sampling error for bending angle and 30 % or less for the other atmospheric parameters. The systematic error accounts for potential residual biases in the measurements as well as in the retrieval process and generally dominates the total climatological error. Overall the total error in monthly means is estimated to be smaller than 0.07 % in refractivity and 0.15 K in temperature at low to mid latitudes, increasing towards

  10. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening

  11. Statistical downscaling of regional climate model output to achieve projections of precipitation extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Laflamme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we perform a statistical downscaling by applying a CDF transformation function to local-level daily precipitation extremes (from NCDC station data and corresponding NARCCAP regional climate model (RCM output to derive local-scale projections. These high-resolution projections are essential in assessing the impacts of projected climate change. The downscaling method is performed on 58 locations throughout New England, and from the projected distribution of extreme precipitation local-level 25-year return levels are calculated. To obtain uncertainty estimates for return levels, three procedures are employed: a parametric bootstrapping with mean corrected confidence intervals, a non-parametric bootstrapping with BCa (bias corrected and acceleration intervals, and a Bayesian model. In all cases, results are presented via distributions of differences in return levels between predicted and historical periods. Results from the three procedures show very few New England locations with significant increases in 25-year return levels from the historical to projected periods. This may indicate that projected trends in New England precipitation tend to be statistically less significant than suggested by many studies. For all three procedures, downscaled results are highly dependent on RCM and GCM model choice.

  12. IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region (ODINEA project)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region was held in Capetown, South Africa, November 30 to December 11, 1998. It was the second workshop on ocean data management in this region within the framework of the ‘Ocean Data and Information Network for Eastern Africa’ (ODINEA) project, funded by IOC, Sida and Flanders. The workshop’s objectives were (i) to provide in-depth data management training; and (ii) to discuss progress made in the de...

  13. IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO region (ODINEA project)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region was held in Capetown, South Africa, November 30 to December 11, 1998. It was the second workshop on ocean data management in this region within the framework of the ‘Ocean Data and Information Network for Eastern Africa’ (ODINEA) project, funded by IOC, Sida and Flanders. The workshop’s objectives were (i) to provide in-depth data management training; and (ii) to discuss progress made in the development of NO...

  14. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR, the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal" that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel

  15. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  16. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, D-Series (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ISCCP D-Series has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use ISCCP D-Series except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used...

  17. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Cli...

  18. Neolithic plant use in the western Mediterranean region: preliminary results from the AGRIWESTMED Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Pérez Jordá, Guillem; Morales Mateos, Jacob; Zapata, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco). A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number o...

  19. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings include the final reports of work performed by different institutions under the scope of Phase II of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation. The topics covered include the disinfestation and decontamination of stored products; improvements in the hygiene of processed seafood; insect disinfestation of fruits; and sprout inhibition of root crops. The individual presentations are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    George Schin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order ...

  1. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  2. A multi-decadal assessment of the performance of gauge- and model-based rainfall products over Saudi Arabia: Climatology, anomalies and trends

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2015-05-15

    Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is

  3. Development of the business area construction and energy of EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Transfer from project management to a regional network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association EnergieRegion Nuernberg is a regional authority network, which is employed with the promotion of sustainable handling of the factor energy in the region Nuernberg and with the proliferation of this region as internationally recognized location for energy engineering, energy industry and energy science. The intention is to use the important industrial, service-oriented and scientific potential optimally. For this reason a functional co-ordination and communication platform had to be created for the cross-linking of the appropriate participants from economics, research and public administration. Therefore, the author of the contribution under consideration accompanies the development process of the business field construction and energy of this association in the background of the current trends in the construction and energy sector in the region Nuernberg. Under this aspect, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Success factors of the project management in a regional network; (b) Operationalisation of the success of the project by means of a model; (c) Analysis of the different aspects of energetic measures; (d) Determination of chances and risks of the range building and energy in the region Nuernberg; (e) Comparison of the success of the model projects with the model for the determination of project success; (f) Determination of strengths and weaknesses of the project management in the business field construction and energy of the energy region Nuernberg

  4. Development of an International Research Project of Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C.

    2006-05-01

    Monson Asia has been recommended as one of the critical regions of integrated study of global change. Among a number of reasons, the most significant features of Monsoon Asia is that this is a region where the major features of landscape, such as vegetation, soil and water system are mainly developed under the most representative monsoon climate. On the other hand, the Monsoon Asia is a region with the most active human development. It has more than 5000 years long history of civilization and highest population density of the world, reaching 57 percent of word population. It also had the most rapid development in last decades and is projected to maintain its high growth rates in the foreseeable future. The human-monsoon system interactions and their linkages with the earth system dynamics could be a challenge issue of global change research and a sustainable Asia . A science plan of MAIRS is under drafting by SSC of MAIRS under the guidance of START and an international project office of MAIRS was formally opened in IAP/Chinese Academy of Sciences under the support of Chinese government. The overall objectives of the MAIRS that will combine field experiments, process studies, and modeling components are: 1) To better understand how human activities in regions are interacting with and altering natural regional variability of the atmospheric, terrestrial, and marine components of the environment; 2) To contribute to the provision of a sound scientific basis for sustainable regional development; 3) To develop a predictive capability of estimating changes in global-regional linkages in the Earth System and to recognize on a sound scientific basis the future consequences of such changes.

  5. Dispersion climatology in a coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1986-01-01

    A crosswind integrated K-model with wind- and K-profiles described by Monin-Obukhov similarity expressions is solved for a continuous surface release to yield the vertical spread of the plume as a function of the surface roughness z0 and the Monin-Obukhov length L for a given downwind distance....... The vertical spread of the plume is translated into σz, and lines were traced in a (z0, L−) plane for which the σz of the K-model matched the corresponding σz of Pasquill's system. By this technique a new classification scheme is constructed. Knowing z0 and L, the scheme tells which σz curve in the Pasquill...... system should be used to describe the dispersion. This dispersion classification scheme is used to organize 3 years of data from two meteorological masts, one placed directly at a shoreline and the other roughly 1 km inland. Differences in the dispersion climatology over land and water are studied...

  6. Teaching a Model-based Climatology Using Energy Balance Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, David

    1981-01-01

    After outlining the difficulties of teaching climatology within an undergraduate geography curriculum, the author describes and evaluates the use of a computer assisted simulation to model surface energy balance and the effects of land use changes on local climate. (AM)

  7. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  8. Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since the early 1990s the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly (GHCN-M) dataset has been an internationally recognized source of data for the study of...

  9. Historical Climatology In Europe. The State Of The Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazdil, R. [Institute of Geography, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Pfister, C. [Institute of History/NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Unitobler, CH-3000 Bern 9 (Switzerland); Wanner, H.; Luterbacher, J. [NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Von Storch, H. [GKSS-Research-Center, Max Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    This paper discusses the state of European research in historical climatology. This field of science and an overview of its development are described in detail. Special attention is given to the documentary evidence used for data sources, including its drawbacks and advantages. Further, methods and significant results of historical-climatological research, mainly achieved since 1990, are presented. The main focus concentrates on data, methods, definitions of the 'Medieval Warm Period' and the 'Little Ice Age', synoptic interpretation of past climates, climatic anomalies and natural disasters, and the vulnerability of economies and societies to climate as well as images and social representations of past weather and climate. The potential of historical climatology for climate modelling research is discussed briefly. Research perspectives in historical climatology are formulated with reference to data, methods, interdisciplinarity and impacts.

  10. AFSC/ABL: Auke Bay Climatology 1959-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes available climatological and related physical environmental records for Auke Bay, Auke Creek and Auke Lake beginning in 1959. Daily high and low...

  11. Hanford Site Climatological Summary 2004 with Historical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, Dana J.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Ramsdell, James V.; Shaw, William J.

    2005-06-03

    This document presents the climatological data measured on the DOE Hanford Site for calendar year 2004. This report contains updated historical information for temperature, precipitation, wind, and normal and extreme values of temperature, and precipitation.

  12. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Quan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  13. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  14. Response to state comments on the draft regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Crystalline Repository Project Office (CPO) issued six draft Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs) for review and comment to the 17 Crystalline States comprising the Northeastern, Southeastern, and North Central crystalline regions. Comment letters were received from 13 of the 17 states. The more than 2000 comments generally focused on the quality and content of the characterization reports and on their intended use in region-to-area screening. These comments were paraphrased and grouped into 23 subjects within the following four topical areas: (1) General and Programmatic; (2) Geologic; (3) Environmental and Socioeconomic; and (4) Editorial. This document provides responses to the comments submitted by the states

  15. An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Jian; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David

    2013-01-01

    An updated 15-yr Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) composite climatology (TCC) is presented and evaluated. This climatology is based on a combination of individual rainfall estimates made with data from the primaryTRMMinstruments: theTRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the precipitation radar (PR). This combination climatology of passive microwave retrievals, radar-based retrievals, and an algorithm using both instruments simultaneously provides a consensus TRMM-based estimate of mean precipitation. The dispersion of the three estimates, as indicated by the standard deviation sigma among the estimates, is presented as a measure of confidence in the final estimate and as an estimate of the uncertainty thereof. The procedures utilized by the compositing technique, including adjustments and quality-control measures, are described. The results give a mean value of the TCC of 4.3mm day(exp -1) for the deep tropical ocean beltbetween 10 deg N and 10 deg S, with lower values outside that band. In general, the TCC values confirm ocean estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis, which is based on passive microwave results adjusted for sampling by infrared-based estimates. The pattern of uncertainty estimates shown by sigma is seen to be useful to indicate variations in confidence. Examples include differences between the eastern and western portions of the Pacific Ocean and high values in coastal and mountainous areas. Comparison of the TCC values (and the input products) to gauge analyses over land indicates the value of the radar-based estimates (small biases) and the limitations of the passive microwave algorithm (relatively large biases). Comparison with surface gauge information from western Pacific Ocean atolls shows a negative bias (16%) for all the TRMM products, although the representativeness of the atoll gauges of open-ocean rainfall is still in question.

  16. Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling: implications for water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Buytaert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate models (RCMs are often used for the spatial disaggregation of the outputs of global circulation models. However, RCMs are time-intensive to run and typically only a small number of model runs is available for a certain region of interest. This paper investigates the value of the improved representation of local climate processes by a regional climate model for water resources management in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. This region has a complex hydrology and its water resources are under pressure. Compared to the IPCC AR4 model ensemble, the regional climate model PRECIS does indeed capture local gradients better than global models, but locally the model is prone to large discrepancies between observed and modelled precipitation. It is concluded that a further increase in resolution is necessary to represent local gradients properly. Furthermore, to assess the uncertainty in downscaling, an ensemble of regional climate models should be implemented. Finally, translating the climate variables to streamflow using a hydrological model constitutes a smaller but not negligible source of uncertainty.

  17. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  18. Projection of temperature and heat waves for Africa with an ensemble of CORDEX Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The most severe effects of global warning will be related to the frequency and severity of extreme events. We provide an analysis of projections of temperature and related extreme events for Africa based on a large ensemble of Regional Climate Models from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX). Results are presented not only by means of widely used indices but also with a recently developed Heat Wave Magnitude Index-daily (HWMId), which takes into account both heat wave duration and intensity. Results show that under RCP8.5, warming of more than 3.5 °C is projected in JFM over most of the continent, whereas in JAS temperatures over large part of Northern Africa, the Sahara and the Arabian peninsula are projected to increase up to 6 °C. Large increase in in the number of warm days (Tx90p) is found over sub equatorial Africa, with values up to more than 90 % in JAS, and more than 80 % in JFM over e.g., the gulf of Guinea, Central African Republic, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Changes in Tn90p (warm nights) are usually larger, with some models projecting Tn90p reaching 95 % starting from around 2060 even under RCP4.5 over the Gulf of Guinea and the Sahel. Results also show that the total length of heat spells projected to occur normally (i.e. once every 2 years) under RCP8.5 may be longer than those occurring once every 30 years under the lower emission scenario. By employing the recently developed HWMId index, it is possible to investigate the relationship between heat wave length ad intensity; in particular it is shown that very intense heat waves such as that occurring over the Horn of Africa may have values of HWMId larger than that of longer, but relatively weak, heat waves over West Africa.

  19. Climatology and trends of summer high temperature days in India during 1969–2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Jaswal; P C S Rao; Virendra Singh

    2015-02-01

    Based on the daily maximum air temperature data from 176 stations in India from 1969 to 2013, the climatological distribution of the number of days with high temperature (HT) defined as days with maximum temperature higher than 37°C during summer season (March–June) are studied. With a focus on the regional variability and long-term trends, the impacts of HT days are examined by dividing the country into six geographical regions (North, West, North-central, East, South-central and South). Although the long-term (1969–2013) climatological numbers of HT days display well-defined spatial patterns, there is clear change in climatological mean and coefficient of variation of HT days in a recent period (1991–2013). The long period trends indicate increase in summer HT days by 3%, 5%, and 18% in north, west, and south regions, respectively and decrease by 4% and 9% in north-central and east regions respectively. However, spatial variations in HT days exist across different regions in the country. The data analysis shows that 2010 was the warmest summer year and 2013 was the coolest summer year in India. Comparison of spatial distributions of trends in HT days for 1969–1990 and 1991–2013 periods reveal that there is an abrupt increase in the number of HT days over north, west and north-central regions of India probably from mid 1990s. A steep increase in summer HT days in highly populated cities of Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Jaipur, and Visakhapatnam is noticed during the recent period of 1991–2013. The summer HT days over southern India indicate significant positive correlation with Nino 3.4 index for three months’ running mean (December–January–February, January–March, February–April, March–May and April–June).

  20. Climatological context for large-scale coral bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A. D.; Casey, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    Large-scale coral bleaching was first observed in 1979 and has occurred throughout virtually all of the tropics since that time. Severe bleaching may result in the loss of live coral and in a decline of the integrity of the impacted coral reef ecosystem. Despite the extensive scientific research and increased public awareness of coral bleaching, uncertainties remain about the past and future of large-scale coral bleaching. In order to reduce these uncertainties and place large-scale coral bleaching in the longer-term climatological context, specific criteria and methods for using historical sea surface temperature (SST) data to examine coral bleaching-related thermal conditions are proposed by analyzing three, 132 year SST reconstructions: ERSST, HadISST1, and GISST2.3b. These methodologies are applied to case studies at Discovery Bay, Jamaica (77.27°W, 18.45°N), Sombrero Reef, Florida, USA (81.11°W, 24.63°N), Academy Bay, Galápagos, Ecuador (90.31°W, 0.74°S), Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, USA (175.83°W, 27.83°N), Midway Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, USA (177.37°W, 28.25°N), Davies Reef, Australia (147.68°E, 18.83°S), and North Male Atoll, Maldives (73.35°E, 4.70°N). The results of this study show that (1) The historical SST data provide a useful long-term record of thermal conditions in reef ecosystems, giving important insight into the thermal history of coral reefs and (2) While coral bleaching and anomalously warm SSTs have occurred over much of the world in recent decades, case studies in the Caribbean, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, and parts of other regions such as the Great Barrier Reef exhibited SST conditions and cumulative thermal stress prior to 1979 that were comparable to those conditions observed during the strong, frequent coral bleaching events since 1979. This climatological context and knowledge of past environmental conditions in reef ecosystems may foster a better understanding of how coral reefs will

  1. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  2. The WASCAL regional climate simulations for West Africa - how to add value to existing climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, J.; Heinzeller, D.; Klein, C.; Dieng, D.; Smiatek, G.; Bliefernicht, J.; Sylla, M. B.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change being one of the most severe challenges to rural Africa in the 21st century, West Africa is facing an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation measures to protect its constantly growing population. WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) is a large-scale research-focused program designed to enhance the resilience of human and environmental systems to climate change and increased variability. An integral part of its climate services is the provisioning of a new set of high resolution, ensemble-based regional climate change scenarios for the region of West Africa. In this contribution, we present the overall concept of the WASCAL regional climate projections and provide information on the dissemination of the data. We discuss the model performance over the validation period for two of the three regional climate models employed, the Weather Research & Forecasting Tool (WRF) and the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling Model COSMO in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM), and give details about a novel precipitation database used to verify the models. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the dynamics of the West African Summer Monsoon and to the added value of our high resolution models over existing data sets. We further present results on the climate change signal obtained from the WRF model runs for the periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 and compare them to current state-of-the-art projections from the CORDEX project. As an example, the figure shows the different climate change signals obtained for the total annual rainfall with respect to the 1980-2010 mean (WRF-E: WASCAL 12km high-resolution run MPI-ESM + WRFV3.5.1, CORDEX-E: 50km medium-resolution run MPI-ESM + RCA4, CORDEX-G: 50km medium-resolution run GFDL-ESM + RCA4).

  3. Projections of waste characteristics for the Midwest Compact Region, 1985-2015: Regional Management Plan: Final report on Task 3, Deliverable 3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical step in determining future low-level waste facility needs in the region is development of region-wide waste projections. This report provides projections of low-level radioactive waste for a 30-year period, extending to the year 2015; the work is the result of Task 3 of an overall 6-task Management Plan development process. The base year for these projections is 1985, and is an estimate based on the best available data on current generation obtained in Task 2. 14 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Digitisation Project Planning in the Maribor City Library as a Form of Regional Cross Institutional Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hriberšek Vuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:More and more Slovenian public libraries have been facing the question of selection criteria for digitisation of library materials as well as the issue of financial resources, copyright permission and the promotion of digitised materials. Libraries having long tradition of collecting valuable local history resources are more convinced about the selection criteria. Digitisation is, in spite of being expensive, time consuming and labour intensive, an easy method to enable quick access to library materials, to promote and preserve library collections. The mission of the central regional public library (cofinanced by the Ministry of Culture is not only to coordinate the collection, cataloguing and storage of local history resources but also to coordinate local history digital projects. Due to historical circumstances, the local history resources were first collected by the Maribor University Library. It is only in the recent past that the Maribor City Library has started to systematically collect these materials. Due to this fact, the Maribor City Library does not hold an extensive collection of rare and valuable local history items. It was initially faced with the problem of selection criteria for digitisation. However, it soon succeeded to establish the strategy to promote the local history collections in the region, regardless of their location. Thus the library started to cooperate with different regional institutions and the first partner projects were designed. In the year 2007 the library collaborated with the elementary school at Lovrenc na Pohorju and decided to digitise research papers of ex-pupils of the school. The first part of the project was accomplished in 2007 when 72 research papers were digitised, in the next two years their number was increased as the second part of the project was concluded. The papers were published on the KAMRA portal and the project was promoted at the summer annual meeting at Lovrenc na

  5. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  6. An updated analysis of the Lucas Heights Climatology - 1975 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological data collected from 1975 to 1996 in the Lucas Heights region have been summarised to provide an update on the climatology. Initially data were recorded in analogue form but since 1991 advanced digital recording systems have allowed more accurate and extensive statistics to be analysed. Since 1993 a network of meteorological stations has been installed through the surrounding area to investigate the influence of complex terrain on wind flow and atmospheric dispersion patterns. A large data volumes is presented together with some initial interpretation of these complex terrain influences on the Lucas Heights region climatolology

  7. 30-year Dynamics of Terrestrial Vegetation Activity and the Relationship with Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.; Furrer, R.; de Bruin, S.; Verburg, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The climate governs the seasonal activity of terrestrial vegetation while humankind influences it. The relative role of these drivers in changing vegetation activity is crucial information for accurate modeling of vegetation and climate dynamics and for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Disentangling the two, however, is an ongoing scientific challenge, because of limited data availability, mainly regarding non-climatic drivers, and complex biosphere-atmosphere feedback mechanisms. Here, we contribute to this quest by modeling the spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity (de Jong et al., 2013a). Vegetation activity is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time series of such indices can be found in literature, including the detection of shifts (de Jong et al., 2013b), which may be related to climate (e.g. Zhao & Running, 2010). However, little remains known about the exact processes underlying vegetation change at large spatial scales. Depending on eco-region, three climatologies potentially constrain plant growth (Churkina and Running, 1998). In the humid mid-latitudes, for example, temperature is the largest influencing factor; in (semi) arid regions it is the availability of water and in the tropics incident solar radiation. Based on this logic, we developed a mixed-effect model to relate changes in these climatologies to changes in vegetation activity and to quantify the spatial process underlying the other drivers, including human land use. Little over 50% of the spatial variation in vegetation change could be attributed to changes in climatologies; conspicuously, many of the global ';greening' trends and the ';browning' hotspots in Argentina and Australia. Browning hotspots in the non-climatic component were especially located in subequatorial Africa (e.g. parts of Zimbabwe and Tanzania), where human drivers may be

  8. Dynamic Adjustment of Climatological Ozone Boundary Conditions for Air-Quality Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Makar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten different approaches for applying lateral and top climatological boundary conditions for ozone have been evaluated using the off-line regional air-quality model AURAMS. All ten approaches employ the same climatological ozone profiles, but differ in the manner in which they are applied, via the inclusion or exclusion of (i a dynamic adjustment of the climatological ozone profile in response to the model-predicted tropopause height, (ii a sponge zone for ozone on the model top, (iii upward extrapolation of the climatological ozone profile, and (iv different mass consistency corrections. The model performance for each approach was evaluated against North American surface ozone and ozonesonde observations from the BAQS-Met field study period in the summer of 2007. The original daily one-hour maximum surface ozone biases of about +15 ppbv were greatly reduced (halved in some simulations using alternative methodologies. However, comparisons to ozonesonde observations showed that the reduction in surface ozone bias sometimes came at the cost of significant positive biases in ozone concentrations in the free troposphere and upper troposphere. The best overall performance throughout the troposphere was achieved using a methodology that included dynamic tropopause height adjustment, no sponge zone at the model top, extrapolation of ozone when required above the limit of the climatology, and no mass consistency corrections (global mass conservation was still enforced. The simulation using this model version had a one-hour daily maximum surface ozone bias of +8.6 ppbv, with small reductions in model correlation, and the best comparison to ozonesonde profiles. This recommended and original methodologies were compared for two further case studies: a high-resolution simulation of the BAQS-Met measurement intensive, and a study of the downwind region of the Canadian Rockies. Significant improvements were noted for the high resolution simulations during the

  9. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  10. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  11. Sound speed in the Mediterranean Sea: an analysis from a climatological data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salon

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of sound speed distribution in the Mediterranean Sea based on climatological temperature and salinity data. In the upper layers, propagation is characterised by upward refraction in winter and an acoustic channel in summer. The seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean and the presence of gyres and fronts create a wide range of spatial and temporal variabilities, with relevant differences between the western and eastern basins. It is shown that the analysis of a climatological data set can help in defining regions suitable for successful monitoring by means of acoustic tomography. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition on the profiles, performed on the seasonal cycle for some selected areas, demonstrates that two modes account for more than 98% of the variability of the climatological distribution. Reduced order EOF analysis is able to correctly represent sound speed profiles within each zone, thus providing the a priori knowledge for Matched Field Tomography. It is also demonstrated that salinity can affect the tomographic inversion, creating a higher degree of complexity than in the open oceans.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; ocean acoustics

  12. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  13. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food irradiation to reduce post-harvest food losses, improve the hygienic quality of foods and facilitate trade promotion has been recognized by the region of Asia and the Pacific. Several of the regional countries have initiated national programmes on food irradiation in the 50s and 60s. The first coordination programme sponsored by the Agency under RCA in 1974-1979 was the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery Products. The Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation (RPFI) was implemented by the Agency in 1980 under the sponsorship of the Government of Japan. Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam participated in this Programme. Under the scope of this regional project R and D work was carried out on: (i) insect disinfestation and improving hygienic quality of dried and cured fishery products, (ii) insect disinfestation and shelf-life extension of mangoes; (iii) control of sprouting of onions, and (iv) improving hygienic quality of spices. In addition some work related to economic feasibility of food irradiation was also carried out. This publication contains the results of R and D conducted under the RPFI. Under the RPFI, it was demonstrated that the food irradiation technology could play an important role in reducing food losses and facilitating wider distribution of certain food products. The RPFI provided a strong impetus for Asian countries to coordinate their research programmes effectively towards the practical application of the technology to combat food losses and to make more food available to the population in the region. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Eastern regions of Russia: latest gas projects; Russie orientale: les derniers projets gaziers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N. [Oil and Gas Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Convenient geographical position of the Russian Federation, immense reserves of natural gas, abundant experience in super-long reliable gas transportation trunk pipeline construction make it possible for Russia in the 21. century to supply natural gas both to traditional partners in Europe and to new buyers in the Asian-Pacific region. Gas reserves of the northern regions in West Siberia, gas fields in East Siberia, Sakha Republic and the Sakhalin shelf can be regarded as the raw material base for the implementation of these projects. The explored gas reserves of the fields in Yamal Peninsula are over 10.2 TCM, of East Siberia - over 4.2 TCM, of the Sakhalin shelf- over 850 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. While implementing eastern projects, it is intended to use gas reserves both to settle energy problems confronting the eastern regions in Russia and to supply significant volumes of gas for export. Experts consider possibilities for supply of gas to China - from the Tambei group of fields in Yamal Peninsula and from the Kovykta field, to China and Korea - from the gas fields of the Sakha Republic, to Japan and other ATR countries - from gas fields of the Sakhalin Island shelf. (author)

  15. THE IMPACT OF LARGE INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SAFETY OF REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishulina S. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our country has become the venue for a number of large-scale worldwide events, the so-called megaprojects (e.g. APEC Summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the World summer Universiade in Kazan-2013, 2014 Winter Olympics of Sochi, the FIFA World Cup in 2018, the preparation and conduct of which include implementation of projects for the establishment of appropriate facilities and infrastructure. The impact of the preparation and holding of such large investment projects is diverse and multifaceted on all spheres of life of the host region. This article is devoted to the analysis of influence of the XXII Olympic Games on the level of social and economic security of the city of Sochi and Krasnodar region. In addition to traditional in national and foreign scientific literature analysis of dynamics of basic macroeconomic indicators as the important characteristics of the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, in the article are studied the indicators and causes of changes in the investment climate and business activity. Special attention is paid to small business in connection with the place and the role in the local economies recreation and tourism specialization

  16. A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A global three-dimensional (i.e. latitude, longitude, altitude climatology of tropospheric ozone is derived from the ozone sounding record by trajectory mapping. Approximately 52 000 ozonesonde profiles from more than 100 stations worldwide since 1962 are used. The small number of stations causes the set of ozone soundings to be sparse in geographical spacing. Here, forward and backward trajectory calculations are performed for each sounding to map ozone measurements to a number of other locations, and so to fill in the spatial domain. This is possible because the lifetime of ozone in the troposphere is of the order of weeks. This physically-based interpolation method offers obvious advantages over typical statistical interpolation methods. The trajectory-mapped ozone values show reasonable agreement, where they overlap, to the actual soundings, and the patterns produced separately by forward and backward trajectory calculations are similar. Major regional features of the tropospheric ozone distribution are clearly evident in the global maps. An interpolation algorithm based on spherical functions is further used for smoothing and to fill in remaining data gaps. The resulting three-dimensional global tropospheric ozone climatology facilitates visualization and comparison of different years, decades, and seasons, and offers some intriguing insights into the global variation of tropospheric ozone. It will be useful for climate and air quality model initialization and validation, and as an a priori climatology for satellite data retrievals. Further division of the climatology into decadal averages provides a global view of tropospheric ozone trends, which appear to be surprisingly modest over the last four decades.

  17. A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Liu, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Jin, J. J.; Moeini, O.; Liu, X.; Sioris, C. E.; Osman, M.

    2013-11-01

    A global three-dimensional (i.e. latitude, longitude, altitude) climatology of tropospheric ozone is derived from the ozone sounding record by trajectory mapping. Approximately 52 000 ozonesonde profiles from more than 100 stations worldwide since 1965 are used. The small number of stations results in a sparse geographical distribution. Here, forward and backward trajectory calculations are performed for each sounding to map ozone measurements to a number of other locations, and so to fill in the spatial domain. This is possible because the lifetime of ozone in the troposphere is of the order of weeks. This physically based interpolation method offers obvious advantages over typical statistical interpolation methods. The trajectory-mapped ozone values show reasonable agreement, where they overlap, to the actual soundings, and the patterns produced separately by forward and backward trajectory calculations are similar. Major regional features of the tropospheric ozone distribution are clearly evident in the global maps. An interpolation algorithm based on spherical functions is further used for smoothing and to fill in remaining data gaps. The resulting three-dimensional global tropospheric ozone climatology facilitates visualization and comparison of different years, decades, and seasons, and offers some intriguing insights into the global variation of tropospheric ozone. It will be useful for climate and air quality model initialization and validation, and as an a priori climatology for satellite data retrievals. Further division of the climatology into decadal and annual averages can provide a global view of tropospheric ozone changes, although uncertainties with regard to the performance of older sonde types, as well as more recent variations in operating procedures, need to be taken into account.

  18. The Moon's Permanently Shadowed Regions as Observed by LRO's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A.; Miles, P. F.; Versteeg, M.; Slater, D.; Davis, M. W.; Parker, J.; Kaufmann, D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Horvath, D.; Rojas, P.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Although of great interest for science and resource utilization, the Moon's permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near each pole present difficult targets for remote sensing. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is able to map PSRs at far-ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths using two faint sources of illumination from the night sky: the all-sky Lyα glow produced as interplanetary medium (IPM) H atoms scatter the Sun's Lyα emissions, and the much fainter source from UV-bright stars. Since the reflected light from these two sources produces only a few hundred events per second in the photon-counting LAMP instrument, building maps with useful signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios requires the careful accumulation of the observations from thousands of individual LRO orbits. In this talk we present the latest FUV albedo maps obtained by LAMP of the Moon's southern and northern polar regions. The results show that 1) most PSR regions are darker at all FUV wavelengths, consistent with their surface soils having much larger porosities than non-PSR regions (e.g., P~0.9 or so), and 2) most PSRs are somewhat "redder" (i.e., more reflective at the longer FUV wavelengths) than non-PSR regions, consistent with the presence of ~1-2% water frost at the surface.

  19. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  20. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  1. A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perrette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change causes global mean sea level to rise due to thermal expansion of seawater and loss of land ice from mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Locally, sea level can strongly deviate from the global mean rise due to changes in wind and ocean currents. In addition, gravitational adjustments redistribute seawater away from shrinking ice masses. However, the land ice contribution to sea level rise (SLR remains very challenging to model, and comprehensive regional sea level projections, which include appropriate gravitational adjustments, are still a nascent field (Katsman et al., 2011; Slangen et al., 2011. Here, we present an alternative approach to derive regional sea level changes for a range of emission and land ice melt scenarios, combining probabilistic forecasts of a simple climate model (MAGICC6 with the new CMIP5 general circulation models. The contribution from ice sheets varies considerably depending on the assumptions for the ice sheet projections, and thus represents sizeable uncertainties for future sea level rise. However, several consistent and robust patterns emerge from our analysis: at low latitudes, especially in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, sea level will likely rise more than the global mean (mostly by 10–20%. Around the northeastern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific coasts, sea level will rise less than the global average or, in some rare cases, even fall. In the northwestern Atlantic, along the American coast, a strong dynamic sea level rise is counteracted by gravitational depression due to Greenland ice melt; whether sea level will be above- or below-average will depend on the relative contribution of these two factors. Our regional sea level projections and the diagnosed uncertainties provide an improved basis for coastal impact analysis and infrastructure planning for adaptation to climate change.

  2. Regional assessment of Climate change impacts in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.

    2011-12-01

    The CIRCE project has developed for the first time an assessment of the climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. The objectives of the project are: to predict and to quantify physical impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean area; to evaluate the consequences of climate change for the society and the economy of the populations located in the Mediterranean area; to develop an integrated approach to understand combined effects of climate change; and to identify adaptation and mitigation strategies in collaboration with regional stakeholders. The CIRCE Project, coordinated by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia, started on 1st April 2007 and ended in a policy conference in Rome on June 2011. CIRCE involves 64 partners from Europe, Middle East and North Africa working together to evaluate the best strategies of adaptation to the climate change in the Mediterranean basin. CIRCE wants to understand and to explain how climate will change in the Mediterranean area bringing together the natural sciences community and social community in a new integrated and comprehensive way. The project has investigated how global and Mediterranean climates interact, how the radiative properties of the atmosphere and the radiative fluxes vary, the interaction between cloudiness and aerosol, the modifications in the water cycle. Recent observed modifications in the climate variables and detected trends will be compared. The economic and social consequences of climate change are evaluated by analysing direct impacts on migration, tourism and energy markets together with indirect impacts on the economic system. CIRCE has produced results about the consequences on agriculture, forests and ecosystems, human health and air quality. The variability of extreme events in the future scenario and their impacts is also assessed. A rigorous common framework, including a set of quantitative indicators developed specifically for the Mediterranean environment was be developed

  3. CAUSES OF H EARING IMPAIRMENT IN OUR REGION: A SADAREM PROJECT REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hearing Impairment is one of the common physical disability in our society along with Visual Impairment , Physically challenged and Mental Impairment. The Government of Andhra Pradesh had launched a programme so called A SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSMENT OF DISABLED FOR ACCE SS REHABILITATION AND EMPOWARMENT ( SADAREM project for verification of certificates of physical disability including hearing Impairment in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. This prospective study reveals number of candidates with medical certificates had attended the ENT OPD with hearing impairment. This study tell us the percentage of various causes of deafness in this region and also compares with the statistics of Gallaudet Research Institute for hearing impairment.

  4. South American Climatology and Impacts of El Niño in NCEP’s CFSR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Paul Eichler; Ana C. Londoño

    2013-01-01

    Understanding regional climate variability is necessary in order to assess the impacts of climate change. Until recently, the best methods for evaluating regional climate variability were via observation networks and coarse-gridded reanalysis datasets. However, the recent development of high-resolution reanalysis datasets offers an opportunity to better evaluate the climatologically diverse continent of South America. This study compares NCEP’s CFS reanalysis dataset with NCEP’s coarser-resol...

  5. Tropopause referenced ozone climatology and inter-annual variability (1994–2003 from the MOZAIC programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouret

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOZAIC programme collects ozone and water vapour data using automatic equipment installed on board five long-range Airbus A340 aircraft flying regularly all over the world since August 1994. Those measurements made between September 1994 and August 1996 allowed the first accurate ozone climatology at 9–12 km altitude to be generated. The seasonal variability of the tropopause height has always provided a problem when constructing climatologies in this region. To remove any signal from the seasonal and synoptic scale variability in tropopause height we have chosen in this further study of these and subsequent data to reference our climatology to the altitude of the tropopause. We define the tropopause as a mixing zone 30 hPa thick across the 2 pvu potential vorticity surface. A new ozone climatology is now available for levels characteristic of the upper troposphere (UT and the lower stratosphere (LS regardless of the seasonal variations of the tropopause over the period 1994–2003. Moreover, this new presentation has allowed an estimation of the monthly mean climatological ozone concentration at the tropopause showing a sine seasonal variation with a maximum in May (120 ppbv and a minimum in November (65 ppbv. Besides, we present a first assessment of the inter-annual variability of ozone in this particular critical region. The overall increase in the UTLS is about 1%/yr for the 9 years sampled. However, enhanced concentrations about 10–15 % higher than the other years were recorded in 1998 and 1999 in both the UT and the LS. This so-called '1998–1999 anomaly' may be attributed to a combination of different processes involving large scale modes of atmospheric variability, circulation features and local or global pollution, but the most dominant one seems to involve the variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO as we find a strong positive correlation (above 0.60 between ozone recorded in the upper troposphere and the NAO

  6. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Ilari; Kämäräinen, Matti; Gregow, Hilppa; Venäläinen, Ari; Peltola, Heli

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts of the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below -8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. The increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.

  7. An Emerging Global Aerosol Climatology from the MODIS Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Levy, Robert C.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Mattoo, Shana; Martins, J. Vandelei; Ichoku, Charles; Koren, Ilan; Hongbin, Yu; Holben, Brent N.

    2008-01-01

    The recently released Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products provide a consistent record of the Earth's aerosol system. Comparison with ground-based AERONET observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) we find that Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products estimate AOD to within expected accuracy more than 60% of the time over ocean and more than 72% of the time over land. This is similar to previous results for ocean, and better than the previous results for land. However, the new Collection introduces a 0.01 5 offset between the Terra and Aqua global mean AOD over ocean, where none existed previously. Aqua conforms to previous values and expectations while Terra is high. The cause of the offset is unknown, but changes to calibration are a possible explanation. We focus the climatological analysis on the better understood Aqua retrievals. We find that global mean AOD at 550 nm over oceans is 0.13 and over land 0.19. AOD in situations with 80% cloud fraction are twice the global mean values, although such situations occur only 2% of the time over ocean and less than 1% of the time over land. There is no drastic change in aerosol particle size associated with these very cloudy situations. Regionally, aerosol amounts vary from polluted areas such as East Asia and India, to the cleanest regions such as Australia and the northern continents. In almost all oceans fine mode aerosol dominates over dust, except in the tropical Atlantic downwind of the Sahara and in some months the Arabian Sea.

  8. Precipitation Climatology over Mediterranean Basin from Ten Years of TRMM Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Climatological features of mesoscale rain activities over the Mediterranean region between 5 W-40 E and 28 N-48 N are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 and 2A25 rain products. The 3B42 rainrates at 3-hourly, 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial resolution for the last 10 years (January 1998 to July 2007) are used to form and analyze the 5-day mean and monthly mean climatology of rainfall. Results show considerable regional and seasonal differences of rainfall over the Mediterranean Region. The maximum rainfall (3-5 mm/day) occurs over the mountain regions of Europe, while the minimum rainfall is observed over North Africa (approximately 0.5 mm/day). The main rainy season over the Mediterranean Sea extends from October to March, with maximum rainfall occurring during November-December. Over the Mediterranean Sea, an average rainrate of approximately 1-2 mm/day is observed, but during the rainy season there is 20% larger rainfall over the western Mediterranean Sea than that over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. During the rainy season, mesoscale rain systems generally propagate from west to east and from north to south over the Mediterranean region, likely to be associated with Mediterranean cyclonic disturbances resulting from interactions among large-scale circulation, orography, and land-sea temperature contrast.

  9. 75 FR 22129 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... design and performance specifications. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on... meets the Town of Falmouth's design and performance specifications to be installed at its existing... appears to meet project design and performance specifications. However, the identified...

  10. Global dust altitude climatology based on CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamalis, C.; Chedin, A.; Peyridieu, S.

    2011-12-01

    seasonal climatology with both day and night time data during the last 5 years (June 2006 - May 2011) with a horizontal resolution of 1 degree. Two classes of aerosols are used from the L2 product: dust and polluted dust. It is known that the polluted dust class may also contain smoke or polluted continental aerosols, but the results on the regions possibly contaminated by these aerosols are treated with caution and generally avoided. Results show that both dust mean altitude (a.s.l.) and geometrical thickness present an obvious seasonal dependence with lower values during winter and higher values during summer. Also, there is a contrast land-sea, especially for the geometrical thickness, with higher values, more dispersed, above continents. For the dust belt the altitude is ~2 km during winter, while it reaches ~3 km during summer; the dust geometrical thickness goes from about 2 km in the Sahel region during winter to its maximum of ~3 km above Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula during summer. Above the desert regions of central Asia, altitudes over 5.5 km are observed during spring, with the subsequent long-range transport at ~4.5 km towards North America. The results are, in general, coherent with ECMWF ERA-Interim climatological wind data during the CALIPSO measurement period.

  11. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  12. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this ‘no-kill policy’ has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001. The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  13. Projected changes in atmospheric river events in Arizona as simulated by global and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Erick R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2016-09-01

    Inland-penetrating atmospheric rivers (ARs) affect the United States Southwest and significantly contribute to cool season precipitation. In this study, we examine the results from an ensemble of dynamically downscaled simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and their driving general circulation models (GCMs) in order to determine statistically significant changes in the intensity of the cool season ARs impacting Arizona and the associated precipitation. Future greenhouse gas emissions follow the A2 emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report simulations. We find that there is a consistent and clear intensification of the AR-related water vapor transport in both the global and regional simulations which reflects the increase in water vapor content due to warmer atmospheric temperatures, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. However, the response of AR-related precipitation intensity to increased moisture flux and column-integrated water vapor is weak and no significant changes are projected either by the GCMs or the NARCCAP models. This lack of robust precipitation variations can be explained in part by the absence of meaningful changes in both the large-scale water vapor flux convergence and the maximum positive relative vorticity in the GCMs. Additionally, some global models show a robust decrease in relative humidity which may also be responsible for the projected precipitation patterns.

  14. Projected changes in atmospheric river events in Arizona as simulated by global and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Erick R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-12-01

    Inland-penetrating atmospheric rivers (ARs) affect the United States Southwest and significantly contribute to cool season precipitation. In this study, we examine the results from an ensemble of dynamically downscaled simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and their driving general circulation models (GCMs) in order to determine statistically significant changes in the intensity of the cool season ARs impacting Arizona and the associated precipitation. Future greenhouse gas emissions follow the A2 emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report simulations. We find that there is a consistent and clear intensification of the AR-related water vapor transport in both the global and regional simulations which reflects the increase in water vapor content due to warmer atmospheric temperatures, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. However, the response of AR-related precipitation intensity to increased moisture flux and column-integrated water vapor is weak and no significant changes are projected either by the GCMs or the NARCCAP models. This lack of robust precipitation variations can be explained in part by the absence of meaningful changes in both the large-scale water vapor flux convergence and the maximum positive relative vorticity in the GCMs. Additionally, some global models show a robust decrease in relative humidity which may also be responsible for the projected precipitation patterns.

  15. A Climatological Investigation of the Activity of Summer Subtropical Vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhexian; DAI Kan

    2008-01-01

    By applying a new vortex detection method to the ECMWF 40-yr reanalysis (ERA40) data from 1985 to 2002, the climatology of summer vortices has been investigated in five subtropical regions, i.e., the northwestern Pacific, northeastern Pacific, northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, and Australia-South Pacific, followed by validation with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Results are as follows: (1) The spatial distributions of ERA40 vortex activities (VAC) were well consistent with those of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NRA) results in all regions, especially in northwestern Pacific. (2) Because of different model resolutions, both the number and intensity of vortices obtained from NRA were significantly weaker thanERA40's. (3) Vortices mainly cruised in coasts and the adjacent seas, from where to the land or the open sea vortex activities were gradually decreased. (4) There were two active centers in the northwestern Pacific:one was located in South China Sea and the other, as the largest center of the five regions, spread from the east side of the Philippines to Japan. (5) Over the northwestern Atlantic, most vortices occurred in Panama and its west-side offshore. (6) The spatial distributions of vortices were alike between the northeastern Pacific and northeastern Atlantic, both spreading from coasts to the west-side sea at 5°-20°N. (7) In the Anstralia-South Pacific, vortices were not as active as those in the other four regions, and mostly took place in the equator-side of near ocean areas. (8) Except the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variations in the other three regions were different between ERA40 and NRA data. (9)In the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variation could be separated to several distinct stages. (10) Since the mid 1980s, mean vortex intensity was getting increased in the northwestern Pacific, which was most significant in the subtropical areas on a global basis. In the western

  16. Australia's South East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project (Achievements and Lessons Learned)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, as part of the Australian Government’s commitment to a broad range of counter-terrorism cooperation in South East Asia, the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project was created by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The RSRS Project’s purpose is to reduce Australian and other States’ vulnerabilities to the unauthorised acquisition and malicious use of high activity, dangerous radioactive sources by working with Australia’s neighbouring countries to improve their physical protection and security management of radioactive sources and their associated facilities throughout their life-cycle. In addition, should prevention measures fail, the RSRS Project aims to improve those countries’ radiological emergency preparedness and response capabilities to deal effectively and safely with radioactive sources out of regulatory control and malicious acts involving radioactive materials. Covering both policy and operational matters, the RSRS Project cooperates with partner countries’ relevant organisations and other entities to develop and deliver their own effective and sustainable radioactive source security programs, consistent with the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and other international guidance and requirements. This paper reviews the achievements and lessons learned from such international cooperation. (author)

  17. ARTISTIC INTERVENTION PROJECTS AND CULTURAL MEMORY: EXPERIENCES FROM PORTUGAL’S CENTRE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pato Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In July and August 2013, O Teatrão, a Coimbra-based theatre company, presented the project Arruin-ados, comprising three theatre performances in three abandoned spaces (‘ruins’, one in each of three cities in the Centre region of Portugal located along the Mondego River: Coimbra, Montemor-o-Velho, and Figueira da Foz. Developed through a community the atre approach, the artistic presentations were based on the collection of local memories, including local testimonies and other types of local materials from local, social, and economic history. The objectives of the project were to bring un-der reflection how different types of urban and rural ruins, understood as scars and tattoos of a country, may speak about the history of that country and, at the same time, may inspire the possible future transformations and possibilities of change. In parallel with this reflec-tion, the artistic production embodies a strong commit-ment to build collective projects; a sense of a shared, common territory; and a network of people and things to explore and articulate, in a localized, concrete way, the history of Portugal between 1890 and 2020. The paper assesses the role and significance of Arruinados in the context of collective memory, community-based artistic interventions in public space, and the potential for local mobilization through the arts.

  18. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  19. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jason T. Sherba; Benjamin M. Sleeter; Adam W. Davis; Owen Parker

    2015-01-01

    Global land-use/land-cover (LULC) change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC t...

  20. Analyzing and Projecting U.S. Wildfire Potential Based on NARCCAP Regional Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Mearns, L. O.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfires usually ignite and spread under hot, dry, and windy conditions. Wildfires, especially catastrophic mega-fires, have increased in recent decades in the United States and other parts of the world. Among the converging factors were extreme weather event such as extended drought. Furthermore, climate has been projected to become warmer worldwide and drier with more frequent droughts in many subtropical and mid-latitude regions including parts of the U.S. due to the greenhouse effect. As a result, wildfires are expected to increase in the future. This study analyzes current features and project future trends of wildfire potential in the continental United States. Fire potential is measured by fire indices including the Keetch-Byram Drought Index and Fosberg Fire Weather Index. The meteorological data used to calculate the fire indices are the dynamical downscaling produced by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Current fire potential generally increases from the eastern to western coast and from cool to warm season. Fire potential has large seasonal and inter-annual variability and spatial connections. Fire potential has shown overall increasing trends in recent decades. The trends are projected to continue this century due to the greenhouse effect. Future fire potential will increase significantly in the Rocky Mountains all seasons and in the Southeast during summer and autumn. Future climate change will also reduce the windows of prescribed burning, which is one of the forest management tools for reducing wildfire risks. The research results are expected to provide useful information for assessing the ecological, environmental, and social impacts of future wildfires and developing mitigation strategies.

  1. 76 FR 37350 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .../air conditioning systems (HVAC Systems) in Columbia, Missouri. This HVAC system consists of three (3... for the HVAC systems, a list of potential manufacturers and project schedule submitted by the City and... HVAC systems available to meet the City's project specifications. The Regional Administrator is...

  2. 75 FR 8348 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... manufactured 1.5 MW wind turbine to meet the MWRA's design and performance specifications as part of its... available or one that can be supplied to meet its proposed project specifications. The Regional... project specifications. Another domestic manufacturer that produces a wind turbine that meets...

  3. 75 FR 36069 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ..., manufactured in Canada, to meet the City's design and performance specifications and construction schedule as... engineer, although the domestic manufacturer could meet most of the project specifications and performance... available to meet the City's project specifications and construction schedule. The Regional Administrator...

  4. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  5. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  6. Nuclear knowledge management initiatives of the Regional Cooperative Agreement undertaken by the Electronic Networking and Outreach project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) in the Asia Pacific region is one of the cooperative agreements under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency and currently consists of 17 member states. Since the region covered by the RCA is undergoing a rapid expansion in nuclear power development, many activities have been carried out under the RCA. The Electronic Networking and Outreach (ENO) Project under the RCA was used as a vehicle for the RCA programme for the dissemination of valuable information to end-users. This paper will describe the initiatives undertaken by the ENO project to initially establish an information and knowledge-sharing environment as an initiative towards a nuclear knowledge management system within the RCA community. It will also discuss the challenges and issues peculiar to the region that have been encountered during the project cycle. Then it will try to offer a conceptual framework of a nuclear knowledge management system for the RCA region. (author)

  7. Nuclear knowledge management initiatives of the Regional Cooperative Agreement undertaken by the Electronic Networking and Outreach project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alawiah Musa [Information and Technology Centre, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang 43000 (Malaysia)]. E-mail: alawiah@mint.gov.my; Ainul Hayati Daud; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman [Information and Technology Centre, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang 43000 (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) in the Asia Pacific region is one of the cooperative agreements under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency and currently consists of 17 member states. Since the region covered by the RCA is undergoing a rapid expansion in nuclear power development, many activities have been carried out under the RCA. The Electronic Networking and Outreach (ENO) Project under the RCA was used as a vehicle for the RCA programme for the dissemination of valuable information to end-users. This paper will describe the initiatives undertaken by the ENO project to initially establish an information and knowledge-sharing environment as an initiative towards a nuclear knowledge management system within the RCA community. It will also discuss the challenges and issues peculiar to the region that have been encountered during the project cycle. Then it will try to offer a conceptual framework of a nuclear knowledge management system for the RCA region. (author)

  8. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological

  9. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  10. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  11. Technical Note: Ozonesonde climatology between 1995 and 2011: description, evaluation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tilmes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An ozone climatology based on ozonesonde measurements taken over the last 17 yr has been constructed for model evaluation and comparisons to other observations. Vertical ozone profiles for 42 stations around the globe have been compiled for the period 1995–2011, in pressure and tropopause-referenced altitudes. For each profile, the mean, standard deviation, median, the half-width are provided, as well as information about interannual variability. Regional aggregates are formed in combining stations with similar ozone characteristics. The Hellinger distance is introduced as a new diagnostic to identify stations that describe similar shapes of ozone probability distribution functions (PDFs. In this way, 12 regions were selected covering at least 2 stations and the variability among those stations is discussed. Significant variability with longitude of ozone distributions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere in the northern mid- and high latitudes is found. The representativeness of regional aggregates is discussed for high northern latitudes, Western Europe, Eastern US, and Japan, using independent observations from surface stations and MOZAIC aircraft data. Good agreement exists between ozonesondes and aircraft observations in the mid-troposphere and between ozonesondes and surface observations for Western Europe. For Eastern US and high northern latitudes, surface ozone values from ozonesondes are biased 10 ppb high compared to independent measurements. An application of the climatology is presented using the NCAR CAM-Chem model. The climatology allows evaluation of the model performance regarding ozone averages, seasonality, interannual variability, and the shape of ozone distributions. The new assessment of the key features of ozone distributions gives deeper insights into the performance of models.

  12. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vose, R.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schmoyer, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Eischeid, J.K. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the ``best`` data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  13. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vose, R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Schmoyer, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. (National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Eischeid, J.K. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences)

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the best'' data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  14. Aggregating Hydrometeorological Data from International Monitoring Networks Across Earth's Largest Lake System to Quantify Uncertainty in Historical Water Budget Records, Improve Regional Water Budget Projections, and Differentiate Drivers Behind a Recent Record-Setting Surge in Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Bruxer, J.; Smith, J.; Hunter, T.; Fortin, V.; Clites, A. H.; Durnford, D.; Qian, S.; Seglenieks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Resolving and projecting the water budget of the North American Great Lakes basin (Earth's largest lake system) requires aggregation of data from a complex array of in situ monitoring and remote sensing products that cross an international border (leading to potential sources of bias and other inconsistencies), and are relatively sparse over the surfaces of the lakes themselves. Data scarcity over the surfaces of the lakes is a particularly significant problem because, unlike Earth's other large freshwater basins, the Great Lakes basin water budget is (on annual scales) comprised of relatively equal contributions from runoff, over-lake precipitation, and over-lake evaporation. Consequently, understanding drivers behind changes in regional water storage and water levels requires a data management framework that can reconcile uncertainties associated with data scarcity and bias, and propagate those uncertainties into regional water budget projections and historical records. Here, we assess the development of a historical hydrometeorological database for the entire Great Lakes basin with records dating back to the late 1800s, and describe improvements that are specifically intended to differentiate hydrological, climatological, and anthropogenic drivers behind recent extreme changes in Great Lakes water levels. Our assessment includes a detailed analysis of the extent to which extreme cold winters in central North America in 2013-2014 (caused by the anomalous meridional upper air flow - commonly referred to in the public media as the "polar vortex" phenomenon) altered the thermal and hydrologic regimes of the Great Lakes and led to a record setting surge in water levels between January 2014 and December 2015.

  15. Understanding the Rainfall Daily Climatology of Northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Castillo, L.

    2007-05-01

    Maximum monthly precipitation (MMP) over northwestern Mexico is not concurrent because it occurs in different months from July through September. However, instead of occurring progressively from one month to the next as latitude increases, as it might be logic since rains move progressively from south to north as monsoon develops, MMP occurs in July in latitudes of Jalisco state, then MMP shifts to August more to the north in latitudes of Nayarit state and along the eastern coast of the Gulf of California, then it occurs in July in higher latitudes through the main axis of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), and finally MMP shifts to September to the west in the California Peninsula. The maximum monthly streamflow occurs in a similar pattern as MMP does but one month later. When daily rainfall climatology of the region is calculated, i.e. the long-term mean per day from stations with more than 20 years of data between 1940 and 2004, it is possible to understand why the behavior of MMP occurs in a July-August-July pattern from south to north. Preliminary results indicate that at latitudes of Nayarit state normal frequent storms with abundant rains develop at the end of July and through the August. These rains sum to the rains that move from the south to the north, as monsoon develops increasing the volume of precipitations at those latitudes in August. To the east crossing the SMO through northwestern Zacatecas state maximum volume of precipitations also is observed in August. However, in higher latitudes it is not observed any increment of rains in August and consequently maximum volume of precipitations occurs in July. To understand the dynamics of the rains at the latitudes of Nayarit state it results necessary to investigate the source of these local rains and explain why the increase of precipitations in August is limited at those latitudes.

  16. UK tornado climatology and the development of simple prediction tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J.; Wright, A.

    2004-04-01

    The principle features of tornado climatology in the UK are presented based on the 5-year period from January 1995. Just over one third of reported tornadoes occurred in the south-east region of England, and most tornado activity took place during the spring and summer while the least activity occurred during autumn. This was different to the seasonal distribution for the period from 1960 to 1989 when autumn had the greatest number of tornadoes. The reported tornado distribution was shown to be significantly affected by topography and the density of potential observers. Of the ground-based meteorological variables tested, air temperature was most closely related to tornado occurrence with a peak at 13 deg;C. An equation incorporating air temperature, dew-point temperature, wind speed and pressure was shown to predict a tornado day with an accuracy of 86. 2%. The probability that a tornado would occur on a predicted day was 81. 2%. The model was used to predict actual tornado occurrences across England, Wales and Scotland during the 5-year study period, and it was estimated that just over five-times as many tornadoes occurred than were reported. The model results suggest that the bias induced by population density was not greater than the combined influence of topography and spatial setting. This is important in the UK, because most tornadoes are reported in lowland areas which are heavily populated and it has been difficult until now to determine the extent to which tornado reports are biased by the density of potential observers.

  17. Climatology and a dynamical investigation of tropical cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Ali; Brunet, Gilbert; Yau, Peter M. K.

    2014-05-01

    In general, observation has indicated that only a small fraction of the easterly waves occur in a single hurricane season contribute to tropical cyclogenesis. However, this small fraction includes a large portion of named storms. In addition, it has recently been shown that named storms in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins are almost all associated with a cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer, located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. Therefore, to better understand the dynamics involved in tropical cyclogenesis, it is desirable to investigate the flow characteristics and the physical mechanism for an easterly wave to form a cat's eye. We have chosen the simplest of all scenarios to present the fundamental concepts of tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer. Our methodology involves performing a climatological study of developing easterly waves covering the 1998-2001 hurricane seasons using ERA-Interim 6-hourly reanalysis data. Spatial and temporal filtering is applied to decompose the desired fields, and time-lagged composites are obtained in a translating reference frame following the disturbances. The stability analysis of the basic state flow has been investigated. The composite basic state zonal wind profiles indicate a cyclonic critical layer at cat's eye formation region. Composite perturbation potential vorticity showed a wave-like pattern, which is in agreement with typical characteristics of easterly waves. Statistical analysis is also used to determine the levels of confidence in the composite fields to assess the reliability of the results. In addition, the total potential vorticity diagnostics show a closed pattern only for one of the easterly wave troughs within the domain, the one associated with the tropical storms, and seem to be a better approach to distinguish developing vs. non-developing disturbances.

  18. Towards a generalization procedure for WRF mesoscale wind climatologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahmann, Andrea N.; Casso, P.; Campmany, E.;

    We present a method for generalizing wind climatologies generated from mesoscale model output (e.g. the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.) The generalization procedure is based on Wind Atlas framework of WAsP and KAMM/WAsP, and been extensively in wind resources assessment in DTU Wind...... generalized wind climatologies estimated by the microscale model WAsP and the methodology presented here. For the Danish wind measurements the mean absolute error in the ‘raw’ wind speeds is 9.2%, while the mean absolute error in the generalized wind speeds is 4.1%. The generalization procedure has been...

  19. Projected changes to high temperature events for Canada based on a regional climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi; Diro, Gulilat Tefera; Khaliq, M. Naveed; Beltrami, Hugo; Caya, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Extreme hot spells can have significant impacts on human society and ecosystems, and therefore it is important to assess how these extreme events will evolve in a changing climate. In this study, the impact of climate change on hot days, hot spells, and heat waves, over 10 climatic regions covering Canada, based on 11 regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for the June to August summer period is presented. These simulations were produced with six RCMs driven by four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM), for the A2 emission scenario, for the current 1970-1999 and future 2040-2069 periods. Two types of hot days, namely HD-1 and HD-2, defined respectively as days with only daily maximum temperature (Tmax) and both Tmax and daily minimum temperature (Tmin) exceeding their respective thresholds (i.e., period-of-record 90th percentile of Tmax and Tmin values), are considered in the study. Analogous to these hot days, two types of hot spells, namely HS-1 and HS-2, are identified as spells of consecutive HD-1 and HD-2 type hot days. In the study, heat waves are defined as periods of three or more consecutive days, with Tmax above 32 °C threshold. Results suggest future increases in the number of both types of hot days and hot spell events for the 10 climatic regions considered. However, the projected changes show high spatial variability and are highly dependent on the RCM and driving AOGCM combination. Extreme hot spell events such as HS-2 type hot spells of longer duration are expected to experience relatively larger increases compared to hot spells of moderate duration, implying considerable heat related environmental and health risks. Regionally, the Great Lakes, West Coast, Northern Plains, and Maritimes regions are found to be more affected due to increases in the frequency and severity of hot spells and/or heat wave characteristics, requiring more in depth studies for these regions

  20. 75 FR 76728 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and... Indicator in-home water meter monitors manufactured in Malaysia by Eastech, Inc., under license from Badger... compatible with the water meter heads installed by the CIWA. The Regional Administrator is making...

  1. 76 FR 142 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... media, manufactured in Brazil, for six pressure filters. This is a project specific waiver and only... determination based on the review and recommendations of the EPA Region III, Water Protection Division, Office..., U.S. EPA Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  2. Development of the business area construction and energy of EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Transfer from project management to a regional network; Entwicklung des Geschaeftsfeldes Bau und Energie der EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Umsetzung von Projektmanagement in einem regionalen Netzwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiverth, A.

    2006-07-01

    The association EnergieRegion Nuernberg is a regional authority network, which is employed with the promotion of sustainable handling of the factor energy in the region Nuernberg and with the proliferation of this region as internationally recognized location for energy engineering, energy industry and energy science. The intention is to use the important industrial, service-oriented and scientific potential optimally. For this reason a functional co-ordination and communication platform had to be created for the cross-linking of the appropriate participants from economics, research and public administration. Therefore, the author of the contribution under consideration accompanies the development process of the business field construction and energy of this association in the background of the current trends in the construction and energy sector in the region Nuernberg. Under this aspect, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Success factors of the project management in a regional network; (b) Operationalisation of the success of the project by means of a model; (c) Analysis of the different aspects of energetic measures; (d) Determination of chances and risks of the range building and energy in the region Nuernberg; (e) Comparison of the success of the model projects with the model for the determination of project success; (f) Determination of strengths and weaknesses of the project management in the business field construction and energy of the energy region Nuernberg.

  3. Climatological analysis of precipitation patterns over Mount Baldo (Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, G.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.

    2010-09-01

    The mountain range of Mount Baldo is an elongated chain in the southern Prealps. Bounded on the western side by Lake Garda, and on the eastern side by the parallel-running deep furrow of the River Adige Valley, the whole Mount Baldo range stretches in the direction southwest-northeast for about 40 km, from the southern highlands of Caprino Veronese up to the elevated saddle joining the surroundings of Rovereto (in the Adige Valley) to the plain of Nago-Torbole (northern shore of Lake Garda). Mount Baldo displays for most of its length a sharp and uninterrupted crest ridge, mostly running over 2000 m MSL. Its surface covers a variety of altitudinal ranges, from 65 m MSL at the mountain feet, along the Lake Garda shores, to 2,218 m MSL at its highest peak (Cima Valdritta). Furthermore the particular layout of being the southernmost alpine headland, projecting as a balcony over the Po Plain, makes it exposed to the climatic influence of the larger Mediterranean basin. All of these factors concurred to develop a remarkable variety of local microclimates, geographical characters and ecosystems. In particular Mount Baldo is well known for its varied flora, whence it has been named, since 16th century, Hortus Europae (Europe Garden). Precipitation is one of the key factors characterising the peculiar local climates of Mount Baldo. Various precipitation features can be produced by a variety of processes, including both orographic uplift of moist air advected by synoptic systems, and evaporation and up-slope advection of moist air from Lake Garda or from the Po Plain. Furthermore these effects may variously develop, and even combine, under different meteorological scenarios. In the present contribution the preliminary results are shown from a research work aiming at retrieving, collecting in a homogeneous dataset and analysing data from 18 weather stations disseminated on Mount Baldo, in order to produce a climatological analysis of precipitation in the area. The whole

  4. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  5. Regional climate model projections of rainfall from U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Knutson, Thomas R.; Smith, James A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern United States is vulnerable to flooding from tropical cyclone rainfall. Understanding how both the frequency and intensity of this rainfall will change in the future climate is a major challenge. One promising approach is the dynamical downscaling of relatively coarse general circulation model results using higher-resolution regional climate models (RCMs). In this paper, we examine the frequency of landfalling tropical cyclones and associated rainfall properties over the eastern United States using Zetac, an 18-km resolution RCM designed for modeling Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Simulations of 1980-2006 tropical cyclone frequency and rainfall intensity for the months of August-October are compared against results from previous studies and observation-based datasets. The 1980-2006 control simulations are then compared against results from three future climate scenarios: CMIP3/A1B (late twenty-first century) and CMIP5/RCP4.5 (early and late twenty-first century). In CMIP5 early and late twenty-first century projections, the frequency of occurrence of post-landfall tropical cyclones shows little net change over much of the eastern U.S. despite a decrease in frequency over the ocean. This reflects a greater landfalling fraction in CMIP5 projections, which is not seen in CMIP3-based projections. Average tropical cyclone rain rates over land within 500 km of the storm center increase by 8-17 % in the future climate projections relative to control. This is at least as much as expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, which links a warmer atmosphere to greater atmospheric water vapor content. Over land, the percent enhancement of area-averaged rain rates from a given tropical cyclone in the warmer climate is greater for larger averaging radius (300-500 km) than near the storm, particularly for the CMIP3 projections. Although this study does not focus on attribution, the findings are broadly consistent with historical tropical cyclone rainfall

  6. IDENTIFYING YOUNG STARS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS FOR THE MYStIX PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massive Young star-forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-rays (MYStIX) project requires samples of young stars that are likely members of 20 nearby Galactic massive star-forming regions. Membership is inferred from statistical classification of X-ray sources, from detection of a robust infrared excess that is best explained by circumstellar dust in a disk or infalling envelope and from published spectral types that are unlikely to be found among field stars. We present the MYStIX membership lists here, and describe in detail the statistical classification of X-ray sources via a 'Naive Bayes Classifier'. These membership lists provide the empirical foundation for later MYStIX science studies

  7. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  8. Projecting regional potentials for cost-effective energy conservation and renewable resource applications: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility is discussed of preparing an instruction manual that would enable a modeler in a particular region to set up a calculation method for predicting energy use. Such a manual would concern itself primarily with the three energy-consuming sectors most relevant to utilities' demand projections. Data requriements for each of the three sectors (residential, commercial, and industrial) are described and some initial guidance is provided as to how these needs can be filled. The methods for separate calculations of energy consumed by each end use in each sector are described. Each end use is discussed separately for the residential sector, but only in aggregate for the commercial and industrial sectors. (MCW)

  9. Utility of regional satellite volcano deformation monitoring in Latin America: The CEOS pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations are a cost effective tool for monitoring large numbers of volcanoes in areas with scarce instrumentation or difficult access. In the context of the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) has developed a pilot project to showcase remote sensing for volcano hazard mitigation and response. Specifically, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of global volcano monitoring of Holocene volcanoes by undertaking regional monitoring of volcanic arcs in Latin America, using satellite earth observations data to track deformation as well as gas, ash, and thermal emissions. Latin America was chosen because the volcanoes are situated in a diversity of environments, providing a good test of the capabilities of different types of satellite data under different conditions; volcanic activity is abundant, and monitoring agencies in Latin American countries would directly benefit from the resources that this pilot will make available. It is hoped that the regional study will demonstrate that Earth observation data can help to identify volcanoes that may become active in the future as well as track eruptive activity that may impact populations and infrastructure on the ground and in the air, ultimately leading to improved targeting for permanent satellite-based observations and in-situ volcanic monitoring efforts. The pilot project is posible thanks to data provided by the various space agencies (ESA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES, CSA). In this contribution, we focus on premilinary ground deformation results using SAR satellites for selected areas in the Northern and Southern Andes as well as the Caribbean with recent unrest. For example, in the Southern Andes we will present ALOS time series at Llaima (-38.7 S) and Peteroa (-35.2 S) volcanoes, both of which have had eruptions during the past ten years.

  10. NORSEWInD satellite wind climatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis;

    -height but more research is needed on this topic. The key wind energy statistical maps based on satellite data in the Norsewind project are publically available at web-sites: LNEG http://geoportal.lneg.pt//index.php?lg=en&state=Inicio Norsewind http://www.norsewind.eu/public/index.html SAR-based results are also...

  11. Monthly Climatology of Thermospheric Zonal and Meridional Winds Obtained from a Kalman Filter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherliess, L.; Lomidze, L.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermospheric neutral wind and its meridional and zonal components is critical for an improved understanding of the low- and mid-latitude F-region dynamics and morphology. To date, the reliable estimation of the wind and its components remains a challenge because of difficulties in both measurement and modeling. Previous methods that use ionospheric measurements to deduce winds provide their values only in the direction of the magnetic meridian. We will present the monthly climatology of the zonal and meridional components of thermospheric neutral wind at low and mid-latitudes obtained by a Kalman Filter technique. First, the climatology of the magnetic meridional wind is obtained by assimilating monthly maps of F-region ionosphere peak parameters (NmF2 and hmF2), obtained from COSMIC radio occultation data, into the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Full Physics (GAIM-FP) model. The model provides the 3-D electron density throughout the ionosphere, together with the magnetic meridional wind. Next, the estimation of the global zonal and meridional wind components is performed using the newly developed Thermospheric Wind Assimilation Model (TWAM). TWAM combines magnetic meridional wind data obtained from GAIM-FP with a physics-based 3-D thermospheric neutral wind model using an implicit Kalman Filter technique. The ionospheric drag and ion diffusion velocities, needed for the wind calculation, are also taken from the GAIM-FP model. We present the monthly climatology of our wind estimation and compare individual horizontal wind components to their corresponding empirical model values and to measurements made by interferometers.

  12. Comparisons of cloud ice mass content retrieved from the radar-infrared radiometer method with aircraft data during the second international satellite cloud climatology project regional experiment (FIRE-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, S.Y. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Heymsfield, A.J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kropfli, R.A.; Snider, J.B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Comparisons of remotely sensed meteorological parameters with in situ direct measurements always present a challenge. Matching sampling volumes is one of the main problems for such comparisons. Aircraft usually collect data when flying along a horizontal leg at a speed of about 100 m/sec (or even greater). The usual sampling time of 5 seconds provides an average horizontal resolution of the order of 500 m. Estimations of vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters from aircraft measurements are hampered by sampling a cloud at various altitudes at different times. This paper describes the accuracy of aircraft horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the location of the ground-based instruments.

  13. GridStat – Cyber Security and Regional Deployment Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-02-18

    GridStat is a developing communication technology to provide real-time data delivery services to the electric power grid. It is being developed in a collaborative effort between the Electrical Power Engineering and Distributed Computing Science Departments at Washington State University. Improving the cyber security of GridStat was the principle focus of this project. A regional network was established to test GridStat’s cyber security mechanisms in a realistic environment. The network consists of nodes at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Washington State University. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was tasked with performing the security assessment, the results of which detailed a number or easily resolvable and previously unknown issues, as well as a number of difficult and previously known issues. Going forward we recommend additional development prior to commercialization of GridStat. The development plan is structured into three domains: Core Development, Cyber Security and Pilot Projects. Each domain contains a number of phased subtasks that build upon each other to increase the robustness and maturity of GridStat.

  14. Summary Report, Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations Research Program: First project year, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Richard T.; Davidson, Ray

    1978-12-01

    The overall objectives of the first year project were as follows: (1) to develop realistic but aggressive scenarios with certainty factors for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah; (2) to delineate the public actions, together with their schedules, required for the scenarios to materialize; and (3) to develop a computer-based data storage and retrieval system (i.e. a Regional Program Progress Monitor) of the level of a preliminary working model, which is capable of displaying program approach but is not loaded with all available data. In addition, each sponsor had supplementary objectives aligned to its own programmatic goals. DOE sought to develop expertise and programs within the appropriate state agencies upon which future DOE development and commercialization activities could be structured. FCRC sought to promote the utilization of geothermal energy throughout the five-state region for purposes of expanded economic development, increased employment, and higher citizen incomes. The goals of the five states varied from state to state, but generally included the following: development of alternative energy sources to replace dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas; economic and industrial development in rural areas; encouragement of industry and utility development of geothermal energy for electrical power generation; demonstration of the practical applications of energy research and development; and close interaction with business and industry for the commercialization of both electric and direct thermal applications.

  15. Are climatological correlations with the Hale double sunspot cycle meaningful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sunspot cycle which may have been subject to a predicted phase reversal between 1800 and 1880 A.D. is discussed. Several climatological parameters normally correlated with this cycle are examined and do not exhibit a corresponding phase reversal during this period. It is proposed that this apparent discrepency can be resolved by suitable observations during the upcoming half decade

  16. Future trends of snowfall days in northern Spain from ENSEMBLES regional climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M. R.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study Pons et al. (Clim Res 54(3):197-207, 2010. doi: 10.3354/cr01117g) reported a significant decreasing trend of snowfall occurrence in the Northern Iberian Peninsula since the mid 70s. The study was based on observations of annual snowfall frequency (measured as the annual number of snowfall days NSD) from a network of 33 stations ranging from 60 to 1350 m. In the present work we analyze the skill of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to reproduce this trend for the period 1961-2000 (using both reanalysis- and historical GCM-driven boundary conditions) and the trend and the associated uncertainty of the regional future projections obtained under the A1B scenario for the first half of the twenty-first century. In particular, we consider the regional simulation dataset from the EU-funded ENSEMBLES project, consisting of thirteen state-of-the-art RCMs run at 25 km resolution over Europe. While ERA40 severely underestimates both the mean NSD and its observed trend (-2.2 days/decade), the corresponding RCM simulations driven by the reanalysis appropriately capture the interannual variability and trends of the observed NSD (trends ranging from -3.4 to -0.7, -2.1 days/decade for the ensemble mean). The results driven by the GCM historical runs are quite variable, with trends ranging from -8.5 to 0.2 days/decade (-1.5 days/decade for the ensemble mean), and the greatest uncertainty by far being associated with the particular GCM used. Finally, the trends for the future 2011-2050 A1B runs are more consistent and significant, ranging in this case from -3.7 to -0.5 days/decade (-2.0 days/decade for the ensemble mean), indicating a future significant decreasing trend. These trends are mainly determined by the increasing temperatures, as indicated by the interannual correlation between temperature and NSD (-0.63 in the observations), which is preserved in both ERA40- and GCM-driven simulations.

  17. How Does a Regional Climate Model Modify the Projected Climate Change Signal of the Driving GCM: A Study over Different CORDEX Regions Using REMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Teichmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and regional climate model combinations. To interpret the spread of simulated results, it is useful to understand how the climate change signal is modified in the GCM-RCM modelmodelgeneral circulation model-regional climate model (GCM-RCM chain. This kind of information can also be useful for impact modelers; for the process of experiment design and when interpreting model results. In this study, we investigate how the simulated historical and future climate of the Max-Planck-Institute earth system model (MPI-ESM is modified by dynamic downscaling with the regional model REMO in different world regions. The historical climate simulations for 1950–2005 are driven by observed anthropogenic forcing. The climate projections are driven by projected anthropogenic forcing according to different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The global simulations are downscaled with REMO over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX domains Africa, Europe, South America and West Asia from 2006–2100. This unique set of simulations allows for climate type specific analysis across multiple world regions and for multi-scenarios. We used a classification of climate types by Köppen-Trewartha to define evaluation regions with certain climate conditions. A systematic comparison of near-surface temperature and precipitation simulated by the regional and the global model is done. In general, the historical time period is well represented by the GCM and the RCM. Some different biases occur in the RCM compared to the GCM as in the Amazon Basin, northern Africa and the West Asian domain. Both models project similar warming

  18. A global climatology of stratospheric OClO derived from GOMOS measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tétard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS instrument on board the European platform ENVISAT was dedicated to the study of the atmosphere of the Earth using the stellar occultation technique. The spectral range of the GOMOS spectrometer extends from the UV to the near infrared, allowing for the retrieval of species such as O3, NO2, NO3, H2O, O2, air density, aerosol extinction and OClO. Nevertheless, OClO can not be retrieved using a single GOMOS measurement because of the weak signal-to-noise ratio and the small optical thickness associated with this molecule. We present here the method used to detect this molecule by using several GOMOS measurements. It is based on a two-step approach. First, several co-located measurements are combined in a statistical way to build an averaged measurement with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Then, a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS method is applied to retrieve OClO slant column densities. The statistics of the sets of GOMOS measurements used to build the averaged measurement and the spectral window selection are analyzed. The obtained retrievals are compared to results from two balloon-borne instruments. It appears that the inter-comparisons of OClO are generally satisfying. Then, two nighttime climatologies of OClO slant column densities based on GOMOS averaged measurements are presented. The first depicts annual global pictures of OClO from 2003 to 2011. From this climatology, the presence of an OClO layer in the equatorial region at about 35 km is confirmed and strong concentrations of OClO in both polar regions are observed, a sign of chlorine activation. The second climatology is a monthly time series. It clearly shows the chlorine activation of the lower stratosphere during winter. Moreover the equatorial OClO layer is observed during all the years without any significant variations. Finally, the anti-correlation between OClO and NO2 is highlighted. This very promising

  19. An Aircraft-Based Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere O3, CO, and H2O Climatology for the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Pan, L. L.; Hoor, P.; Atlas, E.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Christensen, L. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Gao, R.-S.; Herman, R. L.; Hinsta, E. J.; Loewenstein, M.; Lopez, J.; Paige, M. E.; Pittman, J. V.; Podolske, J. R.; Proffitt, M. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Schiller, C.; Schlager, H.; Smith, J.; Spelten, N.; Webster, C.; Weinheimer, A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a climatology of O3, CO, and H2O for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), based on a large collection of high ]resolution research aircraft data taken between 1995 and 2008. To group aircraft observations with sparse horizontal coverage, the UTLS is divided into three regimes: the tropics, subtropics, and the polar region. These regimes are defined using a set of simple criteria based on tropopause height and multiple tropopause conditions. Tropopause ]referenced tracer profiles and tracer ]tracer correlations show distinct characteristics for each regime, which reflect the underlying transport processes. The UTLS climatology derived here shows many features of earlier climatologies. In addition, mixed air masses in the subtropics, identified by O3 ]CO correlations, show two characteristic modes in the tracer ]tracer space that are a result of mixed air masses in layers above and below the tropopause (TP). A thin layer of mixed air (1.2 km around the tropopause) is identified for all regions and seasons, where tracer gradients across the TP are largest. The most pronounced influence of mixing between the tropical transition layer and the subtropics was found in spring and summer in the region above 380 K potential temperature. The vertical extent of mixed air masses between UT and LS reaches up to 5 km above the TP. The tracer correlations and distributions in the UTLS derived here can serve as a reference for model and satellite data evaluation

  20. A global seasonal surface ocean climatology of phytoplankton types based on CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Chantal M.; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Laufkoetter, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Much advancement has been made in recent years in field data assimilation, remote sensing and ecosystem modeling, yet our global view of phytoplankton biogeography beyond chlorophyll biomass is still a cursory taxonomic picture with vast areas of the open ocean requiring field validations. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data combined with inverse methods offer an advantage over many other phytoplankton quantification measures by way of providing an immediate perspective of the whole phytoplankton community in a sample as a function of chlorophyll biomass. Historically, such chemotaxonomic analysis has been conducted mainly at local spatial and temporal scales in the ocean. Here, we apply a widely tested inverse approach, CHEMTAX, to a global climatology of pigment observations from HPLC. This study marks the first systematic and objective global application of CHEMTAX, yielding a seasonal climatology comprised of ~1500 1°×1° global grid points of the major phytoplankton pigment types in the ocean characterizing cyanobacteria, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and diatoms, with results validated against prior regional studies where possible. Key findings from this new global view of specific phytoplankton abundances from pigments are a) the large global proportion of marine haptophytes (comprising 32±5% of total chlorophyll), whose biogeochemical functional roles are relatively unknown, and b) the contrasting spatial scales of complexity in global community structure that can be explained in part by regional oceanographic conditions. The results are publically accessible via

  1. Dynamical Tropopause Variability and Potential Vorticity Streamers in the Northern Hemisphere——A Climatological Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivia MARTIUS; Cornelia SCHWIERZ; Michael SPRENGER

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a 44-year climatology of potential vorticity (PV) streamers in the Northern Hemi sphere based upon analyses of the ERA-40 reanalysis data set. A comparison to an existing 15-year clima tology yields very good agreement in the locations of PV streamer frequency maxima, but some differences are found in the amplitude of frequencies. The climatology is assessed with the focus on links between PV streamer frequencies and the synoptic- and planetary-scale variability of the dynamical tropopause. A comprehensive overview is provided on where (zonally) and when (seasonally) short-term variability throughout the extra-tropical and sub-tropical tropopause is enhanced or reduced. Several key processes that influence this variability are discussed. Baroclinic processes, for example, determine the variability in the storm-track areas in winter, whereas the Asian summer monsoon significantly influences the variability over Asia. The paper also describes links between the frequency of PV streamers in the extra-tropical and sub tropical tropopause and three major northern hemisphere teleconnection patterns. The observed changes in the PV streamer frequencies are closely related to concomitant variations of PV and its gradient within the tropopause region. During opposite phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation the location of the streamer frequency maxima shifts significantly in the Atlantic and European region in both the extra-tropics and subtropics. The influence of ENSO on the streamer frequencies is most pronounced in the subtropical Pacific.

  2. Response to state comments on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the Southeastern Region on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Southeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Southeastern State comments on both the revised draft Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  3. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  4. Response to state comments on the revised draft northeastern regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the States of the Northeastern Region on the revised draft Northeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Northeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Northeastern State comments on both the revised draft Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  5. Priorities and Economic Development Projects in the Danube Region from Romania within the Context of Implementing the European Union Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marian Buhociu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to briefly present the challenges and realities of economic and social potential existing in the region crossed by the Danube in Romania, to introduce the priorities taking into account their specific area and point out the major projects that have had a great impact upon the development of the Danube region and its adjacent area(1. The present paper can be used as basis for strategic decisions related to the Danube region, both at the sectorial level and at the integrated one. Moreover, due to its 1200 km of Romania�s external border included in the Danube region, the structure of the territorial cooperation programmes can be easily defined(4. In the context of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region (SUERD, the present paper establishes the objectives and priorities of the Danube region as well as of the potential development opportunities in the Danube region(8.

  6. Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. This report deals specifically with the atmospheric transport model, Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET). RATCHET is a major rework of the MESOILT2 model used in the first phase of the HEDR Project; only the bookkeeping framework escaped major changes. Changes to the code include (1) significant changes in the representation of atmospheric processes and (2) incorporation of Monte Carlo methods for representing uncertainty in input data, model parameters, and coefficients. To a large extent, the revisions to the model are based on recommendations of a peer working group that met in March 1991. Technical bases for other portions of the atmospheric transport model are addressed in two other documents. This report has three major sections: a description of the model, a user`s guide, and a programmer`s guide. These sections discuss RATCHET from three different perspectives. The first provides a technical description of the code with emphasis on details such as the representation of the model domain, the data required by the model, and the equations used to make the model calculations. The technical description is followed by a user`s guide to the model with emphasis on running the code. The user`s guide contains information about the model input and output. The third section is a programmer`s guide to the code. It discusses the hardware and software required to run the code. The programmer`s guide also discusses program structure and each of the program elements.

  7. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  8. Climate-proofing spatial planning and water management projects: an analysis of 100 local and regional projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedee, A.G.J.; Swart, R.J.; Pater, de F.; Goosen, H.; Pijnappels, M.H.J.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, an increasing number of local and regional authorities in Europe started making their city or region resilient to climate change, or ‘climate-proof’. Publications about the actual experiences with implementing these adaptation policies are as yet anecdotal, determined

  9. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  10. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  11. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in μEq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m2/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m2/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in {mu}Eq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Assessment of impact of water diversion projects on ecological water uses in arid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-hao SHANG; Hui-jie WANG

    2013-01-01

    In arid regions, large-scale water diversion from rivers leads to significant changes in river flow regimes, which may have large impacts on ecological water uses of river-dependent ecosystems, such as river, lake, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. To assess the integrated impact of water diversion on ecological water uses, we proposed a hierarchy evaluation model composed of four layers representing the evaluation goal, sub-areas of the influenced region, evaluation criteria, and water diversion schemes, respectively. The evaluation criteria for different types of ecological water uses were proposed, and the analytical hierarchy process was used for the integrated assessment. For a river ecosystem, the percentage of mean annual flow was used to define the grade of environmental flow. For a lake ecosystem, water recharge to the lake to compensate the lake water losses was used to assess the ecological water use of a lake. The flooding level of the wetland and the groundwater level in the riparian plain were used to assess the wetland and riparian ecological water uses, respectively. The proposed model was applied to a basin in northern Xinjiang in northwest China, where both water diversion and inter-basin water transfer projects were planned to be carried out. Based on assessment results for the whole study area and two sub-areas, an appropriate scheme was recommended from four planning schemes. With the recommended scheme, ecological water uses of the influenced ecosystems can be maintained at an acceptable level. Meanwhile, economical water requirements can be met to a great extent.

  14. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Dynamical Modeling of the Broad Line Region in Mrk 50

    CERN Document Server

    Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Sand, David J; Stern, Daniel; Woo, Jong-Hak; Assef, Roberto J; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cooper, Michael C; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Hiner, Kyle D; Hoenig, Sebastian F; Joner, Michael D; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Laney, C David; Lazarova, Mariana S; Nierenberg, A M; Park, Dawoo; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Son, Donghoon; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Thorman, Shawn J; Tollerud, Erik J; Walsh, Jonelle L; Walters, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We present dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 50 using reverberation mapping data taken as part of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) 2011. We model the reverberation mapping data directly, constraining the geometry and kinematics of the BLR, as well as deriving a black hole mass estimate that does not depend on a normalizing factor or virial coefficient. We find that the geometry of the BLR in Mrk 50 is a nearly face-on thick disk, with a mean radius of 9.6(+1.2,-0.9) light days, a width of the BLR of 6.9(+1.2,-1.1) light days, and a disk opening angle of 25\\pm10 degrees above the plane. We also constrain the inclination angle to be 9(+7,-5) degrees, close to face-on. Finally, the black hole mass of Mrk 50 is inferred to be log10(M(BH)/Msun) = 7.57(+0.44,-0.27). By comparison to the virial black hole mass estimate from traditional reverberation mapping analysis, we find the normalizing constant (virial coefficient) to be log10(f) = 0.78(+0.44,-0.27), consistent ...

  15. Mobilising internally generated funds to finance development projects in Ghana’s Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Puopiel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs in Ghana’s Northern Region in mobilising internally generated funds (IGF to finance development projects. The study gathered both primary and secondary data from three MMDAs: Tamale Metropolitan Assembly, Yendi Municipal Assembly and Saboba District Assembly. It employed a multi-stage sampling technique of questionnaires, interviews, focus groups and key informant interviews to collect data from respondents and obtain a snapshot of their situation in the 2013 fiscal year. It established that fines, property rates, licences, annual rates, investment income, permits, sales of tender documents, and business taxes were potential sources of revenue for the assemblies. Also, the study identified a range of strategies employed by assemblies to raise revenue: engagement of revenue collectors, use of a mobile revenue taskforce, registration of businesses, visits to markets and business centres, commission payments for revenue collectors, security checkpoints, incentivisation of revenue collectors, establishment of revenue collection points, and rotation of revenue collectors. Nevertheless, the study found that the MMDAs studied could not meet their IGF revenue targets for the 2013 fiscal year, with all three falling below 50%. This poor performance was attributed to: inadequate logistics to support effective IGF mobilisation; under-declaring of revenues; not enough revenue collectors; poor supervision and monitoring; poor compliance by ratepayers; corruption; political interference; inadequate knowledge and skills among revenue collectors; poor service delivery by the assemblies; ineffective collaboration; and lack of revenue data.

  16. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12.

  17. Projected Effect of Increased Active Travel in German Urban Regions on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Brinks; Annika Hoyer; Oliver Kuss; Wolfgang Rathmann

    2015-01-01

    Background Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Methods Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the li...

  18. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS VERSUS TERRITORIAL COMPETITIVENESS: PROJECT TAONABA CASE STUDY - TOWN OF ABYMES, GUADELOUPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neffati Houda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial intelligence can be defined as the ability of a territory to anticipate socio-economic changes and the resulting knowledge management as well as to generate policies, know-how and innovations that will ultimately create a polycentric area of expertise and service capabilities to enhance the competitiveness of companies located there. It is created by setting up a sustainable development process to review business competitiveness with all the inherent consequences in managing, making, planning and implementing decisions. Territorial competitiveness is an integrated and proactive approach to shaping the future of territories, regions and larger geographies – . to some degree it can also be referred to as spatial planning. It goes beyond traditional regional policy as it brings together economic, social and environment opportunities and in addition to other factors which influence where activities takes place, concerns how different places function and are connected, and what social and business conditions are available Territorial competitiveness strategies can help in exploring the potential for economic growth and job creation and at the same time support an enhanced quality of life by helping to meet the challenge of sustainable development. The article reports on an action research to support the urban community of Cap Excellence in Guadeloupe in its local sustainable development project. After summarizing the terms of the debate surrounding sustainable development and presenting the region, the research is placed back in the context of a more general approach of territorial intelligence.. The limits of developing a local Agenda 21 in the form of a "programmed action plan" give the opportunity to improve territorial intelligence with the concept of agency arising from Foucault's 'dispositif' or apparatus, Deleuze's theory of agency and the actor-network. A discussion on this ontology social will be initiated. We will give

  19. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  20. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-born and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to numerically solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at the centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV, with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in the clear sky conditions towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of the Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterise $T_{\\rm atm}$ and $\\tau$ year-round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss shortcomings of using planar, single-layer, and optically thin atmospheric model approxima...

  1. Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas

    CERN Document Server

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus; Linder, H Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, and a bias correction using Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gridded and Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) station data. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We present a comparison of data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with two other high resolution gridded products with overlapping temporal resolution (Tropical R...

  2. A UT/LS ozone climatology of the nineteen seventies deduced from the GASP aircraft measurement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; Mohnen, V.

    2007-11-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s. The GASP quality assurance and control program was reviewed, and an ozone climatology of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) of the years 1975-1979 was built. The data set was estimated to have an overall uncertainty of 9% or 3 ppb whichever is greater for the first two years and 4% or 3 ppb for the remaining years, i.e. after implementation of silicone rubber membranes in the pumps. Two cases of nearly coincident flights of two GASP airliners along the same flight route, and the comparison with independent observations from the literature, including ozonesondes and aircraft campaigns, indicate that the ozone measurements are of high quality. The UT/LS climatology of the GASP data set is in general agreement with that derived from MOZAIC in the 1990s in regions covered by both programmes. GASP provides unique large-scale climatological information on UT/LS ozone above the northern hemisphere Pacific region, which is not covered by MOZAIC. There, the GASP climatology confirms several characteristic features derived from individual research aircraft campaigns and from ozone soundings. In particular, summertime ozone in the UT over the midlatitude eastern Pacific Ocean was significantly lower in the 1970s than over the American continent. The generally lower ozone concentrations in the tropics near the dateline as compared to farther east are indicative of convective uplifting of ozone poor air from the marine boundary layer.

  3. Projections of changes of areal evapotranspiration for different land-use units in the Wielkopolska Region (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the quantity as well as spatial and seasonal distribution of precipitation. This will result in changes in all elements of the water balance, including the areal evapotranspiration. For estimating the areal evapotranspiration, the heat balance method (HBM) is used in this paper for the growing season (March-October), whereas for the remaining months (November-February), evaporation is calculated according to the Ivanov equation. Values of areal evapotranspiration from selected land units are examined and compared for the average conditions in two time horizons, i.e. 1961-1990 (control period) and 2061-2090 (projection horizon) over the Wielkopolska Region in Poland, based on multi-model ensemble climate projections. Projections for the future, based on the MPI-M-REMO model, indicate that the regional average increases of the annual sum of areal evapotranspiration (connected mainly with an increase of air temperature) is equal to 45 mm, with the biggest changes during winter. In the growing season, the highest increases are expected to appear in July and June. As regards the spatial distribution, the highest increases are projected for the areas with presently highest evapotranspiration, e.g. the southwestern parts of the region.

  4. Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Sherba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global land-use/land-cover (LULC change projections and historical datasets are typically available at coarse grid resolutions and are often incompatible with modeling applications at local to regional scales. The difficulty of downscaling and reapportioning global gridded LULC change projections to regional boundaries is a barrier to the use of these datasets in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM framework. Here we compare three downscaling techniques to transform gridded LULC transitions into spatial scales and thematic LULC classes appropriate for use in a regional STSM. For each downscaling approach, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP LULC projections, at the 0.5 × 0.5 cell resolution, were downscaled to seven Level III ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest, United States. RCP transition values at each cell were downscaled based on the proportional distribution between ecoregions of (1 cell area, (2 land-cover composition derived from remotely-sensed imagery, and (3 historic LULC transition values from a LULC history database. Resulting downscaled LULC transition values were aggregated according to their bounding ecoregion and “cross-walked” to relevant LULC classes. Ecoregion-level LULC transition values were applied in a STSM projecting LULC change between 2005 and 2100. While each downscaling methods had advantages and disadvantages, downscaling using the historical land-use history dataset consistently apportioned RCP LULC transitions in agreement with historical observations. Regardless of the downscaling method, some LULC projections remain improbable and require further investigation.

  5. 76 FR 80369 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... review and recommendations of the EPA Region III, Water Protection Division, Office of Infrastructure and... ARRA is to stimulate economic recovery in part by funding current infrastructure construction, not to...'' status for this project. To further delay construction is in direct conflict with a fundamental...

  6. Public-private or private-private energy partnerships? Toward good energy governance in regional and local green gas projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.; Harmsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An important avenue toward a proper ‘energy transition’ through regional and local projects is for government to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector, these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration tow

  7. An updated analysis of the Lucas Heights climatology 1991-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological data collected from 1991 to 2003 in the Lucas Heights region have been summarised to provide an update on the climatology. This report represents analysis of data collected at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre since 1991 when an advanced digital recording system was installed. The small network of meteorological stations installed in the surrounding region since 1993 has allowed an investigation of the influence of complex terrain on wind flow and atmospheric dispersion patterns. For a period between 1999 and 2001 a Bureau of Meteorology disdrometer was installed at Lucas Heights to investigate raindrop size distributions. A large number of statistical summaries for all meteorological data are presented in in two appendices at the end of the report as a resource for reference purposes

  8. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Climatology Center (GPCC) of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). This dataset was selected after an extensive quality check on data reliability, homogeneity, and physical consistency. We defined the drought frequency as the number of months with SPI below -1 out of all months in different periods of 10-15 years between 1951 and 2010. For the drought intensity we analyzed the drought events with at least 3 consecutive months with SPI below -1. The drought duration is defined in an operative way: a drought starts when SPI first falls below -1 and it ends when it turns back positive (i.e. >0) for at least 2 consecutive months. The results show that in the last two decades, as compared to the long-term normal conditions, the regions most affected by drought events were Congo and Central Africa, North-Eastern China, the Australian South-Eastern coast, and the Middle East. In general, an increase in duration and intensity of drought events was found for almost all the Northern Hemisphere. We also focused on some regional case studies dealing with drought events in the Mediterranean region, the Horn of Africa, and South America in the last 15 years

  9. DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBIDITY AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLIMATOLOGICALLY PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    U. Ali Rahoma; Hassan, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Study of Atmospheric turbidity is important for purposes of meteorology, ecology, climatology and monitoring of atmospheric pollution. Linke Turbidity factor (LT) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The probable dependence on the water vapor content of the relationship linking LT to Angstromâs turbidity coefficient B, is discussed. In this study, a procedure for calculation of Linke turbidity factor is adopted using pyrheliometric measurements by Eg...

  10. A New Global Climatology of Annual Land Surface Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bechtel

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in various fields including hydrology, climatology, and geophysics. Its derivation by thermal infrared remote sensing has long tradition but despite substantial progress there remain limited data availability and challenges like emissivity estimation, atmospheric correction, and cloud contamination. The annual temperature cycle (ATC) is a promising approach to ease some of them. The basic idea to fit a model to the ATC and derive annual...

  11. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions point...

  12. Scintillations climatology over low latitudes: statistical analysis and WAM modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Spogli, Luca; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Materassi, Massimo; Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Wernik, Andrzej W.; Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences

    2010-01-01

    Attempts of reconstructing the spatial and temporal distribution of the ionospheric irregularities have been conducted developing a scintillation “climatology” technique, which was very promising in characterizing the plasma conditions triggering L-band scintillations at high latitudes ([1.],[2.]) and further analysis on bipolar high sampling rate (50 Hz) GPS data are currently in progress for deeper investigations. The core of the scintillation climatology technique is represente...

  13. Antarctic icebergs melt over the Southern Ocean : Climatology and impact on sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nacho; Le Sommer, Julien; Durand, Gael; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Tournadre, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Recent increase in Antarctic freshwater release to the Southern Ocean is suggested to contribute to change in water masses and sea ice. However, climate models differ in their representation of the freshwater sources. Recent improvements in altimetry-based detection of small icebergs and in estimates of the mass loss of Antarctica may help better constrain the values of Antarctic freshwater releases. We propose a model-based seasonal climatology of iceberg melt over the Southern Ocean using state-of-the-art observed glaciological estimates of the Antarctic mass loss. An improved version of a Lagrangian iceberg model is coupled with a global, eddy-permitting ocean/sea ice model and compared to small icebergs observations. Iceberg melt increases sea ice cover, about 10% in annual mean sea ice volume, and decreases sea surface temperature over most of the Southern Ocean, but with distinctive regional patterns. Our results underline the importance of improving the representation of Antarctic freshwater sources. This can be achieved by forcing ocean/sea ice models with a climatological iceberg fresh-water flux.

  14. Objective identification of multiple large fire climatologies: an application to a Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, J.; Moron, V.; Trigo, R. M.; Curt, T.

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the climatic conditions favorable to the occurrence of large fires (LFs) might not be unique within a homogeneous biogeographic area. But the identification of these coexistent multi-scalar climatologies often relies on empirical observations. Here we classify summer LFs (>120 ha) in Mediterranean France for the period 1973 to 2012, according to their local-scale weather conditions (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and fuel moisture proxies). Three distinct climatologies were identified, and were referred as fire weather types (FWTs). (i) One of them is associated with near-normal atmospheric conditions. (ii) A heat-driven (HD) type is mostly discriminated by warm anomalies. (iii) A wind-driven (WD) type is mostly discriminated by faster winds, but cooler anomalies than usual. The frequency of WD and near-normal LFs sharply decreased in southern France over the last decades while the frequency of HD fires remained unchanged. In addition the current increase in HD potential fire days indicates a potential shift in the dominant FWT for this region. This approach offers a better understanding of the variations in fire activity and fire spread patterns in the context of contemporaneous global changes.

  15. Priorities and Economic Development Projects in the Danube Region from Romania within the Context of Implementing the European Union Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Florin-Marian Buhociu; George Schin

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to briefly present the challenges and realities of economic and social potential existing in the region crossed by the Danube in Romania, to introduce the priorities taking into account their specific area and point out the major projects that have had a great impact upon the development of the Danube region and its adjacent area(1). The present paper can be used as basis for strategic decisions related to the Danube region, both at the sectorial level and ...

  16. Mars Orbiter Camera climatology of textured dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Kulowski, Laura; Wang, Huiqun

    2015-09-01

    We report the climatology of "textured dust storms", those dust storms that have visible structure on their cloud tops that are indicative of active dust lifting, as observed in Mars Daily Global Maps produced from Mars Orbiter Camera wide-angle images. Textured dust storms predominantly occur in the equinox seasons while both solstice periods experience a planet-wide "pause" in textured dust storm activity. These pauses correspond to concurrent decreases in global atmospheric dust opacity. Textured dust storms most frequently occur in Acidalia Planitia, Chryse Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Hellas basin. To examine the nature of the link between textured dust storms and atmospheric dust opacity, we compare the textured dust storm climatology with a record of atmospheric dust opacity and find a peak global correlation coefficient of approximately 0.5 with a lag of 20-40° in solar longitude in the opacity compared to the solar climatology. This implies that textured dust storms observed at 1400 local time by MOC are responsible for a large fraction of atmospheric dust opacity and that other mechanisms (e.g., dust devil lifting or storm-scale lifting not observed in this study) may supply a comparable amount of dust.

  17. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1995 with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1995. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1995 was warmer than normal, averaging 54.7 F, 1.4 F above normal (53.3 F). For the 12-month period, 8 months were warmer than normal, and 4 were cooler than normal. 1995 was the wettest year on record. Precipitation totaled 12.31 in., 197% of normal (6.26 in.); snowfall totaled 7.7 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. The average wind speed during 1995 was 7.8 mph, 0.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). The peak gust during the year was 61 mph from the south-southwest on December 12. There were 27 days with peak gusts ≥ 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26

  18. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  19. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  20. Assesment of CALIPSO's level 3 climatological product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    estimates that can be used to create more reliable model forecasts based on CALIPSO data. Moreover, the presented work can contribute to current and future studies that use space-based lidar data. Acknowledgments: The financial support for EARLINET provided by the European Union under grant RICA 025991 within the framework of the Sixth Framework Programme is gratefully acknowledged. Since 2011 EARLINET has been integrated in the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Project supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 262254.

  1. Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) Project - Initial Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognstad, M. R.; Anderson, R. M.; Chayes, D. N.; Mayer, L. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) project, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, is developing the capability to acquire autonomous bathymetric observations in remote regions, by means of an inexpensive (expendable) depth sounder supported by a GPS navigation receiver and global satellite telemetry capability. The depth sounder component operates at 12 kHz and is packaged in a watertight housing suspended approximately 10 meters below the water surface. A sonar transducer is mounted on the bottom of the cylindrical sounder housing; electronics and batteries for powering the sounder are contained in the housing. A cable carrying data and control signals connects to the surface package, which houses the telemetry and control system, GPS receiver, and batteries. This surface package would include flotation, so the SSPARR system could be deployed as a drifting buoy or installed in suitable ice floes. The depth sounder electronics utilize a Freescale Semiconductor DSP56309 digital signal processor to synthesize the transmitted signal, and to acquire and process the acoustic echoes. The signal processing involves quadrature detection at 12 kHz, matched filtering and decimation; data are acquired for intervals ranging from 125 milliseconds to 8 seconds, depending upon the desired range. At present, the sounder software records data for the entire acquisition interval; this raw data is being used to test bottom detection algorithms. In order to minimize the likelihood that a mid-water scattering layer or ice keel mask the true bottom reflection, the desired algorithm will report multiple reflections to the control and telemetry processor when they are detected. The bottom detection function has been evaluated with field trial data will be incorporated into the final sounder design. A test of the sounder transducer was conducted in May 2004 aboard the R/V Kilo Moana, using electronics from the University of Hawaii's Integrated

  2. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario. Executive summary for Federal Region IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. In this report, which is part of DOE's Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory examines how a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This scenario, to be called the Series C Scenario, assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of the Series C Scenario.

  3. MERIS albedo climatology for FRESCO+ O2 A-band cloud retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new global albedo climatology for Oxygen A-band cloud retrievals is presented. The climatology is based on MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS Albedomap data and its favourable impact on the derivation of cloud fraction is demonstrated for the FRESCO+ (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band algorithm. To date, a relatively coarse resolution (1° × 1° surface reflectance dataset from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Lambert-equivalent reflectivity (LER is used in FRESCO+. The GOME LER climatology does not account for the usually higher spatial resolution of UV/VIS instruments designed for trace gas remote sensing which introduces several artefacts, e.g. in regions with sharp spectral contrasts like coastlines or over bright surface targets. Therefore, MERIS black-sky albedo (BSA data from the period October 2002 to October 2006 were aggregated to a grid of 0.25° × 0.25° for each month of the year and for different spectral channels. In contrary to other available surface reflectivity datasets, MERIS includes channels at 754 nm and 775 nm which are located close to the spectral windows required for O2 A-band cloud retrievals. The MERIS BSA in the near-infrared compares well to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS derived BSA with an average difference lower than 1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. However, when relating MERIS BSA to GOME LER a distinctly lower correlation (0.80 and enhanced scatter is found. Effective cloud fractions from two exemplary months (January and July 2006 of Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY data were subsequently derived with FRESCO+ and compared to those from the Heidelberg Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities (HICRU algorithm. The MERIS climatology generally improves FRESCO+ effective cloud fractions. In particular small cloud fractions are in better agreement with HICRU. This is of importance for atmospheric

  4. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  5. Use of RegCM gridded dataset for thunderstorm favorable conditions analysis over Poland—climatological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Ewelina; Kielar, Rafał; Ustrnul, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    The paper analyzes equivalent data for a low density meteorological station network (spatially discontinuous data) and poor temporal homogeneity of thunderstorm observational data. Due to that, a Regional Climate Model (RegCM) dataset was tested. The Most Unstable Convective Available Potential Energy index value (MUCAPE) above the 200 J kg-1 threshold was selected as a predictor describing favorable conditions for the occurrence of thunderstorms. The quality of the dataset was examined through a comparison between model results and soundings from several aerological stations in Central Europe. Good, statistically significant (0.05 significance level) results were obtained through correlation analysis; the value of Pearson's correlation coefficient was above 0.8 in every single case. Then, using methods associated with gridded climatology, data series for 44 weather stations were derived and an analysis of correlation between RegCM modeled data and in situ thunderstorm observations was conducted with coefficients in the range of 0.75-0.90. The possibility of employing the dataset in thunderstorm climatology analysis was checked via a few examples by mapping monthly, seasonal, and annual means. Moreover, long-term variability and trend analysis along with modeled MUCAPE data were tested. As a result, the RegCM modeled MUCAPE gridded dataset was proposed as an easily available, suitable, and valuable predictor for thunderstorm climatology analysis and mapping. Finally, some limitations are discussed and recommendations for further improvements are given.

  6. Understanding the Climatology of Thermodynamic Signatures and their Role in Modification of Extreme Precipitation around Artificial Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2010-12-01

    Very little is known about how dams and reservoirs modify rainfall and flood frequency in their vicinity. This is because conventional dam design and reservoir planning over the last century have been “one-way,” without acknowledging the possible feedback mechanisms on precipitation recycling due to local evaporation and systematic change in land use and land cover. In this study, using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) database, the climatology of important thermodynamic signatures, such as CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), Convective Inhibition, Temperature, Latent Heat, Humidity, Precipitation and Wind are analyzed as a function of proximity to large artificial reservoirs in the United States. The analysis is cast in the context of the chronology of extreme precipitation trends around dams for the pre-dam and post-dam period. To understand how storms may have been intensified by reservoirs, the climatology was analyzed for a set of about 100 large dams for three specific scenarios: 1) right over the reservoir 2) right over land adjacent to the reservoir and 3) over land far away from the reservoir by at least 100 km. Precipitation records from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) were used to correlate the temporal and spatial trends in extreme precipitation to the climatology of the thermodynamic signatures. Several hypotheses on the physical mechanism of storm intensification are proposed and tested using the analysis presented herein. Location of large dams with their climatic classification

  7. Newspaper Coverage of the Harvard Medicare Project: Regional Distinctions/Discreet Disregard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J. Gregory

    A study examined American newspaper coverage of the Harvard Medicare Project proposal of 1986, a major health policy proposal calling for comprehensive reforms in the national health program. Using Burrelle's news clipping service which includes every daily newspaper (over 1500) in the United States, all 75 newspaper articles on the project from…

  8. Support – A Vital Tool for Young Innovative Entrepreneurs in the Barents Region : ENPI Kolarctic “Young Innovative Entrepreneurs” project study

    OpenAIRE

    Krastina, Anzelika

    2014-01-01

    Young people of the Barents Region should be considered as a golden reserve of human capital of the northern area. They will shape the future of the region. Supporting youth entrepreneurship should become a priority in regional development. This study was carried out within the ENPI Kolarctic-funded project Young Innovative Entrepreneurs (YIE). The YIE project intends to give an impulse to the promotion of youth entrepreneurship in the Barents Region. The programme is run by partners from...

  9. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  10. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  11. FutureGen 2.0 Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Wortman, David [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Brown, Chris [Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA (United States); Hassan, Syed [Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Humphreys, Ken [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States); Willford, Mark [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  12. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  13. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  14. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM10 emissions will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Under REF[0] emissions, compared to 2005, the surface concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  15. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ with 2005 emissions and 2020 emission scenarios. Under REF[0] emissions, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  16. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on climatological drought indices for four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between atmospheric conditions and the likelihood of a significant drought impact has, in the past, been difficult to quantify, particularly in Europe where political boundaries and language have made acquiring comprehensive drought impact information difficult. As such, the majority of studies linking meteorological drought with the occurrence or severity of drought impacts have previously focused on specific regions, very detailed impact types, or both. This study describes a new methodology to link the likelihood of drought impact occurrence with climatological drought indices across different European climatic regions and impact sectors using the newly developed European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a collaborative database of drought impact information (www.geo.uio.no/edc/droughtdb/). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) are used as predictor variables to quantify meteorological drought severity over prior time periods (here 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months are used). The indices are derived using the gridded WATCH Forcing Datasets, covering the period 1958-2012. Analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the climatological drought index and accumulation period, or linear combination of drought indices, that best predicts the likelihood of a documented drought impact, defined by monthly presence/absence. The analysis was carried out for a subset of four European countries (Germany, UK, Norway, Slovenia) and four of the best documented impact sectors: Public Water Supply, Agriculture and Livestock Farming, Energy and Industry, and Environmental Quality. Preliminary results show that drought impacts in these countries occur most frequently due to a combination of short-term (2-6 month) precipitation deficits and long-term (12-24 month) potential evapotranspiration anomaly, likely associated with increased temperatures. Agricultural drought impacts

  17. Lightning climatology over Jakarta, Indonesia, based on long-term surface operational, satellite, and campaign observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuichi; Wu, Peiming; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Hattori, Miki; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Sulistyowati, Reni; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    Lightning frequency over Indonesian Maritime Continent (MC) is quite high (Petersen and Rutledge 2001, Christian et al. 2003, Takayabu 2006, etc). In particular, Bogor (south of Jakarta, west Jawa) had 322 days of lightning in one year (Guinness Book in 1988). Lightning causes serious damage on nature and society over the MC; forest fore, power outage, inrush/surge currents on many kinds of electronics. Lightning climatology and meso-scale characteristics of thunderstorm over the MC, in particular over Jakarta, where social damage is quite serious, were examined. We made Statistical analysis of lightning and thunderstorm based on TRMM Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) together with long-term operational surface observation data (SYNOP) in terms of diurnal, intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual variations. In addition, we carried out a campaign observation in February 2015 in Bogor to obtain meso-scale structure and dynamics of thunderstorm over Jakarta to focus on graupel and other ice phase particles inside by using an X-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radar. Recently, Virts et al. (2013a, b) showed comprehensive lightning climatology based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). However, they also reported problems with its detection efficiency (< 10%) and small sampling frequency (< 0.1% of the time fly over tropics) by satellites. Therefore, we firstly examine in situ lightning data based on SYNOP observed by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) because lightning is quite local and sporadic phenomena. We've started to analyze lightning characteristics over Jakarta region based on SYNOP as the ground truth data and GSMaP. Variability of lightning frequency around Jakarta was affected much by local conditions, e.g., topography (elevation) and proximity to the coastline. We confirmed the lightning frequency and its diurnal variation around Jakarta were much

  18. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on climatological drought indices for four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between atmospheric conditions and the likelihood of a significant drought impact has, in the past, been difficult to quantify, particularly in Europe where political boundaries and language have made acquiring comprehensive drought impact information difficult. As such, the majority of studies linking meteorological drought with the occurrence or severity of drought impacts have previously focused on specific regions, very detailed impact types, or both. This study describes a new methodology to link the likelihood of drought impact occurrence with climatological drought indices across different European climatic regions and impact sectors using the newly developed European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a collaborative database of drought impact information (www.geo.uio.no/edc/droughtdb/). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) are used as predictor variables to quantify meteorological drought severity over prior time periods (here 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months are used). The indices are derived using the gridded WATCH Forcing Datasets, covering the period 1958-2012. Analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the climatological drought index and accumulation period, or linear combination of drought indices, that best predicts the likelihood of a documented drought impact, defined by monthly presence/absence. The analysis was carried out for a subset of four European countries (Germany, UK, Norway, Slovenia) and four of the best documented impact sectors: Public Water Supply, Agriculture and Livestock Farming, Energy and Industry, and Environmental Quality. Preliminary results show that drought impacts in these countries occur most frequently due to a combination of short-term (2-6 month) precipitation deficits and long-term (12-24 month) potential evapotranspiration anomaly, likely associated with increased temperatures. Agricultural drought impacts

  19. Region 9 Tribal Grant Program - Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This compilation of geospatial data is for the purpose of managing and communicating information about current EPA project officers, tribal contacts, and tribal...

  20. The Washington Connected Landscapes Project: Providing Analysis Tools for Regional Connectivity and Climate Adaptation Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project builds on existing work by the Washington Habitat Connectivity Working Group to provide scientific analyses and tools necessary to conserve wildlife...

  1. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2.

  2. Climatology and Predictability of Atmospheric Rivers in the GFDL FLOR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnick, S. B.; Delworth, T. L.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the heaviest precipitation events over the western United States and the United Kingdom are caused by storms known as atmospheric rivers (ARs). Like hurricanes, ARs are long-lived and originate in the tropics before moving poleward until they make landfall. These moisture-laden storms produce significant precipitation over a few days, which can cause potentially devastating flooding. Despite their destructive power, these storms are also an important component of regional water supply. The positive and negative societal influences of ARs make sound scientific predictions of these storms of great value. We assess the climatology and predictability of these storms globally using the GFDL FLOR coupled model. This high-resolution global model has 50 km resolution in the atmosphere and land surface. Two experiments have been conducted: (1) control simulation with prescribed 1990 radiative forcing and land-use conditions and (2) annual forecast simulations from 1981-2013 that are initialized monthly.

  3. Climatology of GNPs ionospheric scintillation at high and mid latitudes under different solar activity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze data of ionospheric scintillation over North European regions for the same period (October to November) of two different years (2003 and 2008), characterized by different geomagnetic conditions. The work aims to develop a scintillation climatology of the high- and mid-latitude ionosphere, analyzing the behaviour of the scintillation occurrence as a function of the magnetic local time (MLT) and of the altitude adjusted corrected magnetic latitude (M lat), to characterize scintillation scenarios under different solar activity conditions. The results shown herein are obtained merging observations from a network of GISTMs (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor) located over a wide range of latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Our findings confirm the associations of the occurrence of the ionospheric irregularities with the expected position of the auroral oval and of the ionospheric trough walls and show the contribution of the polar cap patches even under solar minimum conditions.

  4. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  5. Regional production’ and ‘Fairness’ in organic farming: Evidence from a CORE Organic project

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, Susanne; Zander, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The CORE Organic pilot project ‘Farmer Consumer Partnerships’ aims to strengthen the partnership between producers and consumers through better communication. To achieve this the project first mapped concerns of organic stakeholders in relation to a broad range of ethical values and then compared them with the European regulations for organic food before testing a limited number of communication arguments related to those concerns with consumers. Stakeholders of organic supply chains ...

  6. Surface and bottom temperature and salinity climatology along the continental shelf off the Canadian and U.S. East Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, Benjamin; Kwon, Young-Oh; Joyce, Terrence M.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    A new hydrographic climatology has been created for the continental shelf region, extending from the Labrador shelf to the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The 0.2-degree climatology combines all available observations of surface and bottom temperature and salinity collected between 1950 and 2010 along with the location, depth and date of these measurements. While climatological studies of surface and bottom temperature and salinity have been presented previously for various regions along the Canadian and U.S. shelves, studies also suggest that all these regions are part of one coherent system. This study focuses on the coherent structure of the mean seasonal cycle of surface and bottom temperature and salinity and its variation along the shelf and upper slope. The seasonal cycle of surface temperature is mainly driven by the surface heat flux and exhibits strong dependency on latitude (r≈-0.9). The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of bottom temperature is rather dependent on the depth, while the spatial distribution of bottom temperature is correlated with latitude. The seasonal cycle of surface salinity is influenced by several components, such as sea-ice on the northern shelves and river discharge in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The bottom salinity exhibits no clear seasonal cycle, but its spatial distribution is highly correlated with bathymetry, thus Slope Water and its intrusion on the shelf can be identified by its relatively high salinity compared to shallow, fresher shelf water. Two different regimes can be identified, especially on the shelf, separated by the Laurentian Channel: advection influences the phasing of the seasonal cycle of surface salinity and bottom temperature to the north, while in the southern region, river runoff and air-sea heat flux forcing are dominant, especially over the shallower bathymetry.

  7. Approximate particle number projection with density dependent forces Superdeformed bands in the A=150 and A=190 regions

    CERN Document Server

    Valor, A; Robledo, L M

    2000-01-01

    We derive the equations for approximate particle number projection based on mean field wave functions with finite range density dependent forces. As an application ground bands of even-A superdeformed nuclei in the A=150 and A=190 regions are calculated with the Gogny force. We discuss nuclear properties such as quadrupole moments, moments of inertia and quasiparticle spectra, among others, as a function of the angular momentum. We obtain a good overall description.

  8. A new evaluation of Seismic Hazard for the Central America Region in the frame of the RESIS II Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Lindholm, Conrad; Camacho, Eduardo; Climent, Alvaro; Marroquín, Griselda; Molina, Enrique; Rojas, Wilfredo; Segura, José Jorge; Talavera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    A new evaluation of seismic hazard in the Central America region has been carried out, in the frame of the cooperation project RESIS II, financed by the Norway Cooperation Agency (NORAD). Different experts in seismic hazard from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua , El Salvador, Norway and Spain participated in the study, which was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes. The analysis started with an exhaustive revision of the seismic catalogues of each country from which...

  9. Public-private or private-private energy partnerships? Toward good energy governance in regional and local green gas projects

    OpenAIRE

    Heldeweg, M.A.; Sanders, M.P.T.; Harmsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An important avenue toward a proper ‘energy transition’ through regional and local projects is for government to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector, these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration toward energy transition. This article focuses on the energy governance question whether in fact some of these forms of collaboration actually are about public governance, as they effectively lean on ...

  10. Southeast Regional Assessment Project for the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2010-01-01

    expanded to address climate change-related impacts on all Department of the Interior (DOI) resources. The NCCWSC will establish a network of eight DOI Regional Climate Science Centers (RCSCs) that will work with a variety of partners to provide natural resource managers with tools and information that will help them anticipate and adapt conservation planning and design for projected climate change. The forecasting products produced by the RCSCs will aid fish, wildlife, and land managers in designing suitable adaptive management approaches for their programs. The DOI also is developing Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) as science and conservation action partnerships at subregional scales. The USGS is working with the Southeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to develop science collaboration between the future Southeast RCSC and future LCCs. The NCCWSC Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) will begin to develop regional downscaled climate models, land cover change models, regional ecological models, regional watershed models, and other science tools. Models and data produced by SERAP will be used in a collaborative process between the USGS, the FWS (LCCs), State and federal partners, nongovernmental organizations, and academia to produce science at appropriate scales to answer resource management questions. The SERAP will produce an assessment of climate change, and impacts on land cover, ecosystems, and priority species in the region. The predictive tools developed by the SERAP project team will allow end users to better understand potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise on terrestrial and aquatic populations in the Southeastern United States. The SERAP capitalizes on the integration of five existing projects: (1) the Multi-State Conservation Grants Program project "Designing Sustainable Landscapes," (2) the USGS multidisciplinary Science Thrust project "Water Availability for Ecological Needs," (3) the USGS Southeast Pilot

  11. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  12. ?Strange Attractors (chaos) in the hydro-climatology of Colombia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter annual hydro-climatology of Colombia is strongly influenced by extreme phases of ENSO, a phenomenon exhibiting many features of chaotic non-linear system. The possible chaotic nature of Colombian hydrology is examined by using time series of monthly precipitation at Bogota (1866-1992) and Medellin (1908-1995), and average stream flows of the Magdalena River at Puerto Berrio. The power spectrum, the Haussdorf-Besikovich (fractal) dimension, the correlation dimension, and the largest Lyapunov exponent are estimated for the time series. Ideas of hydrologic forecasting and predictability are discussed in the context of nonlinear dynamical systems exhibit chaotic behavior

  13. Global Warming - Myth or Reality?, The Erring Ways of Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Marcel

    In the global-warming debate, definitive answers to questions about ultimate causes and effects remain elusive. In Global Warming: Myth or Reality? Marcel Leroux seeks to separate fact from fiction in this critical debate from a climatological perspective. Beginning with a review of the dire hypotheses for climate trends, the author describes the history of the 1998 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many subsequent conferences. He discusses the main conclusions of the three IPCC reports and the predicted impact on global temperatures, rainfall, weather and climate, while highlighting the mounting confusion and sensationalism of reports in the media.

  14. CLIMATOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF WINTER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the monthly mean and minimum temperature data of the 36 observation stations in Guangdong, the climatological features of the temperatures have been analyzed, including characteristics of trends, abrupt changes and periods. And the possible affecting factors on the winter warming in Guangdong have been discussed. The results show that the winter temperatures, particularly the monthly mean minimum temperatures in Guangdong, have a warming trend. The rise of the winter minimum temperatures in Guangdong began in the second half of 1960's and the warming was more evident since the 1980's.

  15. Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, Peter; Rickli, Ralph [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Geography; Broennimann, Stefan; Martius, Olivia; Wanner, Heinz [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Geography; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre; Grebner, Dietmar [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Luterbacher, Juerg [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2012-12-15

    The generation of 24 extreme floods in large catchments of the central Alps is analyzed from instrumental and documentary data, newly digitized observations of precipitation (DigiHom) and 20{sup th} Century Reanalysis (20CR) data. Extreme floods are determined by the 95{sup th} percentile of differences between an annual flood and a defined contemporary flood. For a selection of six events between 1868 and 1910, we describe preconditioning elements such as precipitation, temperature, and snow cover anomalies. Specific weather patterns are assessed through a subjective analysis of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation. A focus is placed on synoptic-scale features including mid-tropospheric ascent, low-level moisture transport, propagation of cyclones, and temperature anomalies. We propose a hydro-meteorological classification of all 24 investigated events according to flood-generating weather conditions. Key elements of the upper-level synoptic-scale flow are summarized by five types: (i) pivoting cut-off lows, (ii) elongated cut-off lows, (iii) elongated troughs, (iv) waves (with a kink), and (v) approximately zonal flow over the Alpine region. We found that the most extreme floods (as above, but {>=} 98{sup th} percentile) in Switzerland since 1868 were caused by the interaction of severe hydro-climatologic conditions with a flood-inducing weather situation. The 20CR data provide plausible synoptic-scale meteorological patterns leading to heavy precipitation. The proposed catalogue of weather patterns and hydro-climatologic precursors can give direction when anticipating the possibility of severe floods in the Alpine region. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution satellite-gauge merged precipitation climatologies of the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Bastian; Buytaert, Wouter; Zulkafli, Zed; Lavado, Waldo; Willems, Bram; Robles, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Juan-Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Satellite precipitation products are becoming increasingly useful to complement rain gauge networks in regions where these are too sparse to capture spatial precipitation patterns, such as in the Tropical Andes. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (TPR) was active for 17 years (1998-2014) and has generated one of the longest single-sensor, high-resolution, and high-accuracy rainfall records. In this study, high-resolution (5 km) gridded mean monthly climatological precipitation is derived from the raw orbital TPR data (TRMM 2A25) and merged with 723 rain gauges using multiple satellite-gauge (S-G) merging approaches. The resulting precipitation products are evaluated by cross validation and catchment water balances (runoff ratios) for 50 catchments across the Tropical Andes. Results show that the TPR captures major synoptic and seasonal precipitation patterns and also accurately defines orographic gradients but underestimates absolute monthly rainfall rates. The S-G merged products presented in this study constitute an improved source of climatological rainfall data, outperforming the gridded TPR product as well as a rain gauge-only product based on ordinary Kriging. Among the S-G merging methods, performance of inverse distance interpolation of satellite-gauge residuals was similar to that of geostatistical methods, which were more sensitive to gauge network density. High uncertainty and low performance of the merged precipitation products predominantly affected regions with low and intermittent precipitation regimes (e.g., Peruvian Pacific coast) and is likely linked to the low TPR sampling frequency. All S-G merged products presented in this study are available in the public domain.

  17. Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stucki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of 24 extreme floods in large catchments of the central Alps is analyzed from instrumental and documentary data, newly digitized observations of precipitation (DigiHom and 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR data. Extreme floods are determined by the 95th percentile of differences between an annual flood and a defined contemporary flood. For a selection of six events between 1868 and 1910, we describe preconditioning elements such as precipitation, temperature, and snow cover anomalies. Specific weather patterns are assessed through a subjective analysis of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation. A focus is placed on synoptic-scale features including mid-tropospheric ascent, low-level moisture transport, propagation of cyclones, and temperature anomalies. We propose a hydro-meteorological classification of all 24 investigated events according to flood-generating weather conditions. Key elements of the upper-level synoptic-scale flow are summarized by five types: (i pivoting cut-off lows, (ii elongated cut-off lows, (iii elongated troughs, (iv waves (with a kink, and (v approximately zonal flow over the Alpine region. We found that the most extreme floods (as above, but ≥ 98th percentile in Switzerland since 1868 were caused by the interaction of severe hydro-climatologic conditions with a flood-inducing weather situation. The 20CR data provide plausible synoptic-scale meteorological patterns leading to heavy precipitation. The proposed catalogue of weather patterns and hydro-climatologic precursors can give direction when anticipating the possibility of severe floods in the Alpine region.

  18. Evaluation of seismic hazard in Marmara region based on the new datasets developed in the EU-MARSITE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesetyan, Karin; Akinci, Aybige; Betül Demircioglu, Mine

    2016-04-01

    Several studies with various degrees of sophistication have been conducted for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard in the Marmara Region (e.g. Atakan et al., 2002; Erdik et al., 2004; Kalkan et al., 2008; Gülerce and Ocak, 2013),. The common point of these studies was that they have all addressed the hazard in the region in terms of both time-independent probabilistic (simple Poissonian) and time-dependent probabilistic (renewal) models. This tendency was governed by the following considerations: 1) the region has experienced a considerable number of large magnitude events in the history, which have also shown some periodicity; 2) the existing seismic gap and the post-1999 earthquake stress transfer at the western portion of the 1000km-long NAFZ indicates a high probability of having a M>7 event in the near future close to the city of Istanbul; 3)the seismic history of the region was well documented and studied and there have been, especially in the aftermath of the 1999 Kocaeli and Düzce events, several geological investigations both on-shore and off-shore aiming to obtain a regional fault model as complete as possible, which were reflected in the fault segmentation models of the PSHA studies. Task 5.5. of the MARSITE Project aimed at a reassessment of the probabilistic seismic hazard of the Marmara region in the light of the new datasets compiled in the project. The improvement of the knowledge on the seismotectonic regime of the Marmara region paved the path for the development of alternative source models for the improvement of the existing probabilistic seismic hazard maps. In this connection, the most recent findings and outputs of different work packages of the project, in terms of seismicity, fault segmentation and slip rate data are utilized. A revised fault segementation model and associated Poisson and renewal recurrence models as well as recently emerged global and regional ground motion prediction equations are used to assessed the seismic

  19. Physics and Science Education through Project Activities of University Students and Regional Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto

    A project team "Rika-Kobo" organized by university students has actively performed various science education activities at primary and secondary schools and other educational facilities as well as in science events in local areas. The activities of this student project team are related to various fields of physics and sciences. In order to provide more attractive activities, the student members prepare original experiment tools and easily-understandable presentation and explanation. Through such activities, the members can have opportunities of obtaining new knowledge and refreshing their already-obtained understandings in related fields of physics and sciences. They can also have chances of improving their skills and abilities such as presentation, problem-finding and solving, which are useful for realizing their career development. The activities of the student project team have been also welcomed by children, parents, teachers and other people in local areas because the activities provide them with opportunities of knowing and learning new knowledge in physics and sciences.

  20. Airborne observations of trace gases over boreal Canada during BORTAS: campaign climatology, airmass analysis and enhancement ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O'Shea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne measurements were made over Eastern Canada in summer 2011 as part of the BORTAS experiment (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and~Satellites. In this paper we present observations of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 and other biomass burning tracers and related trace gases, both climatologically and through case studies, as recorded on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Vertical profiles of CO2 were generally characterised by depleted boundary layer concentrations relative to the free troposphere, consistent with terrestrial biospheric uptake. In contrast, CH4 concentrations were found to rise with decreasing altitude due to strong local and regional surface sources. We use coincident tracer-tracer correlations and a Lagrangian trajectory model to characterise and differentiate air mass history of intercepted plumes. In particular, CO, HCN and CH3CN were used to identify air masses that have been recently influenced by biomass burning. Concentrations of CO2 were found to have a mean tropospheric, campaign-average concentration of 384.8 ppm (ranging between 371.5 and 397.1 ppm, whilst CH4 concentrations had a mean value of 1859 ppb (ranging between 1797 and 1968 ppb, representing the episodic sampling of local fire plumes. CH4 and CO2 concentrations during BORTAS were found to be broadly comparable to previous measurements in the region during the regional burning season and with reanalysed composition fields from the EU Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Change (MACC project. By examining individual case studies we were able to quantify emissions from biomass burning. Using both near-field (1 day sampling, boreal forest fire plumes were identified throughout the troposphere. Fresh plumes from fires in Northwest Ontario yield emission factors for CH4 and CO2 of 8.5 ± 0.9 g (kg dry matter−1 and 1512 g ± 185 g (kg dry matter−1, respectively. We have

  1. A dynamically downscaled climatology of severe convective thunderstorms over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric D.

    Severe convective storms---and the tornadoes, hail, and damaging winds that they produce---represent a real risk to life and property in the United States. In 2011, tornadoes claimed over 540 lives over 15 different states, the fourth highest toll on record. It is not known whether 2011 represents a positive trend in the frequency of severe thunderstorms and associated phenomena because of the many uncertainties in the historical record. This study seeks to examine a method developed to study these severe phenomena using a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model driven by large-scale reanalysis and employing an artificial neural network. Specifically, high resolution simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, forced by data from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project are used to generate daily re-forecasts of every day in April, May, and June over 1990--2009. These simulations are examined at hourly intervals for the presence of severe convection through the use of an artificial neural network that was trained using days from ten years of modeled data that coincided with observed days of severe weather. This network is applied over all twenty years of data in order to examine the modeled trends in severe phenomena. Tests are also performed to examine the sensitivity of the modeling procedure to various parameters including integration time, land surface heterogeneity, and model physics. Results indicate that, contrary to the biased observational record, there has been no statistically significant change in the frequency of warm season severe weather occurrences in the eastern two-thirds of the United States over 1990--2009. Further, sensitivity tests indicate an approach with more frequent re-initializations of the model produces a more physically realistic climatology of severe convective events, and that this climatology is fairly insensitive to small changes in the land surface and model physics. A similar result is found for the spatial

  2. Future climate in world regions: an intercomparison of model-based projections for the new IPCC emissions scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruosteenoja, K.; Carter, T.R.; Jylhae, K.; Tuomenvirta, H.

    2003-07-01

    Projections of changes in seasonal surface air temperature and precipitation for three 30-year periods during the 21st century in 32 sub-continental scale regions are presented. This information may offer useful guidance on the selection of climate scenarios for regional impact studies. The climate changes have been simulated by seven coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), the greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing being inferred from the SRES emission scenarios A1F1, A2, B1 and B2. For a majority of the AOGCMs, simulations have only been conducted for scenarios A2 and B2. Projections for other scenarios were then extrapolated from the available runs applying a pattern-scaling technique. In tests, this method proved to be fairly accurate, the correlation between the AOGCM-simulated and the corresponding pattern-scaled response to the A2 scenario for the end of the 21st century being generally {approx} 0.97 - 0.99 for temperature and {approx} 0.9 or higher for precipitation. Projected changes of temperature and precipitation are presented in the form of 384 scatter diagrams. The model-simulated temperature changes were almost invariably statistically significant, i.e., they fell clearly outside the natural multi-decadal variability derived from 1000-year unforced coupled AOGCM simulations. For precipitation, fewer modelled changes were statistically significant, especially in the earliest projection period 2010-2039. Differences in the projections given by various models were substantial, of the same order of magnitude by the end of the century as differences among the responses to separate forcing scenarios. Nevertheless, the surface air temperature increased in all regions and seasons. For precipitation, changes with both sign occurred, but an increase of regional precipitation was more common than a decrease. All models simulate higher precipitation at high latitudes and enhanced summer monsoon precipitation for Southern and Eastern Asia. There

  3. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project and Converting Farmland into Lake on the Microtus fortis Population in Dongting Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiwen; ZHANG; Yong; WANG; Bo; LI; Cong; GUO

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of Yantze vole ( Microtus fortis) population in Dongting Lake region is closely related to the evolvement of lake beaches,because the deposition of lake sediments results in the expansion of lake beaches,which provides the possibility of the increase of the vole’s population. Reclaiming farmland from lake via building cofferdams,eliminating snails by building cofferdams for eradicating schistosomiasis,and over-hunting predators in the region cause the voles becoming a pest after the 1970s. In recent years,the Three Gorges Project and the conversion from farmland into lake have had deep impacts on the environment in the lake region. The dispatching of the down flow rate by the project has induced the expansion of the low and medium level beaches in the lake region,while converting farmland into lake directly has induced the expansion of the lake beaches,both of which have expanded the potential habitats of the vole’s population. Therefore,more attention should be paid to the quantitative variation trend of the vole’s population in the future.

  4. A New Global Climatology of Annual Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bechtel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter in various fields including hydrology, climatology, and geophysics. Its derivation by thermal infrared remote sensing has long tradition but despite substantial progress there remain limited data availability and challenges like emissivity estimation, atmospheric correction, and cloud contamination. The annual temperature cycle (ATC is a promising approach to ease some of them. The basic idea to fit a model to the ATC and derive annual cycle parameters (ACP has been proposed before but so far not been tested on larger scale. In this study, a new global climatology of annual LST based on daily 1 km MODIS/Terra observations was processed and evaluated. The derived global parameters were robust and free of missing data due to clouds. They allow estimating LST patterns under largely cloud-free conditions at different scales for every day of year and further deliver a measure for its accuracy respectively variability. The parameters generally showed low redundancy and mostly reflected real surface conditions. Important influencing factors included climate, land cover, vegetation phenology, anthropogenic effects, and geology which enable numerous potential applications. The datasets will be available at the CliSAP Integrated Climate Data Center pending additional processing.

  5. Characteristics of cyclone climatology and variability in the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2016-01-01

    A new climatology of cyclones in the Southern Ocean is generated by applying an automated cyclone detection and tracking algorithm (developed by Hodges at the Reading University) for an improved and relatively high-resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis during 1979–2013. A validation shows that identified cyclone tracks are in good agreement with a available analyzed cyclone product. The climatological characteristics of the Southern Ocean cyclones are then analyzed, including track, number, density, intensity, deepening rate and explosive events. An analysis shows that the number of cyclones in the Southern Ocean has increased for 1979–2013, but only statistically significant in summer. Coincident with the circumpolar trough, a single high-density band of cyclones is observed in 55°–67°S, and cyclone density has generally increased in north of this band for 1979–2013, except summer. The intensity of up to 70% cyclones in the Southern Ocean is less than 980 hPa, and only a few cyclones with pressure less than 920 hPa are detected for 1979–2013. Further analysis shows that a high frequency of explosive cyclones is located in the band of 45°–55°S, and the Atlantic Ocean sector has much higher frequent occurrence of the explosive cyclones than that in the Pacific Ocean sector. Additionally, the relationship between cyclone activities in the Southern Ocean and the Southern Annular Mode is discussed.

  6. Quantifying some of the impacts of dust and other aerosol on the Caspian Sea region using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindi, N.; Solmon, F.; Turuncoglu, U.

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian deserts are a major dust source region that can potentially have a substantial impact on the Caspian Sea. Despite major advances in the modeling and prediction of the Caspian Sea Level (CSL) during recent years, no study to date has investigated the climatic effects of dust on the hydrological budget of the Sea. In this study, we utilize a regional climate model coupled to an interactive emission and transport scheme to simulate the effects of dust and other aerosol in the Caspian region. First, we present a validation of the model using a variety of AOD satellite observations as well as a climatology of dust storms. Compared to the range of satellite estimates, the model's AOD climatology is closer to the lower end of the observations, and exhibit a significant underestimation over the clay deserts found on the Ustyurt plateau and north of the Aral Sea. Nevertheless, we find encouraging results in that the model is able to reproduce the gradient of increasing AOD intensity from the middle to the southern part of the Sea. Spatially, the model reproduces reasonably well the observed climatological dust storm frequency maps which show that the most intense dust source regions to be found in the Karakum desert in Turkmenistan and Kyzylkum desert in Uzbekistan east of the Aral Sea. In the second part of this study we explore some impacts of dust and other aerosol on the climatology of the region and on the energy budget of the Sea. We find that the overall direct radiative effects of dust and other aerosol reduce the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface, dampen boundary layer turbulence and inhibit convection over the region. We also show that by including dust and aerosol in our simulation, we are able to reduce the positive biases in sea surface temperatures by 1-2 °C. Evaporation is also considerably reduced, resulting in an average difference of approximately 10 mm year^{-1} in the Sea's hydrological budget which is substantial

  7. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  8. Allowable CO2 emissions based on projected changes in regional extremes and related impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Donat, Markus; Pitman, Andy; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted 2°C and 1.5° limits, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions. Translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because they resonate better with national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean. Linking cumulative CO2 emission targets to regional consequences, such as changing climate extremes, would be of particular benefit for political decision making, both in the context of climate negotiations and adaptation.

  9. Evaluating synoptic systems in the CMIP5 climate models over the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter B.; Uotila, Petteri; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Pitman, Andrew J.

    2016-10-01

    Climate models are our principal tool for generating the projections used to inform climate change policy. Our confidence in projections depends, in part, on how realistically they simulate present day climate and associated variability over a range of time scales. Traditionally, climate models are less commonly assessed at time scales relevant to daily weather systems. Here we explore the utility of a self-organizing maps (SOMs) procedure for evaluating the frequency, persistence and transitions of daily synoptic systems in the Australian region simulated by state-of-the-art global climate models. In terms of skill in simulating the climatological frequency of synoptic systems, large spread was observed between models. A positive association between all metrics was found, implying that relative skill in simulating the persistence and transitions of systems is related to skill in simulating the climatological frequency. Considering all models and metrics collectively, model performance was found to be related to model horizontal resolution but unrelated to vertical resolution or representation of the stratosphere. In terms of the SOM procedure, the timespan over which evaluation was performed had some influence on model performance skill measures, as did the number of circulation types examined. These findings have implications for selecting models most useful for future projections over the Australian region, particularly for projections related to synoptic scale processes and phenomena. More broadly, this study has demonstrated the utility of the SOMs procedure in providing a process-based evaluation of climate models.

  10. Projected Shifts in Coffea arabica Suitability among Major Global Producing Regions Due to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera; Peter Läderach; Christian Bunn; Michael Obersteiner; Götz Schroth

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee ('Coffea arabica') within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s...

  11. Global climatology of the wind vector rotation - implications for the orographic gravity waves propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoft, Petr; Sacha, Petr; Kuchar, Ales

    2015-04-01

    The gravity waves spectrum is shaped not only by different sources but it also reflects tropospheric background conditions contributing to filtering of various gravity waves. This could be most easily illustrated for the propagation of the orographic gravity waves that are critically filtered when the wind speed is zero. This condition is ensured in case of the directional shear exceeding 180°. Above regions where it is fulfilled, one can rule out the possibility of orographic GW modes contributing to the observed GW activity and vice versa regions of small wind rotation in the lower levels are often precursors of enhanced GW activity higher. In this study, we have performed a global analysis of the background conditions with a focus on the rotation of the ground level winds. We have analyzed MERRA and JRA-55 time series. The results provided climatology of atmospheric regions with the conditions favorable for the upward propagation of the orographic gravity waves from the troposphere into the stratosphere. The regions are detected mainly over areas where tropospheric and stratospheric jets coincide. The study is supplemented by a global analysis of the fields of potential energy of disturbances as a proxy for gravity waves activity using COSMIC GPS RO data.

  12. Alpine cloud climatology using long-term NOAA-AVHRR satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.

    2000-07-01

    Three different climates have been identified by our evaluation of AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) data using APOLLO (AVHRR processing scheme over land, clouds and ocean) for a five-years cloud climatology of the Alpine region. The cloud cover data from four layers were spatially averaged in boxes of 15 km by 14 km. The study area only comprises 540 km by 560 km, but contains regions with moderate, Alpine and Mediterranean climate. Data from the period July 1989 until December 1996 have been considered. The temporal resolution is one scene per day, the early afternoon pass, yielding monthly means of satellite derived cloud coverages 5% to 10% above the daily mean compared to conventional surface observation. At nonvegetated sites the cloudiness is sometimes significantly overestimated. Averaging high resolution cloud data seems to be superior to low resolution measurements of cloud properties and averaging is favourable in topographical homogeneous regions only. The annual course of cloud cover reveals typical regional features as foehn or temporal singularities as the so-called Christmas thaw. The cloud cover maps in spatially high resolution show local luff/lee features which outline the orography. Less cloud cover is found over the Alps than over the forelands in winter, an accumulation of thick cirrus is found over the High Alps and an accumulation of thin cirrus north of the Alps. (orig.)

  13. Mid-21st century projections in temperature extremes in the southern Colorado Rocky Mountains from regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Rutgers University, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Barsugli, Joseph [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Cozzetto, Karen; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Geological Sciences Department and Environmental Studies Program, Boulder, CO (United States); Prairie, James [University of Colorado, Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This study analyzes mid-21st century projections of daily surface air minimum (T{sub min}) and maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures, by season and elevation, over the southern range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The projections are from four regional climate models (RCMs) that are part of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). All four RCMs project 2 C or higher increases in T{sub min} and T{sub max} for all seasons. However, there are much greater (>3 C) increases in T{sub max} during summer at higher elevations and in T{sub min} during winter at lower elevations. T{sub max} increases during summer are associated with drying conditions. The models simulate large reductions in latent heat fluxes and increases in sensible heat fluxes that are, in part, caused by decreases in precipitation and soil moisture. T{sub min} increases during winter are found to be associated with decreases in surface snow cover, and increases in soil moisture and atmospheric water vapor. The increased moistening of the soil and atmosphere facilitates a greater diurnal retention of the daytime solar energy in the land surface and amplifies the longwave heating of the land surface at night. We hypothesize that the presence of significant surface moisture fluxes can modify the effects of snow-albedo feedback and results in greater wintertime warming at night than during the day. (orig.)

  14. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Färnman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design: Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results: The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion: The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed

  15. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  16. SPARC Data Initiative: A comparison of ozone climatologies from international satellite limb sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Hegglin, M. I.; Anderson, J.; Bourassa, A.; Brohede, S.; Degenstein, D.; Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Funke, B.; Gille, J.; Jones, A.; Kasai, Y.; Krüger, K.; Kyrölä, E.; Lingenfelser, G.; Lumpe, J.; Nardi, B.; Neu, J.; Pendlebury, D.; Remsberg, E.; Rozanov, A.; Smith, L.; Toohey, M.; Urban, J.; Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, R. H. J.

    2013-11-01

    comprehensive quality assessment of the ozone products from 18 limb-viewing satellite instruments is provided by means of a detailed intercomparison. The ozone climatologies in form of monthly zonal mean time series covering the upper troposphere to lower mesosphere are obtained from LIMS, SAGE I/II/III, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM II/III, SMR, OSIRIS, MIPAS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, Aura-MLS, HIRDLS, and SMILES within 1978-2010. The intercomparisons focus on mean biases of annual zonal mean fields, interannual variability, and seasonal cycles. Additionally, the physical consistency of the data is tested through diagnostics of the quasi-biennial oscillation and Antarctic ozone hole. The comprehensive evaluations reveal that the uncertainty in our knowledge of the atmospheric ozone mean state is smallest in the tropical and midlatitude middle stratosphere with a 1σ multi-instrument spread of less than ±5%. While the overall agreement among the climatological data sets is very good for large parts of the stratosphere, individual discrepancies have been identified, including unrealistic month-to-month fluctuations, large biases in particular atmospheric regions, or inconsistencies in the seasonal cycle. Notable differences between the data sets exist in the tropical lower stratosphere (with a spread of ±30%) and at high latitudes (±15%). In particular, large relative differences are identified in the Antarctic during the time of the ozone hole, with a spread between the monthly zonal mean fields of ±50%. The evaluations provide guidance on what data sets are the most reliable for applications such as studies of ozone variability, model-measurement comparisons, detection of long-term trends, and data-merging activities.

  17. The interaction between warm conveyor belts and breaking Rossby waves: a climatological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Erica; Joos, Hanna; Martius, Olivia; Aebi, Christine; Limbach, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are moist ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones. Climatologically, they are key for the meridional and vertical transport of water vapour and heat. The rapid ascent of WCBs from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere in about 1-2 days leads to cloud formation, (intense) precipitation and the release of latent heat, which modifies their potential vorticity (PV) value in a significant way. Typically WCBs reach the tropopause level with low PV values (~0.5 pvu) and therefore the cross-isentropic transport of low-PV air in WCBs can amplify upper-level Rossby waves and contribute to the formation of PV streamers downstream. Here, filamentary PV streamers are regarded as clear signs of breaking Rossby waves. They in turn can act as precursors of extreme weather events and/or trigger the genesis of another cyclone, potentially generating a new WCB. The aim of this study is to quantify the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers from a climatological point of view for the ERA-Interim data set for the period 1989-2010. WCBs are identified from comprehensive trajectory calculations that select air parcels in the vicinity of cyclones with a minimum ascent of 600 hPa in 48 hours. From these WCB trajectories, coherent features of WCB outflows are derived and checked for overlapping with PV streamers, which are identified using a contour searching algorithm. Both, WCBs and PV-streamers are then tracked using a novel feature tracking technique, which is based upon a modified region growing approach. With this technique, the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers is analysed for a 22-years period leading to novel insight about the role of WCBs for triggering the breaking of Rossby waves, as well as, vice versa, about the importance of PV-streamers for the formation of new WCBs.

  18. What spatial scales are believable for climate model projections of sea surface temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Stephenson, David B.

    2014-09-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) provide high resolution simulations of variables such as sea surface temperature (SST) that are often used in off-line biological impact models. Coral reef modellers have used such model outputs extensively to project both regional and global changes to coral growth and bleaching frequency. We assess model skill at capturing sub-regional climatologies and patterns of historical warming. This study uses an established wavelet-based spatial comparison technique to assess the skill of the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 models to capture spatial SST patterns in coral regions. We show that models typically have medium to high skill at capturing climatological spatial patterns of SSTs within key coral regions, with model skill typically improving at larger spatial scales (≥4°). However models have much lower skill at modelling historical warming patters and are shown to often perform no better than chance at regional scales (e.g. Southeast Asian) and worse than chance at finer scales (coral bleaching frequency and other marine processes linked to SST warming.

  19. Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ziska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Volatile halogenated organic compounds containing bromine and iodine, which are naturally produced in the ocean, are involved in ozone depletion in both the troposphere and stratosphere. Three prominent compounds transporting large amounts of marine halogens into the atmosphere are bromoform (CHBr3, dibromomethane (CH2Br2 and methyl iodide (CH3I. The input of marine halogens to the stratosphere is based on observations and modeling studies using low resolution oceanic emission scenarios derived from top down approaches. In order to improve emission inventory estimates, we calculate data-based high resolution global sea-to-air flux estimates of these compounds from surface observations within the HalOcAt database (https://halocat.geomar.de/. Global maps of marine and atmospheric surface concentrations are derived from the data which are divided into coastal, shelf and open ocean regions. Considering physical and biogeochemical characteristics of ocean and atmosphere, the open ocean water and atmosphere data are classified into 21 regions. The available data are interpolated onto a 1° × 1° grid while missing grid values are interpolated with latitudinal and longitudinal dependent regression techniques reflecting the compounds' distributions. With the generated surface concentration climatologies for the ocean and atmosphere, global concentration gradients and sea-to-air fluxes are calculated. Based on these calculations we estimate a total global flux of 1.5/2.5 Gmol Br yr−1 for CHBr3, 0.78/0.98 Gmol Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 and 1.24/1.45 Gmol I yr−1 for CH3I (Robust Fit/Ordinary Least Square regression technique. Contrary to recent studies, negative fluxes occur in each sea-to-air flux climatology, mainly in the Arctic and Antarctic region. "Hot spots" for global

  20. Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ziska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile halogenated organic compounds containing bromine and iodine, which are naturally produced in the ocean, are involved in ozone depletion in both the troposphere and stratosphere. Three prominent compounds transporting large amounts of marine halogens into the atmosphere are bromoform (CHBr3, dibromomethane (CH2Br2 and methyl iodide (CH3I. The input of marine halogens to the stratosphere has been estimated from observations and modelling studies using low-resolution oceanic emission scenarios derived from top-down approaches. In order to improve emission inventory estimates, we calculate data-based high resolution global sea-to-air flux estimates of these compounds from surface observations within the HalOcAt (Halocarbons in the Ocean and Atmosphere database (https://halocat.geomar.de/. Global maps of marine and atmospheric surface concentrations are derived from the data which are divided into coastal, shelf and open ocean regions. Considering physical and biogeochemical characteristics of ocean and atmosphere, the open ocean water and atmosphere data are classified into 21 regions. The available data are interpolated onto a 1°×1° grid while missing grid values are interpolated with latitudinal and longitudinal dependent regression techniques reflecting the compounds' distributions. With the generated surface concentration climatologies for the ocean and atmosphere, global sea-to-air concentration gradients and sea-to-air fluxes are calculated. Based on these calculations we estimate a total global flux of 1.5/2.5 Gmol Br yr−1 for CHBr3, 0.78/0.98 Gmol Br yr−1 for CH2Br2 and 1.24/1.45 Gmol Br yr−1 for CH3I (robust fit/ordinary least squares regression techniques. Contrary to recent studies, negative fluxes occur in each sea-to-air flux climatology, mainly in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. "Hot spots" for global polybromomethane emissions are located in the equatorial region, whereas methyl iodide emissions are enhanced in the

  1. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  2. Tobacco-related cancer mortality: projections for different geographical regions in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C.; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    PRINCIPLES: Switzerland is divided into 26 cantons of variable population size and cultural characteristics. Although a federal law to protect against passive smoking and a national tobacco control programme exist, details of tobacco-related policies are canton-specific. This study aimed to project gender-specific tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland at different geographical levels for the periods 2009-2013 and 2014-2018. METHODS: In this analysis, data on Swiss tobacco-related ca...

  3. CAUSES OF H EARING IMPAIRMENT IN OUR REGION: A SADAREM PROJECT REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar; Narayana Rao; Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    The Hearing Impairment is one of the common physical disability in our society along with Visual Impairment , Physically challenged and Mental Impairment. The Government of Andhra Pradesh had launched a programme so called A SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSMENT OF DISABLED FOR ACCE SS REHABILITATION AND EMPOWARMENT ( SADAREM ) project for verification of certificates of physical disability including hearing Impairment in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. This pr...

  4. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Massolino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  5. Progress in study of Prespa Lake using nuclear and related techniques (IAEA Regional Project RER/8/008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main objective of the IAEA - Regional project RER/8/008 entitled Study of Prespa Lake Using Nuclear and Related Techniques was to provide a scientific basis for sustainable and environmental management of the Lake Prespa (Three lakes: Ohrid, Big Prespa and Small Prespa are on the borders between Albania, Republic of Macedonia and Greece, and are separated by the Mali i Thate and Galichica, mostly Carstificated mountains), see Fig. 1. In this sense investigations connected with the hydrogeology, water quality (Physics-chemical, biological and radiological characteristics) and water balance determination by application of Environmental isotopes ( i.e. H,D,T,O-18,O-18 etc.,) distribution, artificial water tracers and other relevant analytical techniques such as: AAS, HPLC, Total α and β-activity, α and γ-spectrometry as well as ultra sonic measurements (defining of the Lake bottom profile) through regional cooperation / Scientists from Albania, Greece and Republic of Macedonia, participated in the implementation of the Project/ during one hydrological year, had been initiated and valuable results obtained, a part of which are presented in this report. This cooperation was the only way for providing necessary data for better understanding beside the other, of the water quality of the Prespa Lake and its hydrological relationship to Ohrid Lake too, representing a unique regional hydro system in the world. (Author)

  6. Manpower development in Africa and the regional manpower development project RAF/0/003. Special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the start of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in 1958, many of its developing Member States were just embarking on nuclear activities. To make basic nuclear training available for these countries became the first concern of the Agency and initially fellowships constituted more than 80% of the assistance provided. During the 1960s, while the programmes' expert and equipment components grew steadily, fellowships still represented more than 50% of the assistance provided to individual Member States. As counterpart institutions slowly build up small cadres of qualified staff, the share of training in the Agency's programme of technical co-operation became less dominant and, by 1986, only 22% of the funds spent on country programmes were devoted to fellowships. In the Africa region, where the share of fellowship training provided to individual Member States had dropped even below the 20% mark, and where the participation in group training events was the lowest of any region, this was having serious consequences on manpower development, as was pointed out in two separate evaluations. At least some opportunities exist in about 60% of the countries in the region for training in selected areas of nuclear science and technology, but only 20% of the countries provide training up to the MSc/PhD level. The number of trainees in nuclear science and technology graduating each year from national institutions is very small and cannot be considered adequate to satisfy existing manpower needs of the country concerned and of the region as a whole. Very few - if any - opportunities for nuclear training abroad are available for candidates from the region other than those funded by the Agency. There is very little awareness at the national level as to the actual training needs in the nuclear field in most countries of the region, underlining the importance of the role of the Agency, not only as a provider of training, but also as an adviser on assessing training needs at

  7. Australia's co-operation under the framework of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second phase of the Asian Regional Project on Food Irradiation (RPFI) became effective on 11 April 1985, and will last for three years, with Australia as the funding country. The first major activity was a two-week Workshop on the Commercialization of Ionising Energy Treatments of Food, held at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology from 29 April to 10 May, 1985, attended by representatives from eight RPFI countries and two observers from New Zealand. Studies of the transportation irradiated foods under commercial conditions are an integral part of the Project. Results of shipping/airfreight trials between Thailand and Australia of Nan Klang Won mangoes and frozen shrimps are presented. These trials were successful as irradiated produce shipped under commercial conditions reached its destination in good, marketable condition. (author). 3 refs

  8. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a

  9. Building Regional Capacity for Sustainable Development through an ESD Project Inventory in RCE Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta; Petry, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development in Saskatchewan (RCE Saskatchewan, Canada) is part of the United Nations University RCE Initiative in support of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-14). With funding from the Government of Saskatchewan's Go Green Fund, RCE Saskatchewan carried out…

  10. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Guangxi Autonomous Region to Drive Forward Cooperation in Investment Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Recently,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region held signing ceremony for investment cooperation agreement in Nanning City.Luo Jianchuan,member of the CPC Party Leadership Group of Chinalco and President of Chinalco,and Chen Gang,Vice Chairman of the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous

  11. Future agricultural water demand under climate change: regional variability and uncertainties arising from CMIP5 climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, J.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2012-12-01

    The agricultural sector (irrigation and livestock) uses by far the largest amount of water among all sectors and is responsible for 70% of the global water withdrawal. At a country scale, irrigation water withdrawal often exceeds 90% of the total water used in many of emerging and developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Iran and Mexico, sustaining much of food production and the livelihood of millions of people. The livestock sector generally accounts less than 1-2% of total water withdrawal, yet exceeds 10-30% of the total water used in many of the African countries. Future agricultural water demand is, however, subject to large uncertainties due to anticipated climate change, i.e. warming temperature and changing precipitation variability, in various regions of the world. Here, we use a global hydrological and water resources model to quantify the impact of climate change on regional irrigation and livestock water demand, and the resulting uncertainties arsing from newly available CMIP5 climate projections obtained through Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; http://www.isi-mip.org/). Irrigation water requirement per unit crop area is estimated by simulating daily soil water balance with crop-related data. Livestock water demand is calculated by combining livestock densities with their drinking water requirements that is a function of air temperature. The results of the ensemble mean show that global irrigation and livestock water demand increased by ~6% and ~12% by 2050 respectively primarily due to higher evaporative demand as a result of increased temperature. At a regional scale, agricultural water demand decreased over some parts of Europe (e.g., Italy, Germany) and Southeast Asia (e.g., the Philippines, Malaysia), but increased over South Asia, the U.S., the Middle East and Africa. However, the projections are highly uncertain over many parts of the world. The results of the ensemble projections in agricultural water demand

  12. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea-viewing...... Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) is analysed. The presentation results include the computed principal components (PC) and the maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF). Both methods are expected to be incorporated into future analyses of the state of the ocean....